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Sample records for dco defaults site

  1. A high-accuracy DCO with hybrid architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhao, Huidong; Qiao, Shushan; Hei, Yong; Zhang, Fuhai

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid digital-controlled oscillator (DCO) is proposed, which is used to improve the accuracy of the all-digital clock generator without reference source. The DCO with hybrid architecture consists of two parts: DCO_high and DCO_low. The DCO_high decides the coarse output frequency of DCO, and adopts the cascade structure to decrease the area. The DCO_low adopts the chain structure with three-state buffer, and decides the fine output frequency of DCO. Compared with traditional cascade DCO, the proposed hybrid DCO features higher precision with less inherent delay. Therefore the clock generator can tolerate process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variation and meet the needs of different conditions. The DCO is designed in SMIC 180 nm CMOS process with 0.021 mm2 chip area. The output frequency is adjusted from 15-120 MHz. The frequency error is less than 0.83% at 25 MHz with 1.6-1.8 V supply voltage and 0-80 °C temperature variations in TT, FF, SS corners. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306025, 61474135).

  2. Radio detection of interstellar DCO/+/. [deuterated formyl ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Buhl, D.

    1976-01-01

    The J = 1-0 transition of the deuterated formyl ion, DCO(+), has been detected in emission from NGC 2264 and DR 21(OH) and from the cool dust cloud L134. Estimates for the column-density ratios of H(C-13)O(+) to DCO(+) are given for NGC 2264 and DR 21(OH); lower limits for the ratios are given for five other clouds. The DCO(+) detection in L134 provides unique observational evidence in support of chemical fractionation. The L134 results also suggest that the dust clouds may act as repositories for primordial deuterium.

  3. Recombination of HCO+ and DCO+ ions with electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolov, I.; Plasil, R.; Kotrik, T.; Dohnal, P.; Glosik, J.

    2009-02-01

    Recombination of HCO+ and DCO+ ions with electrons was studied in afterglow plasma. The flowing afterglow with Langmuir probe (FALP) apparatus was used to measure the recombination rate coefficients and their temperature dependencies in the range 150-270 K. To obtain a recombination rate coefficient for a particular ion, the dependencies on partial pressures of gases used in the ion formation were measured. The variations of [alpha]HCO+(T) and [alpha]DCO+(T) seem to obey the power law: [alpha]HCO+(T) = (2.0 ± 0.6) × 10-7 (T/300)-1.3 cm3 s-1 and [alpha]DCO+(T) = (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10-7 (T/300)-1.1 cm3 s-1 over the studied temperature range.

  4. Comparisons of CAP88PC version 2.0 default parameters to site specific inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, M. A.; Courtney, J. C.; Charter, N.; Egan, T.

    2000-03-02

    The effects of varying the input for the CAP88PC Version 2.0 program on the total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) were determined for hypothetical releases from the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Argonne National Laboratory site on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Values for site specific meteorological conditions and agricultural production parameters were determined for the 80 km radius surrounding the HFEF. Four nuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs (with its short lived progeny, {sup 137m}Ba) were selected for this study; these are the radioactive materials most likely to be released from HFEF under normal or abnormal operating conditions. Use of site specific meteorological parameters of annual precipitation, average temperature, and the height of the inversion layer decreased the TEDE from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba up to 36%; reductions for other nuclides were less than 3%. Use of the site specific agricultural parameters reduced TEDE values between 7% and 49%, depending on the nuclide. Reductions are associated with decreased committed effective dose equivalents (CEDEs) from the ingestion pathway. This is not surprising since the HFEF is located well within the INEEL exclusion area, and the surrounding area closest to the release point is a high desert with limited agricultural diversity. Livestock and milk production are important in some counties at distances greater than 30 km from the HFEF.

  5. Observation of DCO^+^ in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, A.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Olofsson, H.

    1997-03-01

    We report on the detection of DCO^+^ and, tentatively, DCN in their rotational J=2-1 transitions towards the N159 region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These detections of deuterated molecules in an extragalactic source complement those already published by Chin et al. (1996). The resulting estimate of the HCO^+^/DCO^+^ abundance ratio is 120_-60_^+60^ (total 2σ uncertainties). Assuming a Galactic D/H ratio for the LMC leads to an estimate of the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas and an upper limit to the fractional electron abundance of 10-27K and a few x10^-5^, respectively. The temperature estimate is in accordance with excitation calculations using a number of other molecules. The HCO^+^/DCO^+^ abundance ratio in N159 is a factor of a few higher than in cores of Galactic molecular clouds. This is probably due to a somewhat higher gas temperature and possibly a considerably higher electron abundance in N159. The estimated HCN/DCN abundance ratio is 60_-35_^+50^ (total 2σ uncertainties).

  6. Interactions with the Bifunctional Interface of the Transcriptional Coactivator DCoH1 Are Kinetically Regulated

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongli; Coco, Matthew W.; Rose, Robert B.

    2014-12-23

    Pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) is a highly conserved enzyme that evolved a second, unrelated function in mammals, as a transcriptional coactivator. As a coactivator, PCD is known as DCoH or dimerization cofactor of the transcription factor HNF-1. These two activities are associated with a change in oligomeric state: from two dimers interacting as an enzyme in the cytoplasm to a dimer interacting with a dimer of HNF-1 in the nucleus. The same interface of DCoH forms both complexes. To determine how DCoH partitions between its two functions, we studied in this paper the folding and stability of the DCoH homotetramer. We show that the DCoH1 homotetramer is kinetically trapped, meaning once it forms it will not dissociate to interact with HNF-1. In contrast, DCoH2, a paralog of DCoH1, unfolds within hours. A simple mutation in the interface of DCoH2 from Ser-51 to Thr, as found in DCoH1, increases the kinetic stability by 9 orders of magnitude, to τ½ ~2 million years. This suggests that the DCoH1·HNF-1 complex must co-fold to interact. We conclude that simple mutations can dramatically affect the dissociation kinetics of a complex. Residue 51 represents a “kinetic hot spot” instead of a “thermodynamic hot spot.” Kinetic regulation allows PCD to adopt two distinct functions. Finally, mutations in DCoH1 associated with diabetes affect both functions of DCoH1, perhaps by disrupting the balance between the two DCoH complexes.

  7. Interactions with the Bifunctional Interface of the Transcriptional Coactivator DCoH1 Are Kinetically Regulated

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dongli; Coco, Matthew W.; Rose, Robert B.

    2014-12-23

    Pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase (PCD) is a highly conserved enzyme that evolved a second, unrelated function in mammals, as a transcriptional coactivator. As a coactivator, PCD is known as DCoH or dimerization cofactor of the transcription factor HNF-1. These two activities are associated with a change in oligomeric state: from two dimers interacting as an enzyme in the cytoplasm to a dimer interacting with a dimer of HNF-1 in the nucleus. The same interface of DCoH forms both complexes. To determine how DCoH partitions between its two functions, we studied in this paper the folding and stability of the DCoH homotetramer. Wemore » show that the DCoH1 homotetramer is kinetically trapped, meaning once it forms it will not dissociate to interact with HNF-1. In contrast, DCoH2, a paralog of DCoH1, unfolds within hours. A simple mutation in the interface of DCoH2 from Ser-51 to Thr, as found in DCoH1, increases the kinetic stability by 9 orders of magnitude, to τ½ ~2 million years. This suggests that the DCoH1·HNF-1 complex must co-fold to interact. We conclude that simple mutations can dramatically affect the dissociation kinetics of a complex. Residue 51 represents a “kinetic hot spot” instead of a “thermodynamic hot spot.” Kinetic regulation allows PCD to adopt two distinct functions. Finally, mutations in DCoH1 associated with diabetes affect both functions of DCoH1, perhaps by disrupting the balance between the two DCoH complexes.« less

  8. DCO-VIVO: A Collaborative Data Platform for the Deep Carbon Science Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; West, P.; Erickson, J. S.; Ma, X.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a decade-long scientific endeavor to understand carbon in the complex deep Earth system. Thousands of DCO scientists from institutions across the globe are organized into communities representing four domains of exploration: Extreme Physics and Chemistry, Reservoirs and Fluxes, Deep Energy, and Deep Life. Cross-community and cross-disciplinary collaboration is one of the most distinctive features in DCO's flexible research framework. VIVO is an open-source Semantic Web platform that facilitates cross-institutional researcher and research discovery. it includes a number of standard ontologies that interconnect people, organizations, publications, activities, locations, and other entities of research interest to enable browsing, searching, visualizing, and generating Linked Open (research) Data. The DCO-VIVO solution expedites research collaboration between DCO scientists and communities. Based on DCO's specific requirements, the DCO Data Science team developed a series of extensions to the VIVO platform including extending the VIVO information model, extended query over the semantic information within VIVO, integration with other open source collaborative environments and data management systems, using single sign-on, assigning of unique Handles to DCO objects, and publication and dataset ingesting extensions using existing publication systems. We present here the iterative development of these requirements that are now in daily use by the DCO community of scientists for research reporting, information sharing, and resource discovery in support of research activities and program management.

  9. 17 CFR Appendix to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 39, App. Appendix to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations ER08NO11.001 ER08NO11.002...

  10. 17 CFR Appendix to Part 39 - Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form DCO Derivatives Clearing... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 39, App. Appendix to Part 39—Form DCO Derivatives Clearing Organization Application for Registrations ER08NO11.001 ER08NO11.002...

  11. Distributed All-Optical Sensor to Detect dCO2 in Aqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, S.; Coelho, J.; Melo, L.; Davies, B.; Ahmed, F.; Bao, B.; Wild, P.; Risk, D. A.; Sinton, D.; Jun, M.

    2012-12-01

    Already a proven technology for temperature and stress measurements, an all-optical sensor to detect dCO2 is being developed for deployment in challenging environments. Optical sensors function under high pressure, do not require electronics and therefore experience no magnetic interference. They are also able to transmit signals over long distances with minimal losses. The dCO2 sensor's principal application is in measurement monitoring and verification of carbon capture and storage sites; however, it could also be useful in ocean, fresh water, and transition environments. The objective for the first phase of development was to detect a CO2 signal in laboratory tests. The developmental program incorporated experiments to detect CO2 under high pressure (1400 psi) in aqueous environments. Laboratory testing involved a custom pressure cell, off-the-shelf and custom long period gratings written in SMF125 fiber. Femptosecond laser micromachining was used to test alternative long period grating (LPG) and cutout shapes to maximize evanescent field interaction with the environment. A comprehensive program of geochemical modeling using PHREEQC 2 was used to identify the diversity of species in environments of interest that could exert confounding influence. Purchased UV-LPG responded to changes in concentration of scCO2 in brine at high pressure. Signal differences between CO2-saturated brine and pure brine were also noted under the same, high pressure conditions. Geochemical modeling software, PHREEQC 2, revealed a diversity of species in environments of interest whose concentrations varied strongly with temperature and pH. The modeling program's detailed characterization of environments informed work currently being undertaken as part of Phase 2, to develop a CO2-selective membrane to filter out measurement artifact.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR DCO{sup +} AS A PROBE OF IONIZATION IN THE WARM DISK SURFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Hersant, Franck; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    In this Letter, we model the chemistry of DCO{sup +} in protoplanetary disks. We find that the overall distribution of the DCO{sup +} abundance is qualitatively similar to that of CO but is dominated by a thin layer located at the inner disk surface. To understand its distribution, we investigate the different key gas-phase deuteration pathways that can lead to the formation of DCO{sup +}. Our analysis shows that the recent update in the exothermicity of the reaction involving CH{sub 2}D{sup +} as a parent molecule of DCO{sup +} favors deuterium fractionation in warmer conditions. As a result, the formation of DCO{sup +} is enhanced in the inner warm surface layers of the disk where X-ray ionization occurs. Our analysis points out that DCO{sup +} is not a reliable tracer of the CO snow line as previously suggested. We thus predict that DCO{sup +} is a tracer of active deuterium and, in particular, X-ray ionization of the inner disk.

  13. Observations of DCO/plus/ - The electron abundance in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelin, M.; Langer, W. D.; Snell, R. L.; Wootten, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    The J equals 2-1 rotational line of DCO(plus) has been definitely detected in five molecular clouds, including three dark clouds, L63, L134, and L134 N, and marginally detected in four others. The DCO(plus) emission has been mapped in L134 N and extends over a region of 3 arcmin. The DCO(plus)/HCO(plus) abundance ratio found at the centers of dark clouds is large and implies a fractional electron abundance of less than one hundred millionth. This low electron density sets constraints on the metals and possibly CO as well as on the hydrogen density.

  14. Modified μ-law Companding For LED Nonlinearity Alleviation in DCO-OFDM VLC System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chaowen; Wang, Jianping; Lu, Huimin; Shi, Yinjia

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the direct current (DC)-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) visible light communication (VLC) system using modified μ-law companding is modeled and investigated. The simulation results reveal that the high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) induced by multi-carrier modulation (MCM) and DC bias, can aggravate signal distortion that is caused by the nonlinear characteristic of light emitting diode (LED). Thus, a pre-distortion method based on modification of μ-law companding is proposed for DCO-OFDM VLC system to resolve this problem. With the proposed method, the system can achieve a good performance of PAPR reduction and bit error rate (BER), compared to the original DCO-OFDM VLC system. It is demonstrated that the modified μ-law companding is appropriate to alleviate LED nonlinearity without degradation of the signal quality in DCO-OFDM VLC system.

  15. Fluid therapy LiDCO controlled trial-optimization of volume resuscitation of extensively burned patients through noninvasive continuous real-time hemodynamic monitoring LiDCO.

    PubMed

    Tokarik, Monika; Sjöberg, Folke; Balik, Martin; Pafcuga, Igor; Broz, Ludomir

    2013-01-01

    This pilot trial aims at gaining support for the optimization of acute burn resuscitation through noninvasive continuous real-time hemodynamic monitoring using arterial pulse contour analysis. A group of 21 burned patients meeting preliminary criteria (age range 18-75 years with second- third- degree burns and TBSA ≥10-75%) was randomized during 2010. A hemodynamic monitoring through lithium dilution cardiac output was used in 10 randomized patients (LiDCO group), whereas those without LiDCO monitoring were defined as the control group. The modified Brooke/Parkland formula as a starting resuscitative formula, balanced crystalloids as the initial solutions, urine output of 0.5 ml/kg/hr as a crucial value of adequate intravascular filling were used in both groups. Additionally, the volume and vasopressor/inotropic support were based on dynamic preload parameters in the LiDCO group in the case of circulatory instability and oligouria. Statistical analysis was done using t-tests. Within the first 24 hours postburn, a significantly lower consumption of crystalloids was registered in LiDCO group (P = .04). The fluid balance under LiDCO control in combination with hourly diuresis contributed to reducing the cumulative fluid balance approximately by 10% compared with fluid management based on standard monitoring parameters. The amount of applied solutions in the LiDCO group got closer to Brooke formula whereas the urine output was at the same level in both groups (0.8 ml/kg/hr). The new finding in this study is that when a fluid resuscitation is based on the arterial waveform analysis, the initial fluid volume provided was significantly lower than that delivered on the basis of physician-directed fluid resuscitation (by urine output and mean arterial pressure).

  16. Double DCO+ Rings Reveal CO Ice Desorption in the Outer Disk Around IM Lup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Furuya, Kenji; Loomis, Ryan; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C18O 2-1, H13CO+ 3-2 and DCO+ 3-2 emission at ˜0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO+ line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ˜0.″6 and 2″ (˜90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO+ ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO+ ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H2D+ to form the observed DCO+ outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO+ emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  17. DOUBLE DCO{sup +} RINGS REVEAL CO ICE DESORPTION IN THE OUTER DISK AROUND IM LUP

    SciTech Connect

    Öberg, Karin I.; Loomis, Ryan; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David J.; Furuya, Kenji; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Aikawa, Yuri

    2015-09-10

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O 2–1, H{sup 13}CO{sup +} 3–2 and DCO{sup +} 3–2 emission at ∼0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO{sup +} line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ∼0.″6 and 2″ (∼90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO{sup +} ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO{sup +} ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H{sub 2}D{sup +} to form the observed DCO{sup +} outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO{sup +} emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  18. Toward efficient default reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Etherington, D.W.; Crawford, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Early work on default reasoning aimed to formalize the notion of quickly {open_quotes}jumping to conclusions{close_quotes}. Unfortunately, the resulting formalisms have proven more computational complex than classical logics. This has dramatically limited the applicability of formal methods to real problems involving defaults. The complexity of consistency checking is one of the two problems that must be addressed to reduce the complexity of default reasoning. We propose to approximate consistency checking using a novel synthesis of limited contexts and fast incomplete checks, and argue that this combination overcomes the limitations of its component parts. Our approach trades correctness for speed, but we argue that the nature of default reasoning makes this trade relatively inexpensive and intuitively plausible. We present a prototype implementation of a default reasoner based on these ideas, and a preliminary empirical evaluation.

  19. Advancing subsurface biosphere and paleoclimate research: ECORD-ICDP-DCO-J-DESC-MagellanPlus Workshop Series Program Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, H. J.; de Leeuw, J.; Hinrichs, K.-U.; Inagaki, F.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2015-12-01

    The proper pre-drilling preparation, on-site acquisition and post-drilling preservation of high-quality subsurface samples are crucial to ensure significant progress in the scientifically and societally important areas of subsurface biosphere and paleoclimate research. Two of the four research themes of IODP and ICDP and one of the four research areas of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) focus on the subsurface biosphere. Increasing understanding of paleoclimate is a central goal of IODP and incorporated within the scope of the IMPRESS program, the successor of the IMAGES program. Therefore, the goal of our IODP-ICDP-DCO-J-DESC-MagellanPlus-sponsored workshop was to help advance deep biosphere and paleoclimate research by identifying needed improvements in scientific drilling planning and available technology, sample collection and initial analysis, and long-term storage of subsurface samples and data. Success in these areas will (a) avoid biological and other contamination during drilling, sampling, storage and shipboard/shore-based experiments; (b) build a repository and database of high-quality subsurface samples for microbiological and paleoclimate research available for the scientific community world-wide over the next decades; and (c) standardize, as much as possible, microbiological and paleoclimate drilling, sampling and storage workflows to allow results and data to be comparable across both space and time. A result of this workshop is the development and suggested implementation of new advanced methods and technologies to collect high-quality samples and data for the deep biosphere and paleoclimate scientific communities to optimize expected substantial progress in these fields. The members of this workshop will enhance communication within the scientific drilling community by crafting a handbook focused on pre-drilling, drilling and post-drilling operations.

  20. An ALMA Survey of DCN/H13CN and DCO+/H13CO+ in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Furuya, Kenji; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Loomis, Ryan A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-02-01

    The deuterium enrichment of molecules is sensitive to their formation environment. Constraining patterns of deuterium chemistry in protoplanetary disks is therefore useful for probing how material is inherited or reprocessed throughout the stages of star and planet formation. We present ALMA observations at ˜0.″6 resolution of DCO+, H13CO+, DCN, and H13CN in the full disks around T Tauri stars AS 209 and IM Lup, in the transition disks around T Tauri stars V4046 Sgr and LkCa 15, and in the full disks around Herbig Ae stars MWC 480 and HD 163296. We also present ALMA observations of HCN in the IM Lup disk. DCN, DCO+, and H13CO+ are detected in all disks, and H13CN in all but the IM Lup disk. We find efficient deuterium fractionation for the sample, with estimates of disk-averaged DCO+/HCO+ and DCN/HCN abundance ratios ranging from ˜0.02-0.06 and ˜0.005-0.08, respectively, which is comparable to values reported for other interstellar environments. The relative distributions of DCN and DCO+ vary between disks, suggesting that multiple formation pathways may be needed to explain the diverse emission morphologies. In addition, gaps and rings observed in both H13CO+ and DCO+ emission provide new evidence that DCO+ bears a complex relationship with the location of the midplane CO snowline.

  1. Default Drug Doses in Anesthesia Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Luis I; Smaka, Todd J; Mahla, Michael; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    In the United States, anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are well established, especially within academic practices. Many hospitals are replacing their stand-alone AIMS during migration to an enterprise-wide electronic health record. This presents an opportunity to review choices made during the original implementation, based on actual usage. One area amenable to this informatics approach is the configuration in the AIMS of quick buttons for typical drug doses. The use of such short cuts, as opposed to manual typing of doses, simplifies and may improve the accuracy of drug documentation within the AIMS. We analyzed administration data from 3 different institutions, 2 of which had empirically configured default doses, and one in which defaults had not been set up. Our first hypothesis was that most (ie, >50%) of drugs would need at least one change to the existing defaults. Our second hypothesis was that for most (>50%) drugs, the 4 most common doses at the site lacking defaults would be included among the most common doses at the 2 sites with defaults. If true, this would suggest that having default doses did not affect the typical administration behavior of providers. The frequency distribution of doses for all drugs was determined, and the 4 most common doses representing at least 5% of total administrations for each drug were identified. The appropriateness of the current defaults was determined by the number of changes (0-4) required to match actual usage at the 2 hospitals with defaults. At the institution without defaults, the most frequent doses for the 20 most commonly administered drugs were compared with the default doses at the other institutions. At the 2 institutions with defaults, 84.7% and 77.5% of drugs required at least 1 change in the default drug doses (P < 10 for both compared with 50%), confirming our first hypothesis. At the institution lacking the default drug doses, 100% of the 20 most commonly administered doses (representing

  2. DCoH: A novel biomarker for diagnosing acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varsha

    2016-10-01

    Initial diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is usually based on measuring serum-creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels; however such measurements are still poor in identifying renal injuries at initial stages. These standard matrices are not enough to monitor the outcome and progression of AKI. The prognosis prevents proper treatment and timely delay in providing putative therapeutic agents. The cost effective therapies to get delayed, patient health gets compromised and ultimately requires renal transplant due to end-stage renal disease, which is another major problematic factor due to shortage kidney donors. To establish effective therapies for AKI the need will be facilitated by developing and identifying reliable, sensitive biomarkers which can be detected early during all stages of AKI, even during preclinical and clinical studies. Although reaching to human clinical trials takes years of thorough evaluations, preliminary studies should be carried out effectively by: (a) Employing cell culture analysis, (b) use of AKI animal models, studying various gene regulated networks, and biomarkers, and (c) patient serum sampling and testing. As elevated phenylalanine are indicative of AKI onset within 4h, its levels is controlled, 4a-Hydroxy-tetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 (DCoH). There is a possibility of targeting DCoH to the current bedside list of biomarkers involved in AKI onset.

  3. 24 CFR 203.331 - Definition of default, date of default, and requirement of notice of default to HUD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... default, and requirement of notice of default to HUD. (a) Default. If the mortgagor fails to make any... each month, on a day prescribed by HUD, the mortgagee shall report to HUD all mortgages that were in default on the last day of the month, or that were reported as in default the previous month. The report...

  4. 24 CFR 203.467 - Definition of default, date of default, and requirement of notice of default to HUD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... default, and requirement of notice of default to HUD. (a) Default. If the mortgagor fails to make any... each month, on a day prescribed by HUD, the mortgagee shall report to HUD all mortgages that were in default on the last day of the month, or that were reported as in default the previous month. The report...

  5. Weight-correction of carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) reduces its inter-individual variability and improves its correlation with blood carbon dioxide levels in neonates receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Belteki, Gusztav; Lin, Benjamin; Morley, Colin J

    2017-10-01

    Carbon-dioxide elimination during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is thought to be proportional to the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2 ) which is calculated as frequency x (tidal volume)(2) . DCO2 can be used to as an indicator of CO2 elimination but values obtained in different patients cannot be directly compared. To analyze the relationship between DCO2 , the weight-corrected DCO2 (DCO2 corr) and blood gas PCO2 values obtained from infants receiving HFOV. DCO2 data were obtained from 14 infants at 1/s sampling rate and the mean DCO2 was determined over 10 min periods preceding the time of the blood gas. DCO2 corr was calculated by dividing the DCO2 by the square of the body weight in kg. Weight-correction significantly reduced the inter-individual variability of DCO2 . When data from all the babies were combined, standard DCO2 showed no correlation with PCO2 but DCO2 corr showed a weak but statistically significant inverse correlation. The correlation was better when the endotracheal leak was <10%. There was significant inverse but weaker correlation between the HFOV tidal volume (VThf) and the PCO2 . In any baby, DCO2 corr >50 mL(2) /sec/kg(2) or VThf > 2.5 mL/kg was rarely needed to avoid hypercapnia. Weight-correction of DCO2 values improved its comparability between patients. Weight-corrected DCO2 correlated better with PCO2 than uncorrected DCO2 but the correlation was weak. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Default Generalisation in Connectionist Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A potential problem for connectionist accounts of inflectional morphology is the need to learn a "default" inflection. This article demonstrates that given appropriate architectural assumptions, connectionist models are capable of learning a default category and generalizing as required, even in the absence of superior type frequency.…

  7. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  8. Optimal Defaults and Active Decisions*

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Gabriel D.; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Defaults often have a large influence on consumer decisions. We identify an overlooked but practical alternative to defaults: requiring individuals to make an explicit choice for themselves. We study such “active decisions” in the context of 401(k) saving. We find that compelling new hires to make active decisions about 401(k) enrollment raises the initial fraction that enroll by 28 percentage points relative to a standard opt-in enrollment procedure, producing a savings distribution three months after hire that would take 30 months to achieve under standard enrollment. We also present a model of 401(k) enrollment and derive conditions under which the optimal enrollment regime is automatic enrollment (i.e., default enrollment), standard enrollment (i.e., default non-enrollment), or active decisions (i.e., no default and compulsory choice). Active decisions are optimal when consumers have a strong propensity to procrastinate and savings preferences are highly heterogeneous. Financial illiteracy, however, favors default enrollment over active decision enrollment. PMID:20041043

  9. Connectivity gradients between the default mode and attention control networks.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Ferguson, Michael A; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have shown reduced activity within the default mode network during attention-demanding tasks. The network circuitry underlying this suppression remains unclear. Proposed hypotheses include an attentional switch in the right anterior insula and reciprocal inhibition between the default mode and attention control networks. We analyzed resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) data from 1278 subjects from 26 sites and constructed whole-brain maps of functional connectivity between 7266 regions of interest (ROIs) covering the gray matter at ~5 mm resolution. ROIs belonging to the default mode network and attention control network were identified based on correlation to six published seed locations. Spatial heterogeneity of correlation between the default mode and attention control networks was observed, with smoothly varying gradients in every hub of both networks that ranged smoothly from weakly but significantly anticorrelated to positively correlated. Such gradients were reproduced in 3 separate groups of subjects. Anticorrelated subregions were identified in major hubs of both networks. Between-network connectivity gradients strengthen with age during late adolescence and early adulthood, with associated sharpening of the boundaries of the default mode network, integration of the insula and cingulate with frontoparietal attentional regions, and decreasing correlation between the default mode and attention control networks with age.

  10. A Three-dimensional View of Turbulence: Constraints on Turbulent Motions in the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Using DCO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Rose, Sanaea C.; Simon, Jacob B.; Qi, Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Kóspál, Ágnes; Wilner, David J.; Chiang, Eugene; Armitage, Philip J.; Bai, Xue-ning

    2017-07-01

    Gas kinematics are an important part of the planet formation process. Turbulence influences planetesimal growth and migration from the scale of submicron dust grains through gas-giant planets. Radio observations of resolved molecular line emission can directly measure this non-thermal motion and, taking advantage of the layered chemical structure of disks, different molecular lines can be combined to map the turbulence throughout the vertical extent of a protoplanetary disk. Here we present ALMA observations of three molecules (DCO+(3-2), C18O(2-1) and CO(2-1)) from the disk around HD 163296. We are able to place stringent upper limits (v turb < 0.06c s , <0.05c s , and <0.04c s for CO(2-1), C18O(2-1), and DCO+(3-2) respectively), corresponding to α ≲ 3 × 10-3, similar to our prior limit derived from CO(3-2). This indicates that there is little turbulence throughout the vertical extent of the disk, contrary to theoretical predictions based on the magnetorotational instability and gravitoturbulence. In modeling the DCO+ emission, we also find that it is confined to three concentric rings at 65.7 ± 0.9 au, {149.9}-0.7+0.5 {au}, and 259 ± 1 au, indicative of a complex chemical environment.

  11. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  12. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  13. 38 CFR 36.4281 - Refunding of loans in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Servicing, Liquidation of Security and Claim § 36.4281 Refunding of loans in default... transfer and assign the loan and the security therefor to the Secretary or to another designated by him or...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4281 - Refunding of loans in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Servicing, Liquidation of Security and Claim § 36.4281 Refunding of loans in default... transfer and assign the loan and the security therefor to the Secretary or to another designated by him or...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4281 - Refunding of loans in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Servicing, Liquidation of Security and Claim § 36.4281 Refunding of loans in default... transfer and assign the loan and the security therefor to the Secretary or to another designated by him or...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4281 - Refunding of loans in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Servicing, Liquidation of Security and Claim § 36.4281 Refunding of loans in default... transfer and assign the loan and the security therefor to the Secretary or to another designated by him or...

  17. 38 CFR 36.4281 - Refunding of loans in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Servicing, Liquidation of Security and Claim § 36.4281 Refunding of loans in default... transfer and assign the loan and the security therefor to the Secretary or to another designated by him or...

  18. Monitoring transient elastic energy storage within the rotary motors of single FoF1-ATP synthase by DCO-ALEX FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G.; Zarrabi, Nawid; Börsch, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase provides the 'chemical energy currency' adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for living cells. Catalysis is driven by mechanochemical coupling of subunit rotation within the enzyme with conformational changes in the three ATP binding sites. Proton translocation through the membrane-bound Fo part of ATP synthase powers a 10-step rotary motion of the ring of c subunits. This rotation is transmitted to the γ and ɛ subunits of the F1 part. Because γ and ɛ subunits rotate in 120° steps, we aim to unravel this symmetry mismatch by real time monitoring subunit rotation using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). One fluorophore is attached specifically to the F1 motor, another one to the Fo motor of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme. Photophysical artifacts due to spectral fluctuations of the single fluorophores are minimized by a previously developed duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation scheme (DCO-ALEX). We report the detection of reversible elastic deformations between the rotor parts of Fo and F1 and estimate the maximum angular displacement during the load-free rotation using Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. 17 CFR 201.155 - Default; motion to set aside default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Default; motion to set aside... RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.155 Default; motion to set aside default. (a) A... the hearing officer pursuant to § 201.180(b). (b) A motion to set aside a default shall be made...

  20. 49 CFR 260.49 - Avoiding defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Avoiding defaults. 260.49 Section 260.49... Avoiding defaults. Borrowers are encouraged to contact the Administrator prior to the occurrence of an event of default to explore possible avenues for avoiding such an occurrence. ...

  1. 19 CFR 210.16 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abuse of process under § 210.4(c) or failure to make or cooperate in discovery. A motion for a finding of default as a sanction for abuse of process or failure to make or cooperate in discovery shall be... why it should not be found in default. (2) A party may be found in default as a sanction for abuse...

  2. 10 CFR 820.33 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Default order. 820.33 Section 820.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.33 Default order. (a) Default. The Presiding Officer, upon motion by a party or the filing of a Notice of Intent to issue...

  3. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Default. 128.4 Section 128.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.4 Default. (a) Failure to answer. If the respondent fails to answer the charging letter, the respondent may be held in default. The case shall then be...

  4. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Default. 128.4 Section 128.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.4 Default. (a) Failure to answer. If the respondent fails to answer the charging letter, the respondent may be held in default. The case shall then be...

  5. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Default. 128.4 Section 128.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.4 Default. (a) Failure to answer. If the respondent fails to answer the charging letter, the respondent may be held in default. The case shall then be...

  6. 10 CFR 110.110 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 110.110 Section 110.110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Hearings § 110.110 Default. When a participant fails to act within a specified time, the presiding officer may consider him in default, issue...

  7. 19 CFR 210.16 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... abuse of process under § 210.4(c) or failure to make or cooperate in discovery. A motion for a finding of default as a sanction for abuse of process or failure to make or cooperate in discovery shall be... why it should not be found in default. (2) A party may be found in default as a sanction for abuse...

  8. Temporal Reasoning and Default Logics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    cases. But the examples that break these logics always seem to have an artificial, or even perverse , nature to them. Davis’s demonstration that...since we are so controlled in our use of the default rules, we can expect better behavior from the three logics. The point of the rest of the paper...pred- icates) pcause, event, persist, point, contradict, clipped, , < .To the extent we could then precisely characterize the programs 1i/ behavior we

  9. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans’ data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower’s debt level. PMID:26425854

  10. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  11. DCoE in Action. Volume 4, Number 6, June 2011. Community Partnerships: Working Together to Support Service Members, Veterans, Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    resilience, recovery and reintegration, it can often be hard for them to choose what best fits their needs,” said Dr. Lolita O’Donnell, deputy director... Lolita O’Donnell, DCoE deputy director, strategic communications (outreach), participated in focused academic outreach at George Mason University by

  12. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause...

  13. 10 CFR 800.304 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Default. 800.304 Section 800.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.304 Default. (a) In the event that the borrower fails to perform...

  14. 10 CFR 800.304 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Default. 800.304 Section 800.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.304 Default. (a) In the event that the borrower fails to perform...

  15. 10 CFR 800.304 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Default. 800.304 Section 800.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.304 Default. (a) In the event that the borrower fails to perform...

  16. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  17. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  18. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  19. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  20. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  1. Study of Guaranteed Student Loan Default Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.

    Data on Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program defaults for 1965 to early 1981 are presented, as are characteristics of GSL lenders. Default rate data are provided by state agency, year of birth of loan recipient, last academic year, year of last loan, elapsed time between last loan and current status, institutional type and control, and…

  2. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... and shall be served upon all parties. The alleged defaulting party shall have twenty (20) days from...) days after a final order issued upon default. If the complaint is for the revocation or suspension of...

  3. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... and shall be served upon all parties. The alleged defaulting party shall have twenty (20) days from...) days after a final order issued upon default. If the complaint is for the revocation or suspension of...

  4. 12 CFR 108.8 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Default. 108.8 Section 108.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for...

  5. 7 CFR 2201.33 - Defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Defaults. 2201.33 Section 2201.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.33 Defaults. (a) In determining...

  6. 7 CFR 2201.33 - Defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Defaults. 2201.33 Section 2201.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.33 Defaults. (a) In determining...

  7. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... investor for any premium paid. (b) If a CDC defaults on a Debenture, SBA generally shall limit its recovery to the payments made by the small business to the CDC on the loan made from the Debenture proceeds, and the collateral securing the defaulted loan. However, SBA will look to the CDC for the...

  8. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... investor for any premium paid. (b) If a CDC defaults on a Debenture, SBA generally shall limit its recovery to the payments made by the small business to the CDC on the loan made from the Debenture proceeds, and the collateral securing the defaulted loan. However, SBA will look to the CDC for the...

  9. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... investor for any premium paid. (b) If a CDC defaults on a Debenture, SBA generally shall limit its recovery to the payments made by the small business to the CDC on the loan made from the Debenture proceeds, and the collateral securing the defaulted loan. However, SBA will look to the CDC for the...

  10. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... investor for any premium paid. (b) If a CDC defaults on a Debenture, SBA generally shall limit its recovery to the payments made by the small business to the CDC on the loan made from the Debenture proceeds, and the collateral securing the defaulted loan. However, SBA will look to the CDC for the...

  11. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... investor for any premium paid. (b) If a CDC defaults on a Debenture, SBA generally shall limit its recovery to the payments made by the small business to the CDC on the loan made from the Debenture proceeds, and the collateral securing the defaulted loan. However, SBA will look to the CDC for the...

  12. 12 CFR 508.8 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Default. 508.8 Section 508.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for...

  13. 12 CFR 508.8 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Default. 508.8 Section 508.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for...

  14. 12 CFR 508.8 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 508.8 Section 508.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for...

  15. 12 CFR 108.8 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Default. 108.8 Section 108.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for...

  16. 20 CFR 725.605 - Defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... injury occurred. In case such principal place of business or office is in the District of Columbia, a... law judge, if a hearing is requested, shall issue a supplementary order declaring the amount of the default, if any. In cases where a lump-sum award has been made, if the payment in default is an...

  17. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause...

  18. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause...

  19. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause...

  20. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause...

  1. 40 CFR 22.17 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Prehearing... the assessment of a penalty or the imposition of other relief against a defaulting party, the movant... cause shown, the Presiding Officer may set aside a default order. (d) Payment of penalty; effective date...

  2. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section 886.314 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.314 Financial default. In the event of a...

  3. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section 886.314 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.314 Financial default. In the event of a...

  4. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section 886.314 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.314 Financial default. In the event of a...

  5. 24 CFR 320.31 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES Bond-Type Securities § 320.31 Default. Upon default of the issuer, the Association has the right, pursuant to section 306(g) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1721(g)), to take title to the mortgages...

  6. 24 CFR 320.15 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.15 Default. (a) Issuer default. Any failure or inability of the..., or other interest of the issuer in the pooled mortgages; and (3) Exercise such other rights and...

  7. Computing default logic extensions: An implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, A.P.; Foo, N.Y.; Antoniou, G.

    1996-12-31

    Default logic is a useful formalism for reasoning with incomplete information, its intuitive characteristics making it particularly suited for applications. Exten is a system currently capable of computing first-order Reiter, Justified and Constrained default extensions. It is part of a project to create a full default logic workbench, with future work involving query evaluation, further support for default variants and integration with belief revision. As such, it has been implemented in an object-oriented manner, and is designed to facilitate experimentation. The interface is based around a small language, giving the user flexibility in editing default theories and changing various parameters (such as compute next n extensions or carry out {open_quote}success{close_quote} checks every m steps).

  8. Hedging contingent claims on defaultable assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beumee, Johan G. B.

    2001-02-01

    Following the JLT model (Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull), this paper represents a defaultable asset as a continuous stochastic process plus a Poisson jump modelling the bankruptcy event. It is shown that if the recovery condition is known beforehand, a contingent claim can be hedged by a position in the defaultable asset and a risk-free instrument. In addition, the claim must satisfy a jump-diffusion equation and a risk-neutral representation is obtained using this equation. Examples include the price of a risky zero-coupon bond with a fixed recovery value and the prices of risky Call/Put options on corporate instruments (instrument terminates upon default).

  9. The Art Institutes' Default Management Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, William J.; Blackmun, Ellen V.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the student loan default management plan of the Art Institutes. The plan includes a student financial plan worksheet, a student financial planner, and activities for students regarding their loan responsibilities. (JOW)

  10. 34 CFR 668.217 - Default prevention plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default prevention plans. 668.217 Section 668.217... Default prevention plans. (a) First year. (1) If your cohort default rate is equal to or greater than 30 percent you must establish a default prevention task force that prepares a plan to— (i) Identify the...

  11. 34 CFR 668.217 - Default prevention plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default prevention plans. 668.217 Section 668.217... Default prevention plans. (a) First year. (1) If your cohort default rate is equal to or greater than 30 percent you must establish a default prevention task force that prepares a plan to— (i) Identify the...

  12. On the Inference of the Cosmic-ray Ionization Rate ζ from the HCO+-to-DCO+ Abundance Ratio: The Effect of Nuclear Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Bergner, Jennifer B.; Le Gal, Romane; Öberg, Karin I.; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric

    2016-10-01

    The chemistry of dense interstellar regions was analyzed using a time-dependent gas-grain astrochemical simulation and a new chemical network that incorporates deuterated chemistry, taking into account nuclear spin states for the hydrogen chemistry and its deuterated isotopologues. With this new network, the utility of the [HCO+]/[DCO+] abundance ratio as a probe of the cosmic-ray ionization rate has been re-examined, with special attention paid to the effect of the initial value of the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen. After discussing the use of the probe for cold cores, we compare our results with previous theoretical and observational results for a molecular cloud close to the supernova remnant W51C, which is thought to have an enhanced cosmic-ray ionization rate ζ caused by the nearby γ-ray source. In addition, we attempt to use our approach to estimate the cosmic-ray ionization rate for L1174, a dense core with an embedded star. Beyond the previously known sensitivity of [HCO+]/[DCO+] to ζ, we demonstrate its additional dependence on the initial OPR and, secondarily, on the age of the source, its temperature, and its density. We conclude that the usefulness of the [HCO+]/[DCO+] abundance ratio in constraining the cosmic-ray ionization rate in dense regions increases with the age of the source and the ionization rate as the ratio becomes far less sensitive to the initial value of the OPR.

  13. Contract Terminations for Default and Convenience.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    negotiated at the con- tracting officer level. The use of data base management systems was recoamended so that data could be centrally collected for...A.SBCA to in- crease the frequency with which default terminations were converted to convenience (30:1). He collected data from the years 1970, 1971...identified predictive indicators of a possible default: purchase history, tech- nical data factors, and market conditions; also apparent ’buy-in’ bids and

  14. 12 CFR 508.8 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Default. 508.8 Section 508.8 Banks and Banking... CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for a... argument where oral argument has been waived pursuant to § 508.7(d) or (f) of this part, the Notice...

  15. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the reportable default is cured, or the lender waives the default, within 10 days or, if later, by the end of any cure period. (c) Extensions. The notice date is extended to the later of— (1) 10 days after... § 4043.34(a) (or that would be so described if “10 days” were substituted for “30 days” in § 4043.34(a)(1...

  16. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the reportable default is cured, or the lender waives the default, within 10 days or, if later, by the end of any cure period. (c) Extensions. The notice date is extended to the later of— (1) 10 days after... § 4043.34(a) (or that would be so described if “10 days” were substituted for “30 days” in § 4043.34(a)(1...

  17. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the reportable default is cured, or the lender waives the default, within 10 days or, if later, by the end of any cure period. (c) Extensions. The notice date is extended to the later of— (1) 10 days after... § 4043.34(a) (or that would be so described if “10 days” were substituted for “30 days” in § 4043.34(a)(1...

  18. 10 Steps to Prevent Default: How To Prevent Default On Your Education Loans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A brochure describes how student loan default can cause permanent damage to an individual's financial future. and how to prevent default. A student loan is a legal promise. In exchange for help funding one's education, a promise is made to repay the education loan. The promise is made by signing a Promissory Note for any funds borrowed. Loan…

  19. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71), being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77) were associated with default. In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to reduce

  20. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life.

  1. Hyperfine structure in the J = 1-0 transitions of DCO^+, DNC, and HN13C: astronomical observations and quantum-chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Harding, M. E.; Gauss, J.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Knowledge of the hyperfine structure of molecular lines is useful for estimating reliable column densities from observed emission, and essential for the derivation of kinematic information from line profiles. Aims: Deuterium bearing molecules are especially useful in this regard, because they are good probes of the physical and chemical structure of molecular cloud cores on the verge of star formation. However, the necessary spectroscopic data are often missing, especially for molecules which are too unstable for laboratory study. Methods: We have observed the ground-state (J = 1{-}0) rotational transitions of DCO^+, HN13C and DNC with the IRAM 30 m telescope toward the dark cloud LDN 1512 which has exceptionally narrow lines permitting hyperfine splitting to be resolved in part. The measured splittings of 50-300 kHz are used to derive nuclear quadrupole and spin-rotation parameters for these species. The measurements are supplemented by high-level quantum-chemical calculations using coupled-cluster techniques and large atomic-orbital basis sets. Results: We find eQq = + 151.12 (400) kHz and CI = -1.12 (43) kHz for DCO^+, eQq = 272.5 (51) kHz for HN13C, and eQq(D) =265.9 (83) kHz and eQq(N) = 288.2 (71) kHz for DNC. The numbers for DNC are consistent with previous laboratory data, while our constants for DCO+ are somewhat smaller than previous results based on astronomical data. For both DCO+ and DNC, our results are more accurate than previous determinations. Our results are in good agreement with the corresponding best theoretical estimates, which amount to eQq = 156.0 kHz and CI = -0.69 kHz for DCO^+, eQq = 279.5 kHz for HN13C, and eQq(D) = 257.6 kHz and eQq(N) = 309.6 kHz for DNC. We also derive updated rotational constants for HN13C: B = 43 545.6000 (47) MHz and D = 93.7 (20) kHz. Conclusions: The hyperfine splittings of the DCO^+, DNC and HN13C J = 1{-}0 lines range over 0.47-1.28 km s-1, which is comparable to typical line widths in pre

  2. The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS): Stellar mass fractions in a sample of infrared-selected galaxy clusters at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Bandon; Brodwin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe. In addition to being interesting objects in their own right, they are excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy evolution and the properties and abundance of galaxy clusters provide important tests for cosmology. The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) is a high-redshift (z~1) survey that selects galaxy clusters in the infrared over nearly the full extragalactic sky using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE data release. We have measured Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) masses for twelve of the MaDCoWS clusters lying in the range 0.9 < z <1.3 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and used follow-up Spitzer/IRAC rest-frame near-infrared observations to measure the stellar mass of these clusters. With these data, we have measured the stellar mass fraction, f_star, and it's relation to total mass for a sample of infrared-selected clusters at z~1. We repeated our analysis of stellar mass fraction on a sample of SZ-selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope (SPT)-SZ survey that lie in a comparable range of mass and redshift to our MaDCoWS clusters to compare the selection methods. We found no significant difference in the trend of stellar mass fraction-to-total mass between infrared and radio selections. Comparing to similar measurements in the local Universe, we find no evidence of strong evolution in the trend over the last 8 Gyr.

  3. 24 CFR 320.15 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Default. 320.15 Section 320.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF...

  4. 24 CFR 320.31 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Default. 320.31 Section 320.31 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF...

  5. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202... PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-SPECIAL ALLOCATIONS Section 8 Housing Assistance... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section...

  6. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202... PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-SPECIAL ALLOCATIONS Section 8 Housing Assistance... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section...

  7. Auxiliary Inversions and the Notion "Default Specification."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Georgia M.; Morgan, Jerry L.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstrates that a comprehensive account of inverted structures in English encompasses more diversity of structural types than is generally recognized and is possible in a constraint-based grammar with monotonic multiple-inheritance and no overridable default specifications. The article points out that the existence of such an account shows the…

  8. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... default. The case shall then be referred to the Administrative Law Judge for consideration in a manner as the Administrative Law Judge may consider appropriate. Any order issued shall have the same effect as...., Washington, DC 20520. The Director will refer the petition to the Administrative Law Judge for...

  9. 31 CFR 501.716 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... default and the Administrative Law Judge (or the Secretary's designee during review proceedings) may determine the proceeding against that party upon consideration of the record if that party fails: (1) To... Administrative Law Judge (or the Secretary's designee) pursuant to § 501.729(b). (b) In deciding whether...

  10. Diffusion of Defaults Among Financial Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demange, Gabrielle

    The paper proposes a simple unified model for the diffusion of defaults across financial institutions and presents some measures for evaluating the risk imposed by a bank on the system. So far the standard contagion processes might not incorporate some important features of financial contagion.

  11. 24 CFR 2700.330 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Default. 2700.330 Section 2700.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) EMERGENCY MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND LOAN PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT EMERGENCY...

  12. 24 CFR 207.255 - Defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defaults. 207.255 Section 207.255 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  13. 24 CFR 2700.330 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Default. 2700.330 Section 2700.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) EMERGENCY MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND LOAN PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT EMERGENCY...

  14. 24 CFR 2700.425 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Default. 2700.425 Section 2700.425 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) EMERGENCY MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND LOAN PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT EMERGENCY...

  15. 24 CFR 207.255 - Defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defaults. 207.255 Section 207.255 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  16. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  17. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  18. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  19. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  20. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Prehearing Procedures § 305.24... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  1. 75 FR 9247 - Multifamily Default Status Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Multifamily Default Status Report AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Mortgagees use this report..., Washington, DC 20503; fax: 202-395-5806. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Leroy McKinney Jr., Reports...

  2. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Administrative Law Judge may consider appropriate. Any order issued shall have the same effect as.... Upon showing good cause, any respondent against whom a default order has been issued may apply to set... and such order continues in full force and effect unless a further order is made modifying...

  3. Student Loan Default and Repayment in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As college costs continue to rise, student loan default and repayment are issues of increasing concern to students and families, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. Helping students borrow responsibly and manage their debt are vitally important to maintaining college access and affordability and increasing the education…

  4. 39 CFR 964.6 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default. 964.6 Section 964.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING DISPOSITION OF MAIL WITHHELD FROM DELIVERY... refer the matter to the Judicial Officer for issuance of the order provided for under § 964.19. An order...

  5. 15 CFR 280.208 - Default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.208 Default. (a) General. Failure of the respondent to file an answer within the time... charging letter. In such event, the administrative law judge, on the Department's motion and...

  6. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945) defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215) and 20.4% (193) abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase) of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20) attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15) to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14) to feeling better and 10.8% (13) to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3), herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7), low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0), alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9), previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68), co-infection with Human immune-deficient Virus (HIV) (OR 1

  7. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  8. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  9. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  10. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  11. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  12. Guaranteed Student Loan Default Information. NASFAA Federal Monitor, No. 166.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    Recent developments on the topic of Guaranteed Student Loan defaults are summarized, in light of a recent shift in the focus of default reduction efforts from loan originators to the schools themselves. Background information on recent default reports is provided, the recommendations of the Secretary of Education are discussed, and the legislative…

  13. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  14. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  15. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  16. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  17. 43 CFR 3934.21 - Written notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written notice of default. 3934.21 Section... LEASES Relinquishments, Cancellations, and Terminations § 3934.21 Written notice of default. The BLM will provide the lessee or licensee written notice of any default, breach, or cause of forfeiture, and provide...

  18. 43 CFR 3934.21 - Written notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written notice of default. 3934.21 Section... LEASES Relinquishments, Cancellations, and Terminations § 3934.21 Written notice of default. The BLM will provide the lessee or licensee written notice of any default, breach, or cause of forfeiture, and provide...

  19. 43 CFR 3934.21 - Written notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written notice of default. 3934.21 Section... LEASES Relinquishments, Cancellations, and Terminations § 3934.21 Written notice of default. The BLM will provide the lessee or licensee written notice of any default, breach, or cause of forfeiture, and provide...

  20. 34 CFR 668.185 - Draft cohort default rates and your ability to challenge before official cohort default rates are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... challenge before official cohort default rates are issued. 668.185 Section 668.185 Education Regulations of... cohort default rates and your ability to challenge before official cohort default rates are issued. (a... may not be otherwise voluntarily released to the public by a data manager. (4) Any challenge...

  1. 34 CFR 668.204 - Draft cohort default rates and your ability to challenge before official cohort default rates are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... challenge before official cohort default rates are issued. 668.204 Section 668.204 Education Regulations of... default rates and your ability to challenge before official cohort default rates are issued. (a) General... may not be otherwise voluntarily released to the public by a data manager. (4) Any challenge...

  2. Loss distribution of systemic defaults in different interbank networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; He, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the impact of the network structure, the default probability and the loss given default (LGD) on the loss distribution of systemic defaults in the interbank market, where network structures analyzed include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. We find that the network structure has little effect on the shape of the loss distribution, whereas the opposite is true to the default probability; the LGD changes the shape of the loss distribution significantly when default probabilities are high; the maximum of the possible loss is sensitive to the network structure and the LGD.

  3. A Study of the Impact of Default Management Practices and Other Factors on Student Loan Default Rates in Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Randell W.

    2013-01-01

    Default management practices and their relationship to the student loan default rate in public two-year community colleges was the focus of this investigation. Five research questions regarding written default management plans, default management practices, process management, accountability, and other factors impacting default guided the study.…

  4. Nudge for (the Public) Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Fosgaard, Toke R.; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default. PMID:26717569

  5. Modelling default and likelihood reasoning as probabilistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1990-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis of plausible reasoning about defaults and about likelihood is presented. 'Likely' and 'by default' are in fact treated as duals in the same sense as 'possibility' and 'necessity'. To model these four forms probabilistically, a logic QDP and its quantitative counterpart DP are derived that allow qualitative and corresponding quantitative reasoning. Consistency and consequence results for subsets of the logics are given that require at most a quadratic number of satisfiability tests in the underlying propositional logic. The quantitative logic shows how to track the propagation error inherent in these reasoning forms. The methodology and sound framework of the system highlights their approximate nature, the dualities, and the need for complementary reasoning about relevance.

  6. Modulating the default mode network using hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Halligan, Peter W

    2012-01-01

    Debate regarding the neural basis of the hypnotic state continues, but a recent hypothesis suggests that it may produce alterations in the default mode network (DMN). DMN describes a network of brain regions more active during low-demand compared to high-demand task conditions and has been linked to processes such as task-independent thinking, episodic memory, semantic processing, and self-awareness. However, the experiential and cognitive correlates of DMN remain difficult to investigate directly. Using hypnosis as a means of altering the resting ("default") state in conjunction with subjective measures and brain imaging, the authors found that the state of attentional absorption following a hypnotic induction was associated with reduced activity in DMN and increased activity in prefrontal attentional systems, under invariant conditions of passive visual stimulation. The findings that hypnosis and spontaneous conceptual thought at rest were subjectively and neurally distinctive are also relevant to understanding hypnosis itself.

  7. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.

  8. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk.

    PubMed

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-11-04

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.

  9. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk

    PubMed Central

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities. PMID:25366654

  10. Magnetic structure and spin-wave excitations in the multiferroic magnetic metal-organic framework (CD3)2ND2[Mn(DCO2)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. C.; Duncan, H. D.; Le, M. D.; Keen, D. A.; Voneshen, D. J.; Phillips, A. E.

    2017-09-01

    We report the magnetic diffraction pattern and spin-wave excitations in (CD3)2ND2[Mn(DCO2)3] measured using elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic structure is shown to be a G -type antiferromagnet with moments pointing along the b axis. By comparison with simulations based on linear spin-wave theory, we have developed a model for the magnetic interactions in this multiferroic metal-organic framework material. The interactions form a three-dimensional network with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions along three directions of J1=-0.103 (8 ) meV, J2=-0.032 (8 ) meV, and J3=-0.035 (8 ) meV.

  11. Treatment Default amongst Patients with Tuberculosis in Urban Morocco: Predicting and Explaining Default and Post-Default Sputum Smear and Drug Susceptibility Results

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C.; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Objective Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Design Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals’ perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. Results 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one’s treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one’s diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. Conclusion The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings

  12. Default patterns of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, J D; Bevan, J; Wall, B

    1978-01-01

    The influence of gender, propaganda, and treatment methods was studied in relation to default behaviour of patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The overall default rate of men and women was similar, but a larger proportion of men defaulted after the initial visit, while the biggest fall-out in women was after the second attendance at the clinic. The institution of a propaganda campaign was followed by a reduction in defaulting. The statistical significance of this is open to question, however: moreover the observed improvement in default rate was not maintained once the propaganda had been relaxed. Men treated for non-gonococcal urethritis by a regimen which included one injection a week for three weeks showed a highly significantly lower default rate compared with those who received tablets alone. PMID:580413

  13. Potential causes of high d[O3]/d[CO] detected in the Azores Islands after hemispheric scale transport in the free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Val Martin, M.; Kramer, L. J.; Perlinger, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Export of ozone from populated areas is proven to have a significant impact on air quality at downwind regions. Ozone and its precursors have been monitored since 2001 at the Pico Mountain International Chemical Observatory in the Azores Islands, at over 2-km altitude in the central Atlantic Ocean. Pico Observatory is far from emission sources of ozone precursors, and provides a unique setting for studying ozone chemistry during long-range transport in the free troposphere (FT). The ozone enhancement, quantified by the d[O3]/d[CO] ratio, was significantly higher at Pico (~0.8) than surface observations made in the eastern U.S. (~0.3), which suggested an average faster ozone production rate or slower destruction rate during transport. With the aim of interpret this finding, ozone enhancement observed at Pico will be identified and classified by source region, transport pathway, and transport time period using a Lagrangian dispersion model, FLEXPART. Possible significant ozone enhancement circumstances can be identified by examining d[O3]/d[CO] in (1) different transport patterns (transport altitude, latitude, temperature) and (2) differently aged air masses transported in the same pattern. Particular attention will be paid to subsiding air masses, as this transport pattern may allow for production of ozone precursors through thermal decomposition of PAN, which is formed by the reaction of NOx and aldehydes in emission regions and transported to the Observatory. Whether the rate of the reaction is predicted to be significant relative to the subsidence rate will be examined and previously developed method for estimating the PAN mixing ratio using NOx and NOy data will be used here.

  14. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-04-15

    In designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought at best. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past five to seven years reach an important juncture in retail market design and consider an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial customers. The authors describe the experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price-responsive demand. (author)

  15. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  16. Default Network Connectivity in Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Salat, David H.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex was observed in amnesia. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesia, indicating bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia. PMID:23077048

  17. The Big Five default brain: functional evidence.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Adriana; Soares, José Miguel; Coutinho, Joana; Sousa, Nuno; Gonçalves, Óscar F

    2014-11-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that different dimensions of human personality may be associated with specific structural neuroanatomic correlates. Identifying brain correlates of a situation-independent personality structure would require evidence of a stable default mode of brain functioning. In this study, we investigated the correlates of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness/Intellect, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy adults completed the NEO-Five Factor. The results showed that the Extraversion (E) and Agreeableness (A) were positively correlated with activity in the midline core of the DMN, whereas Neuroticism (N), Openness (O), and Conscientiousness (C) were correlated with the parietal cortex system. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with A and negatively with C. Regions of the parietal lobe were differentially associated with each personality dimension. The present study not only confirms previous functional correlates regarding the Big Five personality dimensions, but it also expands our knowledge showing the association between different personality dimensions and specific patterns of brain activation at rest.

  18. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for mediation.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Michèle B; Wetzels, Ruud; Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-03-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between multiple variables, researchers often carry out a mediation analysis. In such an analysis, a mediator (e.g., knowledge of a healthy diet) transmits the effect from an independent variable (e.g., classroom instruction on a healthy diet) to a dependent variable (e.g., consumption of fruits and vegetables). Almost all mediation analyses in psychology use frequentist estimation and hypothesis-testing techniques. A recent exception is Yuan and MacKinnon (Psychological Methods, 14, 301-322, 2009), who outlined a Bayesian parameter estimation procedure for mediation analysis. Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach. We further extend this default Bayesian test by allowing a comparison to directional or one-sided alternatives, using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques implemented in JAGS. All Bayesian tests are implemented in the R package BayesMed (Nuijten, Wetzels, Matzke, Dolan, & Wagenmakers, 2014).

  19. Default brain functionality in blind people.

    PubMed

    Burton, H; Snyder, A Z; Raichle, M E

    2004-10-26

    We studied whether default functionality of the human brain, as revealed by task-independent decreases in activity occurring during goal-directed behaviors, is functionally reorganized by blindness. Three groups of otherwise normal adults were studied: early blind, adventitiously blind, and normally sighted. They were imaged by using functional MRI during performance of a word association task (verb generation to nouns) administered by using auditory stimuli in all groups and Braille reading in blind participants. In sighted people, this task normally produces robust task-independent decreases relative to a baseline of quiet wakefulness with eyes closed. Our functional MRI results indicate that task-independent decreases are qualitatively similar across all participant groups in medial and dorsal prefrontal, lateral parietal, anterior precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortices. Similarities in task-independent decreases are consistent with the hypothesis that functional reorganization resulting from the absence of a particular sensory modality does not qualitatively affect default functionality as revealed by task-independent decreases. More generally, these results support the notion that the brain largely operates intrinsically, with sensory information modulating rather than determining system operations.

  20. Innovative GIS and Information Technologies Supporting Wide Area Assessment of UXO Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    results (Foley, 2004; Sky Research, 2005; Hodgson, 2004). At FLBGR, the site GIS was adapted and extended for a GIS-based data management and decision...integer Default value Default value DescriptionCode 0 ROAD 1 POWERLINE 2 RAILROAD 3 FENCE Coded value domain WAA_CRATER_TYPE Description Field type Split...Merge policy WIDE AREA ASSESSMENT CORRIDORS Short integer Default value Default value DescriptionCode 0 ROAD 1 POWERLINE 2 RAILROAD 3 FENCE Simple

  1. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280 Section 615.5280 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280 Section 615.5280 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280 Section 615.5280 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280 Section 615.5280 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible...

  5. 24 CFR 203.333 - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Default Under Mortgage § 203.333...

  6. 24 CFR 203.333 - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Default Under Mortgage § 203.333...

  7. Student Borrowing in America: Metrics, Demographics, Default Aversion Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The use of Cohort Default Rate (CDR) as the primary measure of student loan defaults among undergraduates was investigated. The study used data extracted from the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), quantitative analysis of Likert-scale survey responses from 153 student financial aid professionals on proposed changes to present metrics and…

  8. 49 CFR 22.67 - Delinquent loans and loan defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delinquent loans and loan defaults. 22.67 Section 22.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.67 Delinquent loans and loan defaults. (a) The Participating Lender must bring to...

  9. Characteristics of Stafford Loan Program Defaulters: A National Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.; Rodriguez, Blanca Rosa

    This study examined characteristics differentiating defaulters on Stafford student loans (formerly Guaranteed Student Loans) from non-defaulters. Data were drawn from a sample of 100,000 records randomly selected from the fiscal year 1987 guarantee agency cumulative borrower file. A cohort of 7,382 borrowers taking out their last loan in FY 1983…

  10. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  11. Cohort Default Rates: Predicting the Probability of Federal Sanctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the institutional factors associated with student loan default. When a college has more than 30% of its students default on their loans, then the institution faces federal sanctions that could make them ineligible from participating in the federal student loan program. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System…

  12. Partitioning Default Effects: Why People Choose Not to Choose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinner, Isaac; Johnson, Eric J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.; Liu, Kaiya

    2011-01-01

    Default options exert an influence in areas as varied as retirement program design, organ donation policy, and consumer choice. Past research has offered potential reasons why no-action defaults matter: (a) effort, (b) implied endorsement, and (c) reference dependence. The first two of these explanations have been experimentally demonstrated, but…

  13. 24 CFR 891.730 - Default by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.730 Default by Borrower. (a) PAC provisions. The PAC will provide: (1) That if HUD determines that the Borrower is in default under the PAC, HUD will notify the..., including an action for specific performance under the PAC, reduction or suspension of project...

  14. 24 CFR 891.730 - Default by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.730 Default by Borrower. (a) PAC provisions. The PAC will provide: (1) That if HUD determines that the Borrower is in default under the PAC, HUD will notify the..., including an action for specific performance under the PAC, reduction or suspension of project...

  15. 24 CFR 891.730 - Default by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.730 Default by Borrower. (a) PAC provisions. The PAC will provide: (1) That if HUD determines that the Borrower is in default under the PAC, HUD will notify the..., including an action for specific performance under the PAC, reduction or suspension of project...

  16. 24 CFR 891.730 - Default by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.730 Default by Borrower. (a) PAC provisions. The PAC will provide: (1) That if HUD determines that the Borrower is in default under the PAC, HUD will notify the..., including an action for specific performance under the PAC, reduction or suspension of project...

  17. 24 CFR 891.730 - Default by Borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.730 Default by Borrower. (a) PAC provisions. The PAC will provide: (1) That if HUD determines that the Borrower is in default under the PAC, HUD will notify the..., including an action for specific performance under the PAC, reduction or suspension of project...

  18. Predicting Default from Smoking Cessation Treatment Following Enrolment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenger, Alison; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict default from subsequent treatment sessions after initial enrolment and attendance at a large, English smoking cessation service. Design: Cross-sectional survey using data obtained at smokers' initial enrolment attendance to compare the characteristics of those who subsequently default with those who do…

  19. Predicting Default from Smoking Cessation Treatment Following Enrolment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenger, Alison; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict default from subsequent treatment sessions after initial enrolment and attendance at a large, English smoking cessation service. Design: Cross-sectional survey using data obtained at smokers' initial enrolment attendance to compare the characteristics of those who subsequently default with those who do…

  20. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  1. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  2. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  3. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  4. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  5. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  6. 48 CFR 49.402-3 - Procedure for default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to obtain them from other sources, as compared with the time delivery could be obtained from the... Default clause covers situations when the contractor has defaulted by failure to make delivery of the supplies or to perform the services within the specified time. In these situations, no notice of failure or...

  7. Cohort Default Rates: Predicting the Probability of Federal Sanctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the institutional factors associated with student loan default. When a college has more than 30% of its students default on their loans, then the institution faces federal sanctions that could make them ineligible from participating in the federal student loan program. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System…

  8. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  9. Partitioning Default Effects: Why People Choose Not to Choose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinner, Isaac; Johnson, Eric J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.; Liu, Kaiya

    2011-01-01

    Default options exert an influence in areas as varied as retirement program design, organ donation policy, and consumer choice. Past research has offered potential reasons why no-action defaults matter: (a) effort, (b) implied endorsement, and (c) reference dependence. The first two of these explanations have been experimentally demonstrated, but…

  10. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  11. Genetic Analysis of Default Mating Behavior in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, R.; Boone, C.; Kimbrough, T.; Kim, J.; Hartwell, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    Haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells find each other during conjugation by orienting their growth toward each other along pheromone gradients (chemotropism). However, when their receptors are saturated for pheromone binding, yeast cells must select a mate by executing a default pathway in which they choose a mating partner at random. We previously demonstrated that this default pathway requires the SPA2 gene. In this report we show that the default mating pathway also requires the AXL1, FUS1, FUS2, FUS3, PEA2, RVS161, and BNI1 genes. These genes, including SPA2, are also important for efficient cell fusion during chemotropic mating. Cells containing null mutations in these genes display defects in cell fusion that subtly affect mating efficiency. In addition, we found that the defect in default mating caused by mutations in SPA2 is partially suppressed by multiple copies of two genes, FUS2 and MFA2. These findings uncover a molecular relationship between default mating and cell fusion. Moreover, because axl1 mutants secrete reduced levels of a-factor and are defective at both cell fusion and default mating, these results reveal an important role for a-factor in cell fusion and default mating. We suggest that default mating places a more stringent requirement on some aspects of cell fusion than does chemotropic mating. PMID:9135999

  12. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 10... PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.94 Setting aside of default. In order to prevent injustice and on such conditions as may be appropriate, (a) the Commission may at any time set aside a...

  13. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 10... PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.94 Setting aside of default. In order to prevent injustice and on such conditions as may be appropriate, (a) the Commission may at any time set aside a...

  14. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 10... PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.94 Setting aside of default. In order to prevent injustice and on such conditions as may be appropriate, (a) the Commission may at any time set aside a...

  15. 24 CFR 232.830 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... provided to be paid by the terms of the note or security instrument, the note shall be considered in... security instrument shall be considered a default, provided the lender, because of such default, has...

  16. 24 CFR 232.830 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... provided to be paid by the terms of the note or security instrument, the note shall be considered in... security instrument shall be considered a default, provided the lender, because of such default, has...

  17. 24 CFR 232.830 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... provided to be paid by the terms of the note or security instrument, the note shall be considered in... security instrument shall be considered a default, provided the lender, because of such default, has...

  18. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 10... PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.94 Setting aside of default. In order to prevent injustice and on such conditions as may be appropriate, (a) the Commission may at any time set aside a...

  19. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  20. In Good Standing: "Helping Colleges Manage Student Default Rates"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education estimates that 20 percent of community college students default on their student loan obligations (compared with 14.7 percent of all student loan borrowers), and that number is rising. What can community college financial officers do to keep their default numbers low? In this article, Heather Boerner describes the…

  1. President Hails Continued Decline in Default Rate on Student Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    President Bill Clinton used the declining default rate on college student loans as a basis for proposing tax breaks for college costs. Reduced defaults have saved taxpayer money and helped reduce the federal deficit. Over 150 colleges and universities, including 25 private institutions, risk losing eligibility for federal grant and loan programs…

  2. 37 CFR 41.123 - Default filing times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default filing times. 41.123... OF COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Contested Cases § 41.123 Default filing times. (a) A motion, other than a miscellaneous motion, may only be filed according to a schedule the...

  3. 37 CFR 42.25 - Default filing times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default filing times. 42.25... COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure Petition and Motion Practice § 42.25 Default filing times. (a) A motion may only be filed according to a schedule set...

  4. In Good Standing: "Helping Colleges Manage Student Default Rates"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education estimates that 20 percent of community college students default on their student loan obligations (compared with 14.7 percent of all student loan borrowers), and that number is rising. What can community college financial officers do to keep their default numbers low? In this article, Heather Boerner describes the…

  5. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  6. Are Student Loan Default Rates Linked to Institutional Capacity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    As more undergraduates have taken out loans to attend college, the number of borrowers who fail to repay their student loans has increased. While previous research has focused on students' likelihood to default, this study employed institutional cohort default rates (CDRs) as an outcome variable. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data…

  7. 7 CFR 4280.154 - Default by borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default by borrower. 4280.154 Section 4280.154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.154 Default by borrower. If the loan...

  8. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  9. Consumer default risk assessment in a banking institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa e Silva, Eliana; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Faria, Susana

    2016-12-01

    Credit scoring is an application of financial risk forecasting to consumer lending. In this study, statistical analysis is applied to credit scoring data from a financial institution to evaluate the default risk of consumer loans. The default risk was found to be influenced by the spread, the age of the consumer, the number of credit cards owned by the consumer. A lower spread, a higher number of credit cards and a younger age of the borrower are factors that decrease the risk of default. Clients receiving the salary in the same banking institution of the loan have less chances of default than clients receiving their salary in another institution. We also found that clients in the lowest income tax echelon have more propensity to default.

  10. The limits of defaults: why french fries trump apple slices.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Just, David R

    2016-05-06

    Healthy default food choices have been suggested as a way to encourage better nutrition without restricting choice. Will they work with children and their favorite foods? A group of children, 6-8 years old, were treated to lunch at fast food restaurant on 2 days 2 weeks apart. On both days the children were served chicken nuggets and a drink. On the first day, half were given French fries unless they asked for apple slices and the other half were given apples unless they asked for fries. The order switched on the second day. When the default changed from fries to apples, 86.7 % opted out of the default to order fries. Defaults may be ineffective when children have a strong preference for the less healthy option. Allowing children to take both sides may lead to healthier consumption than constructing an artificial default choice.

  11. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  12. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  13. The maturing architecture of the brain's default network

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Church, Jessica A.; Miezin, Francis M.; Barch, Deanna M.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the brain's “default network,” a set of regions characterized by decreased neural activity during goal-oriented tasks, has generated a significant amount of interest, as well as controversy. Much of the discussion has focused on the relationship of these regions to a “default mode” of brain function. In early studies, investigators suggested that, the brain's default mode supports “self-referential” or “introspective” mental activity. Subsequently, regions of the default network have been more specifically related to the “internal narrative,” the “autobiographical self,” “stimulus independent thought,” “mentalizing,” and most recently “self-projection.” However, the extant literature on the function of the default network is limited to adults, i.e., after the system has reached maturity. We hypothesized that further insight into the network's functioning could be achieved by characterizing its development. In the current study, we used resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) to characterize the development of the brain's default network. We found that the default regions are only sparsely functionally connected at early school age (7–9 years old); over development, these regions integrate into a cohesive, interconnected network. PMID:18322013

  14. Mutation in the Drosophila melanogaster adenosine receptor gene selectively decreases the mosaic hyperplastic epithelial outgrowth rates in wts or dco heterozygous flies.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Roman; Kucerova, Lucie; Kiss, Istvan; Zurovec, Michal

    2015-03-01

    Adenosine (Ado) is a ubiquitous metabolite that plays a prominent role as a paracrine homeostatic signal of metabolic imbalance within tissues. It quickly responds to various stress stimuli by adjusting energy metabolism and influencing cell growth and survival. Ado is also released by dead or dying cells and is present at significant concentrations in solid tumors. Ado signaling is mediated by Ado receptors (AdoR) and proteins modulating its concentration, including nucleoside transporters and Ado deaminases. We examined the impact of genetic manipulations of three Drosophila genes involved in Ado signaling on the incidence of somatic mosaic clones formed by the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor and marker genes. We show here that genetic manipulations with the AdoR, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (Ent2), and Ado deaminase growth factor-A (Adgf-A) cause dramatic changes in the frequency of hyperplastic outgrowth clones formed by LOH of the warts (wts) tumor suppressor, while they have almost no effect on control yellow (y) clones. In addition, the effect of AdoR is dose-sensitive and its overexpression leads to the increase in wts hyperplastic epithelial outgrowth rates. Consistently, the frequency of mosaic hyperplastic outgrowth clones generated by the LOH of another tumor suppressor, discs overgrown (dco), belonging to the wts signaling pathway is also dependent on AdoR. Our results provide interesting insight into the maintenance of tissue homeostasis at a cellular level.

  15. Electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer efficiency in the O/1 D/-N2 and O/1 D/-CO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1974-01-01

    With the aid of a molecular resonance fluorescence technique, which utilizes optical pumping from the v = 1 level of the ground state of CO by A 1 Pi-X 1 Sigma radiation, a study is made of the efficiency of E-V transfer from O(1 D) to CO. O(1 D) is generated at a known rate by O2 photodissociation at 1470 A in an intermittent mode, and the small modulation of the fluorescent signal associated with CO (v = 1) above the normal thermal background is interpreted in terms of E-V transfer efficiency. The CO (v = 1) lifetime in this system is determined mainly by resonance trapping of the IR fundamental band, and is found to be up to ten times longer than the natural radiative lifetime. For CO, (40 plus or minus 8)% of the O(1 D) energy is converted into vibrational energy. By observing the effect of N2 on the CO (v = 1) fluorescent intensity and lifetime, it is possible to obtain the E-V transfer efficiency for the system O(1 D)-N2 relative to that for O(1 D)-CO. The results indicate that the efficiency for N2 is (83 plus or minus 10)% of that for CO.

  16. Electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer efficiency in the O/1 D/-N2 and O/1 D/-CO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1974-01-01

    With the aid of a molecular resonance fluorescence technique, which utilizes optical pumping from the v = 1 level of the ground state of CO by A 1 Pi-X 1 Sigma radiation, a study is made of the efficiency of E-V transfer from O(1 D) to CO. O(1 D) is generated at a known rate by O2 photodissociation at 1470 A in an intermittent mode, and the small modulation of the fluorescent signal associated with CO (v = 1) above the normal thermal background is interpreted in terms of E-V transfer efficiency. The CO (v = 1) lifetime in this system is determined mainly by resonance trapping of the IR fundamental band, and is found to be up to ten times longer than the natural radiative lifetime. For CO, (40 plus or minus 8)% of the O(1 D) energy is converted into vibrational energy. By observing the effect of N2 on the CO (v = 1) fluorescent intensity and lifetime, it is possible to obtain the E-V transfer efficiency for the system O(1 D)-N2 relative to that for O(1 D)-CO. The results indicate that the efficiency for N2 is (83 plus or minus 10)% of that for CO.

  17. Step size of the rotary proton motor in single FoF1-ATP synthase from a thermoalkaliphilic bacterium by DCO-ALEX FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, Eva; Zappe, Andrea; Keis, Stefanie; Ernst, Stefan; Matthies, Doreen; Meier, Thomas; Cook, Gregory M.; Börsch, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Thermophilic enzymes operate at high temperatures but show reduced activities at room temperature. They are in general more stable during preparation and, accordingly, are considered to be more rigid in structure. Crystallization is often easier compared to proteins from bacteria growing at ambient temperatures, especially for membrane proteins. The ATP-producing enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase from thermoalkaliphilic Caldalkalibacillus thermarum strain TA2.A1 is driven by a Fo motor consisting of a ring of 13 c-subunits. We applied a single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) approach using duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation (DCO-ALEX) to monitor the expected 13-stepped rotary Fo motor at work. New FRET transition histograms were developed to identify the smaller step sizes compared to the 10-stepped Fo motor of the Escherichia coli enzyme. Dwell time analysis revealed the temperature and the LDAO dependence of the Fo motor activity on the single molecule level. Back-and-forth stepping of the Fo motor occurs fast indicating a high flexibility in the membrane part of this thermophilic enzyme.

  18. Characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and its cholate-resistant derivative strain IPLA B667dCo.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nuria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Prieto, Alicia; Calle, Luis P; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2012-02-01

    Bifidobacteria are natural members of the human intestinal microbiota and some strains are being used as probiotics. Adaptation to bile can allow them to increase survival in gastrointestinal conditions, thus improving their viability. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and the cholate-resistant strain B. longum IPLA B667dCo produced exopolysaccharides (EPS) that were partially characterized. Analysis by size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering indicated that the EPS crude fractions of both strains contained two polymer peaks of different molar mass. On the basis of chromatographic techniques both peaks appeared to be heteropolysaccharides. The smaller peak was mainly composed of glucose, galactose and rhamnose whose molar ratios and linkage types showed slight variations between the EPS fractions of both strains. The bigger peak consisted of glucose and galactose; the monosaccharide composition was identical in the EPS fractions of the two microorganisms, but their infrared spectra presented some differences regarding compounds other than carbohydrates that seem to be associated to the polymer. Differences in the composition of EPS fractions did not affect the capability of crude EPS from B. longum to be fermented by the human intestinal microbiota in fecal batch cultures.

  19. Morality constrains the default representation of what is possible

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition. Collectively, these studies differentiate explicit reasoning about possibilities from default implicit representations, demonstrate that human adults often default to treating immoral and irrational events as impossible, and provide a case study of high-level cognitive judgments relying on default implicit representations of possibility rather than explicit deliberation. PMID:28420792

  20. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... order obtained under § 10.93; and (b) the Administrative Law Judge may set aside a default order..., and shall state the reasons for the failure to file or appear and specify the nature of the...

  1. 7 CFR 1779.75 - Defaults by borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.75 Defaults by borrower. (a... multi-note option, the lender may need to possess all notes to take some servicing actions. In...

  2. 24 CFR 907.7 - Remedies for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... default. (a) Except as provided in § 907.7(c), upon determining that events have occurred or conditions... financial management), to a single program or group of programs, or to a single project or a group...

  3. Local Risk-Minimization for Defaultable Claims with Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Biagini, Francesca; Cretarola, Alessandra

    2012-06-15

    We study the local risk-minimization approach for defaultable claims with random recovery at default time, seen as payment streams on the random interval [0,{tau} Logical-And T], where T denotes the fixed time-horizon. We find the pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy in the case when the agent information takes into account the possibility of a default event (local risk-minimization with G-strategies) and we provide an application in the case of a corporate bond. We also discuss the problem of finding a pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy if we suppose the agent obtains her information only by observing the non-defaultable assets.

  4. 34 CFR 674.5 - Federal Perkins Loan program cohort default rate and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... penalties. 674.5 Section 674.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Provisions § 674.5 Federal Perkins Loan program cohort default rate and penalties. (a) Default penalty. If an institution's cohort default rate meets the following levels, a default penalty is imposed on the...

  5. 75 FR 72660 - Extension of Temporary Exemptions for Eligible Credit Default Swaps To Facilitate Operation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Default Swaps To Facilitate Operation of Central Counterparties To Clear and Settle Credit Default Swaps... default swaps in order to continue facilitating the operation of one or more central counterparties for those credit default swaps until the implementation of the clearing provisions of the Dodd-Frank...

  6. Draft Cohort Default Rate Guide for FFEL Program and Direct Loan Program Loans, FY 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Default Management Div.

    This publication is intended to help postsecondary schools understand FY 1999 draft cohort default rate data. It explains how the Department of Education calculates cohort default rates, the effect of cohort default rates, and how to read the cohort default rate loan record detail reports. Also, it reviews electronic reports available from the…

  7. Draft Cohort Default Rate Guide for FFEL Program and Direct Loan Program Loans, FY 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Default Management Div.

    This publication is intended to help postsecondary schools understand draft cohort default rate data. It explains how the Department of Education calculates cohort default rates, the effect of cohort default rates, and how to read cohort default rate loan record detail reports. Also, it reviews electronic reports available from the Department of…

  8. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-11-09

    Dynamic retail pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought, and in some cases not given any weight at all. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period during which utilities were required to offer a default or standard offer generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached the end of their transitional period, and several have adopted or are actively considering an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. In most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service has been to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, if attention is paid in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This article, which draws from a lengthier report, describes experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand.1 As of summer 2005, default service RTP was in place or approved for future implementation in five U.S. states: New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. For each of these states, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to adoption of default RTP and interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in these states, as well as eight competitive retail suppliers active in these markets.

  9. Goal-congruent default network activity facilitates cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Spreng, R Nathan; DuPre, Elizabeth; Selarka, Dhawal; Garcia, Juliana; Gojkovic, Stefan; Mildner, Judith; Luh, Wen-Ming; Turner, Gary R

    2014-10-15

    Substantial neuroimaging evidence suggests that spontaneous engagement of the default network impairs performance on tasks requiring executive control. We investigated whether this impairment depends on the congruence between executive control demands and internal mentation. We hypothesized that activation of the default network might enhance performance on an executive control task if control processes engage long-term memory representations that are supported by the default network. Using fMRI, we scanned 36 healthy young adult humans on a novel two-back task requiring working memory for famous and anonymous faces. In this task, participants (1) matched anonymous faces interleaved with anonymous face, (2) matched anonymous faces interleaved with a famous face, or (3) matched a famous faces interleaved with an anonymous face. As predicted, we observed a facilitation effect when matching famous faces, compared with anonymous faces. We also observed greater activation of the default network during these famous face-matching trials. The results suggest that activation of the default network can contribute to task performance during an externally directed executive control task. Our findings provide evidence that successful activation of the default network in a contextually relevant manner facilitates goal-directed cognition.

  10. Atypical Default Network Connectivity in Youth with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Posner, Jonathan; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Dias, Taciana G. Costa; Mills, Kathryn L.; Blythe, Michael S.; Giwa, Aishat; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major public health concern. It has been suggested that the brain’s default network may provide a crucial avenue for understanding the neurobiology of ADHD. Evaluations of the default network have increased over recent years with the applied technique of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI). These investigations have established that spontaneous activity in this network is highly correlated at rest in young adult populations. This coherence seems to be reduced in adults with ADHD. This is an intriguing finding, as coherence in spontaneous activity within the default network strengthens with age. Thus, the pathophysiology of ADHD might include delayed or disrupted maturation of the default network. If so, it is important to determine whether an altered developmental picture can be detected using rs-fcMRI in children with ADHD. Methods The present study utilized the typical developmental context provided previously by Fair et al (1) to examine coherence of brain activity within the default network using rs-fcMRI in children with (n=23) and without ADHD (n=23). Results We found that functional connections previously shown as developmentally dynamic in the default network were atypical in children with ADHD - consistent with perturbation or failure of the maturational processes. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that atypical consolidation of this network over development plays a role in ADHD. PMID:20728873

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells execute a default pathway to select a mate in the absence of pheromone gradients

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    During conjugation, haploid S. cerevisiae cells find one another by polarizing their growth toward each other along gradients of pheromone (chemotropism). We demonstrate that yeast cells exhibit a second mating behavior: when their receptors are saturated with pheromone, wild-type a cells execute a default pathway and select a mate at random. These matings are less efficient than chemotropic matings, are induced by the same dose of pheromone that induces shmoo formation, and appear to use a site near the incipient bud site for polarization. We show that the SPA2 gene is specifically required for the default pathway: spa2 delta mutants cannot mate if pheromone concentrations are high and gradients are absent, but can mate if gradients are present. ste2 delta, sst2 delta, and far1 delta mutants are chemotropism-defective and therefore must choose a mate by using a default pathway; consistent with this deduction, these strains require SPA2 to mate. In addition, our results suggest that far1 mutants are chemotropism-defective because their mating polarity is fixed at the incipient bud site, suggesting that the FAR1 gene is required for inhibiting the use of the incipient bud site during chemotropic mating. These observations reveal a molecular relationship between the mating and budding polarity pathways. PMID:7490289

  12. Can default rates in colposcopy really be reduced?

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, L; Orbell, S; Hagger, M; Brown, V; Tidy, J

    2008-02-01

    A prospective postal questionnaire study aimed to identify variables that predict a woman's intention to attend and her subsequent attendance/default at colposcopy clinics. One thousand two hundred and fifty-eight women attending colposcopy clinics of a university hospital were sent a postal questionnaire 3 weeks before their second appointment at colposcopy. An intention to attend the colposcopy clinic was the most significant predictor for colposcopy attendance during the next 15 months. Smoking and a longer travel time were associated with default. Our study shows that while interventions tried by service providers can reduce default rates, there will remain a cohort of women who do not fully participate in the screening programme.

  13. Modelling default and likelihood reasoning as probabilistic reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1990-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis of plausible reasoning about defaults and about likelihood is presented. Likely and by default are in fact treated as duals in the same sense as possibility and necessity. To model these four forms probabilistically, a qualitative default probabilistic (QDP) logic and its quantitative counterpart DP are derived that allow qualitative and corresponding quantitative reasoning. Consistency and consequent results for subsets of the logics are given that require at most a quadratic number of satisfiability tests in the underlying propositional logic. The quantitative logic shows how to track the propagation error inherent in these reasoning forms. The methodology and sound framework of the system highlights their approximate nature, the dualities, and the need for complementary reasoning about relevance.

  14. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may periodically... issue procedures to prevent future occurrences of the identified problems. ...

  15. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may periodically... issue procedures to prevent future occurrences of the identified problems. ...

  16. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may periodically... issue procedures to prevent future occurrences of the identified problems. ...

  17. Default Rate on Student Loans Falls for 2005 Fiscal Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The rate at which borrowers default on their federally guaranteed student loans has declined to 4.6 percent, in part because of a record number of consolidations, the Education Department announced last week. "Borrowers took advantage of the opportunity to lock in record-low interest rates by consolidating their federal student loans," the…

  18. 24 CFR 207.256a - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Rights and Duties of...

  19. 24 CFR 207.256a - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Rights and Duties of...

  20. Cognitive and Emotional Modulation of Brain Default Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful…

  1. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  2. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  3. High-Stakes Testing and the Default Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that high stakes testing may lead to a default philosophy of education that holds in high regard a narrow bundle of knowledge and skills, offering suggestions for what educators can do in the current context (e.g., maintain dialogue in schools, expand internal accountability, engage high standards, connect to higher-order concepts, and…

  4. 7 CFR 3575.75 - Defaults by borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not met its responsibilities of providing the required financial statements, or is otherwise in...) must strengthen the loan and be in the best financial interest of the lender and the Agency. Some of... AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.75 Defaults by borrower. (a)...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4280 - Reporting of defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... real estate taxes, the notice shall not be required until the failure to pay when due has persisted for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting of defaults. 36.4280 Section 36.4280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4280 - Reporting of defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... real estate taxes, the notice shall not be required until the failure to pay when due has persisted for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting of defaults. 36.4280 Section 36.4280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  7. 38 CFR 36.4280 - Reporting of defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... real estate taxes, the notice shall not be required until the failure to pay when due has persisted for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting of defaults. 36.4280 Section 36.4280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4280 - Reporting of defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... real estate taxes, the notice shall not be required until the failure to pay when due has persisted for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting of defaults. 36.4280 Section 36.4280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

  9. Reducing Student Loan Defaults: A Plan for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Mary

    The federal Guaranteed Student Loan programs provide low-interest, long-term loans to students with demonstrated financial need to help them pay for their postsecondary education. The number of loan defaults and the associated federal costs are increasing; this handbook is an effort to protect students, increase accountability, and reduce default…

  10. FY 1995 Cohort Default Rates for Originating Lenders/Holders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report provides data on fiscal year 1995 cohort default rates for lending institutions and loan holders with 30 or more borrowers in repayment, calculated from data reported to the National Student Loan Data System by guaranty agencies. Types of loans covered include subsidized Federal Stafford, unsubsidized Federal Stafford, Federal…

  11. 7 CFR 1779.75 - Defaults by borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... situations when the Agency is holder of some of the notes, the Agency may endorse the notes back to the.... Under no circumstances will the Agency endorse the original Loan Note Guarantee to the lender. ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.75 Defaults by borrower. (a...

  12. 48 CFR 1349.402-3 - Procedure for default

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default 1349.402-3 Section 1349.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT... Executive, and the action has been reviewed for legal sufficiency. ...

  13. Cognitive and Emotional Modulation of Brain Default Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful…

  14. 24 CFR 207.256a - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage. 207.256a Section 207.256a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  15. 24 CFR 207.256a - Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinstatement of defaulted mortgage. 207.256a Section 207.256a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  16. 29 CFR 2570.134 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(7) § 2570.134 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(7) civil penalty proceedings... involving the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(7) of the Act. Such notice shall...

  17. 29 CFR 2570.64 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(2) § 2570.64 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(2) civil penalty proceedings, this... the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(2) of the Act. Such notice shall then...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.164 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(8) § 2570.164 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings... involving the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(8) of the Act. Such notice shall...

  19. 29 CFR 2570.164 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(8) § 2570.164 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings... involving the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(8) of the Act. Such notice shall...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.114 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(6) § 2570.114 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(6) civil penalty proceedings... involving the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(6) of the Act. Such notice shall...

  1. 29 CFR 2570.134 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(7) § 2570.134 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(7) civil penalty proceedings... involving the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(7) of the Act. Such notice shall...

  2. 29 CFR 2570.64 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(2) § 2570.64 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(2) civil penalty proceedings, this... the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(2) of the Act. Such notice shall then...

  3. 29 CFR 2570.94 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(5) § 2570.94 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(5) civil penalty proceedings, this... as alleged in the notice for purposes of any proceeding involving the assessment of a civil...

  4. 29 CFR 2570.114 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(6) § 2570.114 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(6) civil penalty proceedings... involving the assessment of a civil penalty under section 502(c)(6) of the Act. Such notice shall...

  5. 29 CFR 2570.94 - Consequences of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT Procedures for the Assessment of Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(5) § 2570.94 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(5) civil penalty proceedings, this... as alleged in the notice for purposes of any proceeding involving the assessment of a civil...

  6. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section 220.811 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  7. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section 220.811 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  8. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section 220.812 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  9. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810 Section 220.810 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section 220.811 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  11. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section 220.812 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  12. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section 220.811 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810 Section 220.810 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  14. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810 Section 220.810 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  15. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810 Section 220.810 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  16. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section 220.812 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  17. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section 220.812 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  18. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section 220.812 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section 220.811 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  20. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810 Section 220.810 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  1. 37 CFR 42.25 - Default filing times.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default filing times. 42.25 Section 42.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure Petition and...

  2. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.23 Setting...) may be set aside by the official who issued the order. (1) Procedure for setting aside...

  3. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.23 Setting...) may be set aside by the official who issued the order. (1) Procedure for setting aside...

  4. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.23 Setting...) may be set aside by the official who issued the order. (1) Procedure for setting aside...

  5. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.23 Setting...) may be set aside by the official who issued the order. (1) Procedure for setting aside...

  6. 50 CFR 253.23 - Default and liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Default and liquidation. 253.23 Section 253.23 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance...

  7. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.23 Setting...) may be set aside by the official who issued the order. (1) Procedure for setting aside...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4280 - Reporting of defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... guaranteed loan shall give notice to the Secretary within 15 days after any debtor: (a) Is in default by... to the rights of the holder or to the Secretary or hazard to the security warrants more prompt action. (e) Except upon the express waiver of the Secretary, a holder shall not begin proceedings in court or...

  9. 47 CFR 64.636 - Prohibition of default provider freezes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition of default provider freezes. 64.636 Section 64.636 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and...

  10. Improving default risk prediction using Bayesian model uncertainty techniques.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Credit risk is the potential exposure of a creditor to an obligor's failure or refusal to repay the debt in principal or interest. The potential of exposure is measured in terms of probability of default. Many models have been developed to estimate credit risk, with rating agencies dating back to the 19th century. They provide their assessment of probability of default and transition probabilities of various firms in their annual reports. Regulatory capital requirements for credit risk outlined by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision have made it essential for banks and financial institutions to develop sophisticated models in an attempt to measure credit risk with higher accuracy. The Bayesian framework proposed in this article uses the techniques developed in physical sciences and engineering for dealing with model uncertainty and expert accuracy to obtain improved estimates of credit risk and associated uncertainties. The approach uses estimates from one or more rating agencies and incorporates their historical accuracy (past performance data) in estimating future default risk and transition probabilities. Several examples demonstrate that the proposed methodology can assess default probability with accuracy exceeding the estimations of all the individual models. Moreover, the methodology accounts for potentially significant departures from "nominal predictions" due to "upsetting events" such as the 2008 global banking crisis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Chuck; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Dynamic retail electricity pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response often appears to be an afterthought. But that may be changing as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period, during which utilities were required to offer a default or ''standard offer'' generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached, or are nearing, the end of their transitional period and several states have adopted an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Are these initiatives motivated by the desire to induce greater demand response, or is RTP being called upon to serve a different role in competitive markets? Surprisingly, we found that in most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service was not to encourage demand response, but rather to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, we also find that, if efforts are made in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This paper, which draws from a lengthier report, describes the experience to date with default RTP in the U.S., identifying findings related to its actual and potential role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand [1]. For each of the five states currently with default RTP, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to its adoption. To further understand the intentions and expectations of those involved in its design

  12. Which urban migrants default from tuberculosis treatment in Shanghai, China?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Qi, Lihong; Xia, Zhen; Shen, Mei; Shen, Xin; Mei, Jian; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Zheng'an Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a major challenge to tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide. TB treatment requires multiple drugs for at least six months. Some TB patients default before completing their treatment regimen, which can lead to ongoing infectiousness and drug resistance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 29,943 active TB cases among urban migrants that were reported between 2000 to 2008 in Shanghai, China. We used logistic regression models to identify factors independently associated with treatment defaults in TB patients among urban migrants during 2005-2008. Fifty-two percent of the total TB patients reported in Shanghai during the study period were among urban migrants. Three factors increased the odds of a treatment default: case management using self-administered therapy (OR, 5.84, 95% CI, 3.14-10.86, p<0.0005), being a retreatment case (OR, 1.47, 95% CI, 1.25-1.71, p<0.0005), and age >60 years old (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.05-1.67, p=0.017). The presence of a cavity in the initial chest radiograph decreased the odds for a treatment default (OR, 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.97, p=0.015), as did migration from central China (OR, 0.85, 95% CI, 0.73-0.99, p=0.042), case management by family members (OR, 0.73, 95% CI 0.66-0.81, p<0.0005), and the combination of case detection by a required physical exam and case management by health care staff (OR, 0.64, 95% CI, 0.45-0.93, p=0.019). Among TB patients who were urban migrants in Shanghai, case management using self-administered therapy was the strongest modifiable risk factor that was independently associated with treatment defaults. Interventions that target retreated TB cases could also reduce treatment defaults among urban migrants. Health departments should develop effective measures to prevent treatment defaults among urban migrants, to ensure completion of therapy among urban migrants who move between cities and provinces, and to improve reporting of treatment outcomes.

  13. Self-enhancement processing in the default network: a single-pulse TMS study.

    PubMed

    Luber, Bruce; Lou, Hans C; Keenan, Julian P; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2012-11-01

    Much research has been done on positive self-evaluation and its relationship to mental health. However, little is known about its neural underpinnings. Imaging studies have suggested that the brain's default network is involved with self-related processing and that one portion of the default network, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), is particularly involved with self-evaluation. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally demonstrate that this network, and particularly MPFC, is involved with self-evaluative processing. In a first experiment, 27 healthy volunteers judged whether adjectives, evenly divided between desirable and undesirable traits, described themselves or their best friends, and a robust self-enhancement bias effect was found. In a second experiment, single-pulse TMS was applied targeting three locations (MPFC and left and right parietal cortex) in a different group of healthy volunteers while they performed the adjective task. In each trial, TMS was applied at one of five different times relative to onset of the adjective ranging from 0 to 480 ms. TMS affected self-enhancement bias in a site- and latency-specific manner: at MPFC, the self-enhancement bias actually reversed at 160 ms, with subjects favoring their best friend over themselves. TMS may thus be of use in investigating areas of mental illness in which self-evaluation is abnormal, potentially as a diagnostic tool. In addition, the present study, combined with our previous reports (Lou et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(17):6827-6832, 2004, Exp Brain Res 207:27-38, 2010), causally demonstrates two kinds of self-related processing within the default network, one centered in parietal cortex and concerned with retrieval of self-related associations, and the other MPFC-centered and involved in self-evaluative processing.

  14. 49 CFR 260.45 - Events of default for guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Events of default for guaranteed loans. 260.45... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.45 Events of default for guaranteed loans. (a) If the Borrower is more than 30 days past due on a payment...

  15. 22 CFR 231.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note,...

  16. 22 CFR 230.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation...-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note, any Noteholder hereunder, or...

  17. 22 CFR 204.21 - Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Event of default; Application for compensation... STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.21 Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment. (a) Within one year after an Event of Default, as this term is defined...

  18. 22 CFR 232.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... APPROPRIATIONS ACT, 2012, DIV. I, PUB. L. 112-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  19. 22 CFR 221.21 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.21 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  20. 49 CFR 260.45 - Events of default for guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Events of default for guaranteed loans. 260.45... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.45 Events of default for guaranteed loans. (a) If the Borrower is more than 30 days past due on a payment...

  1. 22 CFR 204.21 - Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Event of default; Application for compensation... STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.21 Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment. (a) Within one year after an Event of Default, as this term is defined...

  2. 49 CFR 260.47 - Events of default for direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Events of default for direct loans. 260.47 Section... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.47 Events of default for direct loans. (a) Upon the Borrower's failure to make a scheduled payment, or...

  3. 22 CFR 230.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation...-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note, any Noteholder hereunder, or...

  4. 22 CFR 233.08 - Event of default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Event of default; Application for Compensation...-6-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 233.08 Event of default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note, any...

  5. 22 CFR 230.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation...-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note, any Noteholder hereunder, or...

  6. 49 CFR 260.45 - Events of default for guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Events of default for guaranteed loans. 260.45... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.45 Events of default for guaranteed loans. (a) If the Borrower is more than 30 days past due on a payment...

  7. 22 CFR 231.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note,...

  8. 22 CFR 231.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note,...

  9. 22 CFR 204.21 - Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Event of default; Application for compensation... STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.21 Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment. (a) Within one year after an Event of Default, as this term is defined...

  10. 22 CFR 221.21 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.21 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  11. 49 CFR 260.47 - Events of default for direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Events of default for direct loans. 260.47 Section... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.47 Events of default for direct loans. (a) Upon the Borrower's failure to make a scheduled payment, or...

  12. 22 CFR 204.21 - Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Event of default; Application for compensation... STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.21 Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment. (a) Within one year after an Event of Default, as this term is defined...

  13. 49 CFR 260.47 - Events of default for direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Events of default for direct loans. 260.47 Section... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.47 Events of default for direct loans. (a) Upon the Borrower's failure to make a scheduled payment, or...

  14. 49 CFR 260.45 - Events of default for guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Events of default for guaranteed loans. 260.45... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.45 Events of default for guaranteed loans. (a) If the Borrower is more than 30 days past due on a payment...

  15. 22 CFR 232.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... APPROPRIATIONS ACT, 2012, DIV. I, PUB. L. 112-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  16. 22 CFR 231.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note,...

  17. 22 CFR 221.21 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.21 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  18. 49 CFR 260.45 - Events of default for guaranteed loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Events of default for guaranteed loans. 260.45... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.45 Events of default for guaranteed loans. (a) If the Borrower is more than 30 days past due on a payment...

  19. 22 CFR 221.21 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.21 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  20. 49 CFR 260.47 - Events of default for direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Events of default for direct loans. 260.47 Section... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.47 Events of default for direct loans. (a) Upon the Borrower's failure to make a scheduled payment, or...

  1. 22 CFR 231.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note,...

  2. 22 CFR 204.21 - Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Event of default; Application for compensation... STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.21 Event of default; Application for compensation; Payment. (a) Within one year after an Event of Default, as this term is defined...

  3. 49 CFR 260.47 - Events of default for direct loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Events of default for direct loans. 260.47 Section... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Procedures To Be Followed in the Event of Default § 260.47 Events of default for direct loans. (a) Upon the Borrower's failure to make a scheduled payment, or...

  4. 22 CFR 230.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation...-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note, any Noteholder hereunder, or...

  5. 22 CFR 230.08 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation...-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.08 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in an Eligible Note, any Noteholder hereunder, or...

  6. 22 CFR 221.21 - Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Event of Default; Application for Compensation... GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.21 Event of Default; Application for Compensation; payment. At any time after an Event of Default, as this term is defined in...

  7. 42 CFR 60.20 - The Secretary's collection efforts after payment of a default claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Secretary's collection efforts after payment of a default claim. 60.20 Section 60.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... collection efforts after payment of a default claim. After paying a default claim on a HEAL loan,...

  8. 48 CFR 552.270-18 - Default in Delivery-Time Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default in Delivery-Time....270-18 Default in Delivery—Time Extensions. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Default In Delivery—Time Extensions (SEP 1999) (a) With respect to Lessor's obligation to deliver...

  9. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rates: Nevada System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypuros, Christopher Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Nevada's rate of default on college loans is among the highest in the nation. At the time of this study, there were no research studies on defaulters in the state of Nevada. The present study was designed for initial exploration regarding the relationship between various kinds of student factors and default rates from institutions at the Nevada…

  10. 17 CFR 230.239T - Temporary exemption for eligible credit default swaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible credit default swaps. 230.239T Section 230.239T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 230.239T Temporary exemption for eligible credit default swaps. (a) Except as expressly provided in paragraph (b) and (c) of this section, the Act does not apply to any eligible credit default swap that...

  11. 17 CFR 230.239T - Temporary exemption for eligible credit default swaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... eligible credit default swaps. 230.239T Section 230.239T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 230.239T Temporary exemption for eligible credit default swaps. (a) Except as expressly provided in paragraph (b) and (c) of this section, the Act does not apply to any eligible credit default swap that...

  12. 48 CFR 552.270-18 - Default in Delivery-Time Extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default in Delivery-Time....270-18 Default in Delivery—Time Extensions. As prescribed in 570.603, insert the following clause: Default In Delivery—Time Extensions (SEP 1999) (a) With respect to Lessor's obligation to deliver the...

  13. Official Cohort Default Rate Guide for FFEL Program and Direct Loan Program Loans, FY 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Default Management Div.

    This guide provides information for use by postsecondary schools on the calculation and use of cohort default rates for the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program and the Federal Direct Loan Program for fiscal year 1997. It defines cohort default rates and reviews how the default rate affects schools' benefits and sanctions. The guide…

  14. 34 CFR 668.207 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.207 Section 668.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Cohort Default Rates § 668.207 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. (a...

  15. 34 CFR 668.188 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.188 Section 668.188 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.188 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates...

  16. 24 CFR 201.50 - Lender efforts to cure the default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....50 Lender efforts to cure the default. (a) Personal contact with the borrower before acceleration and... that has been offered. (b) Notice of default and acceleration. Unless the borrower cures the default or... the Secretary. (c) Reinstatement of the loan. The lender may rescind the acceleration of...

  17. Selected Amendments Enacted Since 1980 To Control Guaranteed Student Loan Defaults. CRS Report for Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Charlotte J.

    Congress, over the past decade, has enacted a number of laws with provisions aimed at preventing defaults and improving collections on defaulted student loans. This report presents a synopsis of legislative provisions enacted to combat student loan defaults beginning with the Education Amendments of 1980. The laws included in the report are:…

  18. 48 CFR 52.249-8 - Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default (Fixed-Price... Clauses 52.249-8 Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service). As prescribed in 49.504(a)(1), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The Government may, subject to...

  19. 48 CFR 52.249-9 - Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Default (Fixed-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.249-9 Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development). As prescribed in 49.504(b), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The...

  20. 48 CFR 52.249-9 - Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default (Fixed-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.249-9 Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development). As prescribed in 49.504(b), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The...

  1. 48 CFR 52.249-8 - Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default (Fixed-Price... Clauses 52.249-8 Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service). As prescribed in 49.504(a)(1), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The Government may, subject to...

  2. 48 CFR 52.249-8 - Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Default (Fixed-Price... Clauses 52.249-8 Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service). As prescribed in 49.504(a)(1), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The Government may, subject to...

  3. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rates: Nevada System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypuros, Christopher Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Nevada's rate of default on college loans is among the highest in the nation. At the time of this study, there were no research studies on defaulters in the state of Nevada. The present study was designed for initial exploration regarding the relationship between various kinds of student factors and default rates from institutions at the Nevada…

  4. Multivariate Analysis of Student Loan Defaulters at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Matt; Teszler, Natali

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to better understand student loan default behavior at Texas A&M University (TAMU), the research staff at TG, at the request of TAMU, conducted a study of the relationship between loan default, on the one hand, and many student and borrower characteristics, on the other hand. The study examines the default behavior of 12,776…

  5. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... implement when developing a default prevention plan. I. Core Default Reduction Strategies 1. Establish your.... Establish a process to ensure the accuracy of your rate. II. Additional Default Reduction Strategies 1... academic study. III. Statistics for Measuring Progress 1. The number of students enrolled at your...

  6. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implement when developing a default prevention plan. I. Core Default Reduction Strategies 1. Establish your.... Establish a process to ensure the accuracy of your rate. II. Additional Default Reduction Strategies 1... academic study. III. Statistics for Measuring Progress 1. The number of students enrolled at your...

  7. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Default Prevention Plan A Appendix A to Subpart N of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE... Default Rates Appendix A to Subpart N of Part 668—Sample Default Prevention Plan This appendix is...

  8. 42 CFR 1001.1501 - Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default of health education loan or scholarship... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1501 Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations. (a... individual that the Public Health Service (PHS) determines is in default on repayments of scholarship...

  9. 42 CFR 1001.1501 - Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Default of health education loan or scholarship... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1501 Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations. (a... individual that the Public Health Service (PHS) determines is in default on repayments of scholarship...

  10. 42 CFR 1001.1501 - Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Default of health education loan or scholarship... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1501 Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations. (a... individual that the Public Health Service (PHS) determines is in default on repayments of scholarship...

  11. 42 CFR 1001.1501 - Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default of health education loan or scholarship... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1501 Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations. (a... individual that the Public Health Service (PHS) determines is in default on repayments of scholarship...

  12. 42 CFR 1001.1501 - Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Default of health education loan or scholarship... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1501 Default of health education loan or scholarship obligations. (a... individual that the Public Health Service (PHS) determines is in default on repayments of scholarship...

  13. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  14. Interaction of acupuncture treatment and manipulation laterality modulated by the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xuan; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zhenyu; Sun, Chuanzhu; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaocui; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Hongyan; Tian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject). We observed subjective pain intensity and brain activations changes induced by capsaicin allodynia pain stimuli before and after electroacupuncture treatment at acupoint LI4 for 30 min. Analysis of variance results indicated that ipsilateral electroacupuncture treatment produced significant pain relief and wide brain signal suppressions in pain-related brain areas compared with contralateral electroacupuncture. We also found that verum electroacupuncture at either ipsi- or contralateral side to the pain site exhibited comparable significant magnitudes of analgesic effect. By contrast, placebo electroacupuncture elicited significant pain reductions only on the ipsilateral rather than contralateral side. It was inferred that placebo analgesia maybe attenuated on the region of the body (opposite to pain site) where attention was less focused, suggesting that analgesic effect of placebo electroacupuncture mainly rely on the motivation of its spatial-specific placebo responses via attention mechanism. This inference can be further supported by the evidence that the significant interaction effect of manipulation laterality and treatment was exclusively located within the default mode network, including the bilateral superior parietal

  15. Interaction of acupuncture treatment and manipulation laterality modulated by the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xuan; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Sun, Chuanzhu; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaocui; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Hongyan; Tian, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject). We observed subjective pain intensity and brain activations changes induced by capsaicin allodynia pain stimuli before and after electroacupuncture treatment at acupoint LI4 for 30 min. Analysis of variance results indicated that ipsilateral electroacupuncture treatment produced significant pain relief and wide brain signal suppressions in pain-related brain areas compared with contralateral electroacupuncture. We also found that verum electroacupuncture at either ipsi- or contralateral side to the pain site exhibited comparable significant magnitudes of analgesic effect. By contrast, placebo electroacupuncture elicited significant pain reductions only on the ipsilateral rather than contralateral side. It was inferred that placebo analgesia maybe attenuated on the region of the body (opposite to pain site) where attention was less focused, suggesting that analgesic effect of placebo electroacupuncture mainly rely on the motivation of its spatial-specific placebo responses via attention mechanism. This inference can be further supported by the evidence that the significant interaction effect of manipulation laterality and treatment was exclusively located within the default mode network, including the bilateral superior parietal

  16. Registering initial defaulters and reporting on their treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Rusen, I D; Chiang, C-Y; Hinderaker, S G; Enarson, D A

    2009-07-01

    This Unresolved Issues article highlights three original articles that appeared last year in the Journal discussing the phenomenon of initial defaulters. There are three important challenges with patients that appear in the laboratory sputum register but are not recorded in the tuberculosis (TB) patient register: the first is how to identify these patients, trace them and get them on to treatment as soon as possible; the second is how to register and report on these cases as part of the case-finding component of TB control; and the third is whether to include these initial default patients in the cohort analysis of treatment outcomes. We recommend a step-wise approach to these challenges and advocate that these patients be included, wherever possible, in the TB patient register and in the cohort analysis of treatment outcomes.

  17. An Enhanced Default Approach Bias Following Human Amygdala Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Laura A.; Hurlemann, Rene; Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Approach and avoidance constitute a basic dimension of all animal behavior. A large literature documents approach and avoidance elicited by specific sensory stimuli, yet comparatively little is known about default approach biases when stimulus information is reduced. The amygdala is well known to contribute to approach and avoidance behaviors in response to specific sensory stimuli, and here we test whether the amygdala’s role might extend to situations where stimulus information is reduced. A novel task asked three rare patients with bilateral amygdala lesions to make approach-related judgments about photos of faces when intact, and with all internal facial features occluded. Direct comparisons of these stimuli isolated a stimulus-independent bias. The patients showed a greater tendency than controls to default to rating occluded faces as more approachable than whole faces. These findings suggest that the amygdala’s role in approach behavior extends beyond responses to specific stimuli. PMID:26338883

  18. Comparing the effects of defaults in organ donation systems.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, Hendrik P; Henkens, Kène

    2014-04-01

    The ability of patients in many parts of the world to benefit from transplantation is limited by growing shortages of transplantable organs. The choice architecture of donation systems is said to play a pivotal role in explaining this gap. In this paper we examine the question how different defaults affect the decision to register as organ donor. Three defaults in organ donation systems are compared: mandated choice, presumed consent and explicit consent. Hypothetical choices from a national survey of 2069 respondents in May 2011 in the Netherlands - a country with an explicit consent system - suggests that mandated choice and presumed consent are more effective at generating registered donors than explicit consent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  20. WHO Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy: Epidemiology of Default in Treatment in Agra District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Girdhar, Anita; Chakma, Joy Kumar; Girdhar, Bhuwneswar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study the magnitude of default, time of default, its causes, and final clinical outcome. Methods. Data collected in active surveys in Agra is analyzed. Patients were given treatment after medical confirmation and were followed up. The treatment default and other clinical outcomes were recorded. Results. Patients who defaulted have comparable demographic characteristics. However, among defaulters more women (62.7% in PB, 42.6% in MB) were seen than those in treatment completers (PB 52.7% and MB 35.9%). Nerve involvement was high in treatment completers: 45.7% in PB and 91.3% in MB leprosy. Overall default rate was lower (14.8%) in ROM than (28.8%) in standard MDT for PB leprosy (χ 1 2 = 11.6, P = 0.001) and also for MB leprosy: 9.1% in ROM compared to 34.5% in MDT (χ 1 2 = 6.0, P = 0.015). Default rate was not different (28.8% versus 34.5%, P > 0.05) in both types of leprosy given MDT. Most patients defaulted at early stage of treatment and mainly due to manageable side effects. Conclusion. The default in standard MDT both for PB and MB leprosy was observed to be significantly higher than in ROM treatment. Most defaults occurred at early stage of treatment and major contribution of default is due to side effects like drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth, related to poor general health. Although about half of the defaulters were observed to be cured 2.2% in PB-MDT and 10.9% of MB-MDT developed disability. This is an issue due to default. Attempts are needed to increase treatment compliance. The use of specially designed disease related health education along with easily administered drug regimens may help to reduce default. PMID:25705679

  1. Argentina’s Defaulted Sovereign Debt: Dealing with the Holdouts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    solution that it felt was commensurate with its deeply diminished economic and social reality. Facing a huge debt burden, Argentina adopted a hard line...34Vulture Funds Lobby Against Argentina," America Latina en Movimiento , August 6, 2009. http://alainet.org/index.phtml Argentina’s Defaulted Sovereign...Service 12 responsibility can have dramatic long-term economic, social , and political consequences. At the financial level, the costs to Argentina have

  2. Exploring default mode and information flow on the web.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mizuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Social networking services (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) are now major sources of World Wide Web (called "Web") dynamics, together with Web search services (e.g., Google). These two types of Web services mutually influence each other but generate different dynamics. In this paper, we distinguish two modes of Web dynamics: the reactive mode and the default mode. It is assumed that Twitter messages (called "tweets") and Google search queries react to significant social movements and events, but they also demonstrate signs of becoming self-activated, thereby forming a baseline Web activity. We define the former as the reactive mode and the latter as the default mode of the Web. In this paper, we investigate these reactive and default modes of the Web's dynamics using transfer entropy (TE). The amount of information transferred between a time series of 1,000 frequent keywords in Twitter and the same keywords in Google queries is investigated across an 11-month time period. Study of the information flow on Google and Twitter revealed that information is generally transferred from Twitter to Google, indicating that Twitter time series have some preceding information about Google time series. We also studied the information flow among different Twitter keywords time series by taking keywords as nodes and flow directions as edges of a network. An analysis of this network revealed that frequent keywords tend to become an information source and infrequent keywords tend to become sink for other keywords. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that frequent keywords form the Web's default mode, which becomes an information source for infrequent keywords that generally form the Web's reactive mode. We also found that the Web consists of different time resolutions with respect to TE among Twitter keywords, which will be another focal point of this paper.

  3. Observer properties for understanding dynamical displays: Capacities, limitations, and defaults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1991-01-01

    People's ability to extract relevant information while viewing ongoing events is discussed in terms of human capabilities, limitations, and defaults. A taxonomy of event complexity is developed which predicts which dynamical events people can and cannot construe. This taxonomy is related to the distinction drawn in classical mechanics between particle and extended body motions. People's commonsense understandings of simple mechanical systems are impacted little by formal training, but rather reflect heuristical simplifications that focus on a single dimension of perceived dynamical relevance.

  4. In Debt and in the Dark: It's Time for Better Information on Student Loan Defaults. Charts You Can Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Student college loan default rates have nearly doubled in recent years. The three-year default rate exceeds 13 percent nationally. Tracking and reporting default rates is a crucial means of monitoring how well higher education dollars are spent. Yet, the way default data is gathered, measured, and reported by the federal government clouds…

  5. In Debt and in the Dark: It's Time for Better Information on Student Loan Defaults. Charts You Can Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Student college loan default rates have nearly doubled in recent years. The three-year default rate exceeds 13 percent nationally. Tracking and reporting default rates is a crucial means of monitoring how well higher education dollars are spent. Yet, the way default data is gathered, measured, and reported by the federal government clouds…

  6. Default and Executive Network Coupling Supports Creative Idea Production.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Roger E; Benedek, Mathias; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Silvia, Paul J

    2015-06-17

    The role of attention in creative cognition remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have reported activation of brain regions linked to both cognitive control and spontaneous imaginative processes, raising questions about how these regions interact to support creative thought. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by examining dynamic interactions between brain regions during a divergent thinking task. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed a distributed network associated with divergent thinking, including several core hubs of the default (posterior cingulate) and executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks. The resting-state network affiliation of these regions was confirmed using data from an independent sample of participants. Graph theory analysis assessed global efficiency of the divergent thinking network, and network efficiency was found to increase as a function of individual differences in divergent thinking ability. Moreover, temporal connectivity analysis revealed increased coupling between default and salience network regions (bilateral insula) at the beginning of the task, followed by increased coupling between default and executive network regions at later stages. Such dynamic coupling suggests that divergent thinking involves cooperation between brain networks linked to cognitive control and spontaneous thought, which may reflect focused internal attention and the top-down control of spontaneous cognition during creative idea production.

  7. [Correlations of consciousness and the default function of the brain].

    PubMed

    Gyulaházi, Judit; Varga, Katalin

    2014-01-30

    Neural correlation with consciousness represents a main topic of neuroscience studies. New results of consciousness researches proved that based on a coherent function in between its components the default mode network activity is the condition for awake consciousness. The subject of consciousness is self. Tasks related with the self were proving a high default mode network activity. Using connections inside the network, results which were related with self, could be considered to represent a polymodal integration system are they are participating in fine processing of the highly integrated associative information. It could be a result of the convergence of cognitive binding. There is a strong connection between the level of consciousness and praecuneal activation. It was proved that the network activity is changing during sleeping (normal condition), trauma or under drug induced altered consciousness. The default network activity can be considered as the neural correlate of consciousness. Further researches are warranted to answer the question: is the activity of the network the cause or is just accompanying the development of human consciousness?

  8. Default and Executive Network Coupling Supports Creative Idea Production

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Roger E.; Benedek, Mathias; Barry Kaufman, Scott; Silvia, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The role of attention in creative cognition remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have reported activation of brain regions linked to both cognitive control and spontaneous imaginative processes, raising questions about how these regions interact to support creative thought. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by examining dynamic interactions between brain regions during a divergent thinking task. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed a distributed network associated with divergent thinking, including several core hubs of the default (posterior cingulate) and executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks. The resting-state network affiliation of these regions was confirmed using data from an independent sample of participants. Graph theory analysis assessed global efficiency of the divergent thinking network, and network efficiency was found to increase as a function of individual differences in divergent thinking ability. Moreover, temporal connectivity analysis revealed increased coupling between default and salience network regions (bilateral insula) at the beginning of the task, followed by increased coupling between default and executive network regions at later stages. Such dynamic coupling suggests that divergent thinking involves cooperation between brain networks linked to cognitive control and spontaneous thought, which may reflect focused internal attention and the top-down control of spontaneous cognition during creative idea production. PMID:26084037

  9. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals’ capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects. PMID:27375536

  10. Treatment default and death among tuberculosis patients in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Abuaku, Benjamin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xingli; Chen, Mengshi; Huang, Xin

    2010-04-01

    We used the 2005 and 2006 national surveillance data to elucidate some of the risk factors for treatment default and death among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hunan, China. Risk of default was higher in males (odds ratio (OR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.44); lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.49, 0.75), and generally increased with increasing age; lower in patients living in cities with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of less than 1000 US$ (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49, 0.72), and increased with increasing per capita GDP of city of residence; and higher in patients with previously treated smear-positive pulmonary TB (diagnostic category II according to the World Health Organization definition; OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.22, 3.23). Risk of death was lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.05, 0.10), and increased with increasing age; lower in new cases (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33, 0.76); and highest in patients who treated themselves (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.27, 9.46). We conclude that male TB patients, elderly TB patients, patients resident in cities with higher per capita GDP, and patients receiving category II treatment need special attention to reduce TB treatment default in the province. Furthermore, elderly TB patients and patients with a long history of TB need special attention to reduce mortality. Self-treatment also needs to be discouraged to reduce mortality.

  11. Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    fMRI session 1 in which subjects perform a working memory task (“2-Back”) and a simple detection task (“Detect 1’s”) based on (a) visual and (b...two major brain networks: the cognitive control network (CCN) and the default mode network (DMN). Using fMRI , we are examining brain activation in...subjects performing cognitive tasks that engage the CCN and DMN. One task is heavily reliant on working memory (N-back) and the other on selective

  12. Rat brains also have a default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hanbing; Zou, Qihong; Gu, Hong; Raichle, Marcus E.; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) in humans has been suggested to support a variety of cognitive functions and has been implicated in an array of neuropsychological disorders. However, its function(s) remains poorly understood. We show that rats possess a DMN that is broadly similar to the DMNs of nonhuman primates and humans. Our data suggest that, despite the distinct evolutionary paths between rodent and primate brain, a well-organized, intrinsically coherent DMN appears to be a fundamental feature in the mammalian brain whose primary functions might be to integrate multimodal sensory and affective information to guide behavior in anticipation of changing environmental contingencies. PMID:22355129

  13. Wandering Minds: The Default Network and Stimulus-Independent Thought

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Malia F.; Norton, Michael I.; Van Horn, John D.; Wegner, Daniel M.; Grafton, Scott T.; Macrae, C. Neil

    2007-01-01

    Despite evidence pointing to a ubiquitous tendency of human minds to wander, little is known about the neural operations that support this core component of human cognition. Using both thought sampling and brain imaging, the current investigation demonstrated that mind-wandering is associated with activity in a default network of cortical regions that are active when the brain is “at rest.” In addition, individuals’ reports of the tendency of their minds to wander were correlated with activity in this network. PMID:17234951

  14. 29 CFR 4219.33 - Plan rules concerning overdue and defaulted withdrawal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... providing reasonable grace periods during which late payments may be made without interest; additional... withdrawal liability; and rules pertaining to acceleration of the outstanding balance on default. Plan...

  15. Initial default from tuberculosis treatment: how often does it happen and what are the reasons?

    PubMed

    Botha, E; Den Boon, S; Verver, S; Dunbar, R; Lawrence, K-A; Bosman, M; Enarson, D A; Toms, I; Beyers, N

    2008-07-01

    A study in 11 primary health care facilities in and around Cape Town determined the proportion of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases who did not start treatment (initial default) and identified reasons for it. Databases from centralised laboratories were compared with electronic TB treatment registers. Fourteen per cent (373/2758) of TB suspects were TB cases. Of the 58 (16%) initial defaulters, 14 (24%) died, while 26 (45%) could not be interviewed for address-related reasons. The 18 subjects who were interviewed indicated reasons for initial default that were (56%) or were not (44%) directly linked to services. High initial default rates require improvement in the quality of health services.

  16. Default settings of computerized physician order entry system order sets drive ordering habits.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jordan; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Donaldson, Keri; Abendroth, Thomas; Castellani, William

    2015-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are quickly becoming ubiquitous, and groups of orders ("order sets") to allow for easy order input are a common feature. This provides a streamlined mechanism to view, modify, and place groups of related orders. This often serves as an electronic equivalent of a specialty requisition. A characteristic, of these order sets is that specific orders can be predetermined to be "preselected" or "defaulted-on" whenever the order set is used while others are "optional" or "defaulted-off" (though there is typically the option is to "deselect" defaulted-on tests in a given situation). While it seems intuitive that the defaults in an order set are often accepted, additional study is required to understand the impact of these "default" settings in an order set on ordering habits. This study set out to quantify the effect of changing the default settings of an order set. For quality improvement purposes, order sets dealing with transfusions were recently reviewed and modified to improve monitoring of outcome. Initially, the order for posttransfusion hematocrits and platelet count had the default setting changed from "optional" to "preselected." The default settings for platelet count was later changed back to "optional," allowing for a natural experiment to study the effect of the default selections of an order set on clinician ordering habits. Posttransfusion hematocrit values were ordered for 8.3% of red cell transfusions when the default order set selection was "off" and for 57.4% of transfusions when the default selection was "preselected" (P < 0.0001). Posttransfusion platelet counts were ordered for 7.0% of platelet transfusions when the initial default order set selection was "optional," increased to 59.4% when the default was changed to "preselected" (P < 0.0001), and then decreased to 7.5% when the default selection was returned to "optional." The posttransfusion platelet count rates during the two "optional" periods: 7

  17. Analyzing spacecraft configurations through specialization and default reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    For an intelligent system to describe a real-world situation using as few statements as possible, it is necessary to make inferences based on observed data and to incorporate general knowledge of the reasoning domain into the description. These reasoning processes must reduce several levels of specific descriptions into only those few that most precisely describe the situation. Moreover, the system must be able to generate descriptions in the absence of data, as instructed by certain rules of inference. The deductions applied by the system, then, generate a high-level description from the low-level evidence provided by the real and default data sources. An implementation of these ideas in a real-world situation is described. The application concerns evaluation of Space Shuttle electromechanical system configurations by console operators in the Mission Control Center. A production system provides the reasoning mechanism through which the default assignments and specializations occur. Examples are provided within this domain for each type of inference, and the suitability is discussed of each toward achieving the goal of describing a situation in the fewest statements possible. Finally, several enhancements are suggested that will further increase the intelligence of similar spacecraft monitoring applications.

  18. Cognitive and emotional modulation of brain default operation.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J; Korvenoja, Antti; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-06-01

    Goal-directed behavior lowers activity in brain areas that include the medial frontal cortex, the medial and lateral parietal cortex, and limbic and paralimbic brain regions, commonly referred to as the "default network." These activity decreases are believed to reflect the interruption of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful state. Previously, the nature of these processes was probed by varying cognitive task parameters, but the presence of emotional processes, while often assumed, was little investigated. With fMRI, we studied the effect of systematic variations of both cognitive load and emotional stimulus connotation on task-related decreases in the default network by employing an auditory working memory (WM) task with musical sounds. The performance of the WM task, compared to passive listening, lowered the activity in medial and lateral, prefrontal, parietal, temporal, and limbic regions. In a subset of these regions, the magnitude of decrease depended on the memory load; the greater the cognitive load, the larger the magnitude of the observed decrease. Furthermore, in the right amygdala and the left precuneus, areas previously associated with processing of unpleasant dissonant musical sounds, there was an interaction between the experimental condition and the stimulus type. The current results are consistent with the previously reported effect of task difficulty on task-related brain activation decreases. The results also indicate that task-related decreases may be further modulated by the emotional stimulus connotation.

  19. The extent of default visual perspective taking in complex layouts.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lewis J; Levin, Daniel T; Saylor, Megan M

    2016-04-01

    Emerging research suggests that visual perspective taking might be based in part on a default, early developing cognitive process. This hypothesis receives support from experiments demonstrating that adults experience interference from task-irrelevant perspectives of depicted agents even when participants are making judgments about their own perspective. However, a number of recent articles conclude that this self-judgment interference effect may be because of simple directional cues alone, and might, therefore, not reflect processes specific to visual perspective taking. In 3 studies, we demonstrate that self-judgment interference is constrained by agents' apparent line-of-sight access to subspaces in realistic rendered scenes. Participants displayed processing costs when their perspective conflicted with that of an avatar, who faced in the direction of all possible targets but could not see some of the targets because of occlusion. This interference effect occurred using 2 different configurations of occluders, and disappeared when windows were added to the occluders, allowing avatars line of sight access to all of the targets visible to the participant. These results demonstrate that default perspective taking is not attributable to directional cues alone but instead reflects a relatively sophisticated calculation of an agent's line of sight. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, M. L.; Kruyt, N. D.; Boeree, M. J.; Harries, A. D.; Salaniponi, F. M.; van Noord, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters. PMID:10361755

  1. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (< 2,000 US dollars/month, 88.1% vs. 68.4%, P = 0.015), absence of TB stigma (4.3% vs. 61.3%, P < 0.001), treatment by a non-pulmonologist (74.1% vs. 25.9%, P < 0.001), history of previous treatment (37.0% vs. 19.0%, P = 0.019), former defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P < 0.001), treatment by a non-pulmonologist (aOR: 14.567, 95% CI: 3.260-65.089, P < 0.001), former defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  2. 38 CFR 36.4275 - Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Events constituting... Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs... guaranteed in whole or in part by the Secretary, shall not constitute an event of default, or acceleration...

  3. 38 CFR 36.4275 - Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Events constituting... Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs... guaranteed in whole or in part by the Secretary, shall not constitute an event of default, or acceleration...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4275 - Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Events constituting... Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs... guaranteed in whole or in part by the Secretary, shall not constitute an event of default, or acceleration...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4275 - Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Events constituting... Events constituting default and acceptability of partial payments. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs... guaranteed in whole or in part by the Secretary, shall not constitute an event of default, or acceleration...

  6. 24 CFR 201.50 - Lender efforts to cure the default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lender efforts to cure the default....50 Lender efforts to cure the default. (a) Personal contact with the borrower before acceleration and... section. The lender shall document the results of its efforts to contact the borrower and any co-maker...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier... exporter or the exporter's assignee must submit a notice of default to CCC as soon as possible, but not... notice of default must be submitted in writing to the Treasurer, CCC, at the address specified in the...

  8. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier... exporter or the exporter's assignee must submit a notice of default to CCC as soon as possible, but not... notice of default must be submitted in writing to the Treasurer, CCC, at the address specified in the...

  9. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.500 Notice of default and claims for loss... obligation, the exporter or the exporter's assignee must submit a notice of default to CCC as soon as...

  10. 7 CFR 1493.500 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier... exporter or the exporter's assignee must submit a notice of default to CCC as soon as possible, but not... notice of default must be submitted in writing to the Treasurer, CCC, at the address specified in the...

  11. Default network connectivity as a vulnerability marker for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z W; Xu, T; He, Q H; Shi, C Z; Wei, Z; Miao, G D; Jing, J; Lim, K O; Zuo, X N; Chan, R C K

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population. Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC. These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.

  12. 10 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within the time prescribed in §...

  13. A Predictive Model of Student Loan Default at a Two-Year Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chanda Denea

    2015-01-01

    This study explored whether a predictive model of student loan default could be developed with data from an institution's three-year cohort default rate report. The study used borrower data provided by a large two-year community college. Independent variables under investigation included total undergraduate Stafford student loan debt, total number…

  14. A stochastic maximum principle for backward control systems with random default time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Kuen Siu, Tak

    2013-05-01

    This paper establishes a necessary and sufficient stochastic maximum principle for backward systems, where the state processes are governed by jump-diffusion backward stochastic differential equations with random default time. An application of the sufficient stochastic maximum principle to an optimal investment and capital injection problem in the presence of default risk is discussed.

  15. 10 CFR 1013.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 1013.10 Section 1013.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within...

  16. 10 CFR 1013.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 1013.10 Section 1013.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within...

  17. 10 CFR 1013.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 1013.10 Section 1013.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within...

  18. 10 CFR 1013.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 1013.10 Section 1013.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within...

  19. 10 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within the time prescribed in §...

  20. 10 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within the time prescribed in §...

  1. 10 CFR 1013.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 1013.10 Section 1013.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within...

  2. 10 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within the time prescribed in §...

  3. 10 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to file an answer. (a) If the defendant does not file an answer within the time prescribed in §...

  4. Characteristics of Student Loan Defaulters among Different Racial and Ethnic Groups. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; And Others

    This study examined the characteristics of students who default on their student loans and compared default among Whites, Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Four logistic regression models were developed using information from the National Post-Secondary Student Aid Study which contains an array of pre-college, college,…

  5. 24 CFR 207.255 - Defaults for purposes of insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mortgagee Under the Contract of Insurance § 207.255 Defaults for purposes of insurance claim. (a)(1) Except... purposes of a mortgagee filing an insurance claim with the Commissioner, the failure of the mortgagor to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defaults for purposes of insurance...

  6. 24 CFR 266.626 - Notice of default and filing an insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... insurance claim. 266.626 Section 266.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... insurance claim. (a) Definition of default. (1) A monetary default exists when the mortgagor fails to make..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  7. 24 CFR 266.626 - Notice of default and filing an insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... insurance claim. 266.626 Section 266.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... insurance claim. (a) Definition of default. (1) A monetary default exists when the mortgagor fails to make..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  8. 24 CFR 207.255 - Defaults for purposes of insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mortgagee Under the Contract of Insurance § 207.255 Defaults for purposes of insurance claim. (a)(1) Except... purposes of a mortgagee filing an insurance claim with the Commissioner, the failure of the mortgagor to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defaults for purposes of insurance...

  9. 24 CFR 266.626 - Notice of default and filing an insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurance claim. 266.626 Section 266.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... insurance claim. (a) Definition of default. (1) A monetary default exists when the mortgagor fails to make..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  10. 24 CFR 207.255 - Defaults for purposes of insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mortgagee Under the Contract of Insurance § 207.255 Defaults for purposes of insurance claim. (a)(1) Except... purposes of a mortgagee filing an insurance claim with the Commissioner, the failure of the mortgagor to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defaults for purposes of insurance...

  11. 24 CFR 266.626 - Notice of default and filing an insurance claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... insurance claim. 266.626 Section 266.626 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... insurance claim. (a) Definition of default. (1) A monetary default exists when the mortgagor fails to make..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...

  12. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may...

  13. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. 1261.413 Section 1261.413 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults....

  14. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Contents of... Boat Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Boat Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP...

  18. 34 CFR 674.5 - Federal Perkins Loan program cohort default rate and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... penalties. 674.5 Section 674.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Provisions § 674.5 Federal Perkins Loan program cohort default rate and penalties. (a) Default penalty. If an... Secretary in accordance with § 674.50. (iii) Effective date. The provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of...

  19. 47 CFR 51.707 - Default proxies for incumbent LECs' transport and termination rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default proxies for incumbent LECs' transport... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of Telecommunications Traffic § 51.707 Default proxies for incumbent LECs' transport...

  20. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 609.15 Section 609.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral...

  1. 48 CFR 52.249-9 - Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Research and Development). 52.249-9 Section 52.249-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.249-9 Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development). As prescribed in 49.504(b), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The...

  2. 24 CFR 203.664 - Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Indian land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property located on Indian land. 203.664 Section 203.664 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Responsibilities Mortgages in Default on Property Located on Indian Reservations § 203.664 Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Indian land. Before a mortgagee requests that the Secretary...

  3. 24 CFR 203.665 - Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Hawaiian home lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property located on Hawaiian home lands. 203.665 Section 203.665 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Responsibilities Mortgages in Default on Property Located on Hawaiian Home Lands § 203.665 Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Hawaiian home lands. Before a mortgagee requests the Secretary to...

  4. 24 CFR 203.665 - Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Hawaiian home lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property located on Hawaiian home lands. 203.665 Section 203.665 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Responsibilities Mortgages in Default on Property Located on Hawaiian Home Lands § 203.665 Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Hawaiian home lands. Before a mortgagee requests the Secretary to...

  5. 24 CFR 203.664 - Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Indian land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property located on Indian land. 203.664 Section 203.664 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Responsibilities Mortgages in Default on Property Located on Indian Reservations § 203.664 Processing defaulted mortgages on property located on Indian land. Before a mortgagee requests that the Secretary...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. 1261.413 Section 1261.413 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. The...

  7. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  8. 48 CFR 1449.402 - Termination of fixed-price contracts for default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of fixed-price contracts for default. 1449.402 Section 1449.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 1449.402 Termination of fixed...

  9. 48 CFR 49.504 - Termination of fixed-price contracts for default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of fixed-price... fixed-price contracts for default. (a)(1) Supplies and services. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.249-8, Default (Fixed-Price Supply and Service), in solicitations and contracts when...

  10. 48 CFR 49.402 - Termination of fixed-price contracts for default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of fixed-price contracts for default. 49.402 Section 49.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 49.402 Termination of fixed...

  11. 48 CFR 449.402 - Termination of fixed-price contracts for default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of fixed-price contracts for default. 449.402 Section 449.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 449.402 Termination of fixed...

  12. 48 CFR 1349.402 - Termination of fixed-price contracts for default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of fixed-price contracts for default. 1349.402 Section 1349.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 1349.402 Termination of fixed...

  13. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for solvent...

  15. 10 CFR 611.111 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 611.111 Section 611.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.111 Default, demand, payment, and...

  16. 7 CFR 1493.110 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations § 1493.110 Notice of default and claims for loss. (a) Notice of default. If the foreign bank issuing the...

  17. 38 CFR 42.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 42.10 Section 42.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.10 Default...

  18. 38 CFR 42.10 - Default upon failure to file an answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default upon failure to file an answer. 42.10 Section 42.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.10 Default...

  19. The Influence of Students' Loans Borrowers' Characteristics on Default Rate in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    The cost of students' loans defaulting has lead to a serious discussion among participants. Substantial attention has been made on the students' loans and its impact on higher education finances while researches on students' loans defaults have not been taken for more than a decade. Therefore this study examines the influence of student loans…

  20. 24 CFR 257.122 - Forgiveness or waiver of prepayment penalties and default fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forgiveness or waiver of prepayment penalties and default fees. 257.122 Section 257.122 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Procedures § 257.122 Forgiveness or waiver of prepayment penalties and default fees. The holder or servicer...

  1. Performance of default risk model with barrier option framework and maximum likelihood estimation: Evidence from Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Heng-Chih; Wang, David

    2007-11-01

    We investigate the performance of a default risk model based on the barrier option framework with maximum likelihood estimation. We provide empirical validation of the model by showing that implied default barriers are statistically significant for a sample of construction firms in Taiwan over the period 1994-2004. We find that our model dominates the commonly adopted models, Merton model, Z-score model and ZETA model. Moreover, we test the n-year-ahead prediction performance of the model and find evidence that the prediction accuracy of the model improves as the forecast horizon decreases. Finally, we assess the effect of estimated default risk on equity returns and find that default risk is able to explain equity returns and that default risk is a variable worth considering in asset-pricing tests, above and beyond size and book-to-market.

  2. The brain's default network: origins and implications for the study of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Randy L

    2013-09-01

    The brain's default network is a set of regions that is spontaneously active during passive moments. The network is also active during directed tasks that require participants to remember past events or imagine upcoming events. One hypothesis is that the network facilitates construction of mental models (simulations) that can be used adaptively in many contexts. Extensive research has considered whether disruption of the default network may contribute to disease. While an intriguing possibility, a specific challenge to this notion is the fact that it is difficult to accurately measure the default network in patients where confounds of head motion and compliance are prominent. Nonetheless, some intriguing recent findings suggest that dysfunctional interactions between front-oparietal control systems and the default network contribute to psychosis. Psychosis may be a network disturbance that manifests as disordered thought partly because it disrupts the fragile balance between the default network and competing brain systems.

  3. College and Trade-School Officials Raise Questions about U.S. Plan to Reduce Loan-Default Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    1989-01-01

    The Education Department's calculation of student loan default rates is disputed. New Education Department regulations will strip federal loan money from students attending schools where large numbers of former students have defaulted. (MLW)

  4. Dynamic Default Mode Network across Different Brain States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pan; Yang, Yong; Gao, Junfeng; De Pisapia, Nicola; Ge, Sheng; Wang, Xiang; Zuo, Chun S.; Jonathan Levitt, James; Niu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a complex dynamic network that is critical for understanding cognitive function. However, whether dynamic topological reconfiguration of the DMN occurs across different brain states, and whether this potential reorganization is associated with prior learning or experience is unclear. To better understand the temporally changing topology of the DMN, we investigated both nodal and global dynamic DMN-topology metrics across different brain states. We found that DMN topology changes over time and those different patterns are associated with different brain states. Further, the nodal and global topological organization can be rebuilt by different brain states. These results indicate that the post-task, resting-state topology of the brain network is dynamically altered as a function of immediately prior cognitive experience, and that these modulated networks are assembled in the subsequent state. Together, these findings suggest that the changing topology of the DMN may play an important role in characterizing brain states. PMID:28382944

  5. Dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network during narrative comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Simony, Erez; Honey, Christopher J; Chen, Janice; Lositsky, Olga; Yeshurun, Yaara; Wiesel, Ami; Hasson, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Does the default mode network (DMN) reconfigure to encode information about the changing environment? This question has proven difficult, because patterns of functional connectivity reflect a mixture of stimulus-induced neural processes, intrinsic neural processes and non-neuronal noise. Here we introduce inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC), which isolates stimulus-dependent inter-regional correlations between brains exposed to the same stimulus. During fMRI, we had subjects listen to a real-life auditory narrative and to temporally scrambled versions of the narrative. We used ISFC to isolate correlation patterns within the DMN that were locked to the processing of each narrative segment and specific to its meaning within the narrative context. The momentary configurations of DMN ISFC were highly replicable across groups. Moreover, DMN coupling strength predicted memory of narrative segments. Thus, ISFC opens new avenues for linking brain network dynamics to stimulus features and behaviour. PMID:27424918

  6. Default Cascades in Complex Networks: Topology and Systemic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Roukny, Tarik; Bersini, Hugues; Pirotte, Hugues; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The recent crisis has brought to the fore a crucial question that remains still open: what would be the optimal architecture of financial systems? We investigate the stability of several benchmark topologies in a simple default cascading dynamics in bank networks. We analyze the interplay of several crucial drivers, i.e., network topology, banks' capital ratios, market illiquidity, and random vs targeted shocks. We find that, in general, topology matters only – but substantially – when the market is illiquid. No single topology is always superior to others. In particular, scale-free networks can be both more robust and more fragile than homogeneous architectures. This finding has important policy implications. We also apply our methodology to a comprehensive dataset of an interbank market from 1999 to 2011. PMID:24067913

  7. The role of default network deactivation in cognition and disease.

    PubMed

    Anticevic, Alan; Cole, Michael W; Murray, John D; Corlett, Philip R; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H

    2012-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence has accumulated over recent years on the functions of the default-mode network (DMN)--a set of brain regions whose activity is high when the mind is not engaged in specific behavioral tasks and low during focused attention on the external environment. In this review, we focus on DMN suppression and its functional role in health and disease, summarizing evidence that spans several disciplines, including cognitive neuroscience, pharmacological neuroimaging, clinical neuroscience, and theoretical neuroscience. Collectively, this research highlights the functional relevance of DMN suppression for goal-directed cognition, possibly by reducing goal-irrelevant functions supported by the DMN (e.g., mind-wandering), and illustrates the functional significance of DMN suppression deficits in severe mental illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decoupling of the brain's default mode network during deep sleep.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Silvina G; Braun, Allen R; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J; Fukunaga, Masaki; Duyn, Jeff H

    2009-07-07

    The recent discovery of a circuit of brain regions that is highly active in the absence of overt behavior has led to a quest for revealing the possible function of this so-called default-mode network (DMN). A very recent study, finding similarities in awake humans and anesthetized primates, has suggested that DMN activity might not simply reflect ongoing conscious mentation but rather a more general form of network dynamics typical of complex systems. Here, by performing functional MRI in humans, it is shown that a natural, sleep-induced reduction of consciousness is reflected in altered correlation between DMN network components, most notably a reduced involvement of frontal cortex. This suggests that DMN may play an important role in the sustenance of conscious awareness.

  9. Default-mode-like network activation in awake rodents.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Baker, Scott J; Chandran, Prasant; Miller, Loan; Lee, Younglim; Marek, Gerard J; Sakoglu, Unal; Chin, Chih-Liang; Luo, Feng; Fox, Gerard B; Day, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During wakefulness and in absence of performing tasks or sensory processing, the default-mode network (DMN), an intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) network, is in an active state. Non-human primate and human CNS imaging studies have identified the DMN in these two species. Clinical imaging studies have shown that the pattern of activity within the DMN is often modulated in various disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or chronic pain). However, whether the DMN exists in awake rodents has not been characterized. The current data provides evidence that awake rodents also possess 'DMN-like' functional connectivity, but only subsequent to habituation to what is initially a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment as well as physical restraint. Specifically, the habituation process spanned across four separate scanning sessions (Day 2, 4, 6 and 8). At Day 8, significant (p<0.05) functional connectivity was observed amongst structures such as the anterior cingulate (seed region), retrosplenial, parietal, and hippocampal cortices. Prior to habituation (Day 2), functional connectivity was only detected (p<0.05) amongst CNS structures known to mediate anxiety (i.e., anterior cingulate (seed region), posterior hypothalamic area, amygdala and parabracial nucleus). In relating functional connectivity between cingulate-default-mode and cingulate-anxiety structures across Days 2-8, a significant inverse relationship (r = -0.65, p = 0.0004) was observed between these two functional interactions such that increased cingulate-DMN connectivity corresponded to decreased cingulate anxiety network connectivity. This investigation demonstrates that the cingulate is an important component of both the rodent DMN-like and anxiety networks.

  10. Default-Mode-Like Network Activation in Awake Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Baker, Scott J.; Chandran, Prasant; Miller, Loan; Lee, Younglim; Marek, Gerard J.; Sakoglu, Unal; Chin, Chih-Liang; Luo, Feng; Fox, Gerard B.; Day, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During wakefulness and in absence of performing tasks or sensory processing, the default-mode network (DMN), an intrinsic central nervous system (CNS) network, is in an active state. Non-human primate and human CNS imaging studies have identified the DMN in these two species. Clinical imaging studies have shown that the pattern of activity within the DMN is often modulated in various disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or chronic pain). However, whether the DMN exists in awake rodents has not been characterized. The current data provides evidence that awake rodents also possess ‘DMN-like’ functional connectivity, but only subsequent to habituation to what is initially a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment as well as physical restraint. Specifically, the habituation process spanned across four separate scanning sessions (Day 2, 4, 6 and 8). At Day 8, significant (p<0.05) functional connectivity was observed amongst structures such as the anterior cingulate (seed region), retrosplenial, parietal, and hippocampal cortices. Prior to habituation (Day 2), functional connectivity was only detected (p<0.05) amongst CNS structures known to mediate anxiety (i.e., anterior cingulate (seed region), posterior hypothalamic area, amygdala and parabracial nucleus). In relating functional connectivity between cingulate-default-mode and cingulate-anxiety structures across Days 2-8, a significant inverse relationship (r = −0.65, p = 0.0004) was observed between these two functional interactions such that increased cingulate-DMN connectivity corresponded to decreased cingulate anxiety network connectivity. This investigation demonstrates that the cingulate is an important component of both the rodent DMN-like and anxiety networks. PMID:22125628

  11. The meaning of default options for potential organ donors

    PubMed Central

    Davidai, Shai; Gilovich, Thomas; Ross, Lee D.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of participation in organ donation programs are known to be powerfully influenced by the relevant default policy in effect (“opt-in” vs. “opt-out”). Three studies provide evidence that this difference in participation may occur in part because the requirement to opt-in or opt-out results in large differences in the meaning that individuals attach to participation. American participants in Study 1 rated participation as a significantly more substantial action when agreement was purportedly obtained under opt-in rather than opt-out conditions, and nonagreement as a greater abrogation of responsibility when that decision was made under opt-out rather than under opt-in conditions. Study 2 replicated these findings with respondents who live in Germany, which employs an opt-in donation policy, and in Austria, which has an opt-out policy. Study 3 required American participants to rate various actions that differ in the effort and self-sacrifice they demand. As predicted, the placement of organ donation on the resulting multidimensional scaling dimension differed significantly depending on whether it purportedly was made in an opt-in country (where it was considered roughly akin to giving away half of one’s wealth to charity upon one’s death) or an opt-out country (where it fell between letting others get ahead of one in line and volunteering some time to help the poor). We discuss the relationship between this change of meaning account and two other mechanisms—behavioral inertia and implicit norms—that we believe underlie the default effect in decision making and other effects of policies designed to influence decision-makers. PMID:22949639

  12. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task.

  13. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R. Todd; Brewer, Judson A.

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest despite other studies reporting differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, this study compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity, and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies have used small groups, whereas the current study tested these hypotheses in a larger group. Results indicate that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network relative to an active task in meditators compared to controls. Regions of the default mode showing a group by task interaction include the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task. PMID:25904238

  14. Factors associated with treatment default by tuberculosis patients in Fez, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Slama, K; Tachfouti, N; Obtel, M; Nejjari, C

    2013-08-01

    Interruption in tuberculosis (TB) treatment still remains the most important challenge for control of the disease. This study aimed to identify the determinants of TB treatment default in Fez, Morocco. A 1:2 pair-matched case-control study was carried out in the TB control units in Fez. Cases were defaulters to TB treatment and were matched by age and sex to non-defaulters (controls). Of the 320 patients (108 defaulters, 212 controls), 80.6% were male. The main reason for defaulting reported by patients was the sensation of being cured. Predictive factors for treatment default in the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, were: relapsed case (adjusted OR = 4.49; 95% Cl: 1.87-10.8), current smoking (aOR= 2.10; 95% Cl: 1.07-4.14), alcohol use (aOR = 2.92; 95% Cl: 1.04-8.19), being more than 30 minutes away from the health centre (aOR = 3.34; 95% Cl: 1.06-10.5) and perception of having received insufficient explanation about the disease (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.53-5.36). The rate of defaulting in Fez can be lowered through targeted and realistic measures.

  15. Dopamine and glutamate release in the anterior default system during rest: A monkey microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Tohru; Hikosaka, Kazuo; Honda, Yoshiko; Kojima, Takashi; Tsutsui, Ken-ichiro; Watanabe, Masataka

    2015-11-01

    Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of a default system in the brain, which shows a default mode of brain activity, i.e., greater activity during rest than during an attention-demanding cognitive task. Our previous study on monkeys has revealed a default mode of brain activity in medial cortical areas. We have observed an increase in dopamine (DA) release during a working memory (WM) task compared with that during rest in the monkey lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). However, no previous study has examined DA release related to the default mode of brain activity. We used a microdialysis technique to investigate changes in DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which constitutes the anterior default system, during the WM task and rest. Because DA and glutamate (Glu) release in the LPFC is interrelated, we also examined Glu release in the MPFC. We observed a significant increase in DA release, but no significant change in Glu release during rest compared with that during the WM task. We also observed an inhibitory relationship between the two transmitters in the MPFC. Considering that human default brain activity is related to internal thought processes and increased DA release in the LPFC plays an important role in executive control, increase in DA release during rest in the monkey anterior default system may be related to some form of internal thought process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Further evidence of alerted default network connectivity and association with theory of mind ability in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Omar; Tangney, Noreen; Morris, Derek W; McCarthy, Hazel; Frodl, Thomas; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary

    2017-06-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI. Based on seed regions from previous studies, we examined functional connectivity of the default, cognitive control, affective and attention networks. Effects of symptom severity and theory of mind performance on functional connectivity were also examined. Patients showed increased connectivity between key nodes of the default network including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex compared to controls (p<0.01, FWE-corrected). Increasing positive symptoms and increasing theory of mind performance were both associated with altered connectivity of default regions within the patient group (p<0.01, FWE-corrected). This study confirms previous findings of default hyper-connectivity in schizophrenia spectrum patients and reveals an association between altered default connectivity and positive symptom severity. As a novel find, this study also shows that default connectivity is correlated to and predictive of theory of mind performance. Extending these findings by examining the effects of emerging social cognition treatments on both default connectivity and theory of mind performance is now an important goal for research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Default risk modeling beyond the first-passage approximation: extended Black-Cox model.

    PubMed

    Katz, Yuri A; Shokhirev, Nikolai V

    2010-07-01

    We develop a generalization of the Black-Cox structural model of default risk. The extended model captures uncertainty related to firm's ability to avoid default even if company's liabilities momentarily exceeding its assets. Diffusion in a linear potential with the radiation boundary condition is used to mimic a company's default process. The exact solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation allows for derivation of analytical expressions for the cumulative probability of default and the relevant hazard rate. Obtained closed formulas fit well the historical data on global corporate defaults and demonstrate the split behavior of credit spreads for bonds of companies in different categories of speculative-grade ratings with varying time to maturity. Introduction of the finite rate of default at the boundary improves valuation of credit risk for short time horizons, which is the key advantage of the proposed model. We also consider the influence of uncertainty in the initial distance to the default barrier on the outcome of the model and demonstrate that this additional source of incomplete information may be responsible for nonzero credit spreads for bonds with very short time to maturity.

  18. Default risk modeling beyond the first-passage approximation: Extended Black-Cox model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Yuri A.; Shokhirev, Nikolai V.

    2010-07-01

    We develop a generalization of the Black-Cox structural model of default risk. The extended model captures uncertainty related to firm’s ability to avoid default even if company’s liabilities momentarily exceeding its assets. Diffusion in a linear potential with the radiation boundary condition is used to mimic a company’s default process. The exact solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation allows for derivation of analytical expressions for the cumulative probability of default and the relevant hazard rate. Obtained closed formulas fit well the historical data on global corporate defaults and demonstrate the split behavior of credit spreads for bonds of companies in different categories of speculative-grade ratings with varying time to maturity. Introduction of the finite rate of default at the boundary improves valuation of credit risk for short time horizons, which is the key advantage of the proposed model. We also consider the influence of uncertainty in the initial distance to the default barrier on the outcome of the model and demonstrate that this additional source of incomplete information may be responsible for nonzero credit spreads for bonds with very short time to maturity.

  19. Stimulus-free thoughts induce differential activation in the human default network.

    PubMed

    Preminger, Son; Harmelech, Tal; Malach, Rafael

    2011-01-15

    Despite extensive research of the Default network, a set of regions which tend to reduce their activity relative to rest in response to stimulus-driven tasks, its function is still debated. Specifically, it is still not clear to what extent the activation profile of this network is driven by processes related to external stimulation (inhibitory or anticipatory), or is driven by specific thought contents. To address this question, we examined the ability of thoughts, generated in the absence of external stimulation, to modulate default network activation. In a set of experiments, several types of long lasting stimulus-free thoughts were elicited by brief (<1s) auditory cues. Sustained (40s) brain activations, far outlasting the cue, were demonstrated during these stimulus-free conditions. Importantly, brain activity in the default network showed a striking modulation associated with stimulus-free thought content. More specifically, a preferential activation was observed in essentially the entire default network during volitional-prospection thoughts when compared to the other stimulus-free thought conditions. Furthermore, several regions of the default network showed long-lasting above rest activations during the volitional-prospection condition. Our results demonstrate that default network activation can be modulated in the absence of external stimuli, thus pointing to the importance of thought-content in default-network specialization. Furthermore, together with previous research, these results support the notion that intrinsically oriented processing is a core specialization of the default network. Finally, our stimulus-free experimental paradigm introduces a new method for studying default network functionality.

  20. 26 CFR 1.956-2T - Definition of United States Property (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...): Example 1. CFC is a controlled foreign corporation that is wholly owned by USP, a domestic corporation. CFC is a dealer in securities under section 475(c)(1). CFC enters into a credit default swap (that it... organization (DCO). CFC is not a member of DCO. CFC uses a U.S. affiliate (CM), which is a member of DCO, as...

  1. Patterns of Default Mode Network Deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Soares, José Miguel; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Ganho-Ávila, Ana; Fernandes-Gonçalves, Ana; Pocinho, Fernando; Carracedo, Angel; Sampaio, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to research the patterns of Default Mode Network (DMN) deactivation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the transition between a resting and a non-rest emotional condition. Twenty-seven participants, 15 diagnosed with OCD and 12 healthy controls (HC), underwent a functional neuroimaging paradigm in which DMN brain activation in a resting condition was contrasted with activity during a non-rest condition consisting in the presentation of emotionally pleasant and unpleasant images. Results showed that HC, when compared with OCD, had a significant deactivation in two anterior nodes of the DMN (medial frontal and superior frontal) in the non-rest pleasant stimuli condition. Additional analysis for the whole brain, contrasting the resting condition with all the non-rest conditions grouped together, showed that, compared with OCD, HC had a significantly deactivation of a widespread brain network (superior frontal, insula, middle and superior temporal, putamen, lingual, cuneus, and cerebellum). Concluding, the present study found that OCD patients had difficulties with the deactivation of DMN even when the non-rest condition includes the presentation of emotional provoking stimuli, particularly evident for images with pleasant content. PMID:28287615

  2. Angular default mode network connectivity across working memory load.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, D; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Menon, D K; Stamatakis, E A

    2017-01-01

    Initially identified during no-task, baseline conditions, it has now been suggested that the default mode network (DMN) engages during a variety of working memory paradigms through its flexible interactions with other large-scale brain networks. Nevertheless, its contribution to whole-brain connectivity dynamics across increasing working memory load has not been explicitly assessed. The aim of our study was to determine which DMN hubs relate to working memory task performance during an fMRI-based n-back paradigm with parametric increases in difficulty. Using a voxel-wise metric, termed the intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC), we found that the bilateral angular gyri (core DMN hubs) displayed the greatest change in global connectivity across three levels of n-back task load. Subsequent seed-based functional connectivity analysis revealed that the angular DMN regions robustly interact with other large-scale brain networks, suggesting a potential involvement in the global integration of information. Further support for this hypothesis comes from the significant correlations we found between angular gyri connectivity and reaction times to correct responses. The implication from our study is that the DMN is actively involved during the n-back task and thus plays an important role related to working memory, with its core angular regions contributing to the changes in global brain connectivity in response to increasing environmental demands. Hum Brain Mapp 38:41-52, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Constituents and functional implications of the rat default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Li-Ming; Liang, Xia; Gu, Hong; Brynildsen, Julia K.; Stark, Jennifer A.; Ash, Jessica A.; Lin, Ching-Po; Lu, Hanbing; Rapp, Peter R.; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been suggested to support a variety of self-referential functions in humans and has been fractionated into subsystems based on distinct responses to cognitive tasks and functional connectivity architecture. Such subsystems are thought to reflect functional hierarchy and segregation within the network. Because preclinical models can inform translational studies of neuropsychiatric disorders, partitioning of the DMN in nonhuman species, which has previously not been reported, may inform both physiology and pathophysiology of the human DMN. In this study, we sought to identify constituents of the rat DMN using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging. After identifying DMN using a group-level independent-component analysis on the rs-fMRI data, modularity analyses fractionated the DMN into an anterior and a posterior subsystem, which were further segregated into five modules. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography demonstrates a close relationship between fiber density and the functional connectivity between DMN regions, and provides anatomical evidence to support the detected DMN subsystems. Finally, distinct modulation was seen within and between these DMN subcomponents using a neurocognitive aging model. Taken together, these results suggest that, like the human DMN, the rat DMN can be partitioned into several subcomponents that may support distinct functions. These data encourage further investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of DMN processing in preclinical models of both normal and disease states. PMID:27439860

  4. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Robert W.; North, Duane M.; Biver, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300–350 ms and (2) 350–450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a “shutter” that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations. PMID:25100976

  5. Menopausal Hot Flashes and the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Maki, Pauline M.; Derby, Carol A.; Sejdić, Ervin; Aizenstein, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether more physiologically assessed hot flashes were associated with greater connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), the network of brain regions active during rest. We particularly focus on DMN networks supporting the hippocampus as this region is rich in estrogen receptors and has previously been linked to hot flashes. Design Women underwent 24 hours of physiologic and diary hot flash monitoring, functional magnetic resonance imaging, 72 hours of sleep actigraphy monitoring, a blood draw, questionnaires, and physical measures. Setting Community Participants Twenty midlife women ages 40–60 with their uterus and both ovaries and not taking hormone therapy Interventions None Main outcome measures DMN functional connectivity Results Controlling for age, race, education, a greater number of physiologically-monitored hot flashes were associated with greater DMN connectivity [beta, B (standard error, SE)=.004 (.002), p<.05], particularly hippocampal DMN connectivity [B(SE)=.005 (.002), p<.05]. Findings were most pronounced for sleep physiologic hot flashes [with hippocampal DMN, B(SE)= .02 (.007), p<0.01]. Associations persisted additionally controlling for sleep, depressive symptoms, and serum estradiol concentrations. Conclusions More physiologically-monitored hot flashes were associated with greater DMN connectivity, particularly networks supporting the hippocampus. Findings were most pronounced for sleep hot flashes. Findings underscore the importance of continued investigation of the central nervous system in efforts to understand this classic menopausal phenomenon. PMID:25910572

  6. UFO (UnFold Operator) default data format

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F. ); Marking, T.R. )

    1991-05-01

    The default format for the storage of x,y data for use with the UFO code is described. The format assumes that the data stored in a file is a matrix of values; two columns of this matrix are selected to define a function of the form y = f(x). This format is specifically designed to allow for easy importation of data obtained from other sources, or easy entry of data using a text editor, with a minimum of reformatting. This format is flexible and extensible through the use of inline directives stored in the optional header of the file. A special extension of the format implements encoded data which significantly reduces the storage required as compared wth the unencoded form. UFO supports several extensions to the file specification that implement execute-time operations, such as, transformation of the x and/or y values, selection of specific columns of the matrix for association with the x and y values, input of data directly from other formats (e.g., DAMP and PFF), and a simple type of library-structured file format. Several examples of the use of the format are given.

  7. Reduced default mode network connectivity following combat trauma.

    PubMed

    DiGangi, Julia A; Tadayyon, Armin; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy; Klumpp, Heide; Rauch, Sheila A M; Phan, K Luan

    2016-02-26

    Recent studies show decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in PTSD; however, few have directly examined combat trauma specifically. There is limited understanding of how combat itself may affect the DMN. Some literature suggests that trauma exposure, rather than PTSD, can disrupt the DMN. To further elucidate the effect of trauma and PTSD on the DMN, we investigated DMN functional connectivity during the resting-state in veterans with PTSD, combat-exposed controls, and never-traumatized healthy controls. Results revealed that DMN connectivity was reduced in veterans exposed to combat trauma with and without PTSD compared to healthy civilian controls. Specifically, both groups of veterans demonstrated weaker connectivity within a network involving the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right superior parietal lobule regardless of whether the mPFC or precuneus was chosen as a seed region. Findings suggest that the experience of trauma, rather than the pathology of PTSD, may be related to DMN changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Howard-Jones, Paul A.; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated. PMID:26779054

  9. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  10. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300-350 ms and (2) 350-450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a "shutter" that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  11. Boredom, sustained attention and the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Merrifield, Colleen

    2016-03-15

    Boredom is a ubiquitous human experience that can best be described as an inability to engage with one's environment despite the motivation to do so. Boredom is perceived as a negative experience and demonstrates strong associations with other negatively valenced states including depression and aggression. Although boredom has been shown to be elevated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, little is known about the neural underpinnings of the state. We scanned the brains of healthy participants under four separate conditions: a resting state scan, a sustained attention task and two video-based mood inductions, one known to produce boredom and another we validated to produce a state of interest or engagement. Using independent components analyses, results showed common regions of correlated activation in posterior regions of the so-called default mode network (DMN) of the brain across all four conditions. The sustained attention and boredom induction scans were differentiated from the resting state scan by the presence of anticorrelated activity-i.e. when DMN regions were active, this region was deactivated-in the anterior insula cortex. This same region demonstrated correlated activity with both the DMN and the regions associated with attentional control during the interest mood induction. We interpret these findings to suggest that boredom represents a failure to engage executive control networks when faced with a monotonous task-in other words, when the task demands some level of engagement (watch the movie, search for infrequent targets), but is so mundane that attempts to do so fail.

  12. Altered default mode network functional connectivity in schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Shen, Jing; Wu, Jianlin; Yu, Xiao; Lou, Wutao; Fan, Hongyu; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng

    2014-12-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been identified to play a critical role in many mental disorders, but such abnormalities have not yet been determined in patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The purpose of this study was to analyze the alteration of the DMN functional connectivity in subjects with (SPD) and compared it to healthy control subjects. Eighteen DSM-IV diagnosed SPD subjects (all male, average age: 19.7±0.9) from a pool of 3000 first year college students, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy control subjects were recruited (all male, average age: 20.3±0.9). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to analyze the DMN functional connectivity alteration. Compared to the healthy control group, SPD subjects had significantly decreased functional connectivity in the frontal areas, including the superior and medial frontal gyrus, and greater functional connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and sub-lobar regions, including the bilateral putamen and caudate. Compared to subjects with SPD, the healthy control group showed decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, but showed greater functional connectivity in the right transverse temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. The healthy control group also showed greater activation in the cerebellum compared to the SPD group. These findings suggest that DMN functional connectivity, particularly that involving cognitive or emotional regulation, is altered in SPD subjects, and thus may be helpful in studying schizophrenia.

  13. Dysmaturation of the Default Mode Network in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Stuart D.; Gordon, Evan M.; Brar, Jasmit; Warburton, Samantha; Sawyer, Alice T.; Wolfe, Amanda; Mease-Ference, Erin R.; Girton, Laura; Hailu, Ayichew; Mbwana, Juma; Gaillard, William D.; Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; VanMeter, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Two hypotheses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose that this condition is characterized by deficits in Theory of Mind and by hypoconnectivity between remote cortical regions with hyperconnectivity locally. The default mode network (DMN) is a set of remote, functionally connected cortical nodes less active during executive tasks than at rest and is implicated in Theory of Mind, episodic memory, and other self-reflective processes. We show that children with ASD have reduced connectivity between DMN nodes and increased local connectivity within DMN nodes and the visual and motor resting-state networks. We show that, like the trajectory of synaptogenesis, internodal DMN functional connectivity increased as a quadratic function of age in typically developing children, peaking between, 11 and 13 years. In children with ASD, these long-distance connections fail to develop during adolescence. These findings support the “developmental disconnection model” of ASD, provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the Theory-of-Mind hypothesis of ASD, and show that the window for effectively treating ASD could be wider than previously thought. PMID:23334984

  14. Damage to the default mode network disrupts autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Carissa L; Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa; Rudrauf, David

    2015-03-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the default mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory (AM). Convergent evidence from a lesion approach would help clarify the role of the DMN in AM. In this study, we used a voxelwise lesion-deficit approach to test the hypothesis that regions of the DMN are necessary for AM. We also explored whether the neural correlates of semantic AM (SAM) and episodic AM (EAM) were overlapping or distinct. Using the Iowa Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, we tested AM retrieval in 92 patients with focal, stable brain lesions. In support of our hypothesis, damage to regions within the DMN (medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC; posterior cingulate cortex, PCC; inferior parietal lobule, IPL; medial temporal lobe, MTL) was associated with AM impairments. Within areas of effective lesion coverage, the neural correlates of SAM and EAM were largely distinct, with limited areas of overlap in right IPL. Whereas SAM deficits were associated with left mPFC and MTL damage, EAM deficits were associated with right mPFC and MTL damage. These results provide novel neuropsychological evidence for the necessary role of parts of the DMN in AM. More broadly, the findings shed new light on how the DMN participates in self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Increased "default mode" activity in adolescents prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Santhanam, Priya; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-05-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with attention/arousal dysregulation and possible inefficiencies in some cognitive functions. However, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. Because activities in the default mode network (DMN) reflect intrinsic brain functions that are closely associated with arousal regulation and cognition, alterations in the DMN could underlie cognitive effects related to PCE. With resting-state and task activation functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the possible PCE related changes in functional brain connectivity and brain activation in the DMN. In the resting state, the PCE group was found to have stronger functional connectivity in the DMN, as compared to the nonexposed controls. During a working memory task with emotional distracters, the PCE group exhibited less deactivation in the DMN and their fMRI signal was more increased by emotional arousal. These data revealed additional neural effects related to PCE, and consistent with previous findings, indicate that PCE may affect behavior and functioning by increasing baseline arousal and altering the excitatory/inhibitory balancing mechanisms involved in cognitive resource allocation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  17. Damage to the default mode network disrupts autobiographical memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa; Rudrauf, David

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the default mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory (AM). Convergent evidence from a lesion approach would help clarify the role of the DMN in AM. In this study, we used a voxelwise lesion-deficit approach to test the hypothesis that regions of the DMN are necessary for AM. We also explored whether the neural correlates of semantic AM (SAM) and episodic AM (EAM) were overlapping or distinct. Using the Iowa Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, we tested AM retrieval in 92 patients with focal, stable brain lesions. In support of our hypothesis, damage to regions within the DMN (medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC; posterior cingulate cortex, PCC; inferior parietal lobule, IPL; medial temporal lobe, MTL) was associated with AM impairments. Within areas of effective lesion coverage, the neural correlates of SAM and EAM were largely distinct, with limited areas of overlap in right IPL. Whereas SAM deficits were associated with left mPFC and MTL damage, EAM deficits were associated with right mPFC and MTL damage. These results provide novel neuropsychological evidence for the necessary role of parts of the DMN in AM. More broadly, the findings shed new light on how the DMN participates in self-referential processing. PMID:24795444

  18. Reduced default mode network connectivity following combat trauma

    PubMed Central

    DiGangi, Julia A.; Tadayyon, Armin; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Kennedy, Amy; Klumpp, Heide; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Phan, K. Luan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in PTSD; however, few have directly examined combat trauma specifically. There is limited understanding of how combat itself may affect the DMN. Some literature suggests that trauma exposure, rather than PTSD, can disrupt the DMN. To further elucidate the effect of trauma and PTSD on the DMN, we investigated DMN functional connectivity during the resting-state in veterans with PTSD, combat-exposed controls, and never-traumatized healthy controls. Results revealed that DMN connectivity was reduced in veterans exposed to combat trauma with and without PTSD compared to healthy civilian controls. Specifically, both groups of veterans demonstrated weaker connectivity within a network involving the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right superior parietal lobule regardless of whether the mPFC or precuneus was chosen as a seed region. Findings suggest that the experience of trauma, rather than the pathology of PTSD, may be related to DMN changes. PMID:26797653

  19. Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents With Conduct Disorder.

    PubMed

    Broulidakis, M John; Fairchild, Graeme; Sully, Kate; Blumensath, Thomas; Darekar, Angela; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviors that might be related to deficits in empathy and moral reasoning. The brain's default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in self-referential cognitive processes of this kind. This study examined connectivity between key nodes of the DMN in 29 adolescent boys with CD and 29 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescent boys. The authors ensured that group differences in DMN connectivity were not explained by comorbidity with other disorders by systematically controlling for the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, psychopathic traits, and other common mental health problems. Only after adjusting for co-occurring ADHD symptoms, the group with CD showed hypoconnectivity between core DMN regions compared with typically developing controls. ADHD symptoms were associated with DMN hyperconnectivity. There was no effect of psychopathic traits on DMN connectivity in the group with CD, and the key results were unchanged when controlling for SUDs and other common mental health problems. Future research should directly investigate the possibility that the aberrant DMN connectivity observed in the present study contributes to CD-related deficits in empathy and moral reasoning and examine self-referential cognitive processes in CD more generally. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestine-specific Deletion of Sirt1 in Mice Impairs DCoH2–HNF1α–FXR Signaling and Alters Systemic Bile Acid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kazgan, Nevzat; Metukuri, Mallikarjuna R.; Purushotham, Aparna; Lu, Jing; Rao, Anuradha; Lee, Sangkyu; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Lickteig, Andrew; Csanaky, Ivan; Zhao, Yingming; Dawson, Paul A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the most conserved mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, is an important metabolic sensor in many tissues. However, little is known about its role in the small intestine, which absorbs and senses nutrients. We investigated the functions of intestinal Sirt1 in systemic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in mice. Methods Sirt1 was specifically deleted from intestines of mice using the Flox-villin-Cre system (Sirt1 iKO mice). Intestinal and heptic tissues were collected, and bile acid absorption was analyzed using the everted gut sac experiment. Systemic bile acid metabolism was studied in Sirt1 iKO and Flox control mice placed on standard diets, diets containing 0.5% cholic acid or 1.25% cholesterol, or lithogenic diets. Results Sirt1 iKO mice had reduced intestinal Fxr signaling via Hnf1a compared with controls, which reduced expression of the bile acid transporter genes Asbt and Mcf2l (encodes Ost) and absorption of ileal bile acids. Sirt1 regulated Hnf1α–Fxr signaling partially through Dcoh2, which increases dimerization of Hnf1α. Sirt1 was found to deacetylate DCoH2, promoting its interaction with Hnf1α and inducing DNA binding by Hnf1α. Intestine-specific deletion of Sirt1 increased hepatic bile acid biosynthesis, reduced hepatic accumulation of bile acids, and protected animals from liver damage from high-bile acid diets. Conclusions Intestinal Sirt1, a key nutrient sensor, is required for ileal bile acid absorption and systemic bile acid homeostasis in mice. We delineated the mechanism of metabolic regulation of Hnf1α–Fxr signaling. Reagents designed to inhibit intestinal SIRT1 might be developed to treat bile acid-related diseases such as cholestasis. PMID:24389307

  1. 7 CFR 1493.300 - Notice of default and claims for loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Name of the emerging market; (3) Name of the defaulting bank; (4) Payment due date; (5) Total amount of... certificate or similar document signed by an official of the emerging market; (iii) The exporter's sales...

  2. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default... of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs (75 FR 18652) which included proposed methods for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gases (GHGs) from electronics manufacturing....

  3. 29 CFR 4219.33 - Plan rules concerning overdue and defaulted withdrawal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... withdrawal liability; and rules pertaining to acceleration of the outstanding balance on default. Plan rules... categories of creditworthiness the plan will use, the specific differences in treatment accorded employers...

  4. The default network and self-generated thought: component processes, dynamic control, and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Spreng, R. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Though only a decade has elapsed since the default network was first emphasized as being a large-scale brain system, recent years have brought great insight into the network’s adaptive functions. A growing theme highlights the default network as playing a key role in internally-directed—or self-generated—thought. Here, we synthesize recent findings from cognitive science, neuroscience, and clinical psychology to focus attention on two emerging topics as current and future directions surrounding the default network. First, we present evidence that self-generated thought is a multi-faceted construct whose component processes are supported by different subsystems within the network. Second, we highlight the dynamic nature of the default network, emphasizing its interaction with executive control systems when regulating aspects of internal thought. We conclude by discussing clinical implications of disruptions to the integrity of the network, and consider disorders when thought content becomes polarized or network interactions become disrupted or imbalanced. PMID:24502540

  5. Meta-analysis of factors related to health services that predict treatment default by tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Braga, José Ueleres

    2008-01-01

    The identification of factors that predict tuberculosis (TB) treatment default can help control this problem. The current study used a systematic review to investigate associations between TB treatment default and previously studied factors related to health services. Abstracts were searched in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and in the bibliography of the full texts under evaluation. Studies were included if TB treatment default was evaluated by comparing two or more groups and data could be extracted. A total of 41 studies were included for combining data. It was possible to combine five exposures: "difficult access to health services"; "need for hospitalization"; "training or support for adherence"; "delay in initiating treatment"; "long wait before medical attendance". "Difficult access to health services", "training or support for adherence", and "need for hospitalization" were associated with TB treatment default. All exposures demonstrated heterogeneity, which was only explained in one. Publication bias was only detected for one exposure.

  6. 48 CFR 1649.101-72 - FEHBP termination for default clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 1649.101-72 FEHBP termination for default clause. The clause set forth in 1652...

  7. 47 CFR 64.630 - Applicability of change of default TRS provider rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... default TRS providers shall apply to any provider of IP Relay or VRS eligible to receive payments from...

  8. 47 CFR 64.630 - Applicability of change of default TRS provider rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... default TRS providers shall apply to any provider of IP Relay or VRS eligible to receive payments from...

  9. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  10. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  11. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  12. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  13. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  14. Independent component model of the default-mode brain function: Assessing the impact of active thinking.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Bertolino, Alessandro; Scarabino, Tommaso; Latorre, Valeria; Blasi, Giuseppe; Popolizio, Teresa; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Cirillo, Sossio; Goebel, Rainer; Di Salle, Francesco

    2006-10-16

    The "default-mode" network is an ensemble of cortical regions, which are typically deactivated during demanding cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Using functional connectivity, this network can be conceptualized and studied as a "stand-alone" function or system. Regardless of the task, independent component analysis (ICA) produces a picture of the "default-mode" function even when the subject is performing a simple sensori-motor task or just resting in the scanner. This has boosted the use of default-mode fMRI for non-invasive research in brain disorders. Here, we studied the effect of cognitive load modulation of fMRI responses on the ICA-based pictures of the default-mode function. In a standard graded working memory study based on the n-back task, we used group-level ICA to explore the variability of the default-mode network related to the engagement in the task, in 10 healthy volunteers. The analysis of the default-mode components highlighted similarities and differences in the layout under three different cognitive loads. We found a load-related general increase of deactivation in the cortical network. Nonetheless, a variable recruitment of the cingulate regions was evident, with greater extension of the anterior and lesser extension of the posterior clusters when switching from lower to higher working memory loads. A co-activation of the hippocampus was only found under no working memory load. As a generalization of our results, the variability of the default-mode pattern may link the default-mode system as a whole to cognition and may more directly support use of the ICA model for evaluating cognitive decline in brain disorders.

  15. Resting in peace or noise: scanner background noise suppresses default-mode network.

    PubMed

    Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E; Glover, Gary H

    2008-07-01

    Studies have identified specific brain regions that increase activation during rest relative to attention-demanding tasks; these regions subserve the "default mode of brain function". Most of these studies have been conducted in the presence of scanner background noise (SBN). This noise has been shown to lead to altered attentional demands, and thus may modulate the default-mode network. Twelve subjects were examined during a rest condition that was contrasted with an auditory task. Words were presented either with SBN employing a conventional acquisition or without SBN using a sparse sampling approach. The number of experimental and resting trials was equated between the designs. Selecting the images in the condition with SBN that corresponded in time with the images in the condition without SBN made a direct comparison of the default-mode network (rest contrasted with active task) possible. There was typical activation of the default-mode network during rest versus task for both designs. However, SBN suppressed major components of the default-mode network, including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. Our results suggest that the default mode of brain function differs when assessed in the presence compared to the absence of scanner noise, with the presence of scanner noise perhaps adding attentional demands that diminish activation changes between rest and task in a nonlinear way within the default network. Further studies are needed to clarify whether the use of a sparse sampling technique might enhance clinical utilities that have been proposed for analysis of the default-mode network.

  16. The application of defaults to optimize parents' health-based choices for children.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Keller, Kathleen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Marcus, Sue; Pierson, Richard N; Shannon, Michael; DeLaurentis, Danielle

    2017-06-01

    Optimal defaults is a compelling model from behavioral economics and the psychology of human decision-making, designed to shape or "nudge" choices in a positive direction without fundamentally restricting options. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of optimal (less obesogenic) defaults and parent empowerment priming on health-based decisions with parent-child (ages 3-8) dyads in a community-based setting. Two proof-of-concept experiments (one on breakfast food selections and one on activity choice) were conducted comparing the main and interactive effects of optimal versus suboptimal defaults, and parent empowerment priming versus neutral priming, on parents' health-related choices for their children. We hypothesized that in each experiment, making the default option more optimal will lead to more frequent health-oriented choices, and that priming parents to be the ultimate decision-makers on behalf of their child's health will potentiate this effect. Results show that in both studies, default condition, but not priming condition or the interaction between default and priming, significantly predicted choice (healthier vs. less healthy option). There was also a significant main effect for default condition (and no effect for priming condition or the interaction term) on the quantity of healthier food children consumed in the breakfast experiment. These pilot studies demonstrate that optimal defaults can be practicably implemented to improve parents' food and activity choices for young children. Results can inform policies and practices pertaining to obesogenic environmental factors in school, restaurant, and home environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustained activity within the default mode network during an implicit memory task.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Weng, Xuchu; Zang, Yufeng; Xu, Mingwei; Xu, Xiaohong

    2010-03-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions--namely, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the bilateral angular gyrus--are more active during resting states than during cognitive tasks (i.e., default mode network). Although there is evidence showing that the default mode network is associated with unconscious state, it is unclear whether this network is associated with unconscious processing when normal human subjects perform tasks without awareness. We manipulated the level of conscious processing in normal subjects by asking them to perform an implicit and an explicit memory task, and analyzed signal changes in the default mode network for the stimuli versus baseline in both tasks. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis showed that the level of activation in regions within this network during the implicit task was not significantly different from that during the baseline, except in the left angular gyrus and the insula. There was strong deactivation for the explicit task when compared with the implicit task in the default mode regions, except in the left angular gyrus and the left middle temporal gyrus. These data suggest that the activity in the default network is sustained and less disrupted when an implicit memory task is performed, but is suspended when explicit retrieval is required. These results provide evidence that the default mode network is associated with unconscious processing when human subjects perform an implicit memory task. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with tuberculosis treatment default among HIV-infected tuberculosis patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Burapat, Channawong; Kaewsa-ard, Samroui; Watthanaamornkiet, Wanpen; Sirinak, Chawin; Sattayawuthipong, Wanchai; Jittimanee, Suksont; Pobkeeree, Vallerut; Varma, Jay K

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring completion of tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains a major public health problem. In HIV-infected patients, TB is the most common severe opportunistic infection. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for TB treatment default in HIV-infected patients. We conducted a prospective, observational study of HIV-infected TB patients in Thailand. Patients underwent standardised evaluations at the beginning of TB treatment, at the end of the intensive phase and at the end of TB treatment. TB treatment outcomes were assessed according to WHO guidelines. The analysis was limited to patients who defaulted or who had treatment success. Of the 554 patients analysed, 61 (11%) defaulted. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with TB treatment default included incarceration history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7), smoking (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.1) and having a symptom complaint score >15 (AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.0); one marker of wealth, namely owning a refrigerator, was protective (AOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). Default during TB treatment was a significant problem in HIV-infected patients. Reducing default may require enhancing services for patients with a history of incarceration or smoking and designing patient-centred systems to address poverty and patient wellness.

  19. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control.

  20. Sustained activity within the default mode network during an implicit memory task

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Weng, Xuchu; Zang, Yufeng; Xu, Mingwei; Xu, Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions -- namely, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the bilateral angular gyrus -- are more active during resting states than during cognitive tasks (i.e., default mode network). Although there is evidence showing that the default mode network is associated with unconscious state, it is unclear whether this network is associated with unconscious processing when normal human subjects perform tasks without awareness. We manipulated the level of conscious processing in normal subjects by asking them to perform an implicit and an explicit memory task, and analyzed signal changes in the default mode network for the stimuli versus baseline in both tasks. The fMRI analysis showed that the level of activation in regions within this network during the implicit task was not significantly different from that during the baseline, except in the left angular gyrus and the insula. There was strong deactivation for the explicit task when compared with the implicit task in the default mode regions, except in the left angular gyrus and the left middle temporal gyrus. These data suggest that the activity in the default network is sustained and less disrupted when an implicit memory task is performed, but is suspended when explicit retrieval is required. These results provide evidence that the default mode network is associated with unconscious processing when human subjects perform an implicit memory task. PMID:19552900