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Sample records for dc resins

  1. Network structures of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins differ in DC, shrinkage-strain, hardness and optical properties as a function of reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Adilson Y; Mondelli, José; Watts, David C

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of different tertiary amines on degree of conversion (DC), shrinkage-strain, shrinkage-strain rate, Knoop microhardness, and color and transmittance stabilities of experimental resins containing BisGMA/TEGDMA (3:1wt), 0.25wt% camphorquinone, 1wt% amine (DMAEMA, CEMA, DMPT, DEPT or DABE). Different light-curing protocols were also evaluated. DC was evaluated with FTIR-ATR and shrinkage-strain with the bonded-disk method. Shrinkage-strain-rate data were obtained from numerical differentiation of shrinkage-strain data with respect to time. Color stability and transmittance were evaluated after different periods of artificial aging, according to ISO 7491:2000. Results were evaluated with ANOVA, Tukey, and Dunnett's T3 tests (α=0.05). Studied properties were influenced by amines. DC and shrinkage-strain were maximum at the sequence: CQDC and shrinkage were also influenced by the curing protocol, with positive correlations between DC and shrinkage-strain and DC and shrinkage-strain rate. Materials generally decreased in L* and increased in b*. The strong exception was the resin containing DMAEMA that did not show dark and yellow shifts. Color varied in the sequence: DMAEMADC and optical properties were observed. The resin containing DMAEMA showed higher DC, shrinkage-strain, shrinkage-strain rate, and microhardness, in addition to better optical properties. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Xie, Qin; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level.

  3. Suppression of surface charge accumulation on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin insulator under dc voltage by direct fluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Guixin Li, Chuanyang; He, Jinliang; Wang, Qiang; An, Zhenlian

    2015-12-15

    Surface charge accumulation on insulators under high dc voltage is a major factor that may lead to the reduction of insulation levels in gas insulated devices. In this paper, disc insulators made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin were surface fluorinated using a F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture (12.5% F{sub 2}) at 50 °C and 0.1 MPa for different durations of 15 min, 30 min and 60 min. A dc voltage was applied to the insulator for 30 min and the charge density on its surface was measured by an electrostatic probe. The results revealed significant lower surface charge densities on the fluorinated insulators in comparison with the original one. Surface conductivity measurements indicated a higher surface conductivity by over three orders of magnitude after fluorination, which would allow the charges to transfer along the surface and thus may suppress their accumulation. Further, attenuated total reflection infrared analysis and surface morphology observations of the samples revealed that the introduction of fluoride groups altered the surface physicochemical properties. These structure changes, especially the physical defects reduced the depth of charge traps in the surface layer, which was verified by the measurement of energy distributions of the electron and hole traps based on the isothermal current theory. The results in this paper demonstrate that fluorination can be a promising and effective method to suppress surface charge accumulation on epoxy insulators in gas insulated devices.

  4. Resin Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    resin system. 2.0 Scope This standard process description (SPD) provides a general guideline for evaluating and understanding composite resins in the...to all personnel developing and evaluating resins technology for composites applications in the Coatings, Corrosion, and Engineered Polymers Branch...relevant work within the branch. 5.0 Requirements All researchers performing composite resins development and evaluation work in the Coatings

  5. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, F.

    2008-09-01

    The presented bidirectional DC/DC converter design concept is a further development of an already existing converter used for low battery voltage operation.For low battery voltage operation a high efficient low parts count DC/DC converter was developed, and used in a satellite for the battery charge and battery discharge function.The converter consists in a bidirectional, non regulating DC/DC converter connected to a discharge regulating Buck converter and a charge regulating Buck converter.The Bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter performs with relatively high efficiency even at relatively high currents, which here means up to 35Amps.This performance was obtained through the use of power MOSFET's with on- resistances of only a few mille Ohms connected to a special transformer allowing paralleling several transistor stages on the low voltage side of the transformer. The design is patent protected. Synchronous rectification leads to high efficiency at the low battery voltages considered, which was in the range 2,7- 4,3 Volt DC.The converter performs with low switching losses as zero voltage zero current switching is implemented in all switching positions of the converter.Now, the drive power needed, to switch a relatively large number of low Ohm , hence high drive capacitance, power MOSFET's using conventional drive techniques would limit the overall conversion efficiency.Therefore a resonant drive consuming considerable less power than a conventional drive circuit was implemented in the converter.To the originally built and patent protected bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter, is added the functionality of regulation.Hereby the need for additional converter stages in form of a Charge Buck regulator and a Discharge Buck regulator is eliminated.The bidirectional DC/DC converter can be used in connection with batteries, motors, etc, where the bidirectional feature, simple design and high performance may be useful.

  6. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  7. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  8. Resin characterization

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Geimer; Robert A. Follensbee; Alfred W. Christiansen; James A. Koutsky; George E. Myers

    1990-01-01

    Currently, thermosetting adhesives are characterized by physical andchemical features such as viscosity, solids content, pH, and molecular distribution, and their reaction in simple gel tests. Synthesis of a new resin for a particular application is usually accompanied by a series of empirical laboratory and plant trials. The purpose of the research outlined in this...

  9. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  10. The effect of resin thickness on polymerization characteristics of silorane-based composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sung-Ae; Roh, Hyoung-Mee; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the influence of the resin thickness on the polymerization of silorane- and methacrylate-based composites. Materials and Methods One silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and two methacrylate-based (Filtek Z250 and Z350, 3M ESPE) composite resins were used. The number of photons were detected using a photodiode detector at the different thicknesses (thickness, 1, 2 and 3 mm) specimens. The microhardness of the top and bottom surfaces was measured (n = 15) using a Vickers hardness with 200 gf load and 15 sec dwell time conditions. The degree of conversion (DC) of the specimens was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scratched powder of each top and bottom surface of the specimen dissolved in ethanol for transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The refractive index was measured using a Abbe-type refractometer. To measure the polymerization shrinkage, a linometer was used. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at p < 0.05 level. Results The silorane-based resin composite showed the lowest filler content and light attenuation among the specimens. P90 showed the highest values in the DC and the lowest microhardness at all depth. In the polymerization shrinkage, P90 showed a significantly lower shrinkage than the rest two resin products (p < 0.05). P90 showed a significantly lower refractive index than the remaining two resin products (p < 0.05). Conclusions DC, microhardness, polymerization rate and refractive index linearly decreased as specimen thickness linearly increased. P90 showed much less polymerization shrinkage compared to other specimens. P90, even though achieved the highest DC, showed the lowest microhardness and refractive index. PMID:25383351

  11. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Keith H. S.; Mai, Yanjie; Kim, Harry; Tong, Keith C. T.; Ng, Desmond; Hsiao, Jimmy C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  12. Ramp technique for dc partial discharge testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1985-02-01

    The partial discharge (PD) data presently obtained by means of a stepwise ramp technique, for the cases of high voltage (HV) components and such resin-packaged HV devices as the Space Telescope's Faint Object Camera, is acquired separately on part-way ramps to rated voltage and on the intermediate voltage plateaus. For test specimens intended for dc service, this ramp method yields more data on insulation integrity than quiescent dc measurements, especially in the case of specimens of high resistivity which causes the discharge frequency to be deceptively low at constant dc voltage. During upward ramping the voltage distribution is capacitive, and the PD behavior resembles that of an ac test. Many more pulses are obtained in the voids without the heat otherwise generated by the application of 60-Hz ac. PD histograms are presented for various materials, with and without intentional defects.

  13. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  14. Efficient dc-to-dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Circuit consists of chopper section which converts input dc to square wave, followed by bridge-rectifier stage. Chopper gives nearly-ideal switching characteristics, and bridge uses series of full-wave stages rather than less-efficient half-wave rectifiers found in previous circuits. Special features of full-wave circuit allow redundant components to be eliminated, lowering parts count. Circuit can also be adapted for use as dc-to-dc converter or as combination dc-and-ac source.

  15. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  16. Sweet resin bush on the Santa Rita Experimental Range: An eradication effort

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Howery; Bruce D. Munda; Dan G. Robinett; Harry H. Buck

    2003-01-01

    Sweet resin bush (Euryops subcarnosus DC ssp. vulgaris B. Nord; or, Euryops multifidis (L. f.) DC.), a South African shrub introduced to Arizona in the 1930s, was discovered on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) in 1998. Due to the threat of spread of this invasive plant and its potential to cause adverse environmental and economic effects, and because it posed a...

  17. Degree of conversion and microhardness of dental composite resin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marovic, D.; Panduric, V.; Tarle, Z.; Ristic, M.; Sariri, K.; Demoli, N.; Klaric, E.; Jankovic, B.; Prskalo, K.

    2013-07-01

    Dental composite resins (CRs) are commonly used materials for the replacement of hard dental tissues. Degree of conversion (DC) of CR measures the amount of the un-polymerized monomers in CR, which can cause adverse biological reactions and weakening of the mechanical properties. In the past, studies have determined the positive correlation of DC values determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and microhardness (MH) values. The aim of this study was to establish whether MH can replace FTIR for the determination of DC of contemporary CR.

  18. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  19. Effect of Different Thicknesses of Pressable Ceramic Veneers on Polymerization of Light-cured and Dual-cured Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W.; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. Materials and Methods A total of 80 ceramic veneer discs were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These discs were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into 4 subgroups, based on ceramic disc thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm2) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using ANOVA. Results For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (P<.05). For the MH values between LC and DC resin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (P<.05); overall, the MH values of LC resin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (P<.05). However, among the LC subgroups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (P >.05). Conclusion The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. Clinical Significance While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved

  20. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  1. Effect of LED and Argon Laser on Degree of Conversion and Temperature Rise of Hybrid and Low Shrinkage Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevan, Ayob; Tabatabaei, Masumeh Hasani; Arami, Sakineh; Valizadeh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Different light curing units are used for polymerization of composite resins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and temperature rise in hybrid and low shrinkage composite resins cured by LED and Argon Laser curing lights. Materials and Methods: DC was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. For measuring temperature rise, composite resin samples were placed in Teflon molds and cured from the top. The thermocouple under samples recorded the temperature rise. After initial radiation and specimens reaching the ambient temperature, reirradiation was done and temperature was recorded again. Both temperature rise and DC data submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD tests (5% significance). Results: The obtained results revealed that DC was not significantly different between the understudy composite resins or curing units. Low shrinkage composite resin showed a significantly higher temperature rise than hybrid composite resin. Argon laser caused the lowest temperature rise among the curing units. Conclusion: Energy density of light curing units was correlated with the DC. Type of composite resin and light curing unit had a significant effect on temperature rise due to polymerization and curing unit, respectively. PMID:27843507

  2. Interfacial ultramorphology evaluation of resin luting cements to dentin: a correlative scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Vermelho, Paulo Moreira; André, Carolina Bosso; Giannini, Marcelo

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the dentin-resin cements interfacial ultramorphologies using two different methods: scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four commercial products were evaluated: two conventional cementing system (RelyX ARC/Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose Plus, 3M ESPE and Clearfil Esthetic Cement/DC Bond, Kuraray) and two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE and Clearfil SA Cement, Kuraray). Prepolymerized resin disks (Sinfony, 3M ESPE) were cemented on oclusal dentin surfaces of 24 third human molars, simulating the indirect restorations. After 24 h, teeth were sectioned into 0.9-mm thick slabs and processed for microscopy analyses (SEM or TEM/ n = 3). Qualitative characterization of dentin-resin cement interface was performed. Hybrid layer formation with long and dense resin tags was observed only for RelyX ARC cementing system. Clearfil Esthetic Cement/DC Bond system revealed few and short resin tags formation, whereas no hybridization and resin tags were detected for self-adhesive resin cements. Some interfacial regions exhibited that the self-adhesive resin cements were not bonded to dentin, presenting bubbles or voids at the interfaces. In conclusion, TEM and SEM bonding interface analyses showed ultramorphological variations among resin cements, which are directly related to dental bonding strategies used for each resin cement tested.

  3. 75 FR 61989 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Corporation Model DC- 8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41, DC-8-42, and DC-8-43 Airplanes; Model DC-8-50 Series Airplanes; Model DC-8F-54 and DC-8F-55 Airplanes; Model DC-8-60 Series Airplanes; Model DC-8-60F Series Airplanes; Model DC-8- 70 Series Airplanes; and Model DC-8-70F Series Airplanes AGENCY:......

  4. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Heba A.; Ghalab, Radwa M.; Elsayed Akah, Mai M.; Mobarak, Enas H.

    2015-01-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm2) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64–86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage. PMID:26966567

  5. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Ghalab, Radwa M; Elsayed Akah, Mai M; Mobarak, Enas H

    2016-03-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers' instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm(2)) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64-86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage.

  6. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  7. Incombustible resin composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Incombustible resin compositions composed of aromatic compounds were obtained through (1) combustion polymer material and (2) bisphenol A or halogenated bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidl ether or halogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The aromatic compound is an adduct of bifunctional phenols and bifunctional epoxy resins.

  8. DC-to-DC switching converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor); Middlebrook, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter having nonpulsating input and output current uses two inductances, one in series with the input source, the other in series with the output load. An electrical energy transferring device with storage, namely storage capacitance, is used with suitable switching means between the inductances to DC level conversion. For isolation between the source and load, the capacitance may be divided into two capacitors coupled by a transformer, and for reducing ripple, the inductances may be coupled. With proper design of the coupling between the inductances, the current ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, or the reduction achievable in that way may be divided between the input and output.

  9. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  10. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

  11. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  12. Effect of exposure time on the polymerization of resin cement through ceramic.

    PubMed

    AlShaafi, Maan M; AlQahtani, Mohammed Q; Price, Richard B

    2014-04-01

    This study measured the effects of using three different exposure times to cure one resin cement through two types of ceramic. One light-curing resin cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) was exposed for 20 s, 40 s, or 60 s with a BluePhase G2 light (Ivoclar Vivadent) on the high power setting through 1.0 mm of either ZirPress (ZR) or Empress Esthetic (EST) ceramic (Ivoclar Vivadent). The degree of conversion (DC) of the resin was measured 100 s after light exposure. The Knoop microhardness (KHN) was measured 5 min after light exposure and again after 24 h. The DC and KHN results were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Scheffe's post-hoc multiple comparison tests at α = 0.05. Increasing exposure time had a significant effect on the KHN and DC values for the resins exposed through both ceramics. As exposure times increased, the influence of the ceramic was reduced; however, the microhardness values were greater for the cement exposed through EST ceramic. When the exposure time was increased from 20 s to 40 s, microhardness values for the resin increased by 39.6% through the EST ceramic. When exposed for 60 s, there were no differences between the 100-s DC values or 5-min KHN values using either ceramic (p > 0.05). There was an excellent correlation between the DC at 100 s and the microhardness values measured at 5 min. Resin polymerization was greater through EST than ZR ceramic. At least 40 s to 60 s from the Blue- Phase G2 on high power mode is required to cure this resin cement through 1.0 mm of ceramic.

  13. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  14. Phenolic Resin for Refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Shunsuke; Rappolt, James

    Refractories are used in furnaces and boilers that process steel, cement, or glass as well as incinerators that operate at high temperatures. A variety of binders is used when refractories are manufactured. In this chapter, the use of phenolic resin as a binder for refractories is described. There are several factors that support the use of phenolic resins in comparison to other refractory binders. These include the following: 1. Both adhesion and green body strength are high.

  15. Immediate adhesive properties to dentin and enamel of a universal adhesive associated with a hydrophobic resin coat.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, J; Muñoz, M A; Sezinando, A; Luque-Martinez, I V; Staichak, R; Reis, A; Loguercio, A D

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acid etching and application of a hydrophobic resin coat on the enamel/dentin bond strengths and degree of conversion (DC) within the hybrid layer of a universal adhesive system (G-Bond Plus [GB]). A total of 60 extracted third molars were divided into four groups for bond-strength testing, according to the adhesive strategy: GB applied as a one-step self-etch adhesive (1-stepSE); GB applied as in 1-stepSE followed by one coat of the hydrophobic resin Heliobond (2-stepSE); GB applied as a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (2-stepER); GB applied as in 2-stepER followed by one coat of the hydrophobic resin Heliobond (3-stepER). There were 40 teeth used for enamel microshear bond strength (μSBS) and DC; and 20 teeth used for dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and DC. After restorations were constructed, specimens were stored in water (37°C/24 h) and then tested at 0.5 mm/min (μTBS) or 1.0 mm/min (μSBS). Enamel-resin and dentin-resin interfaces from each group were evaluated for DC using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance for each substrate and the Tukey test (α=0.05). For enamel, the use of a hydrophobic resin coat resulted in statistically significant higher mean enamel μSBS only for the ER strategy (3-stepER vs 2-stepER, p<0.0002). DC was significantly improved for the SE strategy (p<0.00002). For dentin, the use of a hydrophobic resin coat resulted in significantly higher dentin mean μTBS only for the SE strategy (2-stepSE vs 1-stepSE, p<0.0007). DC was significantly improved in groups 2-stepSE and 3-stepER when compared with 1-stepSE and 2-stepER, respectively (p<0.0009). The use of a hydrophobic resin coat may be beneficial for the selective enamel etching technique, because it improves bond strengths to enamel when applied with the ER strategy and to dentin when used with the SE adhesion strategy. The application of a hydrophobic resin coat may improve DC in resin

  16. Effect of Chemical Structure and Composition of the Resin Phase on Vinyl Conversion of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-filled Composites

    PubMed Central

    Skrtic, D.; Antonucci, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of chemical structure and composition of the polymer matrix on the degree of vinyl conversion (DC) of copolymers (unfilled resins) and their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites attained upon photo-polymerization. The DC can also be an indicator of the relative potential of these polymeric materials to leach out into the oral environment un-reacted monomers that could adversely affect their biocompatibility. The following resins were examined: 1) 2,2-bis[p-(2′-hydroxy-3′-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (1:1 mass ratio; BT resin) combined with hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA; BTH resin) and with HEMA and zirconyl dimethacrylate (BTHZ resin), 2) urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/HEMA resins, and 3) pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDMA)/TEGDMA (PT resin). To make composite specimens, resins were mixed with a mass fraction of 40 % zirconia-hybridized ACP. Copolymers and their composites were evaluated by near infra-red spectroscopy for DC after 1 d and 28 d post-cure at 23 °C. Inclusion of HEMA into the BT and UDMA resins yielded copolymers and composites with the highest DCs. The significantly lower DCs of PT copolymers and their composites are attributed to the rigid aromatic core structure, tetra-vinyl functionality and limited methacrylate side-chain flexibility of the surface-active PMGDMA monomer. There was, however, an increase in the 28 d DC for the PT materials as there was for the BTHZ system. Surprisingly, the usual decrease observed in DC in going from unfilled polymer to composite was reversed for the PT system. PMID:18714369

  17. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  18. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  19. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  20. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  1. dc electric invisibility cloak.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Mei, Zhong Lei; Jin, Tian Yu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-08-03

    We present the first experimental demonstration of a dc electric cloak for steady current fields. Using the analogy between electrically conducting materials and resistor networks, a dc invisibility cloak is designed, fabricated, and tested using the circuit theory. We show that the dc cloak can guide electric currents around the cloaked region smoothly and keep perturbations only inside the cloak. Outside the cloak, the current lines return to their original directions as if nothing happens. The measurement data agree exceptionally well with the theoretical prediction and simulation result, with nearly perfect cloaking performance. The proposed method can be directly used to realize other dc electric devices with anisotropic conductivities designed by the transformation optics. Manipulation of steady currents with the control of anisotropic conductivities has a lot of potential applications, such as electric impedance tomography, graphene, natural resource exploration, and military camouflage.

  2. Intelligent dc-dc Converter Technology Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the Cleveland State University have developed a digitally controlled dc-dc converter to research the benefits of flexible, digital control on power electronics and systems. Initial research and testing has shown that conventional dc-dc converters can benefit from improved performance by using digital-signal processors and nonlinear control algorithms.

  3. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  4. Properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate-reinforced resin composites with two different fiber length distributions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiting; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lin, Zhengmei; He, Jingwei; Qin, Wei; Liu, Fang; Vallittu, Pekka Kalevi; Lassila, Lippo Veli Juhana

    2017-03-23

    To investigate the reinforcing efficiency and light curing properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composite and to examine length distribution of discontinuous S2-glass fibers after a mixing process into resin composite. Experimental S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composites were prepared by mixing 10wt% of discontinuous S2-glass fibers, which had been manually cut into two different lengths (1.5 and 3.0mm), with various weight ratios of dimethacrylate based resin matrix and silaned BaAlSiO2 filler particulates. The resin composite made with 25wt% of UDMA/SR833s resin system and 75wt% of silaned BaAlSiO2 filler particulates was used as control composite which had similar composition as the commonly used resin composites. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM) and work of fracture (WOF) were measured. Fractured specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Double bond conversion (DC) and fiber length distribution were also studied. Reinforcement of resin composites with discontinuous S2-glass fibers can significantly increase the FS, FM and WOF of resin composites over the control. The fibers from the mixed resin composites showed great variation in final fiber length. The mean aspect ratio of experimental composites containing 62.5wt% of particulate fillers and 10wt% of 1.5 or 3.0mm cutting S2-glass fibers was 70 and 132, respectively. No difference was found in DC between resin composites containing S2-glass fibers with two different cutting lengths. Discontinuous S2-glass fibers can effectively reinforce the particulate-filled resin composite and thus may be potential to manufacture resin composites for high-stress bearing application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Heat Treatment Influences Monomer Conversion and Bond Strength of Indirect Composite Resin Restorations.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Malta, Daniel Alexandre Menezes Pedrosa; Enciso, Reyes; Monteiro-Junior, Sylvio

    2015-12-01

    To assess the resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and the degree of conversion (DC) of indirect composite resin restorations polymerized with light and heat. Two direct (Filtek Z100 and Premise) and one indirect (Premise Indirect) composite resins were polymerized with a combination of light and heat (138°C for 20 min). For MTBS, 42 cylinders were fabricated (n = 7). After the surface treatment, cylinders were bonded to each other using adhesive resin (Optibond FL). Specimens were stored in water for 24 h. Another 15 cylinders (n = 5) were fabricated for determining degree of conversion using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry immediately and at 24 h. The MTBS and the DC was submitted to two-way ANOVA. The interaction with existing data was explored with univariate ANOVA and two-way ANOVA. Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was used to detect pairwise differences (α = 0.05). The MTBS to light and heat polymerized Z100 was 75.7 MPa, significantly higher than that to Premise (58.6 MPa) and Premise Indirect (63.9 MPa). The immediate DC for Z100, Premise, and Premise Indirect were 51.0%, 68.7%, and 61.8%, respectively. The DC at 24 h ranged from 53.4% (Z100) to 72.8% (Premise Indirect) and significantly increased for Premise Indirect only. Comparison with previously published data revealed that the heat treatment increased both MTBS and DC of Premise and Premise Indirect. Z100 showed better bond strength but lower DC. Heat treatment and a 24-h delay before delivery can benefit DC of Premise Indirect. The increase in DC of Premise and Premise Indirect did not affect their bond strength.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of dental resin with antibacterial and radio-opaque functions.

    PubMed

    He, Jingwei; Söderling, Eva; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2013-03-07

    In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX) of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p < 0.05) and radio-opaque function without influencing the DC (p > 0.05). However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05) and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05), thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation.

  7. Adsorption of three pharmaceuticals on two magnetic ion-exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Miao; Yang, Weiben; Zhang, Ziwei; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuping

    2015-05-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments poses potential risks to the ecology and human health. This study investigated the removal of three widely detected and abundant pharmaceuticals, namely, ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DC), and sulfadiazine (SDZ), by two magnetic ion-exchange resins. The adsorption kinetics of the three adsorbates onto both resins was relatively fast and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Despite the different pore structures of the two resins, similar adsorption patterns of DC and SDZ were observed, implying the existence of an ion-exchange mechanism. IBU demonstrated a combination of interactions during the adsorption process. These interactions were dependent on the specific surface area and functional groups of the resin. The adsorption isotherm fittings verified the differences in the behavior of the three pharmaceuticals on the two magnetic ion-exchange resins. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) suppressed the adsorption amount, but with different inhibition levels for different adsorbates. This work facilitates the understanding of the adsorption behavior and mechanism of pharmaceuticals on magnetic ion-exchange resins. The results will expand the application of magnetic ion-exchange resins to the removal of pharmaceuticals in waters.

  8. Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingwei; Söderling, Eva; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Lassila, Lippo V. J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX) of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p < 0.05) and radio-opaque function without influencing the DC (p > 0.05). However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05) and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05), thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation. PMID:23470923

  9. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  10. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  11. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  12. Resin binders in ramming paste

    SciTech Connect

    Kvam, K.R.; Oeye, H.A.; Johansen, J.A.; Ugland, R.

    1996-10-01

    Resin bonded carbon refractories avoid the emission of PAH associated with tar based binders. Six prototype novolak resins were tested as binders in ramming paste for aluminum electrolysis cells. The resins were compared with two reference binders, one tar based and one resin based. The resins were tested in the laboratory as well as in actual operation. The mixing and ramming properties were satisfactory. The baking shrinkage was low and the mechanical strength was reasonably high. Even if resin binders are baked to a glassy structure, the sodium resistance was good. The viscosity of the resin binders can be adjusted to provide the desired range of temperature of use for the ramming paste. Elkem Aluminum installed the first cell of resin bonded ramming paste in September 1991.

  13. Microhardness of dual-polymerizing resin cements and foundation composite resins for luting fiber-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2014-06-01

    The optimal luting material for fiber-reinforced posts to ensure the longevity of foundation restorations remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of 3 dual-polymerizing resin cements and 2 dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins for luting fiber-reinforced posts by assessing their Knoop hardness number. Five specimens of dual-polymerizing resin cements (SA Cement Automix, G-Cem LincAce, and Panavia F2.0) and 5 specimens of dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins (Clearfil DC Core Plus and Unifil Core EM) were polymerized from the top by irradiation for 40 seconds. Knoop hardness numbers were measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours and 7 days after irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey compromise post hoc test (α=.05). At both times after irradiation, the 5 resins materials showed the highest Knoop hardness numbers at the 0.5-mm depth. At 7 days after irradiation, the Knoop hardness numbers of the resin materials did not differ significantly between the 8.0-mm and 10.0-mm depths (P>.05). For all materials, the Knoop hardness numbers at 7 days after irradiation were significantly higher than those at 0.5 hours after irradiation at all depths (P<.05). At 7 days after irradiation, the Knoop hardness numbers of the 5 resin materials were found to decrease in the following order: DC Core Plus, Unifil Core EM, Panavia F2.0, SA Cement Automix, and G-Cem LincAce (P<.05). The Knoop hardness number depends on the depth of the cavity, the length of time after irradiation, and the material brand. Although the Knoop hardness numbers of the 2 dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins were higher than those of the 3 dual-polymerizing resin cements, notable differences were seen among the 5 materials at all depths and at both times after irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  14. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  15. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  16. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  17. DC Breakdown Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Calatroni, S.; Descoeudres, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.

    2009-01-22

    In the context of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project investigations of DC breakdown in ultra high vacuum are carried out in parallel with high power RF tests. From the point of view of saturation breakdown field the best material tested so far is stainless steel, followed by titanium. Copper shows a four times weaker breakdown field than stainless steel. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown events are initiated by field emission current and that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. In analogy to RF, the breakdown probability has been measured in DC and the data show similar behaviour as a function of electric field.

  18. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  19. 76 FR 13926 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-8-11, DC-8-12, DC-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Model DC-8-11, DC-8- 12, DC-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41, DC-8-42, and DC-8-43 Airplanes; DC-8-50 Series Airplanes; DC-8F-54 and DC-8F-55 Airplanes; DC-8-60 Series Airplanes; DC-8-60F Series Airplanes; DC-8-70 Series Airplanes; and DC-8-70F Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  20. New Low Cost Resin Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    difference between resins 1 and 2 was the type of phosphorous containing compound, where resin 3 was the same as resin 1 with the addition of melamine ...SBIR N03-120 New Low Cost Resin Systems Applied Poleramic, Inc. Final Report Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...Feb 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Low Cost Resin Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-03-M-0304 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  1. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  2. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Grace; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used.

  3. Correlation between clinical performance and degree of conversion of resin cements: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    DE SOUZA, Grace; BRAGA, Roberto Ruggiero; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; LOPES, Guilherme Carpena

    2015-01-01

    Resin-based cements have been frequently employed in clinical practice to lute indirect restorations. However, there are numerous factors that may compromise the clinical performance of those cements. The aim of this literature review is to present and discuss some of the clinical factors that may affect the performance of current resin-based luting systems. Resin cements may have three different curing mechanisms: chemical curing, photo curing or a combination of both. Chemically cured systems are recommended to be used under opaque or thick restorations, due to the reduced access of the light. Photo-cured cements are mainly indicated for translucent veneers, due to the possibility of light transmission through the restoration. Dual-cured are more versatile systems and, theoretically, can be used in either situation, since the presence of both curing mechanisms might guarantee a high degree of conversion (DC) under every condition. However, it has been demonstrated that clinical procedures and characteristics of the materials may have many different implications in the DC of currently available resin cements, affecting their mechanical properties, bond strength to the substrate and the esthetic results of the restoration. Factors such as curing mechanism, choice of adhesive system, indirect restorative material and light-curing device may affect the degree of conversion of the cement and, therefore, have an effect on the clinical performance of resin-based cements. Specific measures are to be taken to ensure a higher DC of the luting system to be used. PMID:26398507

  4. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  5. DYLOS DC110

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dylos DC1100 air quality monitor measures particulate matter (PM) to provide a continuous assessment of indoor air quality. The unit counts particles in two size ranges: large and small. According to the manufacturer, large particles have diameters between 2.5 and 10 micromet...

  6. DYLOS DC110

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dylos DC1100 air quality monitor measures particulate matter (PM) to provide a continuous assessment of indoor air quality. The unit counts particles in two size ranges: large and small. According to the manufacturer, large particles have diameters between 2.5 and 10 micromet...

  7. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  8. Effects of residual ethanol on the rate and degree of conversion of five experimental resins

    PubMed Central

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Suchko, Michael; Grodin, Evan; Agee, Kelli; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the extent of ethanol retention in five comonomer blends of experimental methacrylate-based dental adhesives, containing (10, 20, or 30 wt%) ethanol, after solvent evaporation, as well as observing the effect of residual ethanol and exposure duration on degree of conversion (DC). The null hypothesis that was tested was that residual, unevaporated ethanol has no effect on the rate or extent of DC of polymerized adhesive resins. Methods A known mass of each mixture was placed in glass wells and evaporated for 60 sec. The mass of the mixtures before and after evaporation was measured, allowing calculation of the gravimetric ethanol loss/retention. Results The concentration of retained ethanol increased significantly with ethanol concentration (p<0.01): 1.1–1.9 moles/L for 10% ethanol/90% comonomers, 2.2–3.5 moles/L for 20% ethanol, and 2.6–3.7 moles/L for 30% ethanol/70% comonomers. As ethanol is evaporated from solvated comonomer mixtures, the molar concentration of comonomers increases, reducing the vapor pressure of the remaining ethanol. Thus, the fractional loss of ethanol solvent decreases as the comonomer concentration increases. The DC of 10, 20, and 30 wt% ethanol blends increased with ethanol concentration in 4 of the 5 experimental resins (p<0.05), increasing by 30 to 45% when 10 or 20 wt% ethanol was added to neat resins, regardless of exposure duration. Depending on the resin system, inclusion of 30% ethanol lowered DC at 20 s but increased DC after 40–60 sec of light exposure. Conclusion Since 10 and 20 wt% ethanol-resin blends increased the DC of solvated resins by 30–45% over neat resins, the test null hypothesis is rejected. Even with prolonged evaporation, 4–9% residual ethanol concentration can remain in 90/10 (wt/wt) comonomer/ethanol mixtures. This is thought to be because comonomers lower the vapor pressure of ethanol. This amount of residual ethanol facilitates DC but lowers the rate of polymerization

  9. Influence of Curing Mode on the Surface Energy and Sorption/Solubility of Dental Self-Adhesive Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Bagheri, Rafat; Kim, Young Kyung; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of curing mode (dual- or self-cure) on the surface energy and sorption/solubility of four self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) and one conventional resin cement. The degree of conversion (DC) and surface energy parameters including degree of hydrophilicity (DH) were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively (n = 5). Sorption and solubility were assessed by mass gain or loss after storage in distilled water or lactic acid for 60 days (n = 5). A linear regression model was used to correlate between the results (%DC vs. DH and %DC/DH vs. sorption/solubility). For all materials, the dual-curing consistently produced significantly higher %DC values than the self-curing (p < 0.05). Significant negative linear regressions were established between the %DC and DH in both curing modes (p < 0.05). Overall, the SARCs showed higher sorption/solubility values, in particular when immersed in lactic acid, than the conventional resin cement. Linear regression revealed that %DC and DH were negatively and positively correlated with the sorption/solubility values, respectively. Dual-curing of SARCs seems to lower the sorption and/or solubility in comparison with self-curing by increased %DC and occasionally decreased hydrophilicity. PMID:28772489

  10. Tuning photo-catalytic activities of TiO2 nanoparticles using dimethacrylate resins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jirun; Watson, Stephanie S; Allsopp, David A; Stanley, Debbie; Skrtic, Drago

    2016-03-01

    The unique photo-catalytic activities (PCAs) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) made them attractive in many potential applications in medical devices. The objective of this study is to optimize the benefits of PCAs of TiO2 NPs through varying chemical structures of dimethacrylate resins. TiO2 NPs were functionalized to improve the PCAs and bonding to the resins. The PCAs of TiO2 NPs were evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopy to determine the amount of the radicals generated and the energy required for their production, respectively. The beneficial effects of the radicals were assessed through: (1) the improvement of degree of vinyl conversion (DC) and (2) modification of resin hydrophilicity. One-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence interval was used to indicate the significant differences between the experimental groups. EPR and UV-vis results clearly showed that the functionalization of TiO2 NPs enhanced PCAs in terms of generating radicals under visible light irradiation. The presence of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid functionalities played an important role in DC enhancement and hydrophilicity modification. The DC could be increased up to 22% by adding only 0.1wt% TiO2 NPs. Viscosity of the resins had minimal or no role in DC improvement through TiO2 NPs. In resins with abundant hydroxyl groups, radicals were more effective in making the resin more hydrophilic. Knowledge learned from this study will help formulating nano-composites with optimized use of TiO2 PCAs as co-initiators for photo-polymerization, additives for making super-hydrophilic materials and/or antibacterial agents. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  11. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes

    PubMed Central

    NOVAIS, Veridiana Resende; RAPOSO, Luís Henrique Araújo; de MIRANDA, Rafael Resende; LOPES, Camila de Carvalho Almança; SIMAMOTO, Paulo Cézar; SOARES, Carlos José

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick. PMID:28198977

  12. Preparation and characterization of Bis-GMA free dental resin system with synthesized dimethacrylate monomer TDDMMA derived from tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]-decanedimethanol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mei; Liu, Fang; He, Jingwei

    2016-04-01

    As a substitute for 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3- methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl] propane (Bis-GMA) in dental materials, a new dimethacrylate monomer TDDMMA without bisphenol-A structure was synthesized through the reaction between tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]- decanedimethanol and 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. The TDDMMA was mixed with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to prepare Bis-GMA free dental resin. Physicochemical properties, such as double bond conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (VS), water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) and fracture energy of TDDMMA/TEGDMA resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system was used as a control. The results showed that, compared with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system, TDDMMA/TEGDMA resin system had comparable VS and several advantages like higher DC, lower SL and better mechanical properties after water immersion.

  13. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention.

  14. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  15. Effect of light wavelength on polymerization of light-cured resins.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, R

    1997-06-01

    Experimental light-cured composite resins were exposed to a narrow-band light at a constant quantum number using a narrow-band interference filter. The IR spectra of the cured resin specimens were measured before and after extraction of residual monomers. Degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization conversion (PC) were calculated from these IR spectra. The light in 410-550 nm could be polymerized. With a brief exposure (5 s), DC and PC were affected by the wavelength. The effect of wavelength between 410 and 490 nm decreased with increasing duration of exposure. The most efficient wavelength was 470 nm and the most adequate wavelength was in the 450-490 nm wavelength range. The absorbance of camphorquinone strongly affected polymerization, especially during the initial stage. However, from the relationship between DC or PC and exposure energy, polymerization depended not only on the wavelength of the light, but also on the exposure energy.

  16. Mechanical properties and bond strength of dual-cure resin composites to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Aksornmuang, Juthatip; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the regional mechanical properties of dual-cure resin composites and their regional bond strengths to root canal dentin. One of the following dual-cure resin composites was placed in artificial post spaces: Unifil Core (UC), Clearfil DC Core (DC), Build-It FR (BI), Clearfil DC Core-automix (DCA), and photo-cured for 60s. After 24h storage, each specimen was serially sliced to harvest eight hour-glass shaped specimens for measurement of regional ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and the remaining eight semi-circular slabs were polished for the measurement of Knoop Hardness Number (KHN). For the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) test, post cavities were prepared in human premolar roots, and the cavity surfaces treated with Clearfil SE Bond and photo-cured for 10s. The post spaces were then filled with one of the above resin composites and photo-cured for 60s. After 24h storage, each specimen was serially sliced into 8, 0.6x0.6 mm-thick beams for the muTBS test. The data were divided into coronal and apical regions and analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc test (alpha=0.05). UTS and KHN were affected by the type of dual-cure resin composite and region (p<0.0001). There was no relationship between UTS and KHN for each material. The auto-mix type of resin composite possessed superior UTS to that of the hand-mix type. muTBS among the four composite materials were not significantly different at both apical and coronal regions (p>0.05). Regional differences in bond strengths were found for all materials (p<0.05). The UTS and KHN of the dual-cure resin composites varied among each material, however, differences in the mechanical properties of the resin core materials did not affect their adhesion to root canal dentin.

  17. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  18. Degree of conversion of nanofilled and microhybrid composite resins photo-activated by different generations of LEDs

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Benicia Carolina Iaskieviscz; BOAVENTURA, Juliana Maria Capelozza; de BRITO-GONÇALVES, Joel; RASTELLI, Alessandra Nara de Souza; BAGNATO, Vanderlei Salvador; SAAD, José Roberto Cury

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at evaluating the degree of conversion (DC) of four composite resins, being one nanofilled and 3 microhybrid resins, photo-activated with second- and third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Material and methods FiltekTM Z350 nanofilled composite resins and Amelogen® Plus, Vit-l-escenceTM and Opallis microhybrid resins were photo-activated with two second-generation LEDs (Radii-cal and Elipar Free LightTM 2) and one third-generation LED (Ultra-Lume LED 5) by continuous light mode, and a quartz halogen-tungsten bulb (QHT, control). After 24 h of storage, the samples were pulverized into fine powder and 5 mg of each material were mixed with 100 mg of potassium bromide (KBr). After homogenization, they were pressed, which resulted in a pellet that was evaluated using an infrared spectromer (Nexus 470, Thermo Nicolet) equipped with TGS detector using diffuse reflectance (32 scans, resolution of 4 cm-1) coupled to a computer. The percentage of unreacted carbon-carbon double bonds (% C=C) was determined from the ratio of absorbance intensities of aliphatic C=C (peak at 1637 cm-1) against internal standard before and after curing of the specimen: aromatic C-C (peak at 1610 cm-1). Results The ANOVA showed a significant effect on the interaction between the light-curing units (LCUs) and the composite resins (p<0.001). The Tukey's test showed that the nanofilled resin (FiltekTM Z350) and Opallis when photo-activated by the halogen lamp (QTH) had the lowest DC compared with the other microhybrid composite resins. The DC of the nanofilled resin (FiltekTM Z350) was also lower using LEDs. The highest degrees of conversion were obtained using the third-generation LED and one of second-generation LEDs (Elipar Free LightTM 2). Conclusions The nanofilled resin showed the lowest DC, and the Vit-l-escenceTM microhybrid composite resin showed the highest DC. Among the LCUs, it was not possible to establish an order, even though the second

  19. Degree of conversion of nanofilled and microhybrid composite resins photo-activated by different generations of LEDs.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Benicia Carolina Iaskieviscz; Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Brito-Gonçalves, Joel de; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Saad, José Roberto Cury

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the degree of conversion (DC) of four composite resins, being one nanofilled and 3 microhybrid resins, photo-activated with second- and third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Filtek™ Z350 nanofilled composite resins and Amelogen® Plus, Vit-l-escence™ and Opallis microhybrid resins were photo-activated with two second-generation LEDs (Radii-cal and Elipar Free Light™ 2) and one third-generation LED (Ultra-Lume LED 5) by continuous light mode, and a quartz halogen-tungsten bulb (QHT, control). After 24 h of storage, the samples were pulverized into fine powder and 5 mg of each material were mixed with 100 mg of potassium bromide (KBr). After homogenization, they were pressed, which resulted in a pellet that was evaluated using an infrared spectromer (Nexus 470, Thermo Nicolet) equipped with TGS detector using diffuse reflectance (32 scans, resolution of 4 cm(-1)) coupled to a computer. The percentage of unreacted carbon-carbon double bonds (% C=C) was determined from the ratio of absorbance intensities of aliphatic C=C (peak at 1637 cm-1) against internal standard before and after curing of the specimen: aromatic C-C (peak at 1610 cm-1). The ANOVA showed a significant effect on the interaction between the light-curing units (LCUs) and the composite resins (p<0.001). The Tukey’s test showed that the nanofilled resin (Filtek™ Z350) and Opallis when photo-activated by the halogen lamp (QTH) had the lowest DC compared with the other microhybrid composite resins. The DC of the nanofilled resin (Filtek™ Z350) was also lower using LEDs. The highest degrees of conversion were obtained using the third-generation LED and one of second-generation LEDs (Elipar Free Light™ 2). The nanofilled resin showed the lowest DC, and the Vit-l-escence™ microhybrid composite resin showed the highest DC. Among the LCUs, it was not possible to establish an order, even though the second-generation LED Radii-cal provided the lowest DC.

  20. AC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Praveen K.

    1992-08-01

    In a system such as a 20 kHz space station primary electrical power distribution system, power conversion from AC to DC is required. Some of the basic requirements for this conversion are high efficiency, light weight and small volume, regulated output voltage, close to unity input power factor, distortionless input current, soft-starting, low electromagnetic interference, and high reliability. An AC-to-DC converter is disclosed which satisfies the main design objectives of such converters for use in space. The converter of the invention comprises an input transformer, a resonant network, a current controller, a diode rectifier, and an output filter. The input transformer is for connection to a single phase, high frequency, sinusoidal waveform AC voltage source and provides a matching voltage isolating from the AC source. The resonant network converts this voltage to a sinusoidal, high frequency bidirectional current output, which is received by the current controller to provide the desired output current. The diode rectifier is connected in parallel with the current controller to convert the bidirectional current into a unidirectional current output. The output filter is connected to the rectifier to provide an essentially ripple-free, substantially constant voltage DC output.

  1. 75 FR 47242 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Corporation Model DC- 9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F Airplanes; and Model DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC- 9-40, and DC-9-50... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Model DC-9-14 and DC-9-15 airplanes; and Model DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC-9-40, and DC-9-50 series airplanes. The existing AD currently......

  2. Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    34Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited" Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications Sonya...requirements for DC-DC converters for electric and hybrid vehicles . This paper introduces a bidirectional, isolated DC-DC converter for medium power...the design and build of a medium power DC-DC converter . Key words: Power Converter , DC-DC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle , Battery, Galvanically Isolation

  3. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

  4. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  5. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  6. Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

  7. Evaluation of New Resin Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Thermogravimetric behavior of HR600P resin in nitrogen ........ 15 Fig. 9 The effect of environment on the thermogravimetric behavior of HR600P resin postcured 4 h...at 371°C (700°F) in air ........ 16 Fig. 10 The effect of postcure environment on the thermogravimetric behavior of HR600P resin in air...o........ 17 Fig. 11 The effect of postcure time at 371*C (700*F) in air on the thermogravimetric behavior of HR600P resin in alr............ 17

  8. Polymerization shrinkage kinetics of dimethacrylate resin-cements.

    PubMed

    Spinell, Thomas; Schedle, Andreas; Watts, David C

    2009-08-01

    To determine polymerization shrinkage-strain (S(Y)) and shrinkage-stress (S(Z)) of six resin-cements and to compare their performance with the aid of degree of conversion (DC) data. Variolink 2 (VL2), Multilink Automix (MA), Multilink Sprint (MS, all Ivoclar-Vivadent), Nexus 2 (NX2), Maxcem (MX, both Kerr) and RelyX Unicem (RX, 3M-Espe) were investigated. MS, MX and RX were self-adhesive; others require a bonding-agent. All measurements were conducted at 23 degrees C for 60min (n=5), except 80min for RX, with materials self-cured only (sc) and dual-cured (dc); NX2 and VL2 were additionally light-cured only (lc). S(Y) was measured by the bonded-disk method [Watts DC, Cash AJ. Determination of polymerization shrinkage kinetics in visible-light-cured materials: methods development. Dent Mater 1991;7(4):281-7; Watts DC, Marouf AS. Optimal specimen geometry in bonded-disk shrinkage-strain measurements on light-cured biomaterials. Dent Mater 2000;16(6):447-51]; S(Z) by the Bioman instrument [Watts DC, Satterthwaite JD. Axial shrinkage-stress depends upon both C-factor and composite mass. Dent Mater 2008;24(1):1-8 [Epub October 24, 2007]; Watts DC, Marouf AS, Al-Hindi AM. Photo-polymerization shrinkage-stress kinetics in resin-composites: methods development. Dent Mater 2003;19(1):1-11]. Light-cure was achieved by QTH at 500mW/cm(2). The respective DCs were measured under the same conditions by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by One-Way ANOVA plus Bonferroni test, and by t-test, at p<0.05. DC by self-curing was less than the DC by dual-curing, for all cements. Shrinkage-strain ranged from 1.77 to 5.29% and shrinkage-stress from 3.36 to 10.37MPa. NX2 and VL2 were not significantly different, when light-cured only. Except for RX, sc and dc shrinkage-strain varied maximally by 0.4%. MX showed the highest S(Y), RX the lowest. When sc, RX initially expanded by <0.5% (t approximately 5min). For most materials, S(Y) correlated with their filler loading. The highest

  9. Melt Conditioned DC (MC-DC) Casting of Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Y. B.; Jiang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fan, Z.

    A new melt conditioned direct chill (MC-DC) casting process has been developed for producing high quality magnesium alloy billets and slabs. In the MC-DC casting process, intensive melt shearing provided by a high shear device is applied directly to the alloy melt in the sump during DC casting. The high shear device provides intensive melt shearing to disperse potential nucleating particles, creates a macroscopic melt flow to distribute uniformly the dispersed particles, and maintains a uniform temperature and chemical composition throughout the melt in the sump. Experimental results have demonstrated that the MC-DC casting process can produce magnesium alloy billets with significantly refined microstructure and reduced cast defects. In this paper, we introduce the new MC-DC casting process, report the grain refining effect of intensive melt shearing during the MC-DC casting process and discuss the grain refining mechanism.

  10. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  11. DC Cable for Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  12. Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

  13. Over Current Protection for PFM Control DC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kouhei; Sugahara, Satoshi; Fujii, Nobuo

    An over current protection method suitable for Fixed ON-time PFM (Pulse Frequency Modulation) Control DC-DC converters is proposed. It is based on inductor bottom current limiting, realized by monitoring the synchronous rectifier current and extending the OFF-phase of the main switch until it decreases to a predetermined limit, and can properly limit the output current even in case of short circuit. A Fixed ON-time PFM DC-DC converter with the proposed over current protection was designed and fabricated in CMOS IC. Its current limiting operation was verified with simulations and measurements.

  14. Analysis of self-oscillating dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The basic operational characteristics of dc-to-dc converters are analyzed along with the basic physical characteristics of power converters. A simple class of dc-to-dc power converters are chosen which could satisfy any set of operating requirements, and three different controlling methods in this class are described in detail. Necessary conditions for the stability of these converters are measured through analog computer simulation whose curves are related to other operational characteristics, such as ripple and regulation. Further research is suggested for the solution of absolute stability and efficient physical design of this class of power converters.

  15. Microtensile bond strengths of composite cores to pulpal floor dentin with resin coating.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Meu; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resin coating on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of indirect composite cores to pulpal floor dentin. Thirty extracted human molars with root canal fillings were used. After post space preparation, dentin surface was coated with either Clearfil SE Bond (SE) or SE with Clearfil Flow FX (SE+FX) for the resin-coated groups, while dentin was treated with ED Primer II (ED) for the non-coated group. Indirect composite cores were cemented with either Panavia F2.0 (PA) or Clearfil DC Core Automix (DC). After 24-hour storage, MTBSs were measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA indicated that the MTBSs of resin-coated groups were significantly higher than those of the non-coated groups. In particular, the SE+FX/DC group exhibited the highest MTBS. It was thus concluded that resin coating enhanced the dentin bond strength of indirect composite cores to pulpal floor dentin.

  16. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes.

    PubMed

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Miranda, Rafael Resende de; Lopes, Camila de Carvalho Almança; Simamoto, Paulo Cézar; Soares, Carlos José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

  17. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  18. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J. Brock

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  19. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  20. High performance phenolic pultrusion resin

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, S.P.; Ingram, W.H.; Smith, C.

    1996-11-01

    Today, Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins are the materials of choice for aerospace interior applications, primarily due to low FST (flame, smoke and toxicity). Since 1990, growth of PF resins has been steadily increasing in non-aerospace applications (which include mass transit, construction, marine, mine ducting and offshore oil) due to low FST and reasonable cost. This paper describes one component phenol-formaldehyde resin that was jointly developed with Morrison Molded Fiber Glass for their pultrusion process. Physical properties of the resin with flame/smoke/toxicity, chemical resistance and mechanical performance of the pultruded RP are discussed. Neat resin screening tests to identify high-temperature formulations are explored. Research continues at Georgia-Pacific to investigate the effect of formulation variables on processing and mechanical properties.

  1. Efficient Design in a DC to DC Converter Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruemmer, Joel E.; Williams, Fitch R.; Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight hardware requires high power conversion efficiencies due to limited power availability and weight penalties of cooling systems. The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) power converter is no exception. This paper explores the design methods and tradeoffs that were utilized to accomplish high efficiency in the DDCU. An isolating DC to DC converter was selected for the ISS power system because of requirements for separate primary and secondary grounds and for a well-regulated secondary output voltage derived from a widely varying input voltage. A flyback-current-fed push-pull topology or improved Weinberg circuit was chosen for this converter because of its potential for high efficiency and reliability. To enhance efficiency, a non-dissipative snubber circuit for the very-low-Rds-on Field Effect Transistors (FETs) was utilized, redistributing the energy that could be wasted during the switching cycle of the power FETs. A unique, low-impedance connection system was utilized to improve contact resistance over a bolted connection. For improved consistency in performance and to lower internal wiring inductance and losses a planar bus system is employed. All of these choices contributed to the design of a 6.25 KW regulated dc to dc converter that is 95 percent efficient. The methodology used in the design of this DC to DC Converter Unit may be directly applicable to other systems that require a conservative approach to efficient power conversion and distribution.

  2. SCM Handbooks for dc-to-dc Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.; Mohmoud, M.; Yu, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Two documents aid in design of control modules for dc-to-dc converters. Features of SCM include: Adaptive stability, power component stress limiting, implementation of various control laws, unified design approach. Analysis and quidelines contained in handbooks enable engineer to design SCM circuit and confidently predict resulting overall performance.

  3. SCM Handbooks for dc-to-dc Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.; Mohmoud, M.; Yu, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Two documents aid in design of control modules for dc-to-dc converters. Features of SCM include: Adaptive stability, power component stress limiting, implementation of various control laws, unified design approach. Analysis and quidelines contained in handbooks enable engineer to design SCM circuit and confidently predict resulting overall performance.

  4. Dc-To-Dc Converter Uses Reverse Conduction Of MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P.; Gott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    In modified high-power, phase-controlled, full-bridge, pulse-width-modulated dc-to-dc converters, switching devices power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Decreases dissipation of power during switching by eliminating approximately 0.7-V forward voltage drop in anti-parallel diodes. Energy-conversion efficiency increased.

  5. First experimental results from DC/DC and AC/DC plasma-based power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Aaron; Gibson, William; Nebel, Richard

    2016-10-01

    A plasma-based power transformer has been built and operated in both DC/DC and AC/DC mode. The proprietary Tibbar Plasma Technologies, Inc. transformer design consists of two cylindrically symmetric helical primary electrodes surrounding a low temperature plasma within which a secondary axial current is generated. Initial experimental results have compared well with simulations and moderate conversion efficiencies have been observed. A new proprietary device is currently being constructed that will utilize 3-phase 480 VAC input to achieve higher conversion efficiency and output power. A description of the apparatus and several potential applications will be presented along with preliminary experimental data demonstrating the DC/DC and AC/DC conversion processes. Work performed under ARPA-E contract DE-AR0000677.

  6. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  7. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  8. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1655 Polysulfone resins. Polysulfone resins... purpose of this section, polysulfone resins are: (1) Poly(oxy-p-phenylenesulfonyl-p-phenyleneoxy-p...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1655 Polysulfone resins. Polysulfone resins... purpose of this section, polysulfone resins are: (1) Poly(oxy-p-phenylenesulfonyl-p-phenyleneoxy-p...

  11. The effect of biobased plastic resins containing chichen feather fibers on the growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate growth and flowering of Begoniaboliviensis A. DC. 'Bonfire' when grown in medium mixed with pellets made from biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers. We also analyzed macro- and macro-elements in soil and leaf tissues during different develope...

  12. Chromatography resin support

    DOEpatents

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  13. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  14. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  15. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  16. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  17. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  18. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  19. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  1. GaN Microwave DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franco, Ignacio

    Increasing the operating frequency of switching converters can have a direct impact in the miniaturization and integration of power converters. The size of energy-storage passive components and the difficulty to integrate them with the rest of the circuitry is a major challenge in the development of a fully integrated power supply on a chip. The work presented in this thesis attempts to address some of the difficulties encountered in the design of high-frequency converters by applying concepts and techniques usually used in the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers and high-efficiency rectifiers at microwave frequencies. The main focus is in the analysis, design, and characterization of dc-dc converters operating at microwave frequencies in the low gigahertz range. The concept of PA-rectifier duality, where a high-efficiency power amplifier operates as a high-efficiency rectifier is investigated through non-linear simulations and experimentally validated. Additionally, the concept of a self-synchronous rectifier, where a transistor rectifier operates synchronously without the need of a RF source or driver is demonstrated. A theoretical analysis of a class-E self-synchronous rectifier is presented and validated through non-linear simulations and experiments. Two GaN class-E2 dc-dc converters operating at a switching frequency of 1 and 1.2 GHz are demonstrated. The converters achieve 80 % and 75 % dc-dc efficiency respectively and are among the highest-frequency and highest-efficiency reported in the literature. The application of the concepts established in the analysis of a self-synchronous rectifier to a power amplifier culminated in the development of an oscillating, self-synchronous class-E 2 dc-dc converter. Finally, a proof-of-concept fully integrated GaN MMIC class-E 2 dc-dc converter switching at 4.6 GHz is demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The 3.8 mm x 2.6 mm chip contains distributed inductors and does not require any

  2. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  3. Curing behavior and reaction kinetics of binder resins for 3D-printing investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möginger, B.; Kehret, L.; Hausnerova, B.; Steinhaus, J.

    2016-05-01

    3D-Printing is an efficient method in the field of additive manufacturing. In order to optimize the properties of manufactured parts it is essential to adapt the curing behavior of the resin systems with respect to the requirements. Thus, effects of resin composition, e.g. due to different additives such as thickener and curing agents, on the curing behavior have to be known. As the resin transfers from a liquid to a solid glass the time dependent ion viscosity was measured using DEA with flat IDEX sensors. This allows for a sensitive measurement of resin changes as the ion viscosity changes two to four decades. The investigated resin systems are based on the monomers styrene and HEMA. To account for the effects of copolymerization in the calculation of the reaction kinetics it was assumed that the reaction can be considered as a homo-polymerization having a reaction order n≠1. Then the measured ion viscosity curves are fitted with the solution of the reactions kinetics - the time dependent degree of conversion (DC-function) - for times exceeding the initiation phase representing the primary curing. The measured ion viscosity curves can nicely be fitted with the DC-function and the determined fit parameters distinguish distinctly between the investigated resin compositions.

  4. Piezometer completion report for borehold cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  6. Phthalonitrile Resins and Preparation Thereof.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention pertains generally to organic synthesis and in particular to a rapid synthesis of a diether-linked polyphthalonitrile resin by polymerizing a phthalonitrile monomer with a primary amine.

  7. Degree of conversion and leached monomers of urethane dimethacrylate-hydroxypropyl methacrylate-based dental resin systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Puska, Mervi A; Botelho, Michael G; Säilynoja, Eija S; Matinlinna, Jukka P

    2016-01-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) and monomer leaching of three experimental urethane dimethacrylate (UEDMA)-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA)-based resin systems were studied. Three experimental resins (E1: 70.6 wt% UEDMA + 27.4 wt% HPMA, E2: 80.6 wt% UEDMA + 17.4 wt% HPMA, E3: 90.6 wt% UEDMA + 7.4 wt% HPMA) and one control resin [C: 70.6 wt% bis-phenol A glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) + 27.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA)] were prepared. For the DC test, cylindrical specimens [1.5 mm (h) × 6 mm (d)] were scanned with an ATR-FTIR instrument before and after light-curing (n = 5). For the monomer leaching test, block-shaped specimens [5.67 mm (l) × 2.00 mm (w) × 2.00 mm (h)] were light-cured (n = 6), stored in a 75% ethanol:water solution for 3 days, and then analyzed with HPLC. The UEDMA-HPMA-based experimental groups showed higher DC (62-78%) than the bis-GMA-MMA-based control group (58-66%), and the DC decreased as the UEDMA content increased (P < 0.05). Amongst the four groups, E3 exhibited the lowest leaching of both mono methacrylate (0.1% HPMA) and dimethacrylate (<0.043% UEDMA) monomers after 30 or 40 s of curing. The UEDMA-HPMA-based resins, therefore, exhibited higher DC and less monomer leaching compared to the bis-GMA-MMA-based resin. (J Oral Sci 58, 15-22, 2016).

  8. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  9. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  10. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  11. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Electrical Properties of the Epoxy Resins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, Sa'ad S.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis is concerned primarily with the curing of epoxy resin and the effect of gamma-irradiation on the electrical properties of epoxy resin systems. The particular systems examined were a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, Ciba Geigy MY750) epoxy resin cured using one of two hardeners. These were a hydroxyalkylated polyamine (Ciba Geigy HY956) and a dodecenyl-succinicanhydride (DDSA) with an accelerator of benzyldimethylamine. Different methods of examining the curing of the epoxy resin system have been carried out including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (I.R.), dielectric measurements, volume resistivity measurements and thermally stimulated discharge current. The results of dielectric relaxation measurements obtained during the curing of the epoxy resin system were interpreted on the basis of a model considering the growing polymer molecules to be in solution, the solvent being the unreacted monomer and hardener. The investigation of the effect of gamma-irradiation on the electrical properties (conduction mechanism and dielectric behaviour) of the epoxy resin system was achieved by examining the electrical properties of the fully cured epoxy resin system before and after irradiation and the results compared. To establish the electrical properties of the fully cured epoxy resin system before and after irradiation, a series of experiments which provide information about the conduction mechanism, the dielectric properties, the infrared spectra (I.R.) and the glass transition temperature (Tg) obtained from (DSC) measurements were carried out. For the epoxy resin system MY750/HY956, it was found that the D.C. conductivity, dissipation factor and capacitance values increase, whereas the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the activation energy, E, obtained from D.C. measurements decreased for the irradiated samples. Furthermore, a modification

  12. Bonding effectiveness and multi-interfacial characterization of two direct buildup resin core systems bonded to post-space dentin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Mine, Atsushi; Miura, Jiro; Minamino, Takuya; Iwashita, Taichi; Nakatani, Hayaki; Nishida, Tomoki; Takeshige, Fumio; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness of two resin core buildup systems using conventional methods in the field of adhesive dentistry and a new non-destructive method. Twenty-four single-rooted human teeth were built up with dual-cure one-step self-etch adhesive and composite systems (SY1: Clearfil DC bond and Clearfil DC core automix, SY2: Clearfil bond SE one and Clearfil DC core automix one). The prepared samples were sectioned into approximately 1 × 1-mm-thick beams and subjected to micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) testing (n = 24). The fractured beams after μTBS testing were analyzed by SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry. The three teeth filled with each resin core system were sectioned and embedded in epoxy resin to observe the dentin-bonding interface under TEM (n = 6). Moreover, three of each resin core-filled teeth without any processing were examined using μCT (n = 6). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the two factors "root region" (p < 0.001, F = 15.22) and "system" (SY1 < SY2; p < 0.001, F = 22.52) had a significant influence. The μTBS gradually decreased from the coronal side to the apical side of the root canal. Morphological evaluation revealed that SY2 was superior in terms of resin curing at the apical side. μCT non-destructive evaluation clearly revealed gap formation in SY1. SY2, which included a new light-independent catalyst, showed better bonding effectiveness and adhesive interface to dentin compared to that of SY1. The new catalyst, which is activated by contact with adhesive and resin composite, can be used for resin core buildup restorations.

  13. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  14. Uptake of apoptotic DC converts immature DC into tolerogenic DC, which induce differentiation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Rahul; Wu, Jing; Oliver, Jordan R.; Jiang, George; Zhang, Jinyi; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Hu, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cell (DC) apoptosis has been observed in patients with cancer and sepsis, and defects in DC apoptosis have been implicated in development of autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms of how DC apoptosis affects immune responses however, are unclear. In this study we showed that immature viable DC have the ability to uptake apoptotic DC as well as necrotic DC without it being recognized as an inflammatory event by immature viable DC. However, the specific uptake of apoptotic DC converted immature viable DC into tolerogenic DC, which were resistant to LPS induced maturation. In contrast, these tolerogenic DC secreted increased levels of TGF-β1, which induced differentiation of naïve T cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). Furthermore, induction of Treg differentiation only occurred upon uptake of apoptotic DC and not upon uptake of apoptotic splenocytes by viable DC, indicating that it is specifically the uptake of apoptotic DC that gives viable immature DC the potential to induce Foxp3+ Treg. Taken together, these findings identify uptake of apoptotic DC by viable immature DC as an immunologically tolerogenic event. PMID:20101618

  15. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  16. Greening America's Capitals - Washington, DC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.

  17. Effect of resin-coating technique on dentin tensile bond strengths over 3 years.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Yuichi; Burrow, Michael F; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2002-01-01

    The resin-coating technique has been developed to protect prepared dentin and underlying pulp tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resin-coated dentin bond durability over a period of 3 years of a resin cement and to compare it with two representative resin cements. Ten bovine dentin specimens were tested for tensile bond strengths with each of the following three materials: CLAPEARL DC with a resin-coating technique (CDRC), Panavia 21 (PA21), and Super Bond C&B (SBCB) at 1 day, 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years. Mean bond strengths were compared statistically by two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test (p < .05). The mode of failure was classified by scanning electron microscope observation and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The 3-year bond strengths of all resin cements were significantly lower than those at the other experimental periods except for 1 year (p < .05). There was no significant difference in mean bond strength between CDRC and SBCB (p > .05). Regarding the fracture modes, in the case of CDRC, an increase in adhesive failure at the resin-dentin interface was observed as the time period lengthened. Statistical differences were observed between SBCB and the other materials at 1 year (p < .05) and between PA21 and the other materials at 3 years (p < .05). The mean tensile bond strengths of the three resin cements to dentin decreased at different rates during the study; the rate at which the bond decreases is likely to affect the long-term durability of restorations.

  18. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  19. Bonding of resin composites to resin-modified glass ionomers.

    PubMed

    Fortin, D; Vargas, M A; Swift, E J

    1995-08-01

    To evaluate the bonding between resin composites and resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials. Bar-shaped specimens of Fuji II LC, Photac-Fil, and Vitremer were fabricated in a mold. After application of unfilled resin, resin composite (either Silux Plus or Restorative Z100) was condensed into the mold against the glass ionomer substrate and was light-cured. These bonded specimens, as well as intact specimens of each material, were placed on a three-point bending apparatus and were loaded until failure using a Zwick testing machine. The transverse strength of each specimen was calculated. Mean transverse strengths of bonded specimens ranged from 50% to 78% of the transverse strength of the intact glass ionomer materials. The lowest transverse strength was 18.1 MPa, for Photac-Fil/Z100, and the highest was 29.6 MPa, for Fuji II LC/Silux. Statistical analysis indicated that the type of composite used had no significant effect on transverse strength. However, the type of resin-modified glass ionomer used was significant. Although there was much overlap between materials, bonded specimens made with Fuji II LC had the highest absolute strength, and those made with Photac-Fil had the lowest absolute strength. Bonded Vitremer specimens had the highest transverse strength relative to the cohesive strength of the material.

  20. FB-Line resin testing final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-01-23

    The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer`s specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

  1. FB-Line resin testing final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-01-23

    The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer's specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

  2. Titanium dioxide nanotubes addition to self-adhesive resin cement: Effect on physical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Tonello, Carla M; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo N; Arruda, Larisa B; Tokuhara, Cintia K; Oliveira, Rodrigo C; Furuse, Adilson Y; Rubo, José H; Borges, Ana Flávia S

    2017-07-01

    This study has investigated the influence of Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2-nt) addition to self-adhesive resin cement on the degree of conversion, water sorption, and water solubility, mechanical and biological properties. A commercially available auto-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200™, 3M ESPE) was reinforced with varying amounts of nanotubes (0.3, 0.6, 0.9wt%) and evaluated at different curing modes (self- and dual cure). The DC in different times (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15min), water sorption (Ws) and solubility (Sl), 3-point flexural strength (σf), elastic modulus (E), Knoop microhardness (H) and viability of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were performed to characterize the resin cement. Reinforced self-adhesive resin cement, regardless of concentration, increased the DC for the self- and dual-curing modes at all times studied. The concentration of the TiO2-nt and the curing mode did not influence the Ws and Sl. Regarding σf, concentrations of both 0.3 and 0.9wt% for self-curing mode resulted in data similar to that of dual-curing unreinforced cement. The E increased with the addition of 0.9wt% for self-cure mode and H increased with 0.6 and 0.9wt% for both curing modes. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that reinforced cements were biocompatible. TiO2-nt reinforced self-adhesive resin cement are promising materials for use in indirect dental restorations. Taken together, self-adhesive resin cement reinforced with TiO2-nt exhibited physicochemical and mechanical properties superior to those of unreinforced cements, without compromising their cellular viability. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of power density on polymerization behavior and bond strengths of dual-cured resin direct core foundation systems.

    PubMed

    Oto, Tatsuki; Yasuda, Genta; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of power density on dentin bond strength and polymerization behavior of dual-cured direct core foundation resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cured direct core foundation resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil DC Bond and UniFil Core with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in autopolymerizing resin and the facial dentin surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper. Dentin surfaces were treated according to manufacturer's recommendations. The resin pastes were condensed into the mold and cured with the power densities of 0 (no irradiation), 100, 200, 400 and 600 mW/cm2. Ten specimens per group were stored in 37 degrees C water for 24 hours, then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. An ultrasonic measurement device was used to measure the ultrasonic velocities through the core foundation resins. The power densities selected were 0 (no irradiation), 200, and 600 mW/cm2, and ultrasonic velocity was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were performed at a level of 0.05. The highest bond strengths were obtained when the resin pastes were cured with the highest power density for both core foundation systems (16.8 +/- 1.9 MPa for Clearfil DC Core Automix, 15.6 +/- 2.9 MPa for UniFil Core). When polymerized with the power densities under 200 mW/cm2, significantly lower bond strengths were observed compared to those obtained with the power density of 600 mW/cm2. As the core foundation resins hardened, the sonic velocities increased and this tendency differed among the power density of the curing unit. When the sonic velocities at three minutes after the start of measurements were compared, there were no significant differences among different irradiation modes for UniFil Core, while a significant decrease in sonic velocity was obtained when the resin paste was chemically polymerized compared with dual-polymerization for Clearfil

  4. Influence of a hydrophobic resin coating on the bonding efficacy of three universal adhesives.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Sezinando, Ana; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Szesz, Anna Luiza; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Bombarda, Nara Hellen; Perdigão, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of an additional hydrophobic resin coating (HE) on the resin-dentine microtensile bond strengths (μTBS), nanoleakage (NL), and in situ degree of conversion (DC) of three universal adhesives used in the etch-and-rinse (ER) and the self-etch (SE) modes. Sixty caries-free extracted third molars were divided into 12 groups according to the combination of the factors adhesive (All-Bond Universal [ABU]; G-Bond Plus [GBP] and Scotchbond Universal [SBU]), adhesive strategy (ER and SE), and the use of HE (Heliobond; yes or no). After restorations were constructed, specimens were stored in water (37°C/24h) and sectioned into resin-dentine beams (0.8mm(2)) to be tested under tension (0.5mm/min). Selected beams from each tooth were used for DC quantification and for NL evaluation. Data from each adhesive were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). ABU and GBP resulted in higher μTBS in the ER mode. The use of HE increased the μTBS of ABU and GBP only in the SE mode. Lower NL was observed for SBU and ABU in the ER mode+HE, and for GBP in the SE mode+HE. SBU and GBP showed higher DC when used in the ER mode, which was increased with HE application. The DC of ABU was similar in all conditions. The conversion of 1-step SE to 2-step SE may increase the μTBS and DC of current universal adhesives. The reduction in the NL is more dependent on the adhesive composition than on the bonding strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  6. Degree of conversion of different composite resins photo-activated with light-emitting diode and argon ion laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messias, A. M.; Galvão, M. R.; Boaventura, J. M. C.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Bernardi, M. I. B.; Bagnato, V. S.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Andrade, M. F.

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC%) of one experimental and different brands of composite resins light-cured by two light sources (one LED and one argon laser). The percentage of unreacted C = C was determined from the ratio of absorbance intensities of aliphatic C = C (peak at 1637 cm-1) against internal standards before and after curing: aromatic C-C (peak at 1610 cm-1) except for P90, where %C = C bonds was given for C-O-C (883 cm-1) and C-C (1257 cm-1). ANOVA and Tukey’s test revealed no statistically significant difference among Z350 (67.17), Z250 (69.52) and experimental (66.61  ±  2.03) with LED, just among them and Evolu-X (75.51) and P90 (32.05) that showed higher and lower DC%, respectively. For the argon laser, there were no differences among Z250 (70.67), Z350 (69.60), experimental (65.66) and Evolu-X (73, 37), however a significant difference was observed for P90 (36.80), which showed lowest DC%. The light sources showed similar DC%, however the main difference was observed regarding the composite resins. The lowest DC% was observed for the argon laser. P90 showed the lowest DC% for both light-curing sources.

  7. Resin technologies: construction and staining of resin TMA's.

    PubMed

    Howat, William J; Wilson, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    The traditional formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and therefore the tissue microarrays created from it, provide good morphology but with a compromised antigenicity when compared to frozen tissue. In contrast, while solving the issue of antigenicity, frozen tissue suffers from a lack of morphology. We have demonstrated that tissue microarrays constructed in glycol methacrylate resin, when combined with a cold acetone fixation step, have been able to combine the superior morphology of resin-embedded sections with the superior antigenicity of frozen tissue for prospectively collected material.

  8. Correlation between degree of conversion, resin-dentin bond strength and nanoleakage of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hass, Viviane; Dobrovolski, Max; Zander-Grande, Christiana; Martins, Gislaine Cristine; Gordillo, Luís Alfonso Arana; Rodrigues Accorinte, Maria de Lourdes; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the degree of conversion measured inside the hybrid layer (DC) with the microtensile resin-dentin bond strength (μTBS) and silver nitrate uptake or nanoleakage (SNU) for five simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Fifty-five caries free extracted molars were used in this study. Thirty teeth were used for μTBS/SNU [n=6] and 25 teeth for DC [n=5]. The dentin surfaces were bonded with the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), Ambar (AB), XP Bond (XP), Tetric N-Bond (TE) and Stae (ST) followed by composite resin build-ups. For μTBS and SNU test, bonded teeth were sectioned in order to obtain stick-shaped specimens (0.8mm(2)), which were tested under tensile stress (0.5mm/min). Three bonded sticks, from each tooth, were not tested in tensile stress and they were immersed in 50% silver nitrate, photo-developed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Longitudinal 1-mm thick sections were prepared for the teeth assigned for DC measurement and evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ST showed lowest DC, μTBS, and higher SNU (p<0.05). All other adhesives showed similar DC, μTBS, and SNU (p>0.05), except for TE which showed an intermediate SNU level. The DC was positively correlated with μTBS and negatively correlated with SNU (p<0.05). SNU was also negatively correlated with μTBS (p<0.05). The measurement of DC inside the hybrid layer can provide some information about bonding performance of adhesive systems since this property showed a good correlation with resin-dentin bond strength and SNU values. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DC-DC converter for discharging energy storage magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyssa, Yehia M.; Huang, Xianrui

    1994-07-01

    A new DC-DC converter to control the output power delivered from a magnetic energy storage magnet or an equivalent current source is discussed. The circuit consists of: (1) highly coupled transformer (air or iron core) with coupling coefficient better than 0.95; (2) low frequency mechanical or superconducting switches (0.1 - 10 Hz) or high frequency (10 - 1000 Hz) GTO switches depending on the application; and (3) small voltage source (capacitor or battery) to control the output voltage. Two examples illustrating the application of this circuit are discussed. They are a step up dc current converter for use in uninterruptible power supplies and a step down one for use in discharging large current storage coil into a small current load. The efficiency expected to exceed 90%.

  10. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  11. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  12. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  13. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  14. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  15. 76 FR 68745 - DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... No: 2011-28690] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-8-000] DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2011), DC Energy, LLC (DC Energy) and DC Energy Mid-Atlantic LLC...

  16. Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Finck, Henry

    1960-01-01

    A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed. PMID:13822825

  17. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  18. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, Robert L.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Newton, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  19. Commercial Of-The Shelf DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzinger, W.; Baumel, S.

    2011-10-01

    A commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) DC/DC converter for the supply of digital electronics on board of spacecraft has been developed with special emphasis on: *Low cost Readily available *Easy manufacturing *No use of ITAR listed EEE parts like rad-hard mosfets *Minimum number of rad-hard digital and analog IC's *Design tolerance against SEE by appropriate filtering The study was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) under the contract number 21729/08/NL7LvH.

  20. Low dose failures of hardened DC-DC power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, J.; Yui, C.; Rax, B. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weideman, M.; Schrick, P.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Box-level total dose testing of the FOG (Fiber Optic Gyro) by IXSEA at ESA's GammabeamFacility were abruptly terminated at 8krad (Si) due to catastrophic failure (complete shutdown). This was unexpected because all components within the gyro were supposedly radiation tolerant. Further testing showed that the components responsible for the failure were two DC-DC converters, manufactured by Interpoint, that stopped regulating shortly before shutdown. This paper summarizes diagnostic test results for the converters to determine the underlying cause of the unexpected failure at low levels of radiation.

  1. Dentin Bonding Durability of Two-step Self-etch Adhesives with Improved of Degree of Conversion of Adhesive Resins.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kento; Hosaka, Keiichi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tian, Fucong; Komada, Wataru; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Pashley, David H; Tagami, Junji

    To evaluate (1) the initial and long-term microtensile bond strengths of two-step self-etch adhesives with different degrees of conversion (DC); (2) the elastic modulus of the respective adhesive resins; (3) the water sorption of the respective adhesive resins. Two two-step self-etch adhesives, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) and Clearfil SE Bond 2 (CSE2) were used in this study. The DC was determined using ATR/FT-IR with a time-based spectrum analysis. Midcoronal flat dentin surfaces of 24 human molars were prepared with 600-grit SiC paper for microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing. CSE and CSE2 were applied to the dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions, followed by composite buildups. The µTBS was measured after water storage for 24 h, 6 months, and 1 year. The elastic modulus (before and after 1 month of water immersion) was determined by the three-point flexural bending test and water sorption values by the water sorption test. CSE2 showed significantly higher DC than CSE. The µTBS of CSE2 was significantly higher than that of CSE in all water storage periods. One-year water storage decreased the µTBS of CSE; however, it did not decrease that of CSE2. Regarding the polymerized adhesive resins, the elastic modulus of CSE2 was significantly higher than that of CSE before and after water immersion (p < 0.001), and the water sorption of CSE was higher than that of CSE2. The higher DC of adhesive resins of two-step self-etch adhesives resists water aging and improves the initial bond strengths and durability of the resin-dentin bond.

  2. The effect of mouthrinses on salivary sorption, solubility and surface degradation of a nanofilled and a hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Giselle Soares; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of mouth rinses on salivary sorption (Sp), solubility (Sl) and surface degradation of a nanofilled (Z350) and hybrid (P60) resin composite. Specimens (6 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick) of a nanofilled and hybrid resin composite were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for seven days. Twice a day, the samples (n = 5) were immersed in 20 ml of three mouth rinses: Listerine, Plax Mint and Plax. A control group was maintained in artificial saliva. Sp and Sl were evaluated based on ISO 4049:2000(E) and surface degradation by scanning electron microscopy-SEM. The degree of conversion (DC%) of resin composites was obtained by using an FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR). The data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons. No significant difference in DC% was found between the two resin composites (p < 0.05). The highest sorption rate was presented by the nanofilled composite exposed to Listerine (p < 0.05). The hybrid composite in the control group (artificial saliva) and Plax presented the lowest sorption (p < 0.05). The highest solubility was presented by the two resin composites exposed to Listerine (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed that mouth rinses produced more severe surface degradation in the nanofilled composite.

  3. Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    the cure cycle. Two approaches were tested to obtain a homogeneous mixture of the curing agent and MY 720 epoxy resin. One involved the use of acetone...before exposure to any of the cure cycles. This was indicated by the solubility test and the IR spectra of the solventless resin mixtures. More evidence...muffle furnace at 800’C. The results of the tests listed in Table 22 show that about all IME systems exhibit good char forming capabilities, with IME-l and

  4. Method for loading resin beds

    DOEpatents

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  5. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  6. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  7. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  8. SRM filament wound case resin characterization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    The amine cured epoxy wet winding resin used in fabrication of the SRM filament wound case is analyzed. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPSC) is utilized extensively to study lot-to-lot variation in both resin and curing agent. The validity of quantitative hplc methodology currently under development in-process resin/catalyst assay is assessed.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a.... 10. (i) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a.... 10. (i) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a Single.... 10. (i) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a.... 10. (i) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a.... 10. (i) Polyestercarbonate resins, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for...

  18. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used... polymer obtained by polymerizing terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood. It has a softening point of...

  19. Biodegradation of resin acid sodium salts

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; H. Greaves

    1973-01-01

    The sodium salts of resin acids were readily degraded by microflora from two types of river water and from an activated sewage sludge. A lag phase with little or no resin acid salt degradation but rapid bacterial development occurred which was greatly extended by a decrease in incubation temperature. After this initial lag phase, the resin acid salts were rapidly...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly...) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and CAS Reg. No. 60015-05-6 and commonly referred to as...

  1. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section... Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section... Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are subject...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...-phenyleneisopropylidene-p-phenylene) resins (CAS Reg. No. 25154-01-2) consisting of basic resins produced when the.... (b) The basic polysulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may contain optional...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...-phenyleneisopropylidene-p-phenylene) resins (CAS Reg. No. 25154-01-2) consisting of basic resins produced when the.... (b) The basic polysulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may contain optional...

  6. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  7. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Soft switching active snubbers for DC/DC converters

    SciTech Connect

    Elasser, A.; Torrey, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A soft-switching active snubber is proposed to reduce the turn-off losses of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) in a buck converter. The soft-switching snubber provides zero-voltage switching for the IGBT, thereby reducing its high turn-off losses due to the current tailing. The proposed snubber uses an auxiliary switch to discharge the snubber capacitor. This auxiliary switch also operates at zero-voltage and zero-current switching. The size of the auxiliary switch compared to the main switch makes this snubber a good alternative to the conventional snubber or even to passive low-loss snubbers. The use of the soft-switching active snubber permits the IGBT to operate at high frequencies with an improved RBSOA. In the experimental results reported for a 1 kW, 40 kHz prototype, combined switching/snubbing losses are reduced by 36% through the use of the active snubber compared to a conventional RCD snubber. The use of an active snubber capacitor during turn-off. The generic snubber cell for the buck converter is generalized to support the common nonisolated dc/dc converters (buck, boost, buck-boost, Cuk, sepic, zeta) as well as isolated dc/dc converters (forward, flyback, Cuk, and sepic).

  9. Modeling and analysis of fractional order DC-DC converter.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ahmed G; Emira, Ahmed A; AbdelAty, Amr M; Azar, Ahmed Taher

    2017-07-11

    Due to the non-idealities of commercial inductors, the demand for a better model that accurately describe their dynamic response is elevated. So, the fractional order models of Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost DC-DC converters are presented in this paper. The detailed analysis is made for the two most common modes of converter operation: Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). Closed form time domain expressions are derived for inductor currents, voltage gain, average current, conduction time and power efficiency where the effect of the fractional order inductor is found to be strongly present. For example, the peak inductor current at steady state increases with decreasing the inductor order. Advanced Design Systems (ADS) circuit simulations are used to verify the derived formulas, where the fractional order inductor is simulated using Valsa Constant Phase Element (CPE) approximation and Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC). Different simulation results are introduced with good matching to the theoretical formulas for the three DC-DC converter topologies under different fractional orders. A comprehensive comparison with the recently published literature is presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of a double dc SQUID magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, J.; Miyoamoto, N.; Nakane, H.; Goto, E. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents a magnetic flux sensing device that is made by using two dc Squids. The dc Squids are of similar characteristics, magnetically coupled by a common coil and are turned into the voltage state by a single dc current source. As the dc Squids are magnetically coupled, the magnetic flux noise generated by one of the dc Squids is sensed by the other one and vice versa. Then by making a differential measurement across both dc Squids, the magnetic flux noise detected by the dc Squids can be added either constructively or destructively. This means the magnetic flux noise cancellation is possible as it is demonstrated experimentally. The double dc Squid configuration can also be used in the add flux noise mode, case in which there is no loss of performance when comparing with what is possible to obtain with a single dc Squid.

  11. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation.

  12. Process for curing bismaleimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A. (Inventor); OTHY S.imides alone. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to vinyl pyridine group containing compounds and oligomers, their advantageous copolymerization with bismaleimide resins, and the formation of reinforced composites based on these copolymers. When vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are admixed with bismaleimides and cured to form copolymers the cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone.

  13. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  14. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  15. Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin

    SciTech Connect

    Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

  16. Fiber reinforced composite resin systems.

    PubMed

    Giordano, R

    2000-01-01

    The Targis/Vectris and Sculpture/FibreKor systems were devised to create a translucent maximally reinforced resin framework for fabrication of crowns, bridges, inlays, and onlays. These materials are esthetic, have translucency similar to castable glass-ceramics such as OPC and Empress, and have fits that are reported to be acceptable in clinical and laboratory trials. These restorations rely on proper bonding to the remaining tooth structure; therefore, careful attention to detail must be paid to this part of the procedure. Cementation procedures should involve silane treatment of the cleaned abraded internal restoration surface, application of bonding agent to the restoration as well as the etched/primed tooth, and finally use of a composite resin. Each manufacturer has a recommended system which has been tested for success with its resin system. These fiber reinforced resins are somewhat different than classical composites, so not all cementation systems will necessarily work with them. Polishing of the restoration can be accomplished using diamond or alumina impregnated rubber wheels followed by diamond paste. The glass fibers can pose a health risk. They are small enough to be inhaled and deposited in the lungs, resulting in a silicosis-type problem. Therefore, if fibers are exposed and ground on, it is extremely important to wear a mask. Also, the fibers can be a skin irritant, so gloves also should be worn. If the fibers become exposed intraorally, they can cause gingival inflammation and may attract plaque. The fibers should be covered with additional composite resin. If this cannot be accomplished, the restoration should be replaced. The bulk of these restorations are formed using a particulate filled resin, similar in structure to conventional composite resins. Therefore, concerns as to wear resistance, color stability, excessive expansion/contraction, and sensitivity remain until these materials are proven in long-term clinical trials. They do hold the

  17. Assessment of flow and cure monitoring using direct current and alternating current sensing in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Uday K.; Jadhav, Nitesh C.; Hosur, Mahesh V.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Fink, Bruce K.

    2000-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is an emerging manufacturing technique that holds promise as an affordable alternative to traditional autoclave molding and automated fiber placement for producing large-scale structural parts. In VARTM, the fibrous preform is laid on a single-sided tool, which is then bagged along with the infusion and vacuum lines. The resin is then infused through the preform, which causes simultaneous wetting in its in-plane and transverse directions. An effective sensing technique is essential so that comprehensive information pertaining to the wetting of the preform, arrival of resin at various locations, cure gradients associated with thickness and presence of dry spots may be monitored. In the current work, direct current (dc) and alternating current sensing/monitoring techniques were adopted for developing a systematic understanding of the resin position and cure on plain weave S2-glass preforms with Dow Derakane vinyl ester VE 411-350, Shell EPON RSL 2704/2705 and Si-AN epoxy as the matrix systems. A SMARTweave dc sensing system was utilized to conduct parametric studies: (a) to compare the flow and cure of resin through the stitched and non-stitched preforms; (b) to investigate the influence of sensor positioning, i.e. top, middle and bottom layers; and (c) to investigate the influence of positioning of the process accessories, i.e. resin infusion point and vacuum point on the composite panel. The SMARTweave system was found to be sensitive to all the parametric variations introduced in the study. Furthermore, the results obtained from the SMARTweave system were compared to the cure monitoring studies conducted by using embedded interdigitated (IDEX) dielectric sensors. The results indicate that SMARTweave sensing was a viable alternative to obtaining resin position and cure, and was more superior in terms of obtaining global information, in contrast to the localized dielectric sensing approach.

  18. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  19. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…

  20. Compact integrated dc SQUID gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    de Waal, V.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    1982-10-01

    An all-niobium integrated system of first-order gradiometer and dc suprconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. It is relatively simple to fabricate, has an overall size of 17 x 12 mm and a sensitivity of 3.5 x 10/sup -12/ T m/sup -1/ Hz/sup -1/2/.

  1. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…

  2. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  3. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  4. Designing dc Inductors With Airgaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Optimal parameters obtained designing near saturation point. New iterative procedure aids design of dc inductors with airgaps in cores. For given core area and length, technique gives design having specified inductance and peak flux density in core, using minimum required copper weight. Executed rapidly on programmable, hand-held calculator. Applications include lightweight inductors for aircraft electronics.

  5. 76 FR 53346 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: Deliver to Mail address above between 9 a.m. and...) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83),...

  6. 76 FR 41651 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83),...

  7. 76 FR 39251 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roger Durbin, Aerospace.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to all The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83...

  8. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin groups... *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers...

  9. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin groups... *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers...

  10. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin groups... *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers...

  11. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin groups... *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers...

  12. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin groups... *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers...

  13. Identification of cDC1- and cDC2-committed DC progenitors reveals early lineage priming at the common DC progenitor stage in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Schlitzer, Andreas; Sivakamasundari, V; Chen, Jinmiao; Sumatoh, Hermi Rizal Bin; Schreuder, Jaring; Lum, Josephine; Malleret, Benoit; Zhang, Sanqian; Larbi, Anis; Zolezzi, Francesca; Renia, Laurent; Poidinger, Michael; Naik, Shalin; Newell, Evan W; Robson, Paul; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-07-01

    Mouse conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) can be classified into two functionally distinct lineages: the CD8α(+) (CD103(+)) cDC1 lineage, and the CD11b(+) cDC2 lineage. cDCs arise from a cascade of bone marrow (BM) DC-committed progenitor cells that include the common DC progenitors (CDPs) and pre-DCs, which exit the BM and seed peripheral tissues before differentiating locally into mature cDCs. Where and when commitment to the cDC1 or cDC2 lineage occurs remains poorly understood. Here we found that transcriptional signatures of the cDC1 and cDC2 lineages became evident at the single-cell level from the CDP stage. We also identified Siglec-H and Ly6C as lineage markers that distinguished pre-DC subpopulations committed to the cDC1 lineage (Siglec-H(-)Ly6C(-) pre-DCs) or cDC2 lineage (Siglec-H(-)Ly6C(+) pre-DCs). Our results indicate that commitment to the cDC1 or cDC2 lineage occurs in the BM and not in the periphery.

  14. DC to DC power converters and methods of controlling the same

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Todorovic, Maja Harfman; Agamy, Mohammed

    2012-12-11

    A power generation system configured to provide direct current (DC) power to a DC link is described. The system includes a first power generation unit configured to output DC power. The system also includes a first DC to DC converter comprising an input section and an output section. The output section of the first DC to DC converter is coupled in series with the first power generation unit. The first DC to DC converter is configured to process a first portion of the DC power output by the first power generation unit and to provide an unprocessed second portion of the DC power output of the first power generation unit to the output section.

  15. DC Water: 2009 Presidential Inauguration Supporting Documentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DC Water located in Washington, DC incurred costs for activities related to the Presidential Inauguration in January 2009. Support included the purchase and installation of special manhole covers with security features.

  16. Combination of DC Vaccine and Conventional Chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Wei, Ran; Shen, Hongchang; Ni, Yang; Meng, Long; Du, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Recently mutual interactions of chemotherapy and immunotherapy have been widely accepted, and several synergistic mechanisms have been elucidated as well. Although much attention has focused on the combination of DC vaccine and chemotherapy, there are still many problems remaining to be resolved, including the optimal treatment schedule of the novel strategy. In this article, we methodically examined literature about the combination strategy of DC vaccine and conventional chemotherapy. Based on the published preclinical and clinical trials, treatment schedules of the combinational strategy can be classified as three modalities: chemotherapy with subsequent DC vaccine (post-DC therapy); DC vaccine followed by chemotherapy (pre-DC therapy); concurrent DC vaccine with chemotherapy (con-DC therapy).The safety and efficacy of this combinatorial immunotherapy strategy and its potential mechanisms are discussed. Although we could not draw conclusions on optimal treatment schedule, we summarize some tips which may be beneficial to trial design in the future.

  17. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  18. Influence of Curing Light Attenuation Caused by Aesthetic Indirect Restorative Materials on Resin Cement Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Bárbara; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Junior, Washington Steagall; Kawano, Yoshio; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effect of interposing different indirect restorative materials on degree of conversion (DC), hardness, and flexural strength of a dual-cure resin cement. Methods: Discs (2 mm-thick, n=5) of four indirect restorative materials were manufactured: a layered glass-ceramic (GC); a heat-pressed lithium disilicate-based glass-ceramic veneered with the layered glass-ceramic (LD); a micro-hybrid (MH); and a micro-filled (MF) indirect composite resin. The light transmittance of these materials was determined using a double-beam spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Bar-shaped specimens of a dual-cure resin cement (Nexus 2/SDS Kerr), with (dual-cure mode) and without the catalyst paste (light-cure mode), were photoactivated through the discs using either a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) or a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. As a control, specimens were photoactivated without the interposed discs. Specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24h before being submitted to FT-Raman spectrometry (n=3), Knoop microhardness (n=6) and three-point bending (n=6) tests. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: MH presented the highest transmittance. The DC was lower in light-cure mode than in dual-cure mode. All restorative materials reduced the cement microhardness in light-cure mode. GC and LD with QTH and GC with LED decreased the strength of the cement for both activation modes compared to the controls. Curing units did not affect DC or microhardness, except when the dual-cure cement was photoactivated through LD (LED>QTH). Flexural strength was higher with QTH compared to LED. Conclusions: Differences in transmittance among the restorative materials significantly influenced cement DC and flexural strength, regardless of the activation mode, as well as the microhardness of the resin cement tested in light-cure mode. Microhardness was not impaired by the interposed materials when the resin cement was used in dual-cure mode. PMID:20613921

  19. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  20. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  1. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  2. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  3. Ecological benefits of dc power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, N. B.

    2011-05-15

    The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

  4. Preparation of a Bis-GMA-Free Dental Resin System with Synthesized Fluorinated Dimethacrylate Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuzhen; Zhu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; He, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of reducing human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) derivatives in dentistry, a fluorinated dimethacrylate monomer was synthesized to replace 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloy-loxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) as the base monomer of dental resin. After mixing with reactive diluent triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), fluorinated dimethacrylate (FDMA)/TEGDMA was prepared and compared with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA in physicochemical properties, such as double bond conversion (DC), volumetric shrinkage (VS), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM). The results showed that, when compared with Bis-GMA based resin, FDMA-based resin had several advantages, such as higher DC, lower VS, lower WS, and higher FS after water immersion. All of these revealed that FDMA had potential to be used as a substitute for Bis-GMA. Of course, many more studies, such as biocompatibility testing, should be undertaken to prove whether FDMA could be applied in clinic. PMID:27916947

  5. Preparation of a Bis-GMA-Free Dental Resin System with Synthesized Fluorinated Dimethacrylate Monomers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuzhen; Zhu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; He, Jingwei

    2016-12-01

    With the aim of reducing human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) derivatives in dentistry, a fluorinated dimethacrylate monomer was synthesized to replace 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloy-loxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) as the base monomer of dental resin. After mixing with reactive diluent triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), fluorinated dimethacrylate (FDMA)/TEGDMA was prepared and compared with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA in physicochemical properties, such as double bond conversion (DC), volumetric shrinkage (VS), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM). The results showed that, when compared with Bis-GMA based resin, FDMA-based resin had several advantages, such as higher DC, lower VS, lower WS, and higher FS after water immersion. All of these revealed that FDMA had potential to be used as a substitute for Bis-GMA. Of course, many more studies, such as biocompatibility testing, should be undertaken to prove whether FDMA could be applied in clinic.

  6. Effect of temperature on the mass and color stability of additional photoinitiatorcontaining composite resins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyung; García-Godoy, Franklin; Ko, Ching-Chang; Park, Jeong-Kil; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the temperature affects the stability of polymerized additional photoinitiator-containing composite resins. Five resin products were light-cured using a quartz-tungsten-halogen, and single and dual emission peaks lightemitting diodes. The degree of conversion (DC) and water sorption, solubility, and color change of the specimens were evaluated after immersion in the solutions of different temperatures (4, 37, and 60ºC) for 14 days. On the top surface, the light-curing units had no significant influence on DC of the tested specimens. On the bottom surface, the influence was inconsistent. As the solution temperature increased, water sorption also consistently increased in all specimens, whereas solubility changed inconsistently. Water sorption and solubility had a high linear correlation only at low temperature solution. Color change of the specimens was similar, mostly slight, and statistically inconsistent regardless of solution temperature. The restored composite resins are needed to avoid contact with hot solutions for durable dental restoration.

  7. Influence of nanometer scale particulate fillers on some properties of microfilled composite resin.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different weight fractions of nanometer sized particulate filler on properties of microfilled composite resin. Composite resin was prepared by mixing 33 wt% of resin matrix to the 67 wt% of silane treated microfine silica particulate fillers with various fractions of nanometer sized fillers (0, 10, 15, 20, 30 wt%) using a high speed mixing machine. Test specimens made of the composites were tested with a three-point bending test with a speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Surface microhardess (Vicker's microhardness) was also determined. The volumetric shrinkage in percent was calculated as a buoyancy change in distilled water by means of the Archimedes principle. The degree of monomer conversion (DC%) of the experimental composites containing different nanofiller fractions was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. Surface roughness (Ra) was determined using a surface profilometer. Nanowear measurements were carried out using a nanoindentation device. The water uptake of specimens was also measured. Parameters were statistically analysed by ANOVA (P < 0.05). The group without nanofillers showed the highest flexural strength and modulus, DC% and Ra value. The group with 30% nanofillers had the highest water uptake and volumetric shrinkage. No significant difference was found in Vicker's microhardness and the nanowear of the composites. The plain microfilled composite demonstrated superior properties compared to the composites loaded with nanofillers with the exception of surface roughness.

  8. Full wave dc-to-dc converter using energy storage transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Full wave dc-to-dc converter, for an ion thrustor, uses energy storage transformers to provide a method of dc-to-dc conversion and regulation. The converter has a high degree of physical simplicity, is lightweight and has high efficiency.

  9. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ. 93.339 Section 93.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.339 Requirements for operating in the DC...

  10. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ. 93.339 Section 93.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.339 Requirements for operating in the DC...

  11. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ. 93.339 Section 93.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.339 Requirements for operating in the DC...

  12. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ. 93.339 Section 93.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.339 Requirements for operating in the DC...

  13. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ. 93.339 Section 93.339 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Washington, DC Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.339 Requirements for operating in the DC...

  14. Advanced DC/DC Converters towards higher Volumetric Efficiencies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Shue, Jack; Liu, David; Wang, Bright; Shaw, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. NASA mission outlook. 2. Issues with DC/DC converter for space. 3. Statement of newly initiated engineering activities for DC/DC converter. 4. Overview of prototyping work with novel materials. 5. Results of cryogenic testing.

  15. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  16. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.

    1991-01-01

    High temperature structural resins are required for use on advanced aerospace vehicles as adhesives and composite matrices. NASA-Langley developed polyimide resins were evaluated as high temperature structural adhesives for metal to metal bonding and as composite matrices. Adhesive tapes were prepared on glass scrim fabric from solutions of polyamide acids of the semicrystalline polyimide LARC-CPI, developed at the NASA-Langley Research Center. Using 6Al-4V titanium adherends, high lap shear bond strengths were obtained at ambient temperature (45.2 MPa, 6550 psi) and acceptable strengths were obtained at elevated temperature (14.0 MPa, 2030 psi) using the Pasa-Jell 107 conversion coating on the titanium and a bonding pressure of 1.38 MPa (200 psi). Average zero degree composite tensile and compressive strengths of 1290 MPa (187 ksi) and 883 MPa (128 ksi) respectively were obtained at ambient temperature with unsized AS-4 carbon fiber reinforcement.

  17. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  18. Resin glycosides from Convolvulaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru

    2017-07-26

    Resin glycosides are well known as purgative ingredients, which are characteristic of certain crude drugs such as Mexican Scammony Radix, Orizabae Tuber, and Jalapae Tuber, all of which originate from Convolvulaceae plants. Depending on their solubility in ether, these are roughly classified into two groups-jalapin (soluble) and convolvulin (insoluble). Almost all jalapins hitherto isolated and characterized had common intramolecular macrocyclic ester structures. These are composed of 1 mol of oligoglycoside of hydroxyl fatty acid (glycosidic acid) partially acylated by some organic acids at the sugar moiety, some examples of which are ester-type dimers. On the other hand, convolvulin is regarded as an oligomer of a variety of acylated glycosidic acids. This review describes the isolation and structural elucidation of resin glycosides from some Convolvulaceae plants, including Ipomoea operculata, Pharbitis nil, Quamoclit pennata, Calystegia soldanella, and I. muricata.

  19. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Natural fossil resins, as the basic resin: Copal. Damar. Elemi. Gilsonite. Glycerol ester of damar, copal, elemi, and sandarac. Sandarac. Shellac. Utah coal resin. (v) Rosins and rosin derivatives, with or... (limed rosin). Zinc resinate. (vi) Phenolic resins as the basic polymer formed by reaction of phenols...

  1. 75 FR 36579 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, and MD-10-30F...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC- 10-40, DC10-40F, and MD-10-30F airplanes. This proposed AD...

  2. 75 FR 61352 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, and MD-10-30F... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-30, DC-10-30F, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC- 10-40F, and MD-10-30F airplanes. This AD requires doing a one-time inspection of the...

  3. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

  4. Epoxy-Resin Cable Terminations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-03

    of epoxy- resin terminations , or end -fittings, to small diameter cables. Test samples were made using steel, titanium, and amorphous metal cable...15 vi NSWC TR 88-400 CHAITER 1 INTROIDUCTION The general function of end fittings, also referred to as terminations , is to allow the attachment of...instructions require that the termination body (henceforth referred to as’body’) be slipped over the end of the cable which is then unlaid and cleaned

  5. Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-05

    peroxides as initiator. The peroxides used were benzoyl peroxide , cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl peroxybenzoate and 2,5... benzoyl peroxide , while allyl type polyester resins require a higher temperature cure and use a peroxide such as dicumyl peroxide . Numerous other peroxides ...using MEKP (methylethylketone peroxide ) or BZP ( benzoyl peroxide ) catalysts. 47 01 "I 4 C C~ >~> .0 00 Q) . x> x (. C. a, 0 + 0) 0. 0 0 a,. E S- >0>

  6. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2016-02-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant differences from the AC case. In particular, the ring does not fly off the core but rises a short distance and then falls back. If the ring jumps high enough, the rising and the falling motion of the ring does not follow simple vertical motion of a projectile. This indicates that there are additional forces on the ring in each part of its motion. Four possible stages of the motion of the ring with DC are identified, which result from the ring current changing directions during the jump in response to a changing magnetic flux through the moving ring.

  7. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity, and Biocompatibility of Novel 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]Octane (DABCO) Compounds and DABCO-Containing Denture Base Resins

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Jenny L.; Wang, Yapin; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Lallier, Thomas E.; Peters, Brian M.; Hamdan, Suleiman; Xu, Xiaoming; Fidel, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes a variety of oral infections, including denture stomatitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. While antifungal treatment reduces symptoms, infections are often recurrent. One strategy to address this problem is to incorporate compounds with fungicidal activities into denture materials to prevent colonization. Our laboratory synthesized novel derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), which is an organic compound typically used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions. DABCO derivatives with different aliphatic chain lengths (DC16, DC16F, DC18, and C6DC16), as well as methacrylate monomers conjugated to DABCO compounds (DC11MAF and C2DC11MAF), were synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. All the compounds exhibited fungicidal activity against several Candida species at concentrations ranging between 2 and 4 μg/ml. Moreover, acrylic denture base resins fabricated to contain 1, 2, or 4 wt% DABCO compounds inhibited surface C. albicans biofilm formation, as well as fungal growth, in disc diffusion assays. Remarkably, discs (4 wt%) aged for 2 months also exhibited approximately 100% growth-inhibitory activity. While some DABCO compounds exerted intermediate to high cytotoxicity against mammalian oral cell types, DC11MAF and denture base resin discs containing 2 or 4 wt% C2DC11MAF exhibited relatively low cytotoxicity against periodontal ligament (PDL) cell and gingival fibroblast (GF) lines, as well as primary oral epithelial cells. These studies demonstrate that DABCO derivatives can be incorporated into denture materials and exert fungicidal activity with minimal cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. DC11MAF and C2DC11MAF are considered strong candidates as therapeutic or preventive alternatives against Candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:28115357

  8. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity, and Biocompatibility of Novel 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]Octane (DABCO) Compounds and DABCO-Containing Denture Base Resins.

    PubMed

    Herman, Jenny L; Wang, Yapin; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Lallier, Thomas E; Peters, Brian M; Hamdan, Suleiman; Xu, Xiaoming; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2017-04-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes a variety of oral infections, including denture stomatitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. While antifungal treatment reduces symptoms, infections are often recurrent. One strategy to address this problem is to incorporate compounds with fungicidal activities into denture materials to prevent colonization. Our laboratory synthesized novel derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), which is an organic compound typically used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions. DABCO derivatives with different aliphatic chain lengths (DC16, DC16F, DC18, and C6DC16), as well as methacrylate monomers conjugated to DABCO compounds (DC11MAF and C2DC11MAF), were synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. All the compounds exhibited fungicidal activity against several Candida species at concentrations ranging between 2 and 4 μg/ml. Moreover, acrylic denture base resins fabricated to contain 1, 2, or 4 wt% DABCO compounds inhibited surface C. albicans biofilm formation, as well as fungal growth, in disc diffusion assays. Remarkably, discs (4 wt%) aged for 2 months also exhibited approximately 100% growth-inhibitory activity. While some DABCO compounds exerted intermediate to high cytotoxicity against mammalian oral cell types, DC11MAF and denture base resin discs containing 2 or 4 wt% C2DC11MAF exhibited relatively low cytotoxicity against periodontal ligament (PDL) cell and gingival fibroblast (GF) lines, as well as primary oral epithelial cells. These studies demonstrate that DABCO derivatives can be incorporated into denture materials and exert fungicidal activity with minimal cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. DC11MAF and C2DC11MAF are considered strong candidates as therapeutic or preventive alternatives against Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  9. Washington: A DC Circuit Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2010-12-01

    I explore the history of physics in Washington, D.C., and its environs through a tour of notable sites and personalities. Highlights include visits to the Smithsonian and Carnegie Institutions, stops at the Einstein Memorial, George Washington University, the University of Maryland, and the American Center for Physics, and biographical sketches of physicists Joseph Henry, George Gamow, Edward Teller, and others who worked in the District of Columbia.

  10. Washington, D.C. USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    41G-40-071 (5-13 Oct. 1984) --- Washington, D.C. -- the nation's capital -- is at right center in this phtograph from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger. J.F. Dulles Airport at lower left. Andrews Air Force Base is at right center edge. The Potomac River enters at left center, flows past Washington and as a tidal estuary at lower right. Also visible are the Great Falls of the Potomac. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Synthesis of improved polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

  12. ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN

    DOEpatents

    McLEan, D.C.

    1959-03-10

    A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

  13. Power Network impedance effects on noise emission of DC-DC converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, M. C.; Arteche, F.; Iglesias, M.; Gimeno, A.; Arcega, F. J.; Johnson, M.; Cooper, W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of electromagnetic noise emissions of DC-DC converters is a critical issue that has been analyzed during the desing phase of CMS tracker upgrade. Previous simulation studies showed important variations in the level of conducted emissions when DC-DC converters are loaded/driven by different impedances and power network topologies. Several tests have been performed on real DC-DC converters to validate the Pspice model and simulation results. This paper presents these test results. Conducted noise emissions at the input and at the output terminals of DC-DC converters has been measured for different types of power and FEE impedances. Special attention has been paid to influence on the common-mode emissions by the carbon fiber material used to build the mechanical structure of the central detector. These study results show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in order to decrease the system noise level when integrating the DC-DC.

  14. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin.

  15. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  16. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  17. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness. PMID:26889359

  18. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  19. AC/DC Smart Control And Power Sharing of DC Distribution Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-10

    Sannino, “ Protection of low –voltage DC microgrids ,” IEEE Trans. on power delivery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1045-1053, July 2009 [11] M. E. Baran and N...Mohammed, “ Protection of Bi-Directional AC- DC / DC -AC converter in Hybrid AC/ DC Microgrids ,” IEEE SoutheastCon 2012, Orlando, Florida, USA, March 15-18...55 5. BI-DIRECTIONAL POWER TRANSFER CONTROL OF GRID-CONNECTED DC MICROGRIDS

  20. A natural component as coinitiator for unfilled dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Suqing; Nie, Jun

    2007-07-01

    A natural component, 1,3-benzodioxole (BDO), was used for the purpose of replacing the conventional amine for dental composite. Camphorquinone (CQ)/BDO was used to initiate the photopolymerization of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (70/30 wt %). The kinetics was recorded by real-time Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical properties were measured by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), and CQ/ethyl 4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB) mixture was used as control in the same photocuring condition. The results indicated that, the addition of BDO as coinitiator greatly improved the rate of polymerization and final double bond conversion (DC), when compared with the system initiated by CQ alone. BDO and EDMAB were found to reach almost the same final DC (75%), though the kinetics of two systems was different. Comparing with EDMAB, BDO brought approximately the same glass transition temperature (Tg), but slightly higher storage modulus around 37 degrees C. The water sorption and solubility for two mixtures were almost the same and within the range of the ISO 4049's standards. These results suggested that BDO was an effective alternative to conventional amine for coinitiator. And the human diet characteristics of BDO made it more promising than amine in the dental resin formulations. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Wear rates of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Erickson, R I; Latta, M A; Wilwerding, T M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A laboratory study was conducted to examine the wear of resin composite materials using a generalized wear simulation model. Ten specimens each of five resin composites (Esthet•X [EX], Filtek Supreme Plus [SP], Filtek Z250 [Z2], Tetric EvoCeram [EC], and Z100 Restorative [Z1]) were subjected to wear challenges of 100,000, 400,000, 800,000, and 1,200,000 cycles. The materials were placed in cylinder-shaped stainless-steel fixtures, and wear was generated using a flat stainless-steel antagonist in a slurry of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Wear (mean facet depth [μm] and volume loss [mm(3)]) was determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2000) with Proscan and ProForm software. Statistical analysis of the laboratory data using analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test showed a significant difference (p<0.05) for mean wear facet depth and volume loss for both the number of cycles and resin composite material. Linear regression analysis was used to develop predictive wear rates and volume loss rates. Linear wear was demonstrated with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.914 to 0.995. Mean wear values (mean facet depth [μm]) and standard deviations (SD) for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 13.9 (2.0), Z2 26.7 (2.7), SP 30.1 (4.1), EC 31.8 (2.3), and EX 67.5 (8.2). Volume loss (mm(3)) and SDs for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 0.248 (0.036), Z2 0.477 (0.044), SP 0.541 (0.072), EC 0.584 (0.037), and EX 1.162 (0.139). The wear rate (μm) and volume loss rate (mm(3)) per 100,000 cycles for the five resin composites were as follows: wear rate Z1 0.58, EC 1.27, Z2 1.49, SP 1.62, and EX 4.35, and volume loss rate Z1 0.009, EC 0.024, Z2 0.028, SP 0.029, and EX 0.075. The generalized wear model appears to be an excellent method for measuring relative wear of resin composite materials.

  2. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  3. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  4. Color stability of different composite resin materials.

    PubMed

    Falkensammer, Frank; Arnetzl, Gerwin Vincent; Wildburger, Angelika; Freudenthaler, Josef

    2013-06-01

    Data are needed to better predict the color stability of current composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of different storage solutions on the color stability of different composite resin materials. Different restorative and adhesive composite resin specimens (dual-polymerizing self-adhesive resin cement, autopolymerizing resin-based composite resin, dual-polymerizing resin-based composite resin, nanohybrid composite resin, and microhybrid composite resin) were fabricated and stored in red wine, black tea, chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, tea tree oil, or distilled water for 4 weeks at 37°C. Color parameters were measured with a colorimeter before and after storage. Total color differences and specific coordinate differences were expressed as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. A 2-way and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons were applied for statistical calculations (α=.05). Red wine caused the most severe discoloration (ΔE >10), followed by black tea with perceptible (ΔE >2.6) to clinically unacceptable discoloration (ΔE >5.5). Colored mouth rinses discolored the materials to a lesser extent with clinically acceptable values. Dual-polymerizing resin adhesives showed a higher amount of discoloration. Current restorative and adhesive composite resin materials discolor over time under the influence of different storage solutions. The composition related to the polymerizing mode seemed to be a causative factor. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 13543 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: Deliver to Mail... stabilizer is similar in design and loading to that of the Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC- 9-82 (MD-82),...

  6. Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

  7. Conservative full-mouth resin renewal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M J

    1999-12-01

    The treatment of this patient involved the coordination of periodontal, orthodontic, restorative, and aesthetic considerations. It was unique because it involved only resin as the primary restorative material, which allowed for conservative preparations and restorations. In the posterior, the use of direct and indirect resins resulted in the removal of little or no healthy tooth structure. In the anterior, the use of direct resin veneers required minimal removal of enamel, while still achieving proper function and aesthetics. Resin restorations in this particular case allowed for an acceptable clinical result and a highly satisfied patient.

  8. Aesthetic resin onlay restorations: 'rationale and methods'.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Neel; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir; Millar, Brian J

    2011-10-01

    Resin composite restorations have gained increasing popularity over the past two decades. This has been largely driven by a patient-orientated demand for the use of aesthetic restorative materials. It has occurred concomitantly with an improvement in the mechanical properties of available materials, and advances in our knowledge of resin bonding. Onlay restorations are advocated for a plethora of clinical applications. This paper considers the role of adhesive onlay restorations fabricated in resin composite in contemporary restorative practice, including the presentation of two case reports. This case report describes a minimally invasive, aesthetic solution to provide cuspal coverage by means of either a direct or indirect resin composite onlay restoration, respectively.

  9. Sand control with resin and explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.; Begnaud, W.J.; Sahr, N.L.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid resin solution remaining in the wellbore after step (c) through the perforations with a displacing fluid; and injecting a chemical solution through the perforations to cause the resin to polymerize to form a consolidated permeable matrix.

  10. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  11. Hardness gradients of dual-polymerized flowable composite resins in simulated root canals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Meng, Xiangfeng; Luo, Xiaoping

    2014-11-01

    Information is lacking of the polymerization depth of dual-polymerized flowable composite resin foundation materials in simulated root canals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hardness gradients and the polymerization depth of dual-polymerized flowable composite resin foundation materials in simulated root canals. Slots in steel split cylinders with 1 open end were filled with the following 6 materials: Luxa Core, Para Core, Clearfil DC Core, Multi Core Flow, Gradia Core, and Core-Flo DC. After filling, they were subjected to a light intensity of 1250 mWcm(-2) with a light-emitting diode light through their open ends for 20 seconds. The resulting specimens were stored in a light-proof box at 37°C, and the Knoop hardness gradients of each polymerized material were measured after 0.5 hour, 24 hours, and 120 hours. The surface readings were obtained in 1-mm intervals at 1 mm to 10 mm away from the open ends. The collected data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (α=.05). Before the Knoop hardness numbers of the 6 materials became stable, they decreased gradually in depth at each time point (P<.001). However, the depths at which they became stable differed. The Knoop hardness numbers of Luxa Core and Core-Flo DC reached stability at a depth of 3 mm, Para Core at 4 mm, and Clearfil DC Core, Multi Core Flow, and Gradia Core at 5 mm. Additionally, at 120 hours after exposure, the ratios of the Knoop hardness numbers at a depth of 5 mm to those at 1 mm were 63.08% for Luxa Core, 70.48% for Clearfil DC Core, 81.38% for Para Core, 80.49% for Gradia Core, 86.30% for Multi Core Flow, and 96.28% for Core-Flo DC. In simulated root canals, the flowable composite resin foundation materials tested had better polymerization under dual polymerizing than under chemical polymerizing, and their chemical-polymerized capabilities could determine the definitive polymerization depth. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  12. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  13. Effect of Shade and Light Curing Mode on the Degree of Conversion of Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Resin Composites.

    PubMed

    Sm, Mousavinasab; M, Atai; N, Salehi; A, Salehi

    2016-12-01

    The degree of conversion depends on the material composition, light source properties, distance from light source, light intensity, curing time, and other factors such as shade and translucency. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different light-curing modes and shades of methacrylate and silorane-based resin composites on the degree of conversion of resin composites (DC). The methacrylate-based (Filtek Z250, 3M, ESPE) and low-shrinkage silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M, ESPE) resin composites were used in three groups as follows: group 1-Filtek Z250 (shade A3), group 2-Filtek Z250 (shade B2), and group 3-Filtek P90 (shade A3). We used a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit for photopolymerization. 10 samples were prepared in each group to evaluate the degree of conversion; 5 samples were cured using soft-start curing mode, and the other 5 were cured using standard curing mode. The DC of the resin composites was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and one-way ANOVA statistical tests. The degree of conversion of silorane-based resin composite was 70 - 75.8% and that of methacrylate-based resin composites was 60.2 - 68.2% (p = 0.009). The degree of conversion of the composite with brighter colour (B2) was statistically more than the darker composite (A3). Higher degree of conversion was achieved applying the standard curing mode. The results of the study showed that the colour and type of the resin composite and also the curing mode influence the degree of conversion of resin composites.

  14. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to... include resins produced by the condensation of allyl ether of mono-, di-, or trimethylol phenol and...

  15. 76 FR 55109 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain DC-DC controllers and products... sale, and selling for importation DC-DC controllers, or products containing the same, into the United...

  16. Silicon carbide DC-DC multilevel Cuk converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Alateeq, Ayoob; Matin, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, DC-DC multilevel cuk converter using silicon carbide (SiC) Components is presented. Cuk converter gives output voltage with negative polarity. This topology is useful for applications require high gain with limitation on duty cycle. The gain of the design can be enhanced by increasing the number of multiplier level (N). This relation between the gain and the number of levels is the major advantage of this multilevel cuk converter. In the proposed cuk converter, a single SiC MOSFET, 2N-1 SiC schottky diodes, 2N capacitors, 2 inductors, and single input voltage are used to supply a load with negative polarity. 300V input voltage, 50KHz switching frequency, and 75% duty cycle are the main parameters used in the design. The output parameters are 3KW power and -5.7 KV voltage. Because this design can be used in applications which temperature plays a critical role, the relation between increasing temperature and output voltage and power are tested. The design is simulated using LTspice software and the results are discussed.

  17. Effect of metal conditioners on the adhesive bonding of resin cements to cast titanium.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Sicknan Soares; Adabo, Gelson Luis; Spinola, Sandra Gouve; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Ferreira, Anelise Rodolfo

    2007-09-01

    To assess the effect of metal conditioners on the bond strength between resin cements and cast titanium. Commercially pure titanium (99.56%) was cast using an arc casting machine. Surfaces were finished with 400-grit silicon carbide paper followed by air abrasion with 50-Microm aluminum oxide. A piece of double-coated tape with a 4-mm circular hole was then positioned on the metal surface to control the area of the bond. The prepared surfaces were then divided into 4 groups (n=10): G1, unprimed Panavia F; G2, Alloy Primer-Panavia F; G3, unprimed Bistite DC; G4, Metaltite-Bistite DC. Forty minutes after insertion of the resin cements, the specimens were detached from the mold and stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was performed in a testing machine (MTS 810) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test with a .05 significance level. The fractured surfaces were observed through an optical microscope at 103 magnification. The G1 group demonstrated significantly higher shear bond strength (17.95 MPa) than the other groups. G3 (13.79 MPa) and G4 (12.98 MPa) showed similar mean values to each other and were statistically superior to G2 (9.31 MPa). Debonded surfaces generally presented adhesive failure between metal surfaces and resin cements. While the Metaltite conditioner did not influence the bond strength of the Bistite DC cement, the Alloy Primer conditioner significantly decreased the mean bond strength of the Panavia F cement.

  18. Long-term surface hardness and monomer conversion of a nanoflled and a microhybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Jassá, Fernanda Ferreira; Braga Borges, Carlos Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra Nara; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; de Campos, Edson Alves; Soares Dos Santos, Reidson Stanley; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Cury Saad, Josá Roberto

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and hydrolytic degradation through the Vickers hardness test (HV) of a nanoflled (Filtek(TM) Z-250, 3M) and a microhybrid (Filtek(TM)Supreme-XT, 3M) composite resin. Eight disk-shaped specimens (4 mm diameter × 2 mm thick, ISO 4049) of each material were prepared for each test. Composites were inserted into single increment in a metallic matrix and light-cured for 40 seconds. VH readings were performed for each specimen at predetermined intervals: immediately after polymerization (control), 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 180 days. After curing, initial hardness measurements were performed and the specimens were immersed in artifcial saliva at 37°C. For DC (%), specimens were ground, pressed with KBr and analyzed by FT-IR spectrophotometer. Student t-test showed that there was no difference between the resins for DC (p = 0.252). ANOVA analysis revealed that Z-250 VH means were all greater than S-XT, for both top and bottom surfaces, whatever the storage-period in artifcial saliva (p < 0.001). After 180 days of storage, the hardness obtained for S-XT was similar with that at the baseline, for both top and bottom surfaces. While for Z-250 hardness was not signifcantly different from baseline only for top surface, but there was a signifcant decrease observed in hardness for bottom surface. The materials tested showed no evidence of hydrolytic degradation in a signifcant way, in a 6-month storage-time in artifcial saliva. Nanoflled resin presents a monomer conversion comparable to the conventional microhybrid.

  19. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  20. Effect of different light-curing modes on degree of conversion, staining susceptibility and stain's retention using different beverages in a nanofilled composite resin.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Georgetto, Matheus Henrique; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Catelan, Anderson; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Figueroba, Sidney Raimundo; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2011-04-01

    It is unknown whether the staining pigment concentration would affect the color of composite resin and whether the absorption of the staining pigment is related to the degree of conversion (DC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units (LCUs) on DC, superficial staining (ΔE), and pigment concentration (PC) in a nanofilled composite resin (Z350, 3M ESPE) using different beverages. Specimens were polymerized for 20 seconds using four LCUs (N=50): quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH)--450 mW/cm(2); laser (LAS)--300 mW/cm(2); second-generation light-emitting diode (LED)-1100 mW/cm(2); and third generation LED--700 mW/cm(2). DC (%) was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Specimens concerning each group (N=10) were then immersed in one of the solutions (distilled water, red wine, whisky, coffee, and cola--40 min/day, for 40 days). Specimen's color was measured before and after exposure to solutions using a colorimeter (Commission Internacionale de I'Eclairaga L*a*b* color scale), and ΔE was calculated. Specimens were then prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis to measure PC. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p=0.05). DC: QTH presented the lowest DC, with statistical differences for LAS, LED 2, and LED 3. Whisky and wine showed lower PC mean values than cola and coffee. No statistical difference was observed for LCUs regarding PC and all staining solutions, except cola. Whisky showed the highest values for ΔE regarding all LCUs. Wine showed statistically lower ΔE than whisky, with water presenting the lowest ΔE. LAS and QTH showed higher values than LED 2 concerning ΔE.   LCUs interfered with DC and altered the PC and ΔE of the composite resin submitted to different staining solutions. There was no correlation among DC, PC, and ΔE. Light-curing modes might interfere with staining susceptibility, stain's retention, and DC of a composite resin, compromising the clinical

  1. DC Magnetics Measurement System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastny, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This report will detail the updates to the magnetics measurement system design and testing procedures that are required for performing static (DC) magnetics testing of future flight hardware. An older magnetics testing system had to be integrated with new procedures and hardware to meet the demands of future testing programs and accommodate an upcoming magnetics tests. The next test will be for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R), which will verify that the SAFT Battery component meets its specifications for magnetic cleanliness. The satellite is scheduled to launch in 2015 with magnetics testing to be completed on the battery in November 2012.

  2. DC Magnetics Measurement System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastny, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This report will detail the updates to the magnetics measurement system design and testing procedures that are required for performing static (DC) magnetics testing of future flight hardware. An older magnetics testing system had to be integrated with new procedures and hardware to meet the demands of future testing programs and accommodate an upcoming magnetics tests. The next test will be for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R), which will verify that the SAFT Battery component meets its specifications for magnetic cleanliness. The satellite is scheduled to launch in 2015 with magnetics testing to be completed on the battery in November 2012.

  3. Arcing on dc power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moores, Greg; Heller, R. P.; Sutanto, Surja; Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected and undesirable arcing on dc power systems can produce hazardous situations aboard space flights. The potential for fire and shock might exist in a situation where there is a broken conductor, a loose power connection, or a break in the insulation of the power cable. Such arcing has been found to be reproducible in a laboratory environment. Arcing tests show that the phenomena can last for several seconds and yet be undetectable by present protection schemes used in classical power relaying and remote power controller applications. This paper characterizes the arcing phenomena and suggests future research that is needed.

  4. Arcing on dc power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moores, Greg; Heller, R. P.; Sutanto, Surja; Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected and undesirable arcing on dc power systems can produce hazardous situations aboard space flights. The potential for fire and shock might exist in a situation where there is a broken conductor, a loose power connection, or a break in the insulation of the power cable. Such arcing has been found to be reproducible in a laboratory environment. Arcing tests show that the phenomena can last for several seconds and yet be undetectable by present protection schemes used in classical power relaying and remote power controller applications. This paper characterizes the arcing phenomena and suggests future research that is needed.

  5. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

  6. Coupling Agents - HME Resin System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    and test results of the sized fiber impregnated with lIME 5803—53 resin and laminated are shown in Table 2. The slig htl y improved SBS strength of...inherent in the 9 - - -~~~~ . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~- % . - ~, - • - - - ~~~~~~~~~~~~ — — ~~~~~~~~ free radical—induced crosslink cures. As this shrinkage

  7. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  8. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  9. Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water.

  10. Power Strategy in DC/DC Converters to Increase Efficiency of Electrical Stimulators.

    PubMed

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Acuña, Vicente; Saavedra, Francisco; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Julémont, Nicolas; Huberland, François; Godfraind, Carmen; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-06-13

    Power efficiency is critical for electrical stimulators. Battery life of wearable stimulators and wireless power transmission in implanted systems are common limiting factors. Boost DC/DC converters are typically needed to increase the supply voltage of the output stage. Traditionally, boost DC/DC converters are used with fast control to regulate the supply voltage of the output. However, since stimulators are acting as current sources, such voltage regulation is not needed. Banking on this, this paper presents a DC/DC conversion strategy aiming to increase power efficiency. It compares, in terms of efficiency, the traditional use of boost converters to two alternatives that could be implemented in future hardware designs.

  11. Block clustering based on difference of convex functions (DC) programming and DC algorithms.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoai Minh; Le Thi, Hoai An; Dinh, Tao Pham; Huynh, Van Ngai

    2013-10-01

    We investigate difference of convex functions (DC) programming and the DC algorithm (DCA) to solve the block clustering problem in the continuous framework, which traditionally requires solving a hard combinatorial optimization problem. DC reformulation techniques and exact penalty in DC programming are developed to build an appropriate equivalent DC program of the block clustering problem. They lead to an elegant and explicit DCA scheme for the resulting DC program. Computational experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its superiority over standard algorithms such as two-mode K-means, two-mode fuzzy clustering, and block classification EM.

  12. Surface preparations for metal frameworks of composite resin veneered prostheses made with an adhesive opaque resin.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Kawahara, M; Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M

    1991-07-01

    Bond strengths of a laboratory developed light-cured composite resin to dental casting alloys were evaluated with a new adhesive opaque resin. The metal specimens were type III gold, nickel-chromium, and cobalt-chromium alloys, while the surface treatments for bonding were heating, Sn plating, and ion coating. The cast metal specimens were "particle blasted" with aluminum oxide and were surface treated. Adhesive 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin was applied and a light-cured composite resin was placed over the opaque layer. The prepared specimens were thermocycled in water and shear bond strengths were recorded. The light-cured composite resin was bonded strongly to heated or Sn-plated type III alloy with 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin. Copper ion coating in a sputter coater was effective for all three alloys, with only slightly diminished bond strengths. These methods were satisfactory for making composite resin veneered prostheses.

  13. Experience with NuResin, a mobile ion exchange resin reprocessing system

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzi, K.R.; Bell, M.J.; Concklin, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ion exchange resin used in condensate polishing, steam generator blowdown, and radwaste systems is a major contributor to the volume of low-level waste (LLW) at operating nuclear plants. Plant regeneration systems for resins use large quantities of demineralized water for cleaning, separating, and regenerating resins. These systems generate a tremendous volume of LLW from boiling water reactors (BWRs) and those pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that have experienced steam generator tube leaks. At essentially all BWRs and those PWRs that replace rather than regenerate condensate polishing resin, the LLW volume contribution from the resin alone is significant. This report describes a process for the treatment of resins with the objective of returning the resin to service.

  14. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  15. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1993-07-27

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... boiling 4.2N HC1 Viscosity No.(mL/g) Maximum extractable fractionin selected solvents (expressed in percent by weight of resin) Water 95percent ethyl alcohol Ethyl acetate Benzene 1. Nylon 66 resins 1.14... determined by weighing a 1-gram to 5-gram sample first in air and then in freshly boiled distilled water...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Nylon resins Specific gravity Melting point(degrees Fahrenheit) Solubilityin boiling 4.2N HC1 Viscosity...) Water 95percent ethyl alcohol Ethyl acetate Benzene 1. Nylon 66 resins 1.14±.015 475-495 Dissolves in 1... and then in freshly boiled distilled water at 23 °C±2 °C. (2) Melting point. The melting point...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the...

  19. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Nagem, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á=0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01) and Definite (1.89±0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

  20. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  1. Dental resin cure monitoring by inherent fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qun; Zhou, Jack X.; Li, Qingxiong; Wang, Sean X.

    2008-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the inherent fluorescence of a dental composite resin can be utilized to monitor the curing status, i.e. degree of conversion of the resin. The method does not require any sample preparation and is potentially very fast for real time cure monitoring. The method is verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis.

  2. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  3. TMI-2 purification demineralizer resin study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J D; Osterhoudt, T R

    1984-05-01

    Study of the Makeup and Purification System demineralizers at TMI-2 has established that fuel quantities in the vessels are low, precluding criticality, that the high radioactive cesium concentration on the demineralizer resins can be chemically removed, and that the demineralizer resins can probably be removed from the vessels by sluicing through existing plant piping. Radiation measurements from outside the demineralizers establishing that there is between 1.5 and 5.1 (probably 3.3) lb of fuel in the A vessel and less than that amount in the B vessel. Dose rates up to 2780 R per hour were measured on contact with the A demineralizer. Remote visual observation of the A demineralizer showed a crystalline crust overlaying amber-colored resins. The cesium activity in solid resin samples ranged from 220 to 16,900 ..mu..Ci/g. Based on this information, researchers concluded that the resins cannot be removed through the normal pathway in their present condition. Studies do show that the resins will withstand chemical processing designed to rinse and elute cesium from the resins. The process developed should work on the TMI-2 resins.

  4. Degree of Conversion and Polymerization Shrinkage of Bulk-Fill Resin-Based Composites.

    PubMed

    Yu, P; Yap, Auj; Wang, X Y

    This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization shrinkage (PS) of contemporary bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) including giomer materials. Two giomer bulk-fill (Beautifil Bulk Restorative [BBR], Beautifil Bulk Flowable [BBF]), two nongiomer bulk-fill (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-fill [TNB], Smart Dentin Replacement [SDR]), and three conventional non-bulk-fill (Beautifil II [BT], Beautifil Flow Plus [BF], Tetric N-Ceram [TN]) RBCs were selected for the study. To evaluate the DC, disc-shaped specimens of 5-mm diameter and 2-mm, 4-mm, and 6-mm thickness were fabricated using customized Teflon molds. The molds were bulk filled with the various RBCs and cured for 20 seconds using a light-emitting diode curing light with an irradiance of 950 mW/cm(2). The DC (n=3) was determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by computing the spectra of cured and uncured specimens. PS (n=3) was measured with the Acuvol volumetric shrinkage analyzer by calculating specimen volumes before and after light curing. The mean DC for the various materials ranged from 46.03% to 69.86%, 45.94% to 69.38%, and 30.65% to 67.85% for 2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. For all depths, SDR had the highest DC. While no significant difference in DC was observed between depths of 2 mm and 4 mm for the bulk-fill RBCs, DC at 2 mm was significantly greater than 6 mm. For the conventional RBCs, DC at 2 mm was significantly higher than at 4 mm and 6 mm. Mean PS ranged from 1.48% to 4.26% for BBR and BF, respectively. The DC at 2 mm and PS of bulk-fill RBCs were lower than their conventional counterparts. At 4 mm, the DC of giomer bulk-fill RBCs was lower than that of nongiomer bulk-fill materials.

  5. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

    2012-09-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

  6. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  7. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  8. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

  9. Active dc filter for HVDC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W. ); Asplund, G.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a case history of the installation of active dc filters for high-performance, low-cost harmonics filtering at the Lindome converter station in the Konti-Skan 2 HVDC transmission link between Denmark and Sweden. The topics of the article include harmonics, interference, and filters, Lindome active dc filter, active dc filter design, digital signal processor, control scheme, protection and fault monitoring, and future applications.

  10. How Much DC Power is Necessary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    must transform essentially all of the available AC power to DC, including all of the power for the ship propulsion drive. This approach by the...in Fig. 1 convert the AC source power to DC and energize the associated DC busses. At the power levels anticipated, i.e., for ship propulsion load...for a ship propulsion application. We begin by assuming that the variable frequency power electronics associated with the rotor will only deliver

  11. Adsorption of pesticides on resins.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models.

  12. Terpenoid Oligomers of Dammar Resin.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Di Girolamo, Francesca; Corsi, Iacopo; Degano, Ilaria; Tinè, Maria Rosaria; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2016-04-22

    Dammar is a triterpenoid resin containing a volatile fraction, a monomeric fraction, and a high-molecular weight fraction. Although the low-molecular-weight components comprising sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids have been extensively studied, the nature of the macromolecular components is still not fully understood, and different and sometimes contradictory theories have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the nature of the macromolecular components of dammar resin. A multianalytical approach was adopted based on thermoanalytical-thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA/FTIR)--and mass spectrometric techniques-direct exposure mass spectrometry (DE/MS), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS), flow injection analysis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FIA/ESI/MS), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The data indicate that the oligomeric fraction comprises triterpenoids bound through ester bonds, and that these triterpenoids are the same as those found in the free terpenoid fraction. The oligomeric fraction also includes triterpenoids containing carbonyl moieties, such as formyl groups, thus suggesting that these are involved in the esters in their corresponding enolic form.

  13. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  14. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

  15. DC circuits: II. Identification of foothold ideas in DC circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, lgnatius; Allie, Saalih

    2017-01-01

    This is the second part of a broader investigation which explores the reasons behind the contextual variations in student responses at a fine-grained level. In the previous article (John 2017 Eur. J. Phys. 38 015701) it was established that the students’ responses are highly context dependent at a fine-grained level. This article presents the reason for the contextual variations of student responses from their free written responses. The result indicates that students who are being triggered by the productive resources during the engagement with the task will arrive at the correct (canonical) conclusion and those triggered by the unproductive resources will arrive at an incorrect conclusion. We identified the productive foothold ideas in a simple DC circuit with a single resistive element.

  16. Two new families of high-gain dc-dc power electronic converters for dc-microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhala, Venkata Anand Kishore

    Distributing the electric power in dc form is an appealing solution in many applications such as telecommunications, data centers, commercial buildings, and microgrids. A high gain dc-dc power electronic converter can be used to individually link low-voltage elements such as solar panels, fuel cells, and batteries to the dc voltage bus which is usually 400 volts. This way, it is not required to put such elements in a series string to build up their voltages. Consequently, each element can function at it optimal operating point regardless of the other elements in the system. In this dissertation, first a comparative study of dc microgrid architectures and their advantages over their ac counterparts is presented. Voltage level selection of dc distribution systems is discussed from the cost, reliability, efficiency, and safety standpoints. Next, a new family of non-isolated high-voltage-gain dc-dc power electronic converters with unidirectional power flow is introduced. This family of converters benefits from a low voltage stress across its switches. The proposed topologies are versatile as they can be utilized as single-input or double-input power converters. In either case, they draw continuous currents from their sources. Lastly, a bidirectional high-voltage-gain dc-dc power electronic converter is proposed. This converter is comprised of a bidirectional boost converter which feeds a switched-capacitor architecture. The switched-capacitor stage suggested here has several advantages over the existing approaches. For example, it benefits from a higher voltage gain while it uses less number of capacitors. The proposed converters are highly efficient and modular. The operating modes, dc voltage gain, and design procedure for each converter are discussed in details. Hardware prototypes have been developed in the lab. The results obtained from the hardware agree with those of the simulation models.

  17. Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Pictured here is a DC-XA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) prototype concept with an RLV logo. The Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X) was originally developed by McDornell Douglas for the Department of Defense (DOD). The DC-XA is a single-stage-to-orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing, launch vehicle concept, whose development is geared to significantly reduce launch costs and will provide a test bed for NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology as the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA).

  18. Evaluation of underground dc transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    Progress in a program for evaluating underground dc transmission systems is reported. A basic load flow model was developed for a large ac power system. This model will be adjusted to produce representations for 4000, 8000, and 12,000 MW energy park. Load flow conditions for dc lines are being calculated. The stability of ac and dc are being examined. Short circuit duties are being calculated. Load flow computer runs are being made to demonstrate the suitability of developed ac and dc options.

  19. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  20. High gain high efficiency resonant DC-DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Fei

    Low voltage power sources have played an important role in applications such as automotive system, renewable energy power generation and so on, where require a high gain DC-DC step-up converter. The converter is going to sustain a very high input current which can bring many design challenges in the existing topologies, such as high component current stress and power loss, complex and costly design for magnetic components, high input current ripple, etc. A new topology of high gain DCDC step-up converter proposed in this dissertation. The topology has many merits such as high gain capability, high efficiency, low components stress and requirement of the transformer, simple topology with less number of active switching devices, and easy to control. The dissertation carries out theoretical analysis of the proposed topology under different operating modes and the voltage gain has been deduced for each mode. The design of circuit components has been well studied, including the power devices current stress and power, the selection of transformer turns-ratio, the design method of the resonant tank and input current ripple. System dynamic state-space models are acquired by using generalized averaging method. Small signal model of the converter is achieved by linearization of the dynamic model around the operating points. The stability study indicates that the open loop system is stable at all operating points, except some operating points containing RHP zeros which can cause closed loop system unstable. The parameter sensitivity study shows that the system transfer function is not greatly affected by the variation of the leakage inductance and load resistance. A design of PI controller is implemented to achieve the output voltage regulation. Simulations have been carried out to validate the circuit operation and support the design analysis. A 2kW prototype has been built for experimental testing. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the theoretical

  1. Effect of Antioxidants on DC Tree and Grounded DC Tree in XLPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanami, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Isao; Sekii, Yasuo; Saito, Mitsugu; Sugi, Kazuyuki

    To study the effects of antioxidants on the initiation of the DC tree and the grounded DC tree, experiments were conducted using XLPE specimens containing phenolic and sulfur type antioxidants. Experimental results showed that sulfur type antioxidants in XLPE have the effect of increasing inception voltages of both the DC tree and the grounded DC tree. Based on results of those experiments, the mechanism of increase in the inception voltage of the DC tree and the grounded DC tree by antioxidants was examined along with the mechanism of polarity effects on those trees. Results showed a promotional effect of charge injection from a needle electrode by antioxidants, which are responsible for the increased inception voltages of the DC tree. Charge trapping by antioxidants explains the increase of inception voltages of the grounded DC tree.

  2. Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fimmers, C.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Rittich, D.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.

  3. Optimum Design of CMOS DC-DC Converter for Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yasushi; Edo, Masaharu; Denta, Toshio; Kawashima, Tetsuya; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    In recent years, low output power CMOS DC-DC converters which integrate power stage MOSFETs and a PWM controller using CMOS process have been used in many mobile applications. In this paper, we propose the calculation method of CMOS DC-DC converter efficiency and report optimum design of CMOS DC-DC converter based on this method. By this method, converter efficiencies are directly calculated from converter specifications, dimensions of power stage MOSFET and device parameters. Therefore, this method can be used for optimization of CMOS DC-DC converter design, such as dimensions of power stage MOSFET and switching frequency. The efficiency calculated by the proposed method agrees well with the experimental results.

  4. 76 FR 52225 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81),...

  5. Structure Property Relationships of Biobased Epoxy Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorana, Anthony Surraht

    The thesis is about the synthesis, characterization, development, and application of epoxy resins derived from sustainable feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose, plant oils, and other non-food feedstocks. The thesis can be divided into two main topics 1) the synthesis and structure property relationship investigation of new biobased epoxy resin families and 2) mixing epoxy resins with reactive diluents, nanoparticles, toughening agents, and understanding co-curing reactions, filler/matrix interactions, and cured epoxy resin thermomechanical, viscoelastic, and dielectric properties. The thesis seeks to bridge the gap between new epoxy resin development, application for composites and advanced materials, processing and manufacturing, and end of life of thermoset polymers. The structures of uncured epoxy resins are characterized through traditional small molecule techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of epoxy resin monomers are further understood through the process of curing the resins and cured resins' properties through rheology, chemorheology, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, fracture toughness, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and notched izod impact testing. It was found that diphenolate esters are viable alternatives to bisphenol A and that the structure of the ester side chain can have signifi-cant effects on monomer viscosity. The structure of the cured diphenolate based epoxy resins also influence glass transition temperature and dielectric properties. Incorporation of reactive diluents and flexible resins can lower viscosity, extend gel time, and enable processing of high filler content composites and increase fracture toughness. Incorpora-tion of high elastic modulus nanoparticles such as graphene can provide increases in physical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The synthesis

  6. Evaluation of Resin-Resin Interface in Direct Composite Restoration Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Iovan, G.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resin-resin interface when a universal bonding agent was used in two different strategies in direct restoration repair. Two composite resins (a micro-filled hybrid and a nano-filled hybrid) as old restorations that have to be repair, a universal bonding agent and a micro-filled hybrid composite resin (different then that aged) as new material for repair were chosen for the study. Non-aged samples were used as control and aged samples were used as study groups. The universal bonding agent was applied in etch-and-rinse and in self-etch strategies. The interface between old and new composite resins was evaluated by SEM and the microleakage was assessed by scoring the dye penetration. Very good adaptation of the two different composite resins placed in direct contact in non-aged samples was recorded. No gaps or defects were visible and strong resin-resin contact was observed. After aging, enlargement of resin-resin junction were observed in most of the samples and a increased dye penetration was recorded irrespective of the strategy (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) used for bonding agent application.

  7. Bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four kinds of injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) and PMMA, as a control, were tested. The eight types of surface treatment: ((1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) air abrasion and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating, and (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin) were applied to each specimen. The chairside autopolymerizing reline resins were bonded to disks of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. All of the specimens were immersed in water for 4 months and then thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5 and 55°C. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths of the two polyamides treated using air abrasion, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were exceedingly low. The greatest bond strength was recorded for the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.5MPa). The bond strengths of the other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins increased using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin were the most effective surface treatments among all denture base resins tested. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Color difference of composite resins after cementation with different shades of resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Esra; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Karakaya, Izgen; Aktore, Huseyin

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color difference of nanohybrid and ormocer-based composite resins with different thicknesses when 4 different shades of resin luting cement were used. 56 disc specimens of each composite resin (Aelite aesthetic enamel, Ceram-X mono) with 0.5 and 1 mm thicknesses were fabricated. Baseline color measurements were performed using a clinical spectrophotometer. The specimens of each thicknesses of each resin were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the shades of resin luting cement (white/A1, yellow/universal/A3, transparent and white opaque) (n = 7). Mixed resin cement was applied onto the resin specimens using a Teflon mold in 0.1 mm thickness. Color measurements of cemented composite resin specimens were repeated and color difference (∆E) between baseline and after cementation measurements was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. The opaque shade had significantly increased ∆E values as compared to the other shades (p < 0.05). For all shades except white opaque in both thicknesses, ∆E values of aelite aesthetic enamel were higher as compared to Ceram-X mono. There is no significant difference between 2 thicknesses for both resins in terms of ∆E values. The shade of resin cement and the type of the resin affected the final color; however, the thickness of composite resin had no influence on the final color of restoration. Selecting the shade of resin luting cement before cementation of indirect composite laminate restoration is important to achieve final color match.

  9. DC-10 winglet flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of a flight evaluation of winglets on a DC-10 Series 10 aircraft are presented. For sensitive areas of comparison, effects of winglets were determined back to back with and without winglets. Basic and reduced span winglet configurations were tested. After initial encounter with low speed buffet, a number of acceptable configurations were developed. For maximum drag reduction at both cruise and low speeds, lower winglets were required, having leading edge devices on upper and lower winglets for the latter regime. The cruise benefits were enhanced by adding outboard aileron droop to the reduced span winglet aircraft. Winglets had no significant impact on stall speeds, high speed buffet boundary, and stability and control characteristics. Flutter test results agreed with predictions and ground vibration data. Flight loads measurement also agreed with predictions.

  10. ASTER Washington, D.C.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-06

    The White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow are all visible in this image of Washington, D.C. With its 15-meter spatial resolution, ASTER can see individual buildings. Taken on June 1, 2000, this image covers an area 14 kilometers (8.5 miles) wide and 13.7 kilometers (8.2 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of visible and near infrared bands displays vegetation in red and water in dark grays. The Potomac River flows from the middle left to the bottom center. The large red area west of the river is Arlington National Cemetery. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02655

  11. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  12. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  13. HOx Photochemistry during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X.; Mao, J.; Zhang, L.; Miller, D.; Brune, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of OH, HO2 and OH reactivity were made as part of a much larger measurement suite from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) study in summer 2012. This mission, which was conducted over central North American region to investigate the impact of deep convection on upper tropospheric composition and chemistry, provides us an excellent opportunity to test oxidation chemistry in convection throughout the troposphere. Measured HOx are compared with the calculations using a box model that was constrained to in-situ measurements of long-lived chemicals. In general both measured OH and HO2 agree well with the model calculations within the measurement uncertainties. On average, the model tends to under-predict HO2 at low altitudes. No significant NO dependence was found for the observed-to-modeled OH and HO2 ratios, except the ratios are slightly less than unity when NO levels were greater than 1 ppbv indicating model over-prediction. The measured OH reactivity agrees generally well with the calculated OH reactivity using the measured OH reactants, with the measured OH reactivity higher than the calculated OH reactivity by about a factor of 1.2. We attribute this to possible missing OH reactants in the measurements. HOx budget analysis shows that the main HOx production was dominated by the ozone photolysis followed by the O(1D)+H2O reaction throughout the troposphere with small contributions from the photolysis of formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The main HOx loss was the HO2+HO2 and HO2+RO2 reactions. The calculated net ozone production rates were observed to be about 1 ppb/h-1 between 10-12 km and 5 ppb h-1 below 1.5 km and were close to zero between 4-8 km. HOx behaviors under different conditions are is discussed.

  14. Light transmission on dental resin composites.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, G B; Alto, R V Monte; Filho, H R Sampaio; da Silva, E M; Fellows, C E

    2008-05-01

    The purposes of this study was: (1) to examine the light transmittance characteristics of two light-cured resin composites, for different thickness, (2) to correlate the light transmittance through the resin composites and the filler contents, and (3) to determine the penetration depth of the light as a function of the wavelength. Two resin composites (Filtek Z250, shade A2 and Filtek Supreme XT, shade A2E) were used. Specimens of six different thicknesses (0.15, 0.25, 0.30, 0.36, 0.47 and 0.75 mm) were prepared (n=3). The transmittance at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm was measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer, before and after light polymerization. Significant differences were found in the wavelength dependence of transmittance between the two materials, and between the unpolymerized and polymerized stages of each resin composite. At lower wavelengths, the light transmittance of the Filtek Supreme XT resin composite was lower than the Filtek Z250. At the higher wavelengths, however, Filtek Supreme XT presented higher light transmittance. For both resin composites, the penetration depth was higher after polymerization. However, Filtek Supreme XT showed a higher gain in transmittance at the 0.15 mm thickness. The difference in light transmittance characteristics of the resin composites may affect their depth of polymerization.

  15. Restorative resins: abrasion vs. mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K D

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to examine whether it is possible by simple and reliable laboratory tests to evaluate the abrasion by food of Class 1 restorative resins. The results point to the following main conclusions: for the smooth-surface resins, i.e. the micro-filled composite and the unfilled resins, the Wallace hardness test appears to be a valid parameter for abrasion; the greater the depth of penetration of the Vickers diamond of this apparatus, the more severe abrasion is to be expected. The mode of abrasion in this type of resin is scratching. Porosity in the resins strongly enhances the abrasion. For the rough-surface resins, i.e. the conventional composites, a dual effect of the filler particles was concluded. The filler particles on the one hand protect the matrix against abrasion, but cause, on the other hand, in time an increase of the surface roughness of the composite and thereby via increased friction an increase of the abrasion. Considerations on possible ways to improve the present-day restorative resins are presented. It is stressed that the results obtained refer only to abrasion of Class 1 fillings by food.

  16. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by...

  17. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165... Polyester resin kits. (a) Polyester resin kits consisting of a base material component (Class 3, Packing..., according to the criteria for Class 3, applied to the base material. Additionally, polyester resin kits...

  18. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165... Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base... resin kits consisting of a base material component (Class 3, Packing Group II or III) and an...

  19. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165... Polyester resin kits. (a) Polyester resin kits consisting of a base material component (Class 3, Packing..., according to the criteria for Class 3, applied to the base material. Additionally, polyester resin kits...

  20. Traumatic resin ducts as indicators of bark beetle outbreaks

    Treesearch

    R. Justin DeRose; Matthew F. Bekker; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    The formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) represents an important induced defense in woody plants that enhances oleoresin production and flow in response to environmental perturbations. In some genera (Pinus), resin ducts are copious and conspicuous; however, in others (Picea), resin ducts are relatively rare. The occurrence and strength of resin ducts, in...

  1. Melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin for bonding particleboards

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a cost-effective melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin (MUF), the study evaluated the effects of reaction pH and melamine content on resin properties and bond performance of the MUF resin adhesive systems. Eight resins, each with three replicates, were prepared in a factorial experiment that included two formulation variables: two reaction...

  2. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  3. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  4. Close-Range Gunfire around DC Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Sam; La Vigne, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This report examines the incidence of gunfire as measured by gunshot detection technology using data from the 2011-2012 school year. It finds that a disproportionate volume of gunfire happened near a small share of DC schools. About half of DC schools covered by gunshot detection sensors are in close proximity to gunfire, and four schools were…

  5. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  6. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  7. ALA 2010: Where to Eat in DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As host to visitors and transplants from around the world, Washington, DC, benefits from the constant infusion of different cultures. Although most neighborhoods lack a unified culinary flavor, make no mistake: DC is a city of distinctive areas, each with its own style, ensuring that hungry American Library Association (ALA) 2010 conference…

  8. Modeling of DC spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Future spacecraft power systems must be capable of supplying power to various loads. This delivery of power may necessitate the use of high-voltage, high-power dc distribution systems to transmit power from the source to the loads. Using state-of-the-art power conditioning electronics such as dc-dc converters, complex series and parallel configurations may be required at the interface between the source and the distribution system and between the loads and the distribution system. This research will use state-variables to model and simulate a dc spacecraft power system. Each component of the dc power system will be treated as a multiport network, and a state model will be written with the port voltages as the inputs. The state model of a component will be solved independently from the other components using its state transition matrix. A state-space averaging method is developed first in general for any dc-dc switching converter, and then demonstrated in detail for the particular case of the boost power stage. General equations for both steady-state (dc) and dynamic effects (ac) are obtained, from which important transfer functions are derived and applied to a special case of the boost power stage.

  9. NASA DC-8 airborne research laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degreef, Leo H.

    1991-01-01

    Since the summer of 1987, NASA Ames Research Center has been operating a DC-8 equipped with CFM 56 engines as a flying research laboratory. In this relatively short time, the DC-8, with its tremendous capabilities, has made significant contributions to numerous scientific fields. Capable of staying aloft for over 12 hours, the DC-8 has flown directly over both the North and South Poles, gathering data relating to the ozone hole. Operating from a few thousand feet to over 40,000 feet above sea level the interchangeable payload capability of the DC-8 has made it a versatile scientific tool. The DC-8 also plays a vital role in the development of new satellite-borne sensors as very often those sensors are test-flown on the DC-8 before they are launched into space. The tremendous range and instrument carrying capability make the DC-8 an ideal flying laboratory. A few of the programs the DC-8 has participated in as well as a sampling of the instruments carried are outlined.

  10. The dc power circuits: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of reports concerning power circuits is presented for the dissemination of aerospace information to the general public as part of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. The descriptions for the electronic circuits are grouped as follows: dc power supplies, power converters, current-voltage power supply regulators, overload protection circuits, and dc constant current power supplies.

  11. ALA 2010: Where to Eat in DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As host to visitors and transplants from around the world, Washington, DC, benefits from the constant infusion of different cultures. Although most neighborhoods lack a unified culinary flavor, make no mistake: DC is a city of distinctive areas, each with its own style, ensuring that hungry American Library Association (ALA) 2010 conference…

  12. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  13. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  14. Degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks with different thicknesses using various light-curing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia ceramic disks (KT12) with three different thicknesses (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm) were prepared. The light transmittance of the disks was measured using ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectroscopy. Four different light-curing protocols were used by combining two curing light modes (Elipar TriLight (standard mode) and bluephase G2 (high power mode)) with light-exposure times of 40 and 120 seconds. The DCs of the two dual-cured resin cements (Duo-Link and Panavia F2.0) light-irradiated through the disks was analyzed at three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 minutes) by FTIR spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the 10 minute DC results. RESULTS The 1.0 mm thick disk exhibited low light transmittance (<25%), and the transmittance decreased considerably with increasing disk thickness. All groups exhibited significantly higher 10 minute DC values than the 3 or 7 minute values (P<.05), but some exceptions were observed in Duo-Link. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the influence of the zirconia disk thickness on the 10 minute DC was dependent on the light-curing methods (P<.001). This finding was still valid even at 4.0 mm thickness, where substantial light attenuation took place. CONCLUSION The curing of the dual-cured resin cements was affected significantly by the light-curing technique, even though the additional chemical polymerization mechanism worked effectively. PMID:24353887

  15. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

  16. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use.

  17. Improved microbial-check-valve resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

  18. Properties of a nanodielectric cryogenic resin

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; More, Karren Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties of a nanodielectric composed of in situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles ({le} 5 nm in diameter) and a cryogenic resin are reported. The dielectric losses were reduced by a factor of 2 in the nanocomposite, indicating that the presence of small TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles restricted the mobility of the polymer chains. Dielectric breakdown data of the nanodielectric was distributed over a narrower range than that of the unfilled resin. The nanodielectric had 1.56 times higher 1% breakdown probability than the resin, yielding 0.64 times thinner insulation thickness for the same voltage level, which is beneficial in high voltage engineering.

  19. Improved microbial-check-valve resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

  20. Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayden, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

  1. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  2. Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayden, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

  3. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite.

  4. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  5. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  6. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  7. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  8. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  9. A High Voltage Ratio and Low Ripple Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  10. DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.

    The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.

  11. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  12. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  13. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

  14. Calcium and phosphate release from resin-based materials containing different calcium orthophosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela C; Natale, Livia C; Arana-Chaves, Victor E; Braga, Roberto R

    2015-11-01

    The study compared ion release from resin-based materials containing calcium orthophosphates. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and surface area (nitrogen adsorption isotherms, BET method). Nanoparticles were added to a dimethacrylate-based resin and materials were tested for degree of conversion (DC) and calcium/phosphate release up to 28 days under pH 5.5 and 7.0. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey test (alpha: 0.05).The crystallinity of DCPA, DCPD, and β-TCP were confirmed, as well as the ACP amorphous nature. DCPD and β-TCP presented larger agglomerates than DCPA and ACP. The surface area of ACP was 5-11 times higher than those of the other nanoparticles. Materials showed similar DC. The material containing ACP released significantly more ions than the others, which released similar amounts of calcium and, in most cases, phosphate. Ion release was not affected by pH. Calcium release decreased between 7 and 21 days, while phosphate levels remained constant after 14 days. In conclusion, ACP higher ion release can be ascribed to its high surface area. DCPA, DCPD, and β-TCP had similar performances as ion-releasing fillers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of modulated photo-activation on polymerization shrinkage behavior of dental restorative resin composites.

    PubMed

    Tauböck, Tobias T; Feilzer, Albert J; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Krejci, Ivo; Attin, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of modulated photo-activation on axial polymerization shrinkage, shrinkage force, and hardening of light- and dual-curing resin-based composites. Three light-curing resin composites (SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD) and one dual-curing material (Rebilda DC) were subjected to different irradiation protocols with identical energy density (27 J cm(-2) ): high-intensity continuous light (HIC), low-intensity continuous light (LIC), soft-start (SS), and pulse-delay curing (PD). Axial shrinkage and shrinkage force of 1.5-mm-thick specimens were recorded in real time for 15 min using custom-made devices. Knoop hardness was determined at the end of the observation period. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences among the curing protocols for both Knoop hardness and axial shrinkage, irrespective of the composite material. Pulse-delay curing generated the significantly lowest shrinkage forces within the three light-curing materials SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD. High-intensity continuous light created the significantly highest shrinkage forces within Esthet X HD and Rebilda DC, and caused significantly higher forces than LIC within Esthet X flow. In conclusion, both the composite material and the applied curing protocol control shrinkage force formation. Pulse-delay curing decreases shrinkage forces compared with high-intensity continuous irradiation without affecting hardening and axial polymerization shrinkage. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Examining exposure reciprocity in a resin based composite using high irradiance levels and real-time degree of conversion values.

    PubMed

    Selig, Daniela; Haenel, Thomas; Hausnerová, Berenika; Moeginger, Bernhard; Labrie, Daniel; Sullivan, Braden; Price, Richard B T

    2015-05-01

    Exposure reciprocity suggests that, as long as the same radiant exposure is delivered, different combinations of irradiance and exposure time will achieve the same degree of resin polymerization. This study examined the validity of exposure reciprocity using real time degree of conversion results from one commercial flowable dental resin. Additionally a new fitting function to describe the polymerization kinetics is proposed. A Plasma Arc Light Curing Unit (LCU) was used to deliver 0.75, 1.2, 1.5, 3.7 or 7.5 W/cm(2) to 2mm thick samples of Tetric EvoFlow (Ivoclar Vivadent). The irradiances and radiant exposures received by the resin were determined using an integrating sphere connected to a fiber-optic spectrometer. The degree of conversion (DC) was recorded at a rate of 8.5 measurements a second at the bottom of the resin using attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR). Five specimens were exposed at each irradiance level. The DC reached after 170s and after 5, 10 and 15 J/cm(2) had been delivered was compared using analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD post hoc multiple comparison tests (alpha=0.05). The same DC values were not reached after the same radiant exposures of 5, 10 and 15 J/cm(2) had been delivered at an irradiance of 3.7 and 7.5 W/cm(2). Thus exposure reciprocity was not supported for Tetric EvoFlow (p<0.05). For Tetric EvoFlow, there was no significant difference in the DC when 5, 10 and 15J/cm(2) were delivered at irradiance levels of 0.75, 1.2 and 1.5 W/cm(2). The optimum combination of irradiance and exposure time for this commercial dental resin may be close to 1.5 W/cm(2) for 12s. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Microstrip DC SQUID Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2000-03-01

    We have developed an extremely sensitive rf amplifier based on the dc superconducting quantum interference device (dc SQUID). Unlike a conventional semiconductor amplifier, a SQUID can be cooled to ultra low temperatures (300 mK or less) and thus potentially achieve a much lower noise temperature. In a conventional SQUID amplifier, where the integrated input coil is operated as a lumped element, parasitic capacitance between the coil and the SQUID washer limits the frequency up to which a substantial gain can be achieved to a few hundred MHz. This problem can be circumvented by operating the input coil of the SQUID as a microstrip resonator: instead of connecting the input signal between the two ends of the coil, it is connected between the SQUID washer and one end of the coil; the other end is left open. Such amplifiers have gains of 20 dB or more at frequencies up to 1.5 GHz. The resonant nature of the input circuit limits the -3 dB bandwidth of the amplifier to at most 100 MHz. The resonant frequency of the microstrip can be tuned, however, by means of a varactor diode connected across the otherwise open end of the resonator. The noise temperature of microstrip SQUID amplifiers was measured to be between 0.5 K ± 0.3 K at a resonant frequency of 80 MHz and 1.6 K ± 1.2 K at 1 GHz. An even lower noise temperature can be achieved by cooling the SQUID to about 0.4 K. In this case, a noise temperature of 100 mK ± 20 mK was achieved at 90 MHz, and of about 120 ± 100 mK at 440 MHz. The gain of the SQUID amplifier is sensitive to changes of the static magnetic flux through the SQUID. In order to prevent low frequency magnetic noise from changing the amplifier gain, we developed a directly coupled flux-locked loop which stabilizes the static flux bias of the SQUID. Finally, although the maximum output voltage of the SQUID amplifier is relatively small, two-tone intermodulation measurements show an intermodulation-free dynamic range of nearly 50 dB in a bandwidth of

  18. Sensitization to para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Massone, L; Anonide, A; Borghi, S; Usiglio, D

    1996-03-01

    Phenolformaldehyde resins, especially the para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin (PTBP-FR), are widely used in industry and in numerous materials of everyday use, such as glues, adhesives, or inks. They can cause many occupational and nonoccupational cases of dermatitis. Forty-one patients with positive patch test results to PTBP-FR were selected for this study. They were patch-tested with a series of chemically related compounds and cross-reactions were noted. Phenolformaldehyde resin (PF-R) was frequently positive (65.8%), whereas other compounds gave a much smaller number of positive results. Cases of occupational exposure (24.4%), location of the dermatitis (hands were involved in 46.3% of cases), and possible sources of exposure (shoes were the responsible agent in 12.2% of cases) were evaluated. Phenolformaldehyde resins are an important cause of contact dermatitis and must be studied chemically and clinically to improve the prognosis of sensitized patients.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  4. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  6. Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

  7. Determining resin/fiber content of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Article discusses procedure where hydrazine is used to extract graphite fibers from cured polyimide resin. Method does not attack graphite fibers and is faster than hot-concentrated-acid digestion process.

  8. Resins for Advanced Reentry Systems Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    strengths of 3,000 to 6,000 psi. The strength values increased to 7,000 to 10,000 psi after the samples were reimpregnated with a furfuryl alcohol resin and repyrolyzed. The pyrolysis results are discussed.

  9. An update on resin-bonded bridges.

    PubMed

    Barber, M W; Preston, A J

    2008-03-01

    Since the introduction of the 'Rochette' bridge in the 1970s the resin-bonded bridge has undergone a number of developments to become a commonly used technique for replacement of a missing tooth, especially in a minimally restored dentition. One of the major advantages of the resin-bonded bridge is that it requires less tooth preparation than conventional bridgework, with some authorities advising no preparation at all. Some reports have suggested poor long-term success rates, however, if used in appropriate clinical situations, this treatment modality can be extremely successful. The aim of this paper is to review the literature relating to resin-bonded bridges and suggest recommendations for clinicalpractice concerning the provision of resin-bonded bridges.

  10. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO/sub 2/ with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions.

  11. Effects of chlorhexidine-containing adhesives on the durability of resin-dentine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Stanislawczuk, Rodrigo; Pereira, Fabiane; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Luque, Issis; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of addition of diacetate CHX in different concentrations into two simplified etch-and-rinse (ER) adhesive systems (XP Bond [XP] and Ambar {AM}) on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), degree of conversion (DC), 60-day cumulative water sorption (WS), solubility (SO) and CHX release (CR) as well as the immediate (IM) and 1-year (1Y) resin-dentine bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL). Ten experimental adhesive systems were formulated according to the addition of CHX diacetate (0 [control], 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) in the two ER. For UTS and DC, specimens were constructed and tested after 24h. For WS, SO and CR, after specimens build-up, they were stored in water and the properties measured after 60 days. The occlusal enamel of fifty molars was removed and the adhesives were applied in dentine surface after 37% phosphoric acid etching. After composite resin build-ups, specimens were longitudinally sectioned to obtain resin-dentine bonded sticks (0.8mm(2)). Specimens were tested in tension at 0.5mm/min in the IM or 1Y. For NL, 2 bonded sticks from each tooth were prepared and analyzed under SEM. The data were submitted to appropriate statistical analysis (α=0.05). The addition of CHX did not influence UTS, DC, WS and SO (p<0.05). Higher CR was observed in adhesives with higher concentration of CHX (p<0.05). After 1Y, significant reductions of μTBS and increases of NL were observed in the control groups (p<0.05). Reductions of μTBS and increase of NL over time were not observed (AM) for CHX-containing adhesives or it was less pronounced than the control (XP) regardless of the CHX concentration. The addition of CHX diacetate in concentrations until 0.2% in the simplified ER adhesive systems may be an alternative to increase the long-term stability of resin-dentine interfaces, without jeopardizing the adhesives' mechanical properties evaluated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

  13. Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

    2011-07-22

    This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements.

  14. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  15. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  16. Biocompatibility of Resin-based Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Brook, Ian M.; Van Noort, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Oral and mucosal adverse reactions to resin-based dental materials have been reported. Numerous studies have examined the biocompatibility of restorative dental materials and their components, and a wide range of test systems for the evaluation of the biological effects of these materials have been developed. This article reviews the biological aspects of resin-based dental materials and discusses the conventional as well as the new techniques used for biocompatibility assessment of dental materials.

  17. Liquid Resins With Low VOC Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    titrated with the perchloric acid / peracetic acid solution (Aldrich) until the indicator, 0.1% crystal violet in acetic acid (Aldrich), changed color from...method of reducing styrene emissions from vinyl ester (VE) resins is to replace some or all of the styrene with fatty acid -based monomers. Fatty acid ...renewable resources. VE resins with no more than 20 wt% styrene were prepared using methacrylate terminated lauric acid . The viscosities of these

  18. Effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual – cure resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashi; Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of ceramic type, thickness, and time of irradiation on degree of polymerization of dual-cure resin cement. Materials and Methods: Dual-cure resin cement (SoloCem) was used to prepare disk-shaped samples (0.5 mm thick × 5 mm diameter). Study group samples (n = 5) were light-cured for 40, 60, and 80 s through all ceramic leucite-reinforced (Cergo Kiss), lithium disilicate-reinforced (IPS e.max), and monolithic zirconia-reinforced (Ziecon) of three thicknesses (2, 3, and 4 mm). Negative control group samples were cured through metal disks and positive control samples were cured without the presence of ceramic. The degree of conversion (DC) was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The recorded data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc analysis (Tukey HSD). Results and Conclusion: Greatest light transmission and DC were seen through Cergo Kiss, followed by IPS e.max Press and Ziecon, with insignificant difference between the latter two. The attenuation of light irradiance increased with increasing thickness of ceramic disks, with statistically significant values between 3 and 4 mm. Increasing time of irradiation to cure dual-cure resin cement did not always result in greater degree of polymerization. PMID:27656058

  19. Pulsed-DC DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Alan; McGowan, Ryan; Disser, Katherine; Corke, Thomas; Matlis, Eric

    2016-11-01

    A new powering system for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators that utilizes a pulsed-DC waveform is presented. The plasma actuator arrangement is identical to most typical AC-DBD designs with staggered electrodes that are separated by a dielectric insulator. However instead of an AC voltage input to drive the actuator, the pulsed-DC utilizes a DC voltage source. The DC source is supplied to both electrodes, and remains constant in time for the exposed electrode. The DC source for the covered electrode is periodically grounded for very short instants and then allowed to rise to the source DC level. This process results in a plasma actuator body force that is significantly larger than that with an AC-DBD at the same voltages. The important characteristics used in optimizing the pulsed-DC plasma actuators are presented. Time-resolved velocity measurements near the actuator are further used to understand the underlying physics of its operation compared to the AC-DBD. Supported by NASA Glenn RC.

  20. A compact dc cusp source

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.H.; McDonald, M.; Schmor, P.W. ); Jayamanna, K. )

    1990-08-05

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the parameters effecting the quality of the {ital H}{sup {minus}} beam extracted from a small source employing multicusp confinement and the magnetic filter to enhance the {ital H}{sup {minus}} production. The source was designed to operate the d.c. mode, to have a long filament lifetime and to provide an intense {ital H}{sup {minus}} beam with low emittance. The {ital H}{sup {minus}} beam is initially transported about 2 m at 25 keV with a measured 95% space charge neutralization. The experimental results indicate that the small cusp source is {similar to}4 times brighter than the large one for arc current less than 25 A. A 7 mA {ital H}{sup {minus}} beam with a normalized emittance of 0.34 {pi}mm.mrad at an arc current of 27 A and the voltage of 127 V is obtained.

  1. Lessons learned: DC-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmeyer, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. The system design was based on an initial set of program goals and a finite, limited set of resources. The goal in its simplest terms was to demonstrate vertical landing after rotation of the vehicle from a nose-first to an engines-first altitude. Finite resources actually drove the selection of a robust design to reduce fabrication and preflight testing costs. The result was a system with a large amount of flexibility which allowed expansion of the test goals as the system, and test program, evolved. The use of the vehicle flight computer interfacing with the ground control system for flight crew training was also not an initial concept. However, by defining an architecture for the system control modes which allowed additions and modifications as learning progressed, the 6 DOF codes used for flight controls software development were transported to the operating system to be used in a simulated flight mode. Flight data reduction was also greatly improved as the program progressed, and the data needs and presentation were refined. The software, avionics hardware, and the FOCC system development proceeded ahead of the vehicle, primarily because most of the hardware elements were existing at the outset of the program. The Built-in-Test (BIT) for avionics and propulsion systems were adequate. Particularly the flight readiness system which verified the vehicle health after engine start and before throttle-up for flight.

  2. Resin characterization by electro-acoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Egbert; Mann, Christian

    2007-03-09

    The electro-acoustic effects, namely the ion vibration potential (IVP) and the colloidal vibration current (CVI), colloidal vibration potential (CVP) first described by P. Debye [P. Debye, J. Chem. Phys. 1 (1933) 13], are a result of charge separation of bound or free ions at different degrees by ultrasonic waves. Today commercial instruments are available to investigate liquid homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. In the present paper the application of this technique for the characterization of salts, protein solutions and resins for biochromatography is shown and valuable information about resins can be derived in a short time. Various resins were investigated with the following results: (1) the CVI magnitude is dependent of several parameters (such as particle size distribution, volume fraction, density difference); (2) the CVI is influenced by the surface modification of the resins. Polymeric modifications decrease the value of CVI. The CVI is generally lower for high capacity resins; (3) the measurement of the electro-acoustic effects can be used to detect small changes in resins. The CVI is dependent of the amount of adsorbed protein in "native" and denatured state.

  3. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH/sub 2/BO/sub 3/-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB.

  4. Novel bidirectional DC-DC converters based on the three-state switching cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Júnior, José Carlos; Robles Balestero, Juan Paulo; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that there is an increasing demand for bidirectional DC-DC converters for applications that range from renewable energy sources to electric vehicles. Within this context, this work proposes novel DC-DC converter topologies that use the three-state switching cell (3SSC), whose well-known advantages over conventional existing structures are ability to operate at high current levels, while current sharing is maintained by a high frequency transformer; reduction of cost and dimensions of magnetics; improved distribution of losses, with consequent increase of global efficiency and reduction of cost associated to the need of semiconductors with lower current ratings. Three distinct topologies can be derived from the 3SSC: one DC-DC converter with reversible current characteristic able to operate in the first and second quadrants; one DC-DC converter with reversible voltage characteristic able to operate in the first and third quadrants and one DC-DC converter with reversible current and voltage characteristics able to operate in four quadrants. Only the topology with bidirectional current characteristic is analysed in detail in terms of the operating stages in both nonoverlapping and overlapping modes, while the design procedure of the power stage elements is obtained. In order to validate the theoretical assumptions, an experimental prototype is also implemented, so that relevant issues can be properly discussed.

  5. Robust DC/DC converter control for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Xiong; Yu, Duck-Hyun; Chen, Shi-An; Kim, Young-Bae

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates a robust controller in regulating the pulse width modulation (PWM) of a DC/DC converter for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. A significant variation in the output voltage of a PEMFC depends on the power requirement and prevents a PEMFC from directly connecting to a subsequent power bus. DC/DC converters are utilized to step-up or step-down voltage to match the subsequent power bus voltage. In this study, a full dynamic model, which includes a PEMFC and boost and buck DC/DC converters, is developed under MATLAB/Simulink environment for control. A robust PWM duty ratio control for the converters is designed using time delay control (TDC). This control enables state variables to accurately follow the dynamics of a reference model using time-delayed information of plant input and output information within a few sampling periods. To prove the superiority of the TDC performance, traditional proportional-integral control (PIC) and model predictive control (MPC) are designed and implemented, and the simulation results are compared. The efficacies of TDC for the PEMFC-fed PWM DC/DC converters are validated through experimental test results using a 100 W PEMFC as well as boost and buck DC/DC converters.

  6. High power density dc/dc converter: Selection of converter topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    1990-01-01

    The work involved in the identification and selection of a suitable converter topology is described. Three new dc/dc converter topologies are proposed: Phase-Shifted Single Active Bridge DC/DC Converter; Single Phase Dual Active Bridges DC/DC Converter; and Three Phase Dual Active Bridges DC/DC Converter (Topology C). The salient features of these topologies are: (1) All are minimal in structure, i.e., each consists of an input and output bridge, input and output filter and a transformer, all components essential for a high power dc/dc conversion process; (2) All devices of both the bridges can operate under near zero-voltage conditions, making possible a reduction of device switching losses and hence, an increase in switching frequency; (3) All circuits operate at a constant frequency, thus simplifying the task of the magnetic and filter elements; (4) Since, the leakage inductance of the transformer is used as the main current transfer element, problems associated with the diode reverse recovery are eliminated. Also, this mode of operation allows easy paralleling of multiple modules for extending the power capacity of the system; (5) All circuits are least sensitive to parasitic impedances, infact the parasitics are efficently utilized; and (6) The soft switching transitions, result in low electromagnetic interference. A detailed analysis of each topology was carried out. Based on the analysis, the various device and component ratings for each topology operating at an optimum point, and under the given specifications, are tabulated and discussed.

  7. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  8. DC-Compensated Current Transformer †

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  9. DC conductivity and higher derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Griffin, Tom; Melgar, Luis

    2017-07-01

    For Gauss-Bonnet gravity and in the context of holography we show how the thermal DC conductivity can be obtained by solving a generalised system of Stokes equations for an auxiliary fluid on a curved black hole horizon. For more general higher derivative theories of gravity coupled to gauge-fields, we also analyse the linearised thermal and electric currents that are produced by DC thermal and electric sources. We show how suitably defined DC transport current fluxes of the dual field theory are given by current fluxes defined at the black horizon. Dedicated to the 75th birthday of John H Schwarz

  10. Preparation and cured properties of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Tokizawa, Makoto; Okada, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Nobukatsu; Kimura, Tomiaki . Research Center)

    1993-10-20

    Preparation and characterization of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, which are derived from octadienyl compounds, were studied. From a model peracetic acid epoxidation reaction using 2,7-octadienyl acetate-1, the structure of the liquid resins is estimated to be mainly terminal epoxides and some amount of inner epoxide depending on the epoxide content. The epoxy resins offer lower toxicity and lower vapor pressure. The reactivity of the resin with acid anhydrides is moderate but faster than that of traditional cyclohexane epoxide-type resins and slower than that of the glycidyl ester-type resins. This reactivity was also examined using model compounds. The heat deflection temperature of the hexahydro-phthalic anhydride-cured resins is shown to be directly proportional to the number of epoxy groups in the molecules. The flexural strength of the cured resins is nearly equivalent to that of the commercial resins, although the flexural elongation of the resins is larger than that of the rigid cyclohexane epoxide-type resins. The thermal stability of the cured resins is compared to typical rigid cycloaliphatic resins; furthermore, high water resistance of the cured resins is suggested to be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the C[sub 8] chain by cross-linking.

  11. Development of a fuzzy logic controller for dc/dc converters: Design, computer simulation, and experimental evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    So, W.C.; Tse, C.K.; Lee, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    The design of a fuzzy logic controller for dc/dc converters is described in this paper. A brief review of fuzzy logic and its application to control is first given. Then, the derivation of a fuzzy control algorithm for regulating dc/dc converters is described in detail. The proposed fuzzy control is evaluated by computer simulations as well as experimental measurements of the closed-loop performance of simple dc/dc converters in respect of load regulation and line regulation.

  12. Influence of ceramic thickness on mechanical properties and polymer structure of dual-cured resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Yoshida, Keiichi; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the influence of ceramic thickness on the mechanical properties and polymer structure (degree conversion and cross-linking density) of three dual-cured resin luting agents. Three dual-cured resin luting agents [Linkmax HV (GC), Nexus 2 (Kerr), and Variolink IIHV (Ivoclar-Vivadent)] were polymerized with or without 800 mW/cm2 irradiation through 0-3-mm-thick GN-I (GC) machinable ceramic. Bar-shape specimens were subjected to three-point bending to determine flexural strength (FS) and elastic modulus (EM) after dry storage at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Knoop hardness was measured on the irradiated surface of disk-shaped specimens before (KHN1) and after (KHN2) storage of 100% ethanol solution at 37 degrees C for 24 h. KHN1 and KHN2 were estimated as indirect indicators of degree of conversion (DC) and cross-linking density, respectively. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test for each luting agent, and four mechanical properties were subjected to regression analysis. For three resin luting agents with dual-cured mode, FS, EM, KHN1, and KHN2 decreased with the increase of ceramic thickness. FS except for Nexus 2 and EM for three resin luting agents had a positive linear relationship with both KHN1 and KHN2. The variables tested behaved differently. When the ceramic thickness increased, the chemical cured components of dual-cured resin luting agents did not produce significant compensation for all variables. Mechanical properties and polymer structure of dual-cured resin luting agents was dependent on the intensity of light irradiation.

  13. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Formaggio, Stephanie Ellen Ferreira; Zambelli, Lígia França Aires; Palialol, Alan Rodrigo Muniz; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; de Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs) on the degree of conversion (DC) and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Materials and Methods Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG), according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm2) and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave). The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height) using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E) by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. Results No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. Conclusions On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent. PMID:27847748

  14. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J.

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  15. Clinical Evaluation of Indirect Composite Resin Restorations Cemented with Different Resin Cements.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Maurem; Souza, Niélli; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    To clinically evaluate the performance of indirect composite resin restorations cemented with conventional and self-adhesive resin cements over a 12-month period. Ten patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. Twenty-four composite resin restorations were performed using an indirect technique and cemented with a resin cement (RelyX ARC) or a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100). Two independent evaluators analyzed the restorations using modified USPHS criteria after periods of two weeks and 6 and 12 months. Statistical significance between the cements at each timepoint was evaluated with the Wilcoxon test and between timepoints with the Mann-Whitney test, both at a significance level of 5%. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the occurrence of absolute failures. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups at the same timepoint nor between groups at different timepoints. The only significant difference was found for color match for both groups after 12 months. After 12 months, indirect composite resin restorations cemented with self-adhesive resin cement performed similarly to those cemented with conventional resin cement.

  16. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  17. Cytotoxicity of resin composites containing bioactive glass fillers.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-02-01

    To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15wt%) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65mole% SiO2, 31mole% CaO, 4mole% P2O5) and BAG61 (3mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composites in cell culture medium at 37°C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20s and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey's (α≤0.05). Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3s vs. 20s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the "toxic" components had been extracted and the materials were

  18. Cytotoxicity of Resin Composites Containing Bioactive Glass Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Satin; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Pfeifer, Carmem; Ferracane, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of dental composites containing bioactive glass fillers. Methods Dental composites (50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin: 72.5wt% filler, 67.5%Sr-glass and 5% OX50) containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt %) of two sol-gel bioactive glasses, BAG65 (65 mole% SiO2, 31 mole% CaO, 4 mole% P2O5) and BAG62 (3 mole% F added) were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Alamar Blue assay. First, composite extracts were obtained from 7 day incubations of composite in cell culture medium at 37° C. Undifferentiated pulp cells (OD-21) were exposed to dilutions of the original extracts for 3, 5, and 7 days. Then freshly cured composite disks were incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 2 days. Subsequently, fresh composite disks were incubated in culture medium at 37°C for 7 days, and then the extracted disks were incubated with OD-21 cells for 2 days. Finally, fresh composites disks were light cured for 3, 5, and 20 seconds and incubated with OD-21 cells (n=5) for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. To verify that the three different curing modes produced different levels of degree of conversion (DC), the DC of each composite was determined by FTIR. Groups (n=5) were compared with ANOVA/Tukey’s (α≤0.05). Results Extracts from all composites significantly reduced cell viability until a dilution of 1:8 or lower, where the extract became equal to the control. All freshly-cured composites showed significantly reduced cell viability at two days. However, no reduction in cell viability was observed for any composite that had been previously soaked in media before exposure to the cells. Composites with reduced DC (3 s vs. 20 s cure), as verified by FTIR, showed significantly reduced cell viability. Significance The results show that the composites, independent of composition, had equivalent potency in terms of reducing the viability of the cells in culture. Soaking the composites for 7 days before exposing them to the cells suggested that the

  19. Shear bond strength between alumina substrate and prosthodontic resin composites with various adhesive resin systems.

    PubMed

    AlJehani, Yousef A; Baskaradoss, Jagan K; Geevarghese, Amrita; AlShehry, Marey A; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-05-02

    With the increase in demand for cosmetics and esthetics, resin composite restorations and all-ceramic restorations have become an important treatment alternative. Taking into consideration the large number of prosthodontic and adhesive resins currently available, the strength and durability of these materials needs to be evaluated. This laboratory study presents the shear bond strengths of a range of veneering resin composites bonded to all-ceramic core material using different adhesive resins. Alumina ceramic specimens (Techceram Ltd, Shipley, UK) were assigned to three groups. Three types of commercially available prosthodontic resin composites [BelleGlass®, (BG, Kerr, CA, USA), Sinfony® (SF, 3 M ESPE, Dental Products, Germany), and GC Gradia® (GCG, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan)] were bonded to the alumina substrate using four different adhesive resins. Half the specimens per group (N = 40) were stored dry for 24 hours, the remaining were stored for 30 days in water. The bonding strength, so-called shear bond strengths between composite resin and alumina substrate were measured. Data were analysed statistically and variations in bond strength within each group were additionally evaluated by calculating the Weibull modulus. Bond strengths were influenced by the brand of prosthodontic resin composites. Shear bond strengths of material combinations varied from 24.17 ± 3.72-10.15 ± 3.69 MPa and 21.20 ± 4.64-7.50 ± 4.22 at 24 h and 30 days, respectively. BG resin composite compared with the other resin composites provided the strongest bond with alumina substrate (p < 0.01). SF resin composite was found to have a lower bond strength than the other composites. The Weibull moduli were highest for BG, which was bonded by using Optibond Solo Plus adhesive resin at 24 h and 30 days. There was no effect of storage time and adhesive brand on bond strength. Within the limitations of this study, the shear bond strengths of composite resins to alumina substrate are related to

  20. DC-8 Takeoff in Kiruna, Sweden

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of...

  1. 2004 NASA Dryden DC-8 flight crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-14

    2004 NASA Dryden DC-8 flight crew. Left to Right: Edwin W. Lewis, Jr., Martin J. Trout, Richard G. Ewers, Craig R. Bomben, C. Gordon Fullerton (Chief Pilot), Mark Pestana, Douglas H. Baker, William Frederick Brockett, and Frank Batteas.

  2. Tester periodically registers dc amplifier characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, D.; Wenzel, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Motor-driven switcher-recorder periodically registers the zero drift and gain drift signals of a dc amplifier subjected to changes in environment. A time coding method is used since several measurements are shared on a single recorder trace.

  3. dc power system for deuteron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Creek, K.O.; Liska, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility dc power system provides excitation current for all linac and High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) quadrupole and bending magnets, excitation for horizontal and vertical beam steering, and current-bypass shunts.

  4. A SQUID series array dc current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, J.; Drung, D.

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors are used to sense changes in various physical quantities, which can be transformed into changes in the magnetic flux threading the SQUID loop. We have developed a novel SQUID array dc current sensor. The device is based on a series array of identical dc SQUIDs. An input signal current to be measured is coupled tightly but non-uniformly to the SQUID array elements. The input signal coupling to the individual array elements is chosen such that a single-valued, non-periodic overall voltage response is obtained. Flux offsets in the individual SQUIDs which would compromise the sensor voltage response are avoided or can be compensated. We present simulations and experimental results on the SQUID Array for Dc (SQUAD) current sensor current sensor performance. A dc current resolution of <1 nA in a measurement bandwidth of 0-25 Hz is achieved for an input inductance of LIn<3 nH.

  5. Investigation of double bond conversion, mechanical properties, and antibacterial activity of dental resins with different alkyl chain length quaternary ammonium methacrylate monomers (QAM).

    PubMed

    He, Jingwei; Söderling, Eva; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2013-01-01

    In order to endow dental resin with antibacterial activity, a series of antibacterial quaternary ammonium methacrylate monomers (QAM) with different substituted alkyl chain length (from 10 to 18) were incorporated into commonly used 2,2-bis[4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloyloxy-propoxy)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (50 wt/50 wt) dental resin as immobilized antibacterial agents. Double bond conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), and young and mature biofilms inhibition effectiveness of prepared dental resins were studied and Bis-GMA/TEGDMA without QAM was used as reference. Results showed that there was no significant difference on DC, FS, and FM between copolymer with and without 5 wt% QAM. Substituted alkyl chain length of QAM had no influence on DC, FS, and FM of copolymer, but had influence on antibacterial activity of copolymer. Antibacterial activity of copolymer increased with increasing of substituted alkyl chain length of QAM, and the sequence followed as 5%C10 < 5%C11 ≈ 5%C12 < 5%C16 ≈ 5%C18. Copolymers containing C18 and C16 had the best inhibition effectiveness on both young biofilm and mature biofilm, copolymers containing C12 and C11 only had inhibition effectiveness on young biofilm and copolymer containing C10 had none inhibition effectiveness on neither young biofilm nor mature biofilm.

  6. Test Results of Selected Commercial DC/DC Converters under Cryogenic Temperatures - A Digest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    DC/DC converters are widely used in space power systems in the areas of power management and distribution, signal conditioning, and motor control. Design of DC/DC converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance, simplify design, and reduce development and launch costs. In this work, the performance of nine COTS modular, low-tomedium power DC/DC converters was investigated under cryogenic temperatures. The converters were evaluated in terms of their output regulation, efficiency, and input and output currents. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained at various input voltages and at different load levels. A summary on the performance of the tested converters was given. More comprehensive testing and in-depth analysis of performance under long-term exposure to extreme temperatures are deemed necessary to establish the suitability of these and other devices for use in the harsh environment of space exploration missions.

  7. DC-DC converters with reduced mass for trackers at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Allongue, B.; Blanchot, G.; Faccio, F.; Fuentes, C.; Greenall, A.; Michelis, S.

    2011-11-01

    The development at CERN of low noise DC-DC converters for the powering of front-end systems enables the implementation of efficient powering schemes for the physics experiments at the HL-LHC. Recent tests made on the ATLAS short strip tracker modules confirm the full electromagnetic compatibility of the DC-DC converter prototypes with front-end detectors. The integration of the converters in the trackers front-ends needs to address also the material budget constraints. The impact of the DC-DC converters onto the material budget of the ATLAS tracker modules is discussed and mass reduction techniques are explored, leading to a compromise between electromagnetic compatibility and mass. Low mass shield implementations and Aluminum core inductors are proposed. Also, the impact on emitted noise due to a size reduction of critical components is discussed. Finally, material reduction techniques are discussed at the board layout and manufacturing levels.

  8. Power Strategy in DC/DC Converters to Increase Efficiency of Electrical Stimulators

    PubMed Central

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Acuña, Vicente; Saavedra, Francisco; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Julémont, Nicolas; Huberland, François; Godfraind, Carmen; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Power efficiency is critical for electrical stimulators. Battery life of wearable stimulators and wireless power transmission in implanted systems are common limiting factors. Boost DC/DC converters are typically needed to increase the supply voltage of the output stage. Traditionally, boost DC/DC converters are used with fast control to regulate the supply voltage of the output. However, since stimulators are acting as current sources, such voltage regulation is not needed. Banking on this, this paper presents a DC/DC conversion strategy aiming to increase power efficiency. It compares, in terms of efficiency, the traditional use of boost converters to two alternatives that could be implemented in future hardware designs. PMID:27990232

  9. Modelling and Simulation of Digital Compensation Technique for dc-dc Converter by Pole Placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenbagalakshmi, R.; Sree Renga Raja, T.

    2015-09-01

    A thorough and effective analysis of the dc-dc converters is carried out in order to achieve the system stability and to improve the dynamic performance. A small signal modelling based on state space averaging technique for dc-dc converters is carried out. A digital state feedback gain matrix is derived by pole placement technique in order to achieve the stability of a completely controllable system. A prediction observer for the dc-dc converters is designed and a dynamic compensation (observer plus control law) is provided using separation principle. The output is very much improved with zero output voltage ripples, zero peak overshoot, and much lesser settling time in the range of ms and with higher overall efficiency (>90 %).

  10. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  11. Nonlinear Phenomena and Resonant Parametric Perturbation Control in QR-ZCS Buck DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Fei-Hu; Liu, Feng-Shao; Hsieh, Hui-Chang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the chaotic phenomena and to control in current-mode controlled quasi-resonant zero-current-switching (QR-ZCS) DC-DC buck converters, and to present control of chaos by resonant parametric perturbation control methods. First of all, MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to derive a mathematical model for QR-ZCS DC-DC buck converters, and to simulate the converters to observe the waveform of output voltages, inductance currents and phase-plane portraits from the period-doubling bifurcation to chaos by changing the load resistances. Secondly, using resonant parametric perturbation control in QR-ZCS buck DC-DC converters, the simulation results of the chaotic converter form chaos state turn into stable state period 1, and improve ripple amplitudes of converters under the chaos, to verify the validity of the proposes method.

  12. Advanced DC/DC Converters Towards Higher Volumetric Efficiencies For Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry; Shue, Jack; Liu, David; Wang, Bright; Plante, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    A new emphasis on planetary exploration by NASA drives the need for small, high power DC/DC converters which are functionally modular. NASA GSFC and other government space organizations are supporting technology development in the DC/DC converter area to both meet new needs and to promote more sources of supply. New technologies which enable miniaturization such as embedded passive technologies and thermal management using high thermal conductivity materials are features of the new designs. Construction of some simple DC/DC converter core circuits using embedded components was found to be successful for increasing volumetric efficiency to 37 W/inch. The embedded passives were also able to perform satisfactorily in this application in cryogenic temperatures.

  13. Light Transmission of Novel CAD/CAM Materials and Their Influence on the Degree of Conversion of a Dual-curing Resin Cement.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    To evaluate the light transmission characteristics of different types, shades, and thicknesses of novel CAD/CAM materials and their effect on the degree of conversion (DC) of a dual-curing resin cement. Square specimens (12 × 12 mm2) of three CAD/CAM materials - GC Cerasmart, Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic - of different thicknesses (1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 mm, n = 5 per thickness) were irradiated with an LED unit. The amount of transmitted light was quantified. Thereafter, the DC% of the dual-curing resin cement (RelyX Ultimate) was recorded after 15 min using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's HSD post-hoc test at a significance level of p < 0.05. Regression analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between the DC and radiant energy, and the DC and thickness. Although the type and shade of CAD/CAM material significantly affect transmitted light irradiation (p < 0.0001), degrees of conversion are similar when the CAD/CAM material or material shade were taken into consideration (p > 0.05). Conversely, material thickness significantly affected light transmission (p < 0.0001) and DC (p < 0.0001). Multiple effects of material, shade, and thickness did not significantly affect the evaluated parameters (p = 0.638 for light irradiation; p = 0.637 for DC). Linear regression analysis showed a correlation between delivered energy and DC% results of the Vita Enamic (R² = 0.4169, p < 0.0001). Reduced light transmission in 2-mm-thick specimens of all CAD/CAM materials indicates that proper curing of the cement beneath CAD/CAM materials should be ensured.

  14. Bonding of resin core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics: the effect of resin cement film thickness.

    PubMed

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Canay, Senay; Sahin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different resin cement film thicknesses on the shear bond strength of resin core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics. Forty IPS Empress 2 ceramic disks were bonded to the core materials (Bis-core and Smile) with resin cement film thicknesses of 50 or 100 μm. Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and independent t tests. The core material used and resin cement film thickness had a significant effect on shear bond strength values (P < .001). Greater resin cement film thickness resulted in decreased bond strength of the core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics.

  15. Thermal rearrangement of novolak resins used in microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Ricky; Zampini, Anthony; Monaghan, Michael J.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Cardin, William J.; Eugster, Timothy J.

    1995-06-01

    Changes in phenolic-formaldehyde resin properties are described in terms of thermal exposure. At high temperature, resin molecular weight, dissolution properties and chemical composition change depending on the presence or absence of monomers. Without monomer in the resin melt at 220 degree(s)C, resin molecular weight increases with a corresponding decrease in dissolution rate. In the presence of monomer, molecular weight generally decreases. Dissolution rate may fluctuate depending on the monomer mixture. Three,five- Xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol co-monomers induced the most extreme changes in resin properties with thermal treatment. Resin degradation-recombination processes suggest a classical Friedel-Craft rearrangement mechanism.

  16. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  17. dc illusion and its experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Lei Mei, Zhong; Ma, Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-07-01

    Based on the transformation optics method, we propose a dc illusion device, which can transform a metallic object into a magnified dielectric object using anisotropic conducting materials. Utilizing the analogy between electric conductivities and resistor networks, we design and fabricate the device using metal film resistors. The practical measurement data agree very well with simulation results. The proposed dc illusion device is easy to process and measure, and thus has potential applications in various sectors.

  18. Solid-State dc Circuit Breaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, P.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit breaker with no moving parts protects direct-current (dc) loads. Current which circuit breaker opens (trip current) is adjustable and so is time delay before breaker trips. Forward voltage drop rises from 0.6 to 1.2 V as current rises to trip point. Breaker has two terminals, like fuse, therefore replaces fuse in dc circuit. Powered by circuit it protects and reset by either turning off power source or disconnecting load.

  19. DC-8 MTP calibration for SOLVE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) was the only instrument making temperature measurements at and below flight level on the DC-8 during the SOLVE-2 campaign. Many years of careful comparison of MTP measurements with radiosondes near the DC-8 flight track have shown that the flight level temperature can be determined to an accuracy of 0.2K relative to radiosondes.

  20. Brushless DC Motors, Velocity and Position Control of the Brushless DC Motor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    DC motor was designed using the Hall effect sensors. In addition, the position control of the brushless DC motor was developed using an optical encoder to sense angular position changes and a microprocessor to provide the desired position control. A Pittman 5111 wdg 1 brushless DC motor was used for this study. The design of the digital tachometer and pulse width modulator for velocity control and the design of the Z-80 based microprocessor controller and software design are described in

  1. Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

  2. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Egr2 induced during DC development acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Miah, Mohammad Alam; Byeon, Se Eun; Ahmed, Md Selim; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Ha, Sang-Jun; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Early growth response gene 2 (Egr2), which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is rapidly and transiently induced in various cell types independently of de novo protein synthesis. Although a role for Egr2 is well established in T-cell development, Egr2 expression and its biological function in dendritic cells (DCs) have not yet been described. Here, we demonstrate Egr2 expression during DC development, and its role in DC-mediated immune responses. Egr2 is expressed in the later stage of DC development from BM precursor cells. Even at steady state, Egr2 is highly expressed in mouse splenic DCs. Egr2-knockdown (Egr2-KD) DCs showed increased levels of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I and II and co-stimulatory molecules, and enhanced antigen uptake and migratory capacities. Furthermore, Egr2-KD abolished SOCS1 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation during DC development, probably resulting in the enhancement of IL-12 expression and Th1 immunogenicity of a DC vaccine. DC-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation and antitumor immunity were significantly enhanced by Egr2-KD, and impaired by Egr2 overexpression in antigen-pulsed DC vaccines. These data suggest that Egr2 acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity and can be an attractive molecular target for DC vaccine development.

  4. High power density dc/dc converter: Component selection and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    1989-01-01

    Further work pertaining to design considerations for the new high power, high frequency dc/dc converters is discussed. The goal of the project is the development of high power, high power density dc/dc converters at power levels in the multi-kilowatt to megawatt range for aerospace applications. The prototype converter is rated for 50 kW at a switching frequency of 50 kHz, with an input voltage of 200 Vdc and an output of 2000 Vdc. The overall power density must be in the vicinity of 0.2 to 0.3 kg/kW.

  5. Efficiency and Regulation of Commercial Low Power DC/DC Converter Modules at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power systems of future NASA deep space missions. Design of these converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance, and reduce development and launch costs. At the NASA Glenn Research Center Low Temperature Electronics Laboratory, several commercial off-the-shelf dc/dc converter modules were evaluated for their low temperature performance. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature, in the range of 20 C to -190 C. Data pertaining to the efficiency and voltage regulation of the tested converters is presented and discussed.

  6. Interleaved DC-DC Converter with Discrete Duty Cycle and Open Loop Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroics, K.; Sokolovs, A.

    2016-08-01

    The authors present the control principle of the multiphase interleaved DC-DC converter that can be used to vastly reduce output current ripple of the converter. The control algorithm can be easily implemented by using microcontroller without current loop in each phase. The converter works in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) but close to boundary conduction mode (BCM). The DC-DC converter with such a control algorithm is useful in applications that do not require precise current adjustment. The prototype of the converter has been built. The experimental results of the current ripple are presented in the paper.

  7. Analysis of high voltage step-up nonisolated DC-DC boost converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisson Alencar Freitas, Antônio; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando; Junior, Edilson Mineiro Sá; Daher, Sergio; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    A high voltage step-up nonisolated DC-DC converter based on coupled inductors suitable to photovoltaic (PV) systems applications is proposed in this paper. Considering that numerous approaches exist to extend the voltage conversion ratio of DC-DC converters that do not use transformers, a detailed comparison is also presented among the proposed converter and other popular topologies such as the conventional boost converter and the quadratic boost converter. The qualitative analysis of the coupled-inductor-based topology is developed so that a design procedure can be obtained, from which an experimental prototype is implemented to validate the theoretical assumptions.

  8. The application of standardized control and interface circuits to three dc to dc power converters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y.; Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Lalli, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Standardized control and interface circuits were applied to the three most commonly used dc to dc converters: the buck-boost converter, the series-switching buck regulator, and the pulse-modulated parallel inverter. The two-loop ASDTIC regulation control concept was implemented by using a common analog control signal processor and a novel digital control signal processor. This resulted in control circuit standardization and superior static and dynamic performance of the three dc-to-dc converters. Power components stress control, through active peak current limiting and recovery of switching losses, was applied to enhance reliability and converter efficiency.

  9. Model predictive control of bidirectional isolated DC-DC converter for energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Parvez; Uddin, Muslem; Mekhilef, Saad; Tan, Nadia Mei Lin; Akagi, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful and emerging control algorithm in the field of power converters and energy conversion systems. This paper proposes a model predictive algorithm to control the power flow between the high-voltage and low-voltage DC buses of a bidirectional isolated full-bridge DC-DC converter. The predictive control algorithm utilises the discrete nature of the power converters and predicts the future nature of the system, which are compared with the references to calculate the cost function. The switching state that minimises the cost function is selected for firing the converter in the next sampling time period. The proposed MPC bidirectional DC-DC converter is simulated with MATLAB/Simulink and further verified with a 2.5 kW experimental configuration. Both the simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed MPC algorithm of the DC-DC converter reduces reactive power by avoiding the phase shift between primary and secondary sides of the high-frequency transformer and allow power transfer with unity power factor. Finally, an efficiency comparison is performed between the MPC and dual-phase-shift-based pulse-width modulation controlled DC-DC converter which ensures the effectiveness of the MPC controller.

  10. Clinical evaluation of a flowable resin composite and flowable compomer for preventive resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Man; Liu, HongSheng

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the retention and caries protection of a flowable resin composite (Flow Line) and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) used in preventive resin restorations as compared to the conventional preventive resin technique which uses a resin composite (Brilliant) and a sealant (Concise). This study observed 205 permanent molars with small carious cavities less than 1.5 mm in width, which were obtained from 165 children aged 7 to 15 years. Flowable resin composite was used to treat 75 teeth, and 71 teeth were treated with flowable compomer in both cavities and caries-free fissures. For the control group, 59 teeth were treated with resin composite in cavities and sealant in caries-free fissures. The teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24-month intervals. After three months, all 205 treated teeth were completely intact. After six months, 66 of the 71 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 65 of the 70 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 57 of the 58 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 12 months, 60 of the 67 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 61 of the 67 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 51 of the 55 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 18 months, 53 of the 61 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 54 of the 62 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 47 of the 53 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 24 months, 49 of the 58 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 45 of the 57 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 42 of the 52 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. There were no statistically significant differences in retention rates among all groups after 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24-months (p>0.05). One tooth treated with flowable resin composite and one tooth treated with flowable

  11. Treatment of chromium plating process effluents with ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Tenório, J A; Espinosa, D C

    2001-01-01

    The surface treatment industry deals with various heavy metals, including the elements Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Cu. Conventional treatments of effluents generate class I solid residue. The aim of this investigation was to study the viability of ion exchange as an alternative process for treatment of rinse water and to determine the efficacy of two ion exchange systems, System 1: "strong" cationic resin-"strong" anionic resin and System 2: "strong" cationic resin-"weak" anionic resin. Commercial resins and solutions taken from rinse tanks of chromium plating companies were used in this investigation. A two-column system, one for the cationic resin and another for the anionic resin, both with 150 ml capacity was mounted. The solution was percolated at a rate of 10 ml/min. The following solutions were used for regeneration of the resins: 2% H2SO4 for the cationic and 4% NaOH for the anionic. The percolated solutions revealed chromium contents of less than 0.25 mg/l, independent of the system used. The "strong" cationic resin-"weak" anionic resin gave excellent regeneration results. The "strong" cationic-"strong" anionic resin presented problems during regeneration, and did not release the retained ions after percolation of 2000 ml of 4% NaOH solution. It is concluded that for this type of treatment, the system composed of "strong" cationic resin and "weak" anionic resin is more appropriate.

  12. ASTER Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow are all visible in this image of Washington, D.C. With its 15-meter spatial resolution, ASTER can see individual buildings. Taken on June 1, 2000, this image covers an area 14 kilometers (8.5 miles) wide and 13.7 kilometers (8.2 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of visible and near infrared bands displays vegetation in red and water in dark grays. The Potomac River flows from the middle left to the bottom center. The large red area west of the river is Arlington National Cemetery.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands

  13. ASTER Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow are all visible in this image of Washington, D.C. With its 15-meter spatial resolution, ASTER can see individual buildings. Taken on June 1, 2000, this image covers an area 14 kilometers (8.5 miles) wide and 13.7 kilometers (8.2 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of visible and near infrared bands displays vegetation in red and water in dark grays. The Potomac River flows from the middle left to the bottom center. The large red area west of the river is Arlington National Cemetery.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands

  14. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  15. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  16. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J L

    1982-12-01

    Funded by the US Department of Energy under the EG and G/TMI Waste Immobilization Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed the first phase of a program in which a process designed to destroy EPICOR II resins was tested for its feasibility. These resins were utilized to remove cesium and strontium from radioactively contaminated water in the Auxiliary Building at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor after the incident in March 1979. They are also being used as a polishing system for water processed through the submerged demineralized systems. In a single step, the PNL process greatly reduces the volume of these resins by incinerating them and incorporating cesium, strontium and residual ash particles into glass. The objective of the first phase of the program was to develop and test the concept on a laboratory scale using resins loaded with simulated radionuclides. During the test, a stable glass product was produced in a canister 38 cm tall x 15 cm in dia. This report describes the process development and nonradioactive test results. The report concludes that EPICOR II resins can be destroyed in a single step with minimal waste byproducts.

  17. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  18. Improvement of exposure times: effects on adhesive properties and resin-dentin bond strengths of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina Queji; Costa, Thays Regina; Klein-Júnior, Celso Afonso; Accorinte, Maria de; Meier, Márcia Margarete; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of prolonged polymerization times on the microtensile resin-dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion of adhesive films (DC) and silver nitrate uptake (SNU) for an ethanol/water- (Adper Single Bond 2, [SB]) and an acetone-based (One Step Plus, [OS]) etch-and-rinse adhesive. Thirty caries-free extracted molars were included in this study. The occlusal enamel of all teeth was removed by wet grinding the occlusal enamel on 180-grit SiC paper. Adhesives were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, but they were light cured for 10, 20 and 40 s at 600 mW/cm2. Bonded sticks (0.6 mm2) were tested in tension (0.5 mm/min). Two bonded sticks from each tooth were immersed in an ammoniacal solution of silver nitrate (24 h), photodeveloped (8 h), and analyzed by SEM. The DC of the adhesives was evaluated under Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR). Data for each property were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Statistically higher μTBS and DC were observed for SB and OS when both adhesives were light cured for 40 s in comparison with 10 s. For OS, the μTBS in the 20- and 40-s groups did not differ statistically, while for SB it did. Higher prolonged exposure times did not prevent nanoleakage within the hybrid layer for all groups regardless of the adhesive. This study supports the hypothesis that exposure times longer than those recommended can improve the degree of conversion of adhesive films and the immediate resin-dentin bonds. The prolonged curing times (20 and 40 s) for polymerization of simplified adhesives resulted in an increase in the degree of conversion of the adhesive films and resin-dentin bond strengths but did not reduce the nanoleakage within the hybrid layer.

  19. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The...

  20. Effect of proximal box elevation with resin composite on marginal quality of resin composite inlays in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, Matthias J; Krämer, Norbert; Dippold, Christoph; Vosen, Vera E; Naumann, Michael; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Frankenberger, Roland

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate marginal quality and resin-resin transition of lab made resin composite inlays in deep proximal cavities with and without 3 mm proximal box elevation (PBE) using resin composites before and after thermo-mechanical loading (TML). MOD cavities with one proximal box beneath the cementoenamel junction were prepared in 40 extracted human third molars. Proximal boxes ending in dentine were elevated 3 mm with different resin composites (G-Cem, Maxcem Elite as self-adhesive resin cements and Clearfil Majesty Posterior as restorative resin composite in one or three layers bonded with AdheSE), or left untreated. Clearfil Majesty Posterior inlays were luted with Syntac and Variolink II (n = 8). Marginal quality as well as the PBE-composite inlay interface was analyzed under an SEM using epoxy resin replicas before and after thermomechanical loading (100,000 × 50 N and 2500 thermocylces between +5 °C and +55 °C). Bonding resin composite inlays directly to dentine showed similar amounts of gap-free margins in dentine compared to PBE applied in three consecutive layers (p > 0.05). The groups with self-adhesive resin cements for PBE exhibited significantly more gaps in dentine (p < 0.05). With layered resin composite, PBE is effective in indirect resin composite bonding to deep proximal boxes. Self-adhesive resin cements are not suitable for this indication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taste masking of Etoricoxib by using ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sradhanjali; Samantaray, Rakesh; Pattnaik, Saswat; Barik, B B

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to mask the bitter taste of the Etoricoxib by complexation with cation-exchange resin, Indion 204. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process and efficient drug loading was obtained by using inactivated form of resin in the drug-resin ratio 1:3.3 with 30 min swelling time of resin in 25 mL of water with 5 min stirring time. Drug-resin complexes were characterized for dissolution studies and spectral studies. Drug release from drug-resin complex in salivary pH was insufficient to impart bitter taste. Volunteers rated the drug resin complex as tasteless and agreeable.

  2. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  3. Quantifying the strength of a resin-coated dental ceramic.

    PubMed

    Addison, O; Marquis, P M; Fleming, G J P

    2008-06-01

    Resin luting all-ceramic restorations increases clinical performance; however, the strengthening mechanisms are not fully understood. The authors have previously proposed the existence of a resin-ceramic hybrid layer, and the hypothesis tested was that ceramic strength enhancement was conferred by the characteristics of the resin-ceramic hybrid layer. Dentin porcelain discs were polished with a P4000-grade abrasive paper, and half were centrally indented at 9.8 N. Further discs were alumina-air-abraded. Groups of 30 specimens were coated with resin cement thicknesses varying from 0 to 250 +/- 20 microm before bi-axial flexure testing. Following investigation of residual stresses by annealing, regression analysis enabled us to calculate the magnitude of 'actual' strengthening for a theoretical 'zero' thickness of resin cement on each surface texture. Accounting for resin bulk strengthening, resin cement coating significantly increased the mean strength that was attributed to a resin-ceramic hybrid layer sensitive to surface texture.

  4. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On...

  5. REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO THE HEATED CORE BOX THAT SETS THE RESIN CREATING THE HARDENED CORE SHOWN HERE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be painted...

  7. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  8. Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1980-01-01

    This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

  9. Try-in Pastes Versus Resin Cements: A Color Comparison.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Edenize Cristina; Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Rodrigues Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; Takano, Alfa Emília; de Carvalho Cardoso, Paula; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the color of ceramic veneer restorations using different shades of try-in pastes and resin cement. Researchers found no differences between try-in pastes and resin cements after cementation.

  10. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  11. Investigations of toughening mechanisms of epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, T.

    1986-01-01

    Composite material technology was applied to the solid rocket booster by the development of a carbon filament-epoxy resin case which yields a net increase of 4000 lbs. in payload in the shuttle. The question of reusability of the new composite tanks has not yet been answered and will depend on the toughness of the matrix resin. The present study was aimed at providing conditions whereby test specimens of the epoxy resin (EPON/85) and curing agents of systematically varied structures could be produced in a controlled manner. Three sets of conditions were found that might allow the isolation of the structural effects on toughness from the cure effects. The kinetic methods leading to the determination of these conditions are described.

  12. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L

    2002-04-05

    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were <0.8%. Speed and simplicity are important advantages of the coating procedure compared to other published coating methods.

  13. Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

  14. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  15. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  16. Sorption kinetics of ethanol/water solution by dimethacrylate-based dental resins and resin composites.

    PubMed

    Sideridou, Irini D; Achilias, Dimitris S; Karabela, Maria M

    2007-04-01

    In the present investigation the sorption-desorption kinetics of 75 vol % ethanol/water solution by dimethacrylate-based dental resins and resin composites was studied in detail. The resins examined were made by light-curing of bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate (Bis-EMA), and mixtures of these monomers. The resin composites were prepared from two commercial light-cured restorative materials (Z100 MP and Filtek Z250), the resin matrix of which is based on copolymers of the above-mentioned monomers. Ethanol/water sorption/desorption was examined in both equilibrium and dynamic conditions in two adjacent sorption-desorption cycles. For all the materials studied, it was found that the amount of ethanol/water sorbed or desorbed was always larger than the corresponding one reported in literature in case of water immersion. It was also observed that the chemical structure of the monomers used for the preparation of the resins directly affects the amount of solvent sorbed or desorbed, as well as sorption kinetics, while desorption rate was nearly unaffected. In the case of composites studied, it seems that the sorption/desorption process is not influenced much by the presence of filler. Furthermore, diffusion coefficients calculated for the resins were larger than those of the composites and were always higher during desorption than during sorption. Finally, an interesting finding concerning the rate of ethanol/water sorption was that all resins and composites followed Fickian diffusion kinetics during almost the whole sorption curve; however, during desorption the experimental data were overestimated by the theoretical model. Instead, it was found that a dual diffusion-relaxation model was able to accurately predict experimental data during the whole desorption curve. Kinetic relaxation parameters, together with diffusion coefficients, are reported

  17. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  18. Medium temperature epoxy resin for immunocytochemistry: Quetol 651 with water.

    PubMed

    Abad, A R

    1992-02-01

    The addition of 1% water to the epoxy resin Quetol increased the labeling intensity of the sample. The significant decrease of the curing temperature of the epoxy resin may assist in preservation of antigens. Water may also reduce the cross-linkage of the resin allowing more antigen to be available to the antibodies. The modified Quetol resin is an option for use in immunocytochemistry studies.

  19. The Fracture of Thermosetting Resins after Exposure to Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and melamine - formaldehyde resins , epoxides, unsaturated polyesters, diallyl phthalate resins , furanes and certain kinds...AO0-A099 975 KINGSTON POLYTECHNIC KINGSTON UPON THAMES (ENGLAND) F/G 11/9 THE FRACTURE OF THERMOSETTING RESINS AFTER EXPOSURE TO WATER.(U) SEP 80 6...PERIOD COVERED The Fracture of Thermosetting Resins after First Annual Tech Report Exposure to Water Oct 79 - Oct 80 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  20. Investigation of Resin Systems for Improved Ablative Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-01

    carbon/oxygen atom ratio six times larger than phenol- formaldehyde currently employed as an ablative resin . Table VIII. Carbon Content of Various... Resins Empirical C atoms/- Weight % Weight % Resin System Formula 0 atoms Carbon Hydrocarbon Epoxide C 1 9 H 2 0 0 4 19/4 73. 1 79.5 Phenol- Formaldehyde C...AFSS-A Washington, D. C. 20546 . . . . . .. . . . -" . . . . . L NASA CR-54471 4176-6014-SOOOO FINAL REPORT INVESTIGATION OF RESIN SYSTEMS FOR

  1. Comparative study regarding friction coefficient for three epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihu, G.; Mihalache, I.; Graur, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Bria, V.

    2017-02-01

    Three commercial epoxy diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) were used in this study namely Epiphen RE4020-DE 4020 (Bostik), Epoxy Resin C (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch), and Epoxy Resin HT-2 (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch). Epoxy resins are often used for the friction purpose but their friction resistance is quite low and it is thus necessary to enhance their friction resistance. In this paper it is shown how load, sliding velocity, and distance affect friction coefficient of epoxy resins.

  2. Evaluation of an Experimental Adhesive Resin for Orthodontic Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Pavithra, D.; Hashem, M. I.; Alkhudhairy, F.; Elsharawy, M.; Divakar, D. D.; Vallittu, P. K.; Matinlinna, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an experimental adhesive resin for orthodontic bonding by measuring some the chemical and mechanical properties. The resin demonstrated increased values of nanohardness and elastic modulus, but the differences were not significant compared with those for the Transbond XT adhesives. The experimental adhesive resin could be a feasible choice or a substitute for the traditional bis-GMA-based resins used in bonding orthodontic attachments.

  3. 75 FR 17433 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... certain DC-DC controllers by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,315,190; 6,414...

  4. 75 FR 65651 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... DC-DC controllers by reason of infringement ] of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,315,190; 6,414...

  5. 75 FR 28283 - In the Matter of: Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation of certain DC-DC controllers by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,315...

  6. 75 FR 65655 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... DC-DC controllers by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,315,190; 6,414...

  7. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  8. Modelling, Simulation and Construction of a DC/DC Boost Power Converter: A School Experimental System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Hernandez-Guzman, V. M.; Saldana-Gonzalez, G.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders…

  9. DC-DC conversion powering schemes for the CMS tracker at Super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, K.; Feld, L.; Jussen, R.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Sammet, J.

    2010-07-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, houses the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. For the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the Super-LHC, however, a completely new silicon tracker will have to be constructed. One out of several major improvements currently under consideration is the implementation of a track trigger, with tracking information being provided to the first level trigger. Such an intelligent tracker design, utilising fast digital readout electronics, will most certainly lead to an increased power consumption, compared to today's tracker. In combination with the desire to reduce the amount of passive material inside the tracking volume and the impracticality to exchange or even add additional supply cables, a novel powering scheme will be inevitable. In this article a powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion is proposed, and requirements for the DC-DC converters are discussed. Studies of important DC-DC converter quantities such as the power efficiency, conducted and radiated noise levels, and material budget are presented, and a possible implementation of DC-DC buck converters into one proposed track trigger layout is sketched.

  10. Low noise DC to DC converters for the sLHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allongue, B.; Blanchot, G.; Faccio, F.; Fuentes, C.; Michelis, S.; Orlandi, S.

    2010-11-01

    The development of front-end systems for the ATLAS tracker at the sLHC is now in progress and the availability of radiation tolerant buck converter ASICs enables the implementation of DC to DC converter based powering schemes. The front-end systems powered in this manner will be exposed to the radiated and conducted noise emitted by the converters. The electromagnetic compatibility between DC to DC converters and ATLAS short strip tracker hybrid prototypes has been studied with specific susceptibility tests. Different DC to DC converter prototypes have been designed following a noise optimization methodology to match the noise requirements of these front-end systems. The DC to DC converter developed in this manner presents a negligible emission of noise that was confirmed by system tests on an ATLAS tracker front-end module prototype. As a result of this, power converters can now be integrated in close vicinity of front-end chips without compromising their overall noise performance.

  11. Single Event Burnout in DC-DC Converters for the LHC Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio H. Rivetta et al.

    2001-09-24

    High voltage transistors in DC-DC converters are prone to catastrophic Single Event Burnout in the LHC radiation environment. This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyze single event effects sensitivity in converters and proposes solutions based on de-rating input voltage and output current or voltage.

  12. Modelling, Simulation and Construction of a DC/DC Boost Power Converter: A School Experimental System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Hernandez-Guzman, V. M.; Saldana-Gonzalez, G.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders…

  13. Regulation of a lightweight high efficiency capacitator diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the regulation of a capacitor diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter has been developed which has only minor penalties in weight and efficiency. An auxiliary inductor is used, which only handles a fraction of the total power, to control the output voltage through a pulse width modulation method in a buck boost circuit.

  14. Regulation of a lightweight high efficiency capacitor diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the regulation of a capacitor diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter has been developed which has only minor penalties in weight and efficiency. An auxiliary inductor is used, which only handles a fraction of the total power, to control the output voltage through a pulse width modulation method in a buck boost circuit.

  15. Advances in the history of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Nieves; Ellacuria, Joseba; Soler, José Ignacio; Triana, Rodrigo; Ibaseta, Guillermo

    2003-11-01

    The use of composite resins as direct restoration material in posterior teeth has demonstrated a great increase, due to esthetic requirements and the controversy regarding the mercury content in silver amalgams. In this article, we have reviewed the composition modifications which have occurred in materials based on resins since their introduction over a half a century ago which have enabled great improvements in their physical and mechanical properties. Likewise, we have highlighted current lines of research, centered on finding the ideal material for replacing silver amalgam as a direct filling material.

  16. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  17. Technical assessment for quality control of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosnell, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

  18. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  19. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  20. Resin Dermatitis in a Car Factory

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis in a car assembly factory is described; it affected 50 workers who handled rubber weatherstrips coated with an adhesive. The adhesive was found to contain para-tertiary butyl phenol (P.T.B.P.) formaldehyde resin. Of those patch tested 70% gave positive reactions to the adhesive and 65% to the resin. Improved methods of handling and personal protection succeeded in arresting the occurrence of dermatitis. Barrier creams gave no protection in these circumstances. The episode illustrates the different preventive control methods which have to be tried when dealing with a simple skin hazard which cannot be abolished. Images PMID:5904100