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Sample records for de-icers add sweet

  1. 7 CFR 2902.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and/or ice, in general use applications by lowering the freezing point of water. Specialized de-icer... Items § 2902.37 General purpose de-icers. (a) Definition. Chemical products (e.g., salt, fluids) that...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and/or ice, in general use applications by lowering the freezing point of water. Specialized de-icer... Items § 2902.37 General purpose de-icers. (a) Definition. Chemical products (e.g., salt, fluids) that...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet the...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  8. De-icers derived from corn steep water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Yun; Montgomery, Rex

    2003-12-01

    Corn steep water (CSW) and other byproducts derived from fermentations and sugar productions are presently forming the base of compositions for de-icing and anti-icing materials. Since the de-icing and anti-icing values are in part a colligative property, increase in the molar concentration of ionic species has been frequently necessary to decrease further the freezing point of this byproducts stream. In the present study this has been achieved by the generation of biodegradable organic acid salts in situ, without the use of chloride or other inorganic salts, by the alkaline degradation of reducing sugars added to corn steep water, which alone is not an efficient de-icer. Reducing sugars, such as glucose, react with alkali metal hydroxides to produce principally hydroxy carboxylic acids that react with the alkali metal hydroxide to form a mixture of organic acid salts. The ionic strength of the resulting solution is increased since each sugar molecule produces nearly two acid molecules upon degradation. The ionic strength necessary to achieve the desired freezing point depression is determined by the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used, with the necessary counter anions being derived from the degradation of the reducing sugar. The amount of the sugar used is that required to result in a near to neutral final solution. The well-known anti-corrosive property of CSW is used in the de-icer preparations, either by conducting the alkaline degradation of the sugar in this medium, or by using water for the degradation of the sugar followed by dilution of the resulting solution with CSW to adjust the viscosity of the final solution to meet the requirements for spraying. The monovalent metal hydroxides are more efficient in producing de-icer solutions than the divalent metal hydroxides.

  9. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-01-15

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

  10. Toxicity of aircraft de-icer and anti-icer solutions to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.; Jordahl, D.M.; Evans, J.E.; May, E.B.

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory studies were undertaken to assess the toxicity of industrial mixtures of aviation de-icers and anti-icers. Various additives and contaminants are present in these solutions at proportions of 10 to 20% of the total volume. Static-renewal toxicity tests were performed at concentrations that bracketed published LC50 values for the primary ingredients (9--51 ml glycol/L) using fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{reg_sign}) bioassays. Water from a stream that receives runoff from a large commercial airport was also tested during a late winter storm (March), and spring baseflow (April). The anti-icer solution was more toxic than the de-icer solution by two orders of magnitude (96-h LC50 range 0.03-0.44 ml/L, 3.02--13.48 ml/L, respectively). Both types of solutions exhibited greater toxicity than previously reported values for the primary ingredients. Toxic effects were observed in the March stream sample, but not the April sample. Significant inhibition of reproduction in C. dubia in the anti-icer and de-icer solutions occurred at 0.05 and 0.38 ml/L, respectively. Effects were observed in the Microtox assay at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.25 ml/L for the anti-icer and de-icer, respectively. Results suggest that the additives, rather than the glycols, are the major source of toxicity. Histological damage observed in fathead minnows primarily involved gill, kidney, and skin tissue, with the most prominent responses seen in fish exposed to the anti-icer solution. The de-icer solution elicited respiratory epithelial ``disruption`` and renal damage, and the anti-icer caused proliferative branchitis (hyperplastic response) and delamination of the epidermis from the dermis of the skin.

  11. Potential toxic effects of aircraft de-icers and wastewater samples containing these compounds.

    PubMed

    Mohiley, A; Franzaring, J; Calvo, O C; Fangmeier, A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major problems of airport operation is the impact of pollution caused by runoff waters. Runoff waters at an airport may contain high concentrations of different contaminants resulting from various activities of its operation. High quantities of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids are used annually at airports worldwide. Aircraft de-icers and anti-icers may have negative environmental impacts, but their effects on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown. In order to address this issue, aircraft de-icers, pavement de-icers and wastewater samples were obtained from a regional airport. To evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs), two bio-tests were performed: the Lemna growth inhibition test according to OECD guideline 221 and the luminescent bacteria test according to ISO guideline 11348-2. In the Lemna growth inhibition test, phytotoxicity was assessed using the endpoints frond number and frond area. The luminescent bacteria test involved the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The estimates of effective concentrations (EC50) values were determined using the free software R and the "drc" library. Aquatic plants and marine bacteria showed a higher sensitivity towards ADAFs than to wastewater samples. Experiments showed that aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids and wastewater samples were relatively more toxic towards Lemna gibba L. in comparison to V. fischeri.

  12. A numerical simulation of the full two-dimensional electrothermal de-icer pad. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masiulaniec, Konstanty C.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to predict the time-temperature history of electrothermal de-icer pads is important in the subsequent design of improved and more efficient versions. These de-icer pads are installed near the surface of aircraft components, for the specific purpose of removing accreted ice. The proposed numerical model can incorporate the full 2-D geometry through a section of a region (i.e., section of an airfoil), that current 1-D numerical codes are unable to do. Thus, the effects of irregular layers, curvature, etc., can now be accounted for in the thermal transients. Each layer in the actual geometry is mapped via a body-fitted coordinate transformation into uniform, rectangular computational grids. The relevant heat transfer equations are transformed and discretized. To model the phase change that might occur in any accreted ice, in an enthalpy formulation the phase change equations are likewise transformed and discretized. The code developed was tested against numerous classical numerical solutions, as well as against experimental de-icing data on a UH1H rotor blade obtained from the NASA Lewis Research Center. The excellent comparisons obtained show that this code can be a useful tool in predicting the performance of current de-icer models, as well as in the designing of future models.

  13. Sweet Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-11-01

    Readers wanting to nibble some sweet stuff can find a sizable collection of Journal articles via an online search with "sugar" in the title field. The papers cover topics varying from structure and nomenclature, demonstrations, and experiments for laboratories at all levels, to the history and technology of commercial sugar production. A separate search using the title word "sweet" locates additional articles covering all types of sweeteners and models relating sweetness to chemical structure.

  14. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  15. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  16. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  17. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  18. 7 CFR 3201.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) that are designed to aid in the removal of snow and/or ice, and/or in the prevention of the buildup of snow and/or ice, in general use applications by lowering the freezing point of water. Specialized...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) that are designed to aid in the removal of snow and/or ice, and/or in the prevention of the buildup of snow and/or ice, in general use applications by lowering the freezing point of water. Specialized...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) that are designed to aid in the removal of snow and/or ice, and/or in the prevention of the buildup of snow and/or ice, in general use applications by lowering the freezing point of water. Specialized...

  1. The Human Sweet Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R; McDaniel, Amanda H

    2006-01-01

    Humans love the taste of sugar and the word "sweet" is used to describe not only this basic taste quality but also something that is desirable or pleasurable, e.g., la dolce vita. Although sugar or sweetened foods are generally among the most preferred choices, not everyone likes sugar, especially at high concentrations. The focus of my group's research is to understand why some people have a sweet tooth and others do not. We have used genetic and molecular techniques in humans, rats, mice, cats and primates to understand the origins of sweet taste perception. Our studies demonstrate that there are two sweet receptor genes (TAS1R2 and TAS1R3), and alleles of one of the two genes predict the avidity with which some mammals drink sweet solutions. We also find a relationship between sweet and bitter perception. Children who are genetically more sensitive to bitter compounds report that very sweet solutions are more pleasant and they prefer sweet carbonated beverages more than milk, relative to less bitter-sensitive peers. Overall, people differ in their ability to perceive the basic tastes, and particular constellations of genes and experience may drive some people, but not others, toward a caries-inducing sweet diet. Future studies will be designed to understand how a genetic preference for sweet food and drink might contribute to the development of dental caries. PMID:16934118

  2. Cultivar and maturity effects on the quality attributes and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum is a promising feedstock crop for the manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts. Its large starch content may be an opportune source of untapped fermentable sugars to add economical value to sweet sorghum juices and processing by-products. In this study, four commercial cultivars, Dale, ...

  3. ADD: How Does It Add Up in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumpter, R. David; Kidd, Libby

    1998-01-01

    Gives a short history of attention-deficit disorder (ADD), describes characteristics of ADD, discusses a four-step plan for identification of ADD, and presents four types of management techniques: medical, environmental, classroom activity, and behavioral management. Stresses importance of cooperation and communication among teacher, parent, and…

  4. Sweet clover poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  5. Mechanisms for Sweetness123

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, John D.; Munger, Steven D.; Sclafani, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E.; Roberts, Ashley; Molinary, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable amount of information has emerged in the past decade regarding sweet taste physiology. This article reviews these data, with a particular focus on the elucidation of the sweet taste receptor, its location and actions in taste transduction in the mouth, its nontaste functions in the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., in enteroendocrine cells), and the brain circuitry involved in the sensory processing of sweet taste. Complications in the use of rodents to model human sweet taste perception and responses are also considered. In addition, information relating to low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is discussed in the context of these issues. Particular consideration is given to the known effects of LCS on enteroendocrine cell function. PMID:22573784

  6. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    PubMed

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  7. ADD: Does It Really Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Questions the existence of attention deficit disorder (ADD), a commonly diagnosed "disease" based on behavioral characteristics. There may be no medical or physiological basis for ADD. The National Association of School Psychologists deplores labeling children and creating categories of exclusion. Instead, educators should respond to individual…

  8. Sweet potato: a review of its past, present, and future role in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective of this chapter is to review the past, present, and future role of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) in human nutrition. Specifically, the chapter describes the role of the sweet potato in human diets; outlines the biochemical and nutritional composition of the sweet potato with emphasis on its beta-carotene and anthocyanin contents; highlights sweet potato utilization, and its potential as value-added products in human food systems; and demonstrates the potential of the sweet potato in the African context. Early records have indicated that the sweet potato is a staple food source for many indigenous populations in Central and South Americas, Ryukyu Island, Africa, the Caribbean, the Maori people, Hawaiians, and Papua New Guineans. Protein contents of sweet potato leaves and roots range from 4.0% to 27.0% and 1.0% to 9.0%, respectively. The sweet potato could be considered as an excellent novel source of natural health-promoting compounds, such as beta-carotene and anthocyanins, for the functional food market. Also, the high concentration of anthocyanin and beta-carotene in sweet potato, combined with the high stability of the color extract make it a promising and healthier alternative to synthetic coloring agents in food systems. Starch and flour processing from sweet potato can create new economic and employment activities for farmers and rural households, and can add nutritional value to food systems. Repositioning sweet potato production and its potential for value-added products will contribute substantially to utilizing its benefits and many uses in human food systems. Multidisciplinary, integrated research and development activities aimed at improving production, storage, postharvest and processing technologies, and quality of the sweet potato and its potential value-added products are critical issues, which should be addressed globally.

  9. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a significant portion of variation in sweetener preferences depends on genes that are not involved in peripheral taste processing. These genes are likely involved in central mechanisms of sweet taste processing, reward and/or motivation. Genetic variation in sweet taste not only influences food choice and intake, but is also associated with proclivity to drink alcohol. Both peripheral and central mechanisms of sweet taste underlie correlation between sweet-liking and alcohol consumption in animal models and humans. All these data illustrate complex genetics of sweet taste preferences and its impact on human nutrition and health. Identification of genes responsible for within- and between-species variation in sweet taste can provide tools to better control food acceptance in humans and other animals. PMID:21743773

  10. Genetics of sweet taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-07-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a significant portion of variation in sweetener preferences depends on genes that are not involved in peripheral taste processing. These genes are likely involved in central mechanisms of sweet taste processing, reward and/or motivation. Genetic variation in sweet taste not only influences food choice and intake, but is also associated with proclivity to drink alcohol. Both peripheral and central mechanisms of sweet taste underlie correlation between sweet-liking and alcohol consumption in animal models and humans. All these data illustrate complex genetics of sweet taste preferences and its impact on human nutrition and health. Identification of genes responsible for within- and between-species variation in sweet taste can provide tools to better control food acceptance in humans and other animals.

  11. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  12. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  13. Storage characteristics of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Weight loss, percent extraction, and juice Brix were determined in stored sweet sorghum harvested as billets and stalks. Stalks lost less weight and maintained juice quality longer than billets. Storage requirements after harvest should determine the harvesting method.

  14. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Digest #445.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mary E.

    The term "attention deficit disorder" (ADD) is defined, criteria used by the American Psychiatric Association in diagnosing ADD are listed, and possible causes noted. Remediation needs of children with ADD include attention skills, self-esteem, and social skills. Early diagnosis is important, and teachers and parents need to identify…

  15. Developing a Modular Hydrogeology Ontology Extending the SWEET Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2005-12-01

    Reengineering upper-level ontologies to make them useful for specific domains can be achieved using modular software development techniques. The challenge of manipulating complex and general, upper-level ontologies can be overcome by using ontology development tools for the purpose of analysis and design of new concepts and extension of existing concepts. As a use case representing this approach we present the reengineering of NASA's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to include part of the hydrogeology concepts. We have maintained the modular design of the SWEET ontologies for maximum extensibility and reusability. The modular reengineering of the SWEET ontologies to include hydrogeology domain involved the following steps: (1): Identify the terms and concepts relevant to the hydrogeology domain through scenarios, competency questions, and interviews with domain experts. (2): Establish the inter-relationships between concepts (e.g., vadose zone = unsaturated zone). (3): Identify the dependent concepts, such as physical properties or units, and determine their relationships to external concepts. (4): Download the OWL files from SWEET, and save them on local systems for editing. (5): Use ontology editing tools like SWOOP and Protege to analyze the structure of the existing OWL files. (6): Add new domain concepts as new classes in the OWL files, or as subclasses of already existing classes in the SWEET ontologies. The step involved changing the relationships (properties) and/or adding new relationships where they were required in the domain. Sometimes the entire structure of the existing concepts needed to be changed to represent the domain concept more meaningfully. (7): Test the consistency of concepts using appropriate tools (e.g., Protege, which uses the Racer reasoner to check consistency of concepts). (8) Add individuals to the new concepts to test the modified ontologies. We present an example of a simple RDQL query to test

  16. Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Lauriane; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2007-01-01

    Background Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose) were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. Methodology/Principal findings Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin–an intense calorie-free sweetener–and intravenous cocaine–a highly addictive and harmful substance–the large majority of animals (94%) preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation–the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self-control mechanisms

  17. Isothermal titration calorimetry study of the interaction of sweeteners with fullerenols as an artificial sweet taste receptor model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Guo, Gang-Min; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2009-04-08

    A fullerenol-based synthetic sweetness receptor model, consisting of polyhydroxy groups for potential hydrogen bond donor along with a spherical hydrophobic center, was proposed according to the widely accepted sweetness hypothesis. An isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) technique was used to study mimetic interaction of this sweet receptor model with a series of sweeteners having increasing sweetness intensity. The results showed that ITC is an effective method to provide thorough and precise characterization of the energies of molecular complex formation. Binding of all of the studied sweeteners with fullerenols was found through two sets of site models. More heat was released from sweeter synthetic compounds binding with fullerenols than from less sweet carbohydrates. The results imply that hydrogen bond formation is necessary for the sweeteners to bind to the fullerenol receptor in the first stage, whereas hydrophobic effect and conformation changes that lead to favorable entropy changes occur in most cases. The preliminary results of this study help to cover the lack of information about the thermodynamic basis of understanding of the initiation of the sweet sensation. It also adds complementary physicochemical measurements available for comparison with the sweetness hypothesis. On the other hand, a correlation between the thermodynamic parameters and sweetness intensity has been made as well, which exhibits potential as a useful tool in sensory analysis.

  18. Sweetness and Food Preference123

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Bellisle, France

    2012-01-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children’s diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth. PMID:22573785

  19. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  20. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  1. Sweetness intensity in low-carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Odake, S

    2001-05-01

    The carbonation perception and sweetness perception were investigated under the presence of low level of carbondioxide less than 1.0 gas volume. Carbonation perception decreased linearly as carbonation level decreased. Sweetness perception showed inconsistency by means of evaluation methods: Triangle difference test led the result showing carbonation became a hindrance for sweetness perception. However, the measurement for the sweetness degree expressed by panellists in four categories 'not sweet', 'perhaps sweet', 'probably sweet' and 'definitely sweet', and the measurement for the points of subjective equality revealed that carbonation had no influence on sweetness perception. Commercially produced beverages whose irritation stimuli were stronger showed almost the same sweetness intensities (= perceived concentration of sucrose/actual concentration of sucrose) at approximately 0.7 regardless of various flavours. A weaker stimulus beverage, without strong flavour, showed higher sweetness intensity at 0.9. Some weaker stimuli beverages, which contained strong lemon flavour and soluble fibre, showed less sweetness intensities of 0.62-0.68 than the high-stimuli products.

  2. ADD Teacher Inservice Project. Final Grant Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark C.; Schulz, Eldon G.

    The report describes activities and achievements of the Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Teacher Inservice Project. The inservice program was developed using a formal process to identify the critical issues related to ADD awareness, assessment, and intervention. Program content was designed to address critical issues identified in the research…

  3. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  4. ADD: Acronym for Any Dysfunction or Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gay; Poillion, Mary Jo

    1992-01-01

    Review of 48 articles and books on attention deficit disorder (ADD) found a total of 69 characteristics and 38 causes cited, evidencing no clearcut pattern for identifying the condition and little agreement for what causes ADD. The label appears to have limited value for communication, planning, decision making, or research efforts. (Author/DB)

  5. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  6. Neuro-Sweet Disease Causing Orbital Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Taravati, Parisa

    2015-02-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease is a rare condition causing encephalitis or meningitis in addition to the erythematous skin plaques of Sweet syndrome. Neuro-Sweet disease has been associated with several ocular manifestations, including ocular movement disorders, episcleritis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and optic disc oedema. The author reports a patient with orbital inflammation, cranial neuropathies, and a skin rash in the setting of myelodysplastic syndrome. Biopsy of her skin lesion confirmed the diagnosis of neuro-Sweet disease. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of neuro-Sweet disease causing orbital inflammation. Her ocular inflammation resolved with the use of systemic corticosteroid treatment.

  7. Critical regions for the sweetness of brazzein.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheyuan; Danilova, Vicktoria; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M; Aceti, David J; Markley, John L; Hellekant, Göran

    2003-06-05

    Brazzein is a small, heat-stable, intensely sweet protein consisting of 54 amino acid residues. Based on the wild-type brazzein, 25 brazzein mutants have been produced to identify critical regions important for sweetness. To assess their sweetness, psychophysical experiments were carried out with 14 human subjects. First, the results suggest that residues 29-33 and 39-43, plus residue 36 between these stretches, as well as the C-terminus are involved in the sweetness of brazzein. Second, charge plays an important role in the interaction between brazzein and the sweet taste receptor.

  8. Sweet Sunrise’ strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet Sunrise’ is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station an...

  9. AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14 regulate gibberellin-mediated physiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yuri; Oikawa, Takaya; Chiba, Yasutaka; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Takafumi; Sano, Naoto; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Ueda, Minoru; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane transport of plant hormones is required for plant growth and development. Despite reports of a number of proteins that can transport the plant hormone gibberellin (GA), the mechanistic basis for GA transport and the identities of the transporters involved remain incomplete. Here, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis SWEET proteins, AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14, which are members of a family that had previously been linked to sugar transport, are able to mediate cellular GA uptake when expressed in yeast and oocytes. A double sweet13 sweet14 mutant has a defect in anther dehiscence and this phenotype can be reversed by exogenous GA treatment. In addition, sweet13 sweet14 exhibits altered long distant transport of exogenously applied GA and altered responses to GA during germination and seedling stages. These results suggest that AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14 may be involved in modulating GA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:27782132

  10. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  11. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N.; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C. I.; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2017-01-01

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual’s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20–40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake. PMID:28708085

  12. Biorefinery of sweet sorghum stem.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Tao; Zhong, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has been considered as a viable energy crop for alcohol fuel production. This review discloses a novel approach for the biorefining of sweet sorghum stem to produce multiple valuable products, such as ethanol, butanol and wood plastic composites. Sweet sorghum stem has a high concentration of soluble sugars in its juice, which can be fermented to produce ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to obtain high ethanol yield and fermentation rates, concentrated juice with an initial total sugar concentration of 300gL(-1) was fermented. The maximum ethanol concentration after 54h reached 140gL(-1) with a yield of 0.49g ethanol per g consumed sugar, which is 97% of the theoretical value. Sweet sorghum bagasse, obtained from juice squeezing, was pretreated by acetic acid to hydrolyze 80-90% of the contained hemicelluloses. Using this hydrolysate as raw material (total sugar 55gL(-1)), 19.21gL(-1) total solvent (butanol 9.34g, ethanol 2.5g, and acetone 7.36g) was produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The residual bagasse after pretreatment was extruded with PLA in a twin-screw extruder to produce a final product having a PLA: fiber ratio of 2:1, a tensile strength of 49.5M and a flexible strength of 65MPa. This product has potential use for applications where truly biodegradable materials are required. This strategy for sustainability is crucial for the industrialization of biofuels from sweet sorghum. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Congruence of Behavioral Symptomatology in Children with ADD/H, ADD/WO, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Lisa D.; Hynd, George W.

    1994-01-01

    This study compared parent and teacher behavioral ratings for 77 children (ages 5-16) diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H), attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), or learning disabilities (LD). ADD/WO and LD children were rated similarly on symptoms of withdrawal and impulsivity but differed…

  14. Influence of De-icers on the Corrosion and Fatigue Behavior of 4140 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, William P.; Sanford, Brittain J.; Wright, Matthew R.; Evans, Jeffrey L.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effects of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and sodium chloride (NaCl)—two common substances used to de-ice roadways—on the corrosion and fatigue behavior of annealed AISI 4140 steel. When CMA-corroded, NaCl-corroded, and as-machined samples were tested using R = 0.1, and f = 20 Hz, it was found that, within the scope of this study, samples corroded in both 3.5% CMA solution and 3.5% NaCl solution exhibited a lower fatigue strength than samples tested in the as-machined, uncorroded condition. For the short lives tested in this study, the difference in the effects of CMA and NaCl is minimal. However, at longer lives it is suspected, based on the trends, that the CMA solution would be less detrimental to the fatigue life.

  15. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  16. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  17. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  18. Subthreshold olfactory stimulation can enhance sweetness.

    PubMed

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Morgenegg, C; Ali, S; Martin, N

    2007-03-01

    The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest and the lowest sweetness-enhancing properties, respectively. Second, the impact on sweetness of the 2 odorants was investigated at subthreshold concentrations. A system delivering a continuous liquid flow at the same sucrose level, but with varying odorant concentrations, was used. At a subthreshold level, ethyl butyrate but not maltol significantly enhanced the sweetness of the sucrose solution. This study highlights that olfactory perception induced by odorants at a subthreshold level can significantly modulate taste perception. Finally, contrary to results observed with ethyl butyrate at suprathreshold levels, at subthreshold levels, the intensity of sweetness enhancement was not proportional to ethyl butyrate concentration.

  19. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant-derived triterpenoid sweetness inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Suttisri, R; Lee, I S; Kinghorn, A D

    1995-06-23

    Considerable recent attention has been focused on naturally occurring compounds with taste-modifying activity, which are of potential use in both dietary sweetness management and in gaining a better understanding of the sweet taste sensation. This review summarizes information on the phytochemistry and biological activity of more than 40 triterpenoid sweetness inhibitors that have been isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely, Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ziziphus jujuba P. Miller (Rhamnaceae), and Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae).

  1. Highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Cheol; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-12-01

    The demand for new alternative "low calorie" sweeteners for dietetic and diabetic purposes has increased worldwide. Although the currently developed and commercially used highly sweet sucrose substitutes are mostly synthetic compounds, the search for such compounds from natural sources is continuing. As of mid-2002, over 100 plant-derived sweet compounds of 20 major structural types had been reported, and were isolated from more than 25 different families of green plants. Several of these highly sweet natural products are marketed as sweeteners or flavoring agents in some countries as pure compounds, compound mixtures, or refined extracts. These highly sweet natural substances are reviewed herein.

  2. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  3. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  4. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  5. Structure and function of SemiSWEET and SWEET sugar transporters.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-08-01

    SemiSWEETs and SWEETs have emerged as unique sugar transporters. First discovered in plants with the help of fluorescent biosensors, homologs exist in all kingdoms of life. Bacterial and plant homologs transport hexoses and sucrose, whereas animal SWEETs transport glucose. Prokaryotic SemiSWEETs are small and comprise a parallel homodimer of an approximately 100 amino acid-long triple helix bundle (THB). Duplicated THBs are fused to create eukaryotic SWEETs in a parallel orientation via an inversion linker helix, producing a similar configuration to that of SemiSWEET dimers. Structures of four SemiSWEETs have been resolved in three states: open outside, occluded, and open inside, indicating alternating access. As we discuss here, these atomic structures provide a basis for exploring the evolution of structure-function relations in this new class of transporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Y

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies on structures and functions of sweetness-inhibiting substances (gymnemic acid, ziziphin, and gurmarin); sweet proteins (monellin, thaumatin and mabinlin); and taste-modifying proteins (miraculin and curculin) were reviewed. Several gymnemic acid homologues and gurmarin were purified from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre and their structures were determined. Ziziphin was also purified from leaves of Ziziphus jujuba. Gymnemic acid and ziziphin are glycoside of triterpenes that suppress sweetness in human, while gurmarin is a peptide having antisweet activity in rat. Mabinlin is a heat-stable sweet protein. The whole amino acid sequence and the position of disulfide bridges of mabinlin were determined. Miraculin has the unusual property of modifying a sour taste into a sweet taste. Curculin elicits a sweet taste. In addition, water and sour substance elicit a sweet taste after curculin. Their amino acid sequences and subunit structures were determined. These proteins are expected to be used as low-calorie sweeteners.

  7. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  8. Stability and use of sweet sorghum bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With sweet sorghum production and subsequent accumulation of bagasse on the rise, it is important to look for novel uses for its by-products. Bagasse, the solid fibrous product left after sweet sorghum stalks are crushed to remove juice, is partially reapplied to the field to enhance subsequent cro...

  9. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  10. Educational Interventions for Students with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Elhoweris, Hala; van Garderen, Delinda

    2003-01-01

    Principles of educational interventions for students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) giving complete and thorough directions; (2) individualizing in-class and homework assignments; (3) motivating students; (4) promoting active responding and monitoring understanding; (5) employing content enhancements; (6) offering learning…

  11. Selected Perspectives on ADD and ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Offers an overview of ADD and ADHD, their causes and long-term prognoses, including the complexities of the conditions, the incomplete knowledge about them, and the difficulties of diagnosis during early childhood. Summarizes assessment and treatment options and concludes that the conditions have so many secondary effects that designing an…

  12. Selected Perspectives on ADD and ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Offers an overview of ADD and ADHD, their causes and long-term prognoses, including the complexities of the conditions, the incomplete knowledge about them, and the difficulties of diagnosis during early childhood. Summarizes assessment and treatment options and concludes that the conditions have so many secondary effects that designing an…

  13. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment.... SUMMARY: The Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor is correcting the New Notice of...

  14. Shift Would Add Burden on Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the transition from district-centered to school-based staff development can add to the burden on principals. This column first presents a brief review of the efforts of Braxton Hinsdale, a staff development director who advocated for moving professional development resources from the district level to the…

  15. Developments in biotechnological production of sweet proteins.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2006-11-01

    Most proteins are tasteless and flavorless, while some proteins elicit a sweet-taste response on the human palate. Six proteins, thaumatin, monellin, mabinlin, brazzein, egg lysozyme, and neoculin (previously considered as curculin) have been identified as sweet-tasting proteins. However, no common features among them have been observed. Herein, recent advances in the research of sweet-tasting proteins and the production of such proteins by biotechnological approaches are reviewed. Information on the structure-sweetness relationship for these proteins would help not only in the clarification of the mechanism of interaction of sweet-tasting proteins with their receptors, but also in the design of more effective low-calorie sweeteners.

  16. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  17. MultiBac turns sweet

    PubMed Central

    Palmberger, Dieter; Klausberger, Miriam; Berger, Imre; Grabherr, Reingard

    2013-01-01

    The baculovirus/insect cell system has proven to be a powerful tool for the expression of eukaryotic proteins. Therapeutics, especially in the field of vaccinology, are often composed of several different protein subunits. Conventional baculoviral expression schemes largely lack efficient strategies for simultaneous multi-gene expression. The MultiBac technology which is based on an engineered genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus in combination with specially designed transfer vectors is an elegant way for flexible generation of multi-subunit proteins in insect cells. Yet, the glycosylation pattern of insect cell-derived products is not favorable for many applications. Therefore, a modified version of MultiBac, SweetBac, was generated allowing for a flexible glycosylation of target proteins in insect cells. Beyond the SweetBac technology MultiBac can further be designed for bridging the gap between cell engineering and transient modulation of host genes for improved and product tailored expression of recombinant proteins. PMID:23018636

  18. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with § 305...

  20. Canadian reactor delays add to agency's troubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Elizabeth

    2009-08-01

    A plan to replace two aging nuclear reactors in Ontario, Canada, with Advanced CANDU Reactors (ACR) has been rejected by the provincial government due to concerns over ballooning costs. The rejected bid, which was made by the state-owned Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), adds to the woes of an agency that is already facing rumoured privatization of its business to build and maintain nuclear reactors.

  1. Intact Hedonic Responses to Sweet Tastes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Aloi, Joseph; Burrus, Caley; Garbutt, James C.; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    The Sweet Taste Test (STT) is a standardized measure designed to index the ability to detect differences in sweet tastes (sweet taste sensitivity) and hedonic responses to sweet tastes (sweet taste liking). Profiles of response on the STT suggest enhanced hedonic responses to sweet tastes in psychiatric disorders characterized by dysfunctional reward processing systems, including binge-eating disorders and substance use disorders, and a putative mechanism governing STT responses is the brain opioid system. The present study examined STT responses in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 38 healthy control adults. There were no differences in sweet taste sensitivity or hedonic response to sweet tastes between the ASD and control groups. Within the ASD sample, ASD symptom severity was associated with sweet taste sensitivity, but not hedonic response to sweet taste. Results may ultimately shed light on brain opioid system functioning in ASD. PMID:24563662

  2. Intact Hedonic Responses to Sweet Tastes in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Cara R; Aloi, Joseph; Burrus, Caley; Garbutt, James C; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2014-03-01

    The Sweet Taste Test (STT) is a standardized measure designed to index the ability to detect differences in sweet tastes (sweet taste sensitivity) and hedonic responses to sweet tastes (sweet taste liking). Profiles of response on the STT suggest enhanced hedonic responses to sweet tastes in psychiatric disorders characterized by dysfunctional reward processing systems, including binge-eating disorders and substance use disorders, and a putative mechanism governing STT responses is the brain opioid system. The present study examined STT responses in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 38 healthy control adults. There were no differences in sweet taste sensitivity or hedonic response to sweet tastes between the ASD and control groups. Within the ASD sample, ASD symptom severity was associated with sweet taste sensitivity, but not hedonic response to sweet taste. Results may ultimately shed light on brain opioid system functioning in ASD.

  3. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allen A; Owyang, Chung

    2017-06-24

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Sweet and sweetness-inducing activities of new triterpene glycosides, strogins.

    PubMed

    Sugita, D; Inoue, R; Kurihara, Y

    1998-02-01

    In a previous study we isolated homologues of new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides from leaves of Staurogyne merguensis Kuntze and named them strogins. Strogins themselves have a sweet taste (sweet activity), which diminishes in a few minutes. Subsequent application of cold water to the mouth then elicits a sweet taste (sweetness-inducing activity). In the present study we systematically examined the properties of the sweet and sweetness-inducing activities of strogins. Strogins 1, 2 and 4 had both the sweet and sweetness-inducing activities, while strogins 3 and 5 had no activities. The sweetness-inducing activity in response to cold water lasted for 1 h for strogin 2 and 2 h for strogins 1 and 4. The sweetness-inducing activity was immediately diminished by application of gamma-cyclodextrin to the mouth after strogins were held in the mouth. It seems that the strogins were adsorbed on the gustatory receptor membranes and eliminated by inclusion activity of gamma-cyclodextrin. The structure of strogin resembles that of gymnemic acid, which has antisweet activity. There was competition between strogin 1 and gymnemic acid; treatment of the tongue with strogin 1 before application of Gymnema extract to the mouth reduced the antisweet activity. While the sweetness-inducing activity of curculin in response to water was suppressed by the presence of divalent cations such as Ca2+ or Mg2+, that of strogin was not suppressed by the divalent cations. The changes in the inactive complex between strogin and the sweet receptor site in the adaptation state into the active complex induced by cold stimulation were discussed.

  5. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    1998-09-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

  6. Structural functions of the sweet pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Birch, G G; Dziedzic, S Z; Shallenberger, R S; Lindley, M G

    1981-03-01

    The relative sweetness, onset times, and durations of response of D-glucose, D-xylose, D-quinovose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and D-fucose were determined at four temperatures. The results can be interpreted by simple concepts of intramolecular hydrogen bonding which indicate that the so-called gamma-function of the tripartite AH,B, gamma sweet pharmacophore plays little or no part in sugar sweetness. Probably the Lemieux effect (intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the hydroxymethyl substituent and the 4-hydroxy group) is of overriding importance in determining sugar sweetness, and the separate features of intensity and time of response indicate distinct functions of chemoreception. The absence of a gamma-function in simple hydrophilic molecules such as glucose has already been emphasized. This function distinguishes them from the artificial sweetners such as saccharin, which may be 500 times or more sweeter than sucrose, depending on their stereostructure and lipophilicity.

  7. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  8. The anatomy of mammalian sweet taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-02-01

    All sweet-tasting compounds are detected by a single G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3, for which no experimental structure is available. The sweet taste receptor is a class C GPCR, and the recently published crystallographic structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 and 5 provide a significant step forward for understanding structure-function relationships within this family. In this article, we recapitulate more than 600 single point site-directed mutations and available structural data to obtain a critical alignment of the sweet taste receptor sequences with respect to other class C GPCRs. Using this alignment, a homology 3D-model of the human sweet taste receptor is built and analyzed to dissect out the role of key residues involved in ligand binding and those responsible for receptor activation. Proteins 2017; 85:332-341. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M.; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor. PMID:20173095

  10. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-03-09

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor.

  11. Taste in chimpanzees. III: Labeled-line coding in sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Danilova, V

    1998-11-15

    In peripheral taste the coding mechanism remains an enigma. Among coding theories the "across-fiber pattern" argues that activity across fibers codes for taste, whereas the "labeled line" claims that activity in a particular set of fibers underlies a taste quality. We showed previously that chimpanzee chorda tympani taste fibers grouped according to human taste qualities into an S-cluster, responding predominantly to sweet stimuli, a Q-cluster, sensitive to bitter tastants, and an N-cluster, stimulated by salts. The analysis showed that information in the S-line suffices to distinguish stimuli of one taste quality from the others. However, one condition for the labeled line remained: that blockage of activity in a particular line must cause blockage of one taste quality, but of no other, or its onset give rise to the sensation of a taste quality. Here we studied this requirement with gymnemic acids and miraculin. In humans and chimpanzees, gymnemic acids suppress the sweet taste of all sweeteners whereas miraculin adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. Gymnemic acids also abolish miraculin-induced sweet taste. We found that gymnemic acids practically abolished the response to every sweetener in the chimpanzee S-cluster. Equally important, they had no effect on the responses of the Q- and N-clusters. After miraculin, the S-cluster fibers responded to acids as well as to sweeteners, although they had not responded to acids before miraculin. Gymnemic acids abolished this miraculin-induced response to acids and responses to sweeteners in the S-fibers. These results link the sweet taste quality to activity in fibers of the S-cluster. Thus the S-cluster fibers satisfy the definition of the labeled-line theory: "that activity in a particular fiber type represents a specific taste quality."

  12. Type utilization of baked-smashed sweet potato and vegetables on patisserie product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ana; Subekti, S.; Sudewi; Perdani, E. N.; Hanum, F.; Suciani, T.; Tania, V.

    2016-04-01

    The research was an experimental study in Green Skill Patisserie Course using Project-Based Learning model. It aims to complete the project development of pie named guramnis rainbow pie. Several experiments were carried out to produce a pie dough crust mixed with baked-smashed sweet potato and added with vegetables extract as the food coloring. The experiment method in order to make a better appearance or an attractive shape and to have more nutrition. In addition, the pie was filled with a mixture of sweet and sour gurame as Indonesian traditional food. By applying an organoleptic test to 10 respondents, the result shows that pie dough recipe using flour substituted by baked-smashed sweet potato with 2:1 of a ratio. Coloring pie dough adding extract vegetables (carrots, beets and celery) as color. We found that pie dough has more interesting pie color (90%) and the texture of the pie with a quite level of crispness (60%). Moreover, the pie taste is fairly (70%) and tasty (70%). Nutritional analysis results show that per size, serving guramnis rainbow pie contains energy as much as 81.72 calories, carbohydrates 12.5 grams, fat 2.32 grams and 2.77 grams of protein. The main findings are the pie appearance and taste was different compared to the previous pies because of the pie was served with gurame asam manis as the filling and had flour and cilembu sweet potato as the basic ingredients. The color of guramnis rainbow pie was resulted not only from food coloring but also from vegetables extract namely carrot (orange), bit (red), and salary (green). Thus, it had many benefits for health and adds the nutrition. The researchers recommend a further study in order to make pie dough with baked sweet potato and vegetables extract having an optimal level of crispness.

  13. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential context effects between sweet tastes and smells.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Mahmut, Mehmet

    2010-11-01

    "Sweet" smells and tastes are perceptually similar, and physiological data indicate some commonality of central processing. However, sweet tastes and sweet smells do not provide interchangeable contexts in psychophysical experiments. The same sweet tastes are perceived as less intense when stronger sweet tastes are present, and they are perceived as more intense when weaker sweet tastes are present, as with sweet smells. However, complementary sets of sweet tastes and smells (e.g., weak sweet tastes, strong sweet smells) do not eliminate these differential context effects (DCEs). The present experiments examined, first, whether DCEs between sweet tastes and smells arise because of differences between odors and tastes in the way that sweetness scales with intensity as concentration rises, and, second, whether DCEs may be smaller for sweet tastes and smells, when contrasted with sweet tastes and nonsweet smells. The findings were clear: DCEs were consistently present, suggesting they are independent of perceptual similarity. These results imply that DCEs are probably not psychological in origin or centrally based; rather, they may have a subcortical locus.

  15. Same genetic components underlie different measures of sweet taste preference.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, Kaisu; Tuorila, Hely; Spector, Tim D; Cherkas, Lynn F; Knaapila, Antti; Silventoinen, Karri; Perola, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Sweet taste preferences are measured by several often correlated measures. We examined the relative proportions of genetic and environmental effects on sweet taste preference indicators and their mutual correlations. A total of 663 female twins (324 complete pairs, 149 monozygous and 175 dizygous pairs) aged 17-80 y rated the liking and intensity of a 20% (wt/vol) sucrose solution, reported the liking and the use-frequency of 6 sweet foods (sweet desserts, sweets, sweet pastry, ice cream, hard candy, and chocolate), and completed a questionnaire on cravings of sweet foods. The estimated contributions of genetic factors, environmental factors shared by a twin pair, and environmental factors unique to each twin individual to the variance and covariance of the traits were obtained with the use of linear structural equation modeling. Approximately half of the variation in liking for sweet solution and liking and use-frequency of sweet foods (49-53%) was explained by genetic factors, whereas the rest of the variation was due to environmental factors unique to each twin individual. Sweet taste preference-related traits were correlated. Tetravariate modeling showed that the correlation between liking for the sweet solution and liking for sweet foods was due to genetic factors (genetic r = 0.27). Correlations between liking, use-frequency, and craving for sweet foods were due to both genetic and unshared environmental factors. Detailed information on the associations between preference measures is an important intermediate goal in the determination of the genetic components affecting sweet taste preferences.

  16. Critical molecular regions for elicitation of the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin I.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Keisuke; Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2008-07-01

    Thaumatin is an intensely sweet-tasting protein. To identify the critical amino acid residue(s) responsible for elicitation of the sweetness of thaumatin, we prepared mutant thaumatin proteins, using Pichia pastoris, in which alanine residues were substituted for lysine or arginine residues, and the sweetness of each mutant protein was evaluated by sensory analysis in humans. Four lysine residues (K49, K67, K106 and K163) and three arginine residues (R76, R79 and R82) played significant roles in thaumatin sweetness. Of these residues, K67 and R82 were particularly important for eliciting the sweetness. We also prepared two further mutant thaumatin I proteins: one in which an arginine residue was substituted for a lysine residue, R82K, and one in which a lysine residue was substituted for an arginine residue, K67R. The threshold value for sweetness was higher for R82K than for thaumatin I, indicating that not only the positive charge but also the structure of the side chain of the arginine residue at position 82 influences the sweetness of thaumatin, whereas only the positive charge of the K67 side chain affects sweetness.

  17. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 3: ADD code coordinate generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  18. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  19. Modulation and transmission of sweet taste information for energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Horio, Nao; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-07-01

    Perception of sweet taste is important for animals to detect external energy source of calories. In mice, sweet-sensitive cells possess a leptin receptor. Increase of plasma leptin with increasing internal energy storage in the adipose tissue suppresses sweet taste responses via this receptor. Data from our recent studies indicate that leptin may also modulate sweet taste sensation in humans with a diurnal variation in sweet sensitivity. This leptin modulation of sweet taste information to the brain may influence individuals' preference and ingestive behavior, thereby playing important roles in regulation of energy homeostasis.

  20. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to agree on a definition of sweet eating and to construct a valid and reliable questionnaire that might be of help to assess the influence of sweet eating on weight loss after bariatric surgery. A Delphi Study design was chosen to define sweet eating. Based on the Delphi rounds, a questionnaire with self-reported sweets intake was constructed and validated. Nine experts with different scientific backgrounds participated in the Delphi Study which consisted of four rounds. They finally agreed on the definition that sweet eating can be defined as an eating behavior in which at least 50% of daily consumed carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates and which can be triggered by emotional factors (i.e., stress). They did not include the intake of artificial sweeteners in the definition. The Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire built on the four Delphi rounds was tested in 138 female patients and appeared to be both valid and reliable. A shortcoming of this study is that the results may not be applicable to males and to non-Western populations. The definition and the questionnaire may be useful in future research regarding sweet eating and bariatric surgery outcomes in morbidly obese patients.

  1. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions.

  2. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  3. NASA Adds Leap Second to Master Clock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On Dec. 31, 2016, official clocks around the world will add a leap second just before midnight Coordinated Universal Time — which corresponds to 6:59:59 p.m. EST. NASA missions will also have to make the switch, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, which watches the sun 24/7. Clocks do this to keep in sync with Earth's rotation, which gradually slows down over time. When the dinosaurs roamed Earth, for example, our globe took only 23 hours to make a complete rotation. In space, millisecond accuracy is crucial to understanding how satellites orbit. "SDO moves about 1.9 miles every second," said Dean Pesnell, the project scientist for SDO at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "So does every other object in orbit near SDO. We all have to use the same time to make sure our collision avoidance programs are accurate. So we all add a leap second to the end of 2016, delaying 2017 by one second." The leap second is also key to making sure that SDO is in sync with the Coordinated Universal Time, or UTC, used to label each of its images. SDO has a clock that counts the number of seconds since the beginning of the mission. To convert that count to UTC requires knowing just how many leap seconds have been added to Earth-bound clocks since the mission started. When the spacecraft wants to provide a time in UTC, it calls a software module that takes into consideration both the mission's second count and the number of leap seconds — and then returns a time in UTC.

  4. Children with Attention Deficit Disorders. ADD Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harvey C.

    This fact sheet summarizes basic information on Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD), including prevalence and characteristics, causes, identification, treatment, outcomes, and suggestions. Children with ADD comprise approximately 3-5 percent of the school age population, with boys significantly outnumbering girls. Of 14 characteristics of ADD, the…

  5. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan. The trick is substituting small portions of sweets for other carbohydrates — such as bread, tortillas, rice, crackers, cereal, fruit, juice, milk, yogurt or potatoes — in your meals. To allow room for sweets ...

  6. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  7. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Allen A.; Owyang, Chung

    2017-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28672790

  8. Mechanosensory neurons control sweet sensing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yong Taek; Oh, Soo Min; Shim, Jaewon; Seo, Jeong Taeg; Kwon, Jae Young; Moon, Seok Jun

    2016-01-01

    Animals discriminate nutritious food from toxic substances using their sense of taste. Since taste perception requires taste receptor cells to come into contact with water-soluble chemicals, it is a form of contact chemosensation. Concurrent with that contact, mechanosensitive cells detect the texture of food and also contribute to the regulation of feeding. Little is known, however, about the extent to which chemosensitive and mechanosensitive circuits interact. Here, we show Drosophila prefers soft food at the expense of sweetness and that this preference requires labellar mechanosensory neurons (MNs) and the mechanosensory channel Nanchung. Activation of these labellar MNs causes GABAergic inhibition of sweet-sensing gustatory receptor neurons, reducing the perceived intensity of a sweet stimulus. These findings expand our understanding of the ways different sensory modalities cooperate to shape animal behaviour. PMID:27641708

  9. Mechanosensory neurons control sweet sensing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Taek; Oh, Soo Min; Shim, Jaewon; Seo, Jeong Taeg; Kwon, Jae Young; Moon, Seok Jun

    2016-09-19

    Animals discriminate nutritious food from toxic substances using their sense of taste. Since taste perception requires taste receptor cells to come into contact with water-soluble chemicals, it is a form of contact chemosensation. Concurrent with that contact, mechanosensitive cells detect the texture of food and also contribute to the regulation of feeding. Little is known, however, about the extent to which chemosensitive and mechanosensitive circuits interact. Here, we show Drosophila prefers soft food at the expense of sweetness and that this preference requires labellar mechanosensory neurons (MNs) and the mechanosensory channel Nanchung. Activation of these labellar MNs causes GABAergic inhibition of sweet-sensing gustatory receptor neurons, reducing the perceived intensity of a sweet stimulus. These findings expand our understanding of the ways different sensory modalities cooperate to shape animal behaviour.

  10. Sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness among Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, Kazuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness. The participants were 59 Japanese undergraduate students. Men preferred sweeter coffee than women, while both men and women showed almost the same preference for acidic beverage sweetness. The sex difference in preferences for coffee sweetness may be related to coffee-drinking habits.

  11. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  12. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  13. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  14. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  15. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  16. Starch in sweet sorghum and sugarcane: Problems, opportunities, and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both sweet sorghum and sugarcane crops are grasses and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars that also contain insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. In sweet sorghum processing, starch is a problem but can also be an opportunity if the fermentable sugars in s...

  17. Structures of SemiSWEET transporters in two distinct conformations

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chao; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Sophia; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B.; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    SemiSWEETs and SWEETs are mono- and disaccharide transporters present from Archaea to higher plants and humans1-3. SWEETs play crucial roles in cellular sugar efflux processes, i.e. phloem loading4, pollen nutrition5 and nectar secretion6. Their bacterial homologs, SemiSWEETs, are among the smallest known transporters1,3. Here we show SemiSWEET, consisting of a triple-helix-bundle (THB), forms a symmetric parallel dimer to create the translocation pathway. Two SemiSWEET isoforms were crystallized in apparent open and occluded states, indicating that SemiSWEETs/SWEETs are transporters that undergo rocking-type movements during the transport cycle. The topology of THB is similar to the basic building block in MFS transporters (GLUTs, SUTs), indicating that they may have evolved from an ancestral THB into a parallel configuration to produce 6/6+1 transmembrane-helix pores for SemiSWEETs/SWEETs, and an antiparallel configuration of 2×2 THBs to generate 12 transmembrane-helix pores for MFS transporters. Given the similarity of SemiSWEETs/SWEETs to PQ-loop amino acid transporters and mitochondrial MPC organic acid transporters, the structures characterized here may also be relevant for other MtN3 clan transporters7-9. PMID:25186729

  18. Sweetness determinant sites of brazzein, a small, heat-stable, sweet-tasting protein.

    PubMed

    Assadi-Porter, F M; Aceti, D J; Markley, J L

    2000-04-15

    Brazzein, originally isolated from the fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon, is the smallest, most heat-stable and pH-stable member of the set of proteins known to have intrinsic sweetness. These properties make brazzein an ideal system for investigating the chemical and structural requirements of a sweet-tasting protein. We have used the three-dimensional structure of the protein (J. E. Caldwell et al. (1998) Nat. Struct. Biol. 5, 427-431) as a guide in designing 15 synthetic genes in expression constructs aimed at delineating the sweetness determinants of brazzein. Protein was produced heterologously in Escherichia coli, isolated, and purified as described in the companion paper (Assadi-Porter, F. M., Aceti, D., Cheng, H., and Markley, J. L., this issue). Analysis by one-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicated that all but one of these variants had folded properly under the conditions used. A taste panel compared the gustatory properties of solutions of these proteins to those of sucrose and brazzein isolated from fruit. Of the 14 mutations in the des-pGlu1-brazzein background, four exhibited almost no sweetness, six had significantly reduced sweetness, two had taste properties equivalent to des-pGlu1-brazzein (two times as sweet as the major form of brazzein isolated from fruit which contains pGlu1), and two were about twice as sweet as des-pGlu1-brazzein. Overall, the results suggest that two regions of the protein are critical for the sweetness of brazzein: a region that includes the N- and C-termini of the protein, which are located close to one another, and a region that includes the flexible loop around Arg43. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Drug versus sweet reward: greater attraction to and preference for sweet versus drug cues.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heather B; Ahmed, Serge H

    2015-05-01

    Despite the unique ability of addictive drugs to directly activate brain reward circuits, recent evidence suggests that drugs induce reinforcing and incentive effects that are comparable to, or even lower than some nondrug rewards. In particular, when rats have a choice between pressing a lever associated with intravenous cocaine or heroin delivery and another lever associated with sweet water delivery, most respond on the latter. This outcome suggests that sweet water is more reinforcing and attractive than either drug. However, this outcome may also be due to the differential ability of sweet versus drug levers to elicit Pavlovian feeding-like conditioned responses that can cause involuntary lever pressing, such as pawing and biting the lever. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent Pavlovian conditioning to associate one lever with sweet water (0.2% saccharin) and a different lever with intravenous cocaine (0.25 mg) or heroin (0.01 mg). Choice between these two levers was then assessed under two operant choice procedures: one that permitted the expression of Pavlovian-conditioned lever press responses during choice, the other not. During conditioning, Pavlovian-conditioned lever press responses were considerably higher on the sweet lever than on either drug lever, and slightly greater on the heroin lever than on the cocaine lever. Importantly, though these differences in Pavlovian-conditioned behavior predicted subsequent preference for sweet water during choice, they were not required for its expression. Overall, this study confirms that rats prefer the sweet lever because sweet water is more reinforcing and attractive than cocaine or heroin. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Sweet sorghum processing for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Schmulevich, I.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.

    1983-12-01

    Several processing techniques for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum were investigated. Fermentating chopped stalks yielded more ethanol than shredded sorghum or juice. Leaf removal prior to fermentation resulted in higher yields per unit feedstock. Removal of solids after fermentation yielded slightly more ethanol than solids removal before fermentation.

  1. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  2. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  3. The sweet spots in human communication.

    PubMed

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  4. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  5. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  6. How safe is Capreno on sweet corn?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet corn hybrid sensitivity to postemergence herbicides was reported in the early 1990s with use of acetolactate-synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Despite introduction of newer postemergence herbicides since that time, hybrid sensitivity has remained a problem. Recently a mutant cytochrome P45...

  7. Student Debt Attitudes at Sweet Briar College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, Scott; Cheyfitz, Caryn

    1989-01-01

    A mail survey was conducted of alumnae or students who left Sweet Briar between 1979 and 1986. The study was to solicit information about attitudes toward educational loan debt which could be used in counseling current and prospective students, evaluating award packaging policies, and responding to legislation affecting student loans. (MLW)

  8. Sweet Briar College Faculty and Staff Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet Briar Coll., VA.

    Statement of policies of Sweet Briar College, a liberal arts college for women, constitutes the main portion of its faculty handbook: academic freedom, appointment and reappointment, qualifications for appointment, promotion and tenure, termination or dismissal, leave policies, and benefits. A brief historical sketch, administrative organizational…

  9. Monkey electrophysiological and human psychophysical responses to mutants of the sweet protein brazzein: delineating brazzein sweetness.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheyuan; Danilova, Vicktoria; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M; Markley, John L; Hellekant, Göran

    2003-07-01

    Responses to brazzein, 25 brazzein mutants and two forms of monellin were studied in two types of experiments: electrophysiological recordings from chorda tympani S fibers of the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, and psychophysical experiments. We found that different mutations at position 29 (changing Asp29 to Ala, Lys or Asn) made the molecule significantly sweeter than brazzein, while mutations at positions 30 or 33 (Lys30Asp or Arg33Ala) removed all sweetness. The same pattern occurred again at the beta-turn region, where Glu41Lys gave the highest sweetness score among the mutants tested, whereas a mutation two residues distant (Arg43Ala) abolished the sweetness. The effects of charge and side chain size were examined at two locations, namely positions 29 and 36. The findings indicate that charge is important for eliciting sweetness, whereas the length of the side-chain plays a lesser role. We also found that the N- and C-termini are important for the sweetness of brazzein. The close correlation (r = 0.78) between the results of the above two methods corroborates our hypothesis that S fibers convey sweet taste in primates.

  10. Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Park, Jin-Hee; Lim, Juyun

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener with various functional properties, compared to other sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, rebaudioside A), over a wide range of sweetness commonly found in foods and beverages (3% to 20% sucrose [w/v]). A total of 34 subjects evaluated aqueous solutions of the 5 sweeteners for the perceived intensities of sweetness, bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations, and sweet aftertaste, using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale. The relationship between the physical concentrations of the sweeteners and their perceived sweetness (that is, psychophysical functions) was derived to quantify the relative sweetness and potency of the sweeteners. The results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities (bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations). Out of the 5 sweeteners tested, rebaudioside A was the only sweetener with notable bitterness and chemical-like sensations, which became progressively intense with increasing concentration (P < 0.001). In terms of perceived sweetness intensity, the bulk sweeteners (tagatose, erythritol, sucrose) had similar sweetness growth rates (slopes > 1), whereas the high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, rebaudioside A) yielded much flatter sweetness functions (slopes < 1). Because the sweetness of tagatose and sucrose grew at near-identical rates (slope = 1.41 and 1.40, respectively), tagatose produced about the same relative sweetness to sucrose across the concentrations tested. However, the relative sweetness of other sweeteners to sucrose was highly concentration dependent. Consequently, sweetness potencies of other sweeteners varied across the concentrations tested, ranging from 0.50 to 0.78 for erythritol, 220 to 1900 for sucralose, and 300 to 440 for rebaudioside A, while tagatose was estimated to be approximately 0.90 times as potent as

  11. SWEETs, transporters for intracellular and intercellular sugar translocation.

    PubMed

    Eom, Joon-Seob; Chen, Li-Qing; Sosso, Davide; Julius, Benjamin T; Lin, I W; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Braun, David M; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-06-01

    Three families of transporters have been identified as key players in intercellular transport of sugars: MSTs (monosaccharide transporters), SUTs (sucrose transporters) and SWEETs (hexose and sucrose transporters). MSTs and SUTs fall into the major facilitator superfamily; SWEETs constitute a structurally different class of transporters with only seven transmembrane spanning domains. The predicted topology of SWEETs is supported by crystal structures of bacterial homologs (SemiSWEETs). On average, angiosperm genomes contain ∼20 paralogs, most of which serve distinct physiological roles. In Arabidopsis, AtSWEET8 and 13 feed the pollen; SWEET11 and 12 provide sucrose to the SUTs for phloem loading; AtSWEET11, 12 and 15 have distinct roles in seed filling; AtSWEET16 and 17 are vacuolar hexose transporters; and SWEET9 is essential for nectar secretion. The remaining family members await characterization, and could play roles in the gametophyte as well as other important roles in sugar transport in the plant. In rice and cassava, and possibly other systems, sucrose transporting SWEETs play central roles in pathogen resistance. Notably, the human genome also contains a glucose transporting isoform. Further analysis promises new insights into mechanism and regulation of assimilate allocation and a new potential for increasing crop yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  13. A sequential behavioral analysis of craving sweets in obese women.

    PubMed

    Schlundt, D G; Virts, K L; Sbrocco, T; Pope-Cordle, J; Hill, J O

    1993-01-01

    This study compared 40 female participants in a behavioral weight loss program who frequently reported craving sweets to 40 who rarely reported craving sweets using 2-week behavioral eating diaries. The two groups were compared on physiological, demographic, and questionnaire measures and no significant differences were found. There were no significant differences in macronutrient intake either overall or in a wide range of specific situations. The relative proportions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat consumed in association with craving sweets differed only slightly from the composition of other meals and snacks. Carbohydrate and protein intake when craving sweets was similar to breakfasts while the relative amount of fat consumed when craving sweets was comparable to episodes of overeating. The two groups differed in their reporting of moods with the high-craving group reporting more boredom and less stress than the low-craving group. The relationship between situational and mood variables and reports of craving sweets did not differ between the two groups. Craving sweets was negatively associated with hunger and was not associated with meal skipping. A sequential analysis demonstrated that eating in response to craving sweets triggers an abstinence violation effect. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that sweet craver's consume high-carbohydrate, low-protein meals and snacks in order to self-medicate depression caused by serotonin depletion. Instead, the data suggest that we should further explore the role of food palatability and food-related cognitions in order to understand craving sweets.

  14. Structure-sweetness relationship in thaumatin: importance of lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, R; Kitabatake, N

    2001-02-01

    To clarify the structural basis for the sweetness of thaumatin I, lysine-modified derivatives and carboxyl-group-modified derivatives were prepared by chemical modification followed by chromatographic purification. The sweetness of derivatives was evaluated by sensory analysis. Phosphopyridoxylation of lysine residues Lys78, Lys97, Lys106, Lys137 and Lys187 markedly reduced sweetness. The intensity of sweetness was returned to that of native thaumatin by dephosphorylation of these phosphopyridoxylated lysine residues except Lys106. Pyridoxamine modification of the carboxyl group of Asp21, Glu42, Asp60, Asp129 or Ala207 (C-terminal) did not markedly change sweetness. Analysis by far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of all derivatives remained unchanged, suggesting that the loss of sweetness was not a result of major disruption in protein structure. The five lysine residues, modification of which affected sweetness, are separate and spread over a broad surface region on one side of the thaumatin I molecule. These lysine residues exist in thaumatin, but not in non-sweet thaumatin-like proteins, suggesting that these lysine residues are required for sweetness. These lysine residues may play an important role in sweetness through a multipoint interaction with a putative thaumatin receptor.

  15. Dyslexia and ADD: 20 Questions Parents Ask. Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Joyce S.

    2002-01-01

    This article uses a question-answer format to present information for parents on dyslexia and attention deficit disorders (ADD). Information includes typical behaviors and skills of children with dyslexia or ADD, how parents can help their children, and the use of medication to control hyperactivity. (KB)

  16. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  17. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  18. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  19. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  20. Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptors Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells: Sweet Molecules Act as Biased Agonists.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Medina, Anya; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs). Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP). Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin), distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterizaiton of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3’-poly(A) tail in this study. Their genomic organization is typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cl...

  2. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaodong; Staszewski, Lena; Xu, Hong; Durick, Kyle; Zoller, Mark; Adler, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    The three members of the T1R class of taste-specific G protein-coupled receptors have been hypothesized to function in combination as heterodimeric sweet taste receptors. Here we show that human T1R2/T1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners. In contrast, human T1R1/T1R3 responds to the umami taste stimulus l-glutamate, and this response is enhanced by 5′-ribonucleotides, a hallmark of umami taste. The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of their human counterparts. These findings implicate the T1Rs in umami taste and suggest that sweet and umami taste receptors share a common subunit. PMID:11917125

  3. Sweet spot supersymmetry and composite messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2008-05-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenological effective Lagrangian of weak scale supersymmetry with a certain set of natural assumptions. This framework is designed to avoid problems in low-energy phenomenology and cosmology of supersymmetric models. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation, whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 105 GeV ≲Mmess ≲1010 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields Nmess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  4. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-10-30

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10{sup 5} GeV {approx}< M{sub mess} {approx}< 10{sup 10} GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N{sub mess} are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  5. Sensing via Intestinal Sweet Taste Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Young, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterized in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterizing nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of GI motility. PMID:21519398

  6. Design factors for milling sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, G.E.; Bryan, W.L.

    1983-06-01

    A conveyor/shredder/3-roll mill system was modified to process 30-cm billets of sweet sorghum and to develop basic design information. Percent juice extracted increased with throughput until the system plugged. Maximum operable rates for whole plants and stalks were respectively 19 and 25 kg/min, and about 48 percent of total crop sugar was recovered from either plants or stalks.

  7. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  8. Yemen's light, sweet Alif crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-23

    Crude oil from Yemen's Alif field has been assayed. The light sweet crude, also known as Marib, is part of the Marib al-Jawf concession in northern Yemen. Alif field was discovered in 1984 by Hunt Oil Co. The field was declared commercial in November 1985. Alif production averaged 118,500 b/d in 1992. Physical and chemical properties are listed for the whole crude and its fractions.

  9. Neonatal Sweet's Syndrome Associated with Rectovestibular Fistula with Normal Anus.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Jun; Tomiyama, Hideki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Tahara, Junko; Awaguni, Hitoshi; Makino, Shigeru; Maruyama, Rikken; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2015-05-25

    Sweet's syndrome, characterized by fever and a painful erythematous rash with a dermal neutrophilic infiltrate, develops primarily due to paraneoplastic phenomena in adults. Sweet's syndrome is very rare in neonates. We report a Japanese female neonate (age <2 months), who developed Sweet's syndrome with episodes of perineal infection in association with congenital rectovestibular fistula with normal anus. Sweet's syndrome was diagnosed basing on clinical features and histopathology of biopsied skin tissues. Rectovestibular fistula was confirmed after the signs of inflammation subsided and the rash disappeared. In the literature, we found another case of neonatal Sweet's syndrome associated with rectovestibular fistula in a Japanese female neonate. The perineal region should be screened for anomalies following diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome in neonates.

  10. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  11. The discovery and mechanism of sweet taste enhancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    Excess sugar intake posts several health problems. Artificial sweeteners have been used for years to reduce dietary sugar content, but they are not ideal substitutes for sugar owing to their off-taste. A new strategy focused on allosteric modulation of the sweet taste receptor led to identification of sweet taste 'enhancers' for the first time. The enhancer molecules do not taste sweet, but greatly potentiate the sweet taste of sucrose and sucralose selectively. Following a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancers, the sweet enhancer molecules cooperatively bind with the sweeteners to the Venus flytrap domain of the human sweet taste receptor and stabilize the active conformation. Now that the approach has proven successful, enhancers for other sweeteners and details of the molecular mechanism for the enhancement are being actively pursued.

  12. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception.

  13. Glucagon signaling modulates sweet taste responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Elson, Amanda E T; Dotson, Cedrick D; Egan, Josephine M; Munger, Steven D

    2010-10-01

    The gustatory system provides critical information about the quality and nutritional value of food before it is ingested. Thus, physiological mechanisms that modulate taste function in the context of nutritional needs or metabolic status could optimize ingestive decisions. We report that glucagon, which plays important roles in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, enhances sweet taste responsiveness through local actions in the mouse gustatory epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we found that glucagon and its receptor (GlucR) are coexpressed in a subset of mouse taste receptor cells. Most of these cells also express the T1R3 taste receptor implicated in sweet and/or umami taste. Genetic or pharmacological disruption of glucagon signaling in behaving mice indicated a critical role for glucagon in the modulation of taste responsiveness. Scg5(-/-) mice, which lack mature glucagon, had significantly reduced responsiveness to sucrose as compared to wild-type littermates in brief-access taste tests. No significant differences were seen in responses to prototypical salty, sour, or bitter stimuli. Taste responsiveness to sucrose was similarly reduced upon acute and local disruption of glucagon signaling by the GlucR antagonist L-168,049. Together, these data indicate a role for local glucagon signaling in the peripheral modulation of sweet taste responsiveness.

  14. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  15. Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, L; Chabert, M; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1997-03-01

    The sweet taste of nonnutritive sweeteners has been reported to increase hunger and food intake through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR). We investigated the effect of oral sensation of sweetness on CPIR and other indexes associated with glucose metabolism using nutritive and nonnutritive sweetened tablets as stimuli. At lunchtime, 12 normal-weight men sucked for 5 min a sucrose, an aspartame-polydextrose, or an unsweetened polydextrose tablet (3 g) with no added flavor. The three stimuli were administered in a counterbalanced order, each on a separate day at 1-wk intervals. Blood was drawn continuously for 45 min before and 25 min after the beginning of sucking and samples were collected at 1-min intervals. Spontaneous oscillations in glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations were assessed as were increments (slopes) of fatty acid concentrations during the baseline period. The nature of the baseline (oscillations: glucose, insulin, and glucagon; and slopes: fatty acids) was taken into account in the analyses of postexposure events. No CPIR and no significant effect on plasma glucagon or fatty acid concentrations were observed after the three stimuli. However, there was a significant decrease in plasma glucose and insulin after all three stimuli. Only the consumption of the sucrose tablet was followed by a postabsorptive increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations starting 17 and 19 min, respectively, after the beginning of sucking. In conclusion, this study suggested that oral stimulation provided by sweet nonflavored tablets is not sufficient for inducing CPIR.

  16. Possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L(-1) and sucrose 60 g L(-1) form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v) sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L(-1) sucrose and stored at 15+/-2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms for Sweet-suppressing Effect of Gymnemic Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-01-01

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca2+]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. PMID:25056955

  18. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    PubMed

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Associations between schools' guidelines and pupils' smoking and sweet consumption.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, R; Tolvanen, M; Anttila, J; Lahti, S

    2014-12-01

    The aims were to find out if schools' sweet-selling was associated with pupils' sweet consumption, and whether the school's guideline about leaving the school area was associated with pupils' tobacco and sweet consumption. Two independently collected datasets from all Finnish upper secondary schools (N = 988) were linked together. The first dataset on schools' sweet-selling (yes/no) and guideline about leaving school area (yes/no) was collected via school principals in 2007 using an Internet questionnaire with a response rate of 49%, n = 480. The second dataset on pupils' self-reported: weekly school-time (0, never; 1, less than once; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times), overall sweet consumption frequencies (1, never; 2, 1-2 times; 3, 3-5 times; 4, 6-7 times) and smoking and snuff-using frequencies (1, never; 2, every now and then; 3 = every day) was collected in 2006-2007 in the School Health Promotion Study from pupils. An average was calculated for the school-level with a response rate 80%, n = 790. The total response rate of the linked final data was 42%, n = 414. Mean values of self-reported sweet and tobacco consumption frequencies between sweet-selling and non-sweet-selling schools and between schools with different guidelines were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Pupils in sweet-selling schools and in schools without a guideline about leaving the school area, more frequently used sweet products and tobacco products than their peers in other schools. Schools may need help in building permanent guidelines to stop sweet-selling in school and to prevent leaving the school area to decrease pupils' sweet consumption and smoking.

  20. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E.; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 μM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 μM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 μM) and SE-3 (200 μM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 μM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 μM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste. PMID:20173092

  1. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-09

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  2. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. PMID:26116698

  3. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivity by orexigenic and anorexigenic factors.

    PubMed

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2010-01-01

    The present study summarized recent findings on roles of leptin and endocannabinoids as modulators of the peripheral components of sweet taste. The positive effect of endocannabinoids on sweet sensitivity was opposed to that of leptin which suppresses sweet sensitivity. Leptin and endocannabinoids, therefore, not only regulate food intake via central nervous systems but also may modulate palatability of foods by altering peripheral sweet taste responses via their cognate receptors. Orexigenic and anorexigenic factors such as endocannnabinoids and leptin may affect energy homeostasis by regulating taste sensitivity.

  4. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade.

  5. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds.

  6. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  7. Cloning and functional analysis of goat SWEET1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Bao, Z K; Hu, W W; Lin, J; Yang, Q; Yu, Q H

    2015-12-16

    SWEETs are a recently discovered class of sugar transporters that mediate glucose uptake in the intestine and mammary glands. Our objectives were to clone goat SWEET1 and conduct a functional analysis of its effect on glucose efflux in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. We cloned and sequenced the goat SWEET1 gene from goat mammary glands, then conducted an analysis of the structure of goat SWEET1, including a prediction of the transmembrane helices and potential N-glycosylation sites. To investigate the biological function of goat SWEET1, we also generated goat SWEET1-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells using the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-gSWEET1. Goat SWEET1 overexpression can reduce glucose absorption in mammary gland epithelial cells with increasing expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and GLUT12, which may be attributed to glucose efflux arising from the leading role played by goat SWEET1. This study will improve our understanding of the glucose balance in mammary glands and the level of glucose in milk.

  8. Why do we like sweet taste: A bitter tale?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-10-01

    Sweet is widely considered to be one of a small number of basic or primary taste qualities. Liking for sweet tasting substances is innate, although postnatal experiences can shape responses. The power of sweet taste to induce consumption and to motivate behavior is profound, suggesting the importance of this sense for many species. Most investigators presume that the ability to identify sweet molecules through the sense of taste evolved to allow organisms to detect sources of readily available glucose from plants. Perhaps the best evidence supporting this presumption are recent discoveries in comparative biology demonstrating that species in the order Carnivora that do not consume plants also do not perceive sweet taste due to the pseudogenization of a component of the primary sweet taste receptor. However, arguing against this idea is the observation that the sweetness of a plant, or the amount of easily metabolizable sugars contained in the plant, provides little quantitative indication of the plant's energy or broadly conceived food value. Here it is suggested that the perceptual ratio of sweet taste to bitter taste (a signal for toxicity) may be a better gauge of a plant's broadly conceived food value than sweetness alone and that it is this ratio that helps guide selection or rejection of a potential plant food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions of the Sweet Protein Brazzein with the Sweet Taste Receptor

    PubMed Central

    WALTERS, D. ERIC; HELLEKANT, GÖRAN

    2008-01-01

    Brazzein is a small, potently sweet protein. We have used homology modeling to construct a model of the ligand binding domain of the sweet taste receptor and have used low-resolution docking to identify potential modes of brazzein-receptor binding. We then used published brazzein mutation-taste data to select one of these as the most likely brazzein-receptor binding orientation. This orientation places brazzein in contact primarily with the T1R2 subunit of the receptor, and it accounts for 21 of the 23 mutation results examined. PMID:17177550

  10. Interactions of the sweet protein brazzein with the sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Walters, D Eric; Hellekant, Göran

    2006-12-27

    Brazzein is a small, potently sweet protein. Homology modeling has been used to construct a model of the ligand-binding domain of the sweet taste receptor, and low-resolution docking has been used to identify potential modes of brazzein-receptor binding. Published brazzein mutation-taste data were then used to select one of these as the most likely brazzein-receptor binding orientation. This orientation places brazzein in contact primarily with the T1R2 subunit of the receptor, and it accounts for 21 of the 23 mutation results examined.

  11. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

  12. The Plasma Membrane-Localized Sucrose Transporter IbSWEET10 Contributes to the Resistance of Sweet Potato to Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins, a novel family of sugar transporters, mediate the diffusion of sugars across cell membranes and acts as key players in sucrose phloem loading. Manipulation of SWEET genes in plants leads to various effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses due to disruption of sugar efflux and changes in sugar distribution. In this study, a member of the SWEET gene family, IbSWEET10, was cloned from the sweet potato line ND98. mRNA expression analysis in sweet potato and promoter β-Glucuronidase analysis in Arabidopsis showed that IbSWEET10 is highly expressed in leaves, especially in vascular tissue. Transient expression in tobacco epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization of IbSWEET10, and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that IbSWEET10 encodes a sucrose transporter. The expression level of IbSWEET10 was significantly up-regulated in sweet potato infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas. Further characterization revealed IbSWEET10-overexpressing sweet potato lines to be more resistant to F. oxysporum, exhibiting better growth after infection compared with the control; conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) lines showed the opposite results. Additionally, the sugar content of IbSWEET10-overexpression sweet potato was significantly reduced, whereas that in RNAi plants was significantly increased compared with the control. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in sugar content caused by IbSWEET10 overexpression is the major reason for the enhanced F. oxysporum resistance of the transgenic plants. This is the first report that the IbSWEET10 transporter contributes to the resistance of sweet potato to F. oxysporum. The IbSWEET10 gene has the great potential to be used for improving the resistance to F. oxysporum in sweet potato and other plants. PMID:28261250

  13. The Plasma Membrane-Localized Sucrose Transporter IbSWEET10 Contributes to the Resistance of Sweet Potato to Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins, a novel family of sugar transporters, mediate the diffusion of sugars across cell membranes and acts as key players in sucrose phloem loading. Manipulation of SWEET genes in plants leads to various effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses due to disruption of sugar efflux and changes in sugar distribution. In this study, a member of the SWEET gene family, IbSWEET10, was cloned from the sweet potato line ND98. mRNA expression analysis in sweet potato and promoter β-Glucuronidase analysis in Arabidopsis showed that IbSWEET10 is highly expressed in leaves, especially in vascular tissue. Transient expression in tobacco epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization of IbSWEET10, and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that IbSWEET10 encodes a sucrose transporter. The expression level of IbSWEET10 was significantly up-regulated in sweet potato infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas. Further characterization revealed IbSWEET10-overexpressing sweet potato lines to be more resistant to F. oxysporum, exhibiting better growth after infection compared with the control; conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) lines showed the opposite results. Additionally, the sugar content of IbSWEET10-overexpression sweet potato was significantly reduced, whereas that in RNAi plants was significantly increased compared with the control. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in sugar content caused by IbSWEET10 overexpression is the major reason for the enhanced F. oxysporum resistance of the transgenic plants. This is the first report that the IbSWEET10 transporter contributes to the resistance of sweet potato to F. oxysporum. The IbSWEET10 gene has the great potential to be used for improving the resistance to F. oxysporum in sweet potato and other plants.

  14. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  15. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  16. 'Pokemon Go' Players Add 2,000 Steps a Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pokemon Go' Players Add 2,000 Steps a Day Smartphone game benefits overweight, sedentary people most, researchers ... as likely to walk 10,000 steps a day than they were before taking up the game, ...

  17. TDRS-K to Add to Vital Space Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA officials discuss the launch of the TDRS-K spacecraft to add to the space network that enables communications between the International Space Station and Earth-orbiting satellites and ground c...

  18. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  19. Neuro sweet syndrome: a systematic review. A rare complication of Sweet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Agnoletti, Arianna Fay; Sarocchi, Francesca; Parodi, Aurora

    2017-03-01

    Sweet's syndrome (SS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by fever, leucocytosis and distinctive skin lesions that histologically consist of a dermal infiltrate of neutrophils with nuclear fragmentation. Aseptic neutrophilic inflammation may occur also in other organs. Central nervous system involvement in SS, Neuro-Sweet's syndrome (NSS), is rare and reported especially among Asian patients. A systematic review of the literature has been performed to find articles reporting cases of SS with neurological involvement. The search terms: "Sweet's syndrome/disease with neurological involvement, Neuro Sweet Syndrome/Disease" were used in the Pubmed Database. Sixty-nine NSS patients including 46 males and 23 females, more Asian than Caucasian, have been described from 1983 to date. The average age was 48.7 year-old. The most representative neurologic symptom was the altered state of consciousness, followed by headache and memory disorders. Differently from SS with skin or other district involvement, NSS appears to be more common in Asian patients than in Caucasian ones and affects mainly the male sex in the third or fourth decade of life. A very wide range of symptoms and signs can occur, depending on which part of the nervous system is affected. Initial presentation is usually with the SS typical skin lesions followed by neurological involvement. However, also an opposite presentation or a simultaneous skin and nervous involvement may happen. Awareness of the possible neurological complications in SS is important to avoid unnecessary therapies for other forms of meningoencephalitis and lead to successful treatment with systemic corticosteroids.

  20. Volatile Profile Comparison of USDA Sweet-Orange-Like Hybrids and Standard Sweet Oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatiles of six hybrids (‘Ambersweet’ orange crossed with one of three different orange hybrids) were analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare the volatile profiles with ‘Hamlin’, the most widely grown early sweet orange in Florida, and ‘Ambersweet’. All hybrids are ...

  1. Phylogenetic evidence for a fusion of archaeal and bacterial SemiSWEETs to form eukaryotic SWEETs and identification of SWEET hexose transporters in the amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Bing; Sosso, Davide; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Li-Qing; Ma, Lai; Chermak, Diane; Zhang, De-Chun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2016-10-01

    SWEETs represent a new class of sugar transporters first described in plants, animals, and humans and later in prokaryotes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in phloem loading, seed filling, and nectar secretion, whereas the role of archaeal, bacterial, and animal transporters remains elusive. Structural analyses show that eukaryotic SWEETs are composed of 2 triple-helix bundles (THBs) fused via an inversion linker helix, whereas prokaryotic SemiSWEETs contain only a single THB and require homodimerization to form transport pores. This study indicates that SWEETs retained sugar transport activity in all kingdoms of life, and that SemiSWEETs are likely their ancestral units. Fusion of oligomeric subunits into single polypeptides during evolution of eukaryotes is commonly found for transporters. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that THBs of eukaryotic SWEETs may not have evolved by tandem duplication of an open reading frame, but rather originated by fusion between an archaeal and a bacterial SemiSWEET, which potentially explains the asymmetry of eukaryotic SWEETs. Moreover, despite the ancient ancestry, SWEETs had not been identified in fungi or oomycetes. Here, we report the identification of SWEETs in oomycetes as well as SWEETs and a potential SemiSWEET in primitive fungi. BdSWEET1 and BdSWEET2 from Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a nonhyphal zoosporic fungus that causes global decline in amphibians, showed glucose and fructose transport activities.-Hu, Y.-B., Sosso, D., Qu, X.-Q., Chen, L.-Q., Ma, L., Chermak, D., Zhang, D.-C., Frommer, W. B. Phylogenetic evidence for a fusion of archaeal and bacterial SemiSWEETs to form eukaryotic SWEETs and identification of SWEET hexose transporters in the amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. © FASEB.

  2. Two Species of Myxomycetes Causing Slime Mold of Sweet Potato

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yeob; Cho, Weon Dae

    2007-01-01

    Specimens collected from sweet potato plants with slime mold symptoms in fields in Daejeon, Korea were examined. Two species of Myxomycetes, Fuligo septica and Stemonitis herbatica were identified based on their morphological characteristics. This is the first report that the two species of Myxomycetes cause slime mold of sweet potato in Korea. PMID:24015079

  3. Genetic Basis of Sensitivity in Sweet Corn to Tembotrione

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field studies were used to 1) test the hypothesis that the genetic basis of sweet corn sensitivity to AE 0172747 is the same recessive gene that conditions sensitivity to mesotrione, and 2) compare the extent of early-season herbicide injury from AE 0172747 and mesotrione on sweet corn hybrids and i...

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  5. Evaluation of sweet sorghum germplasm for the southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has become a favorable biofuel feedstock for ethanol production. Among the essential traits for successful production and use of sweet sorghum in Southeastern United States for renewable fuel are high biomass, high BRIX, lodging resistance, as well as res...

  6. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  7. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  8. Sweet taste of water induced by artichoke (Cynara scolymus).

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Lee, C H; Scarpellino, R

    1972-12-01

    Exposure of the tongue to artichoke can make water taste sweet. Two major active components of artichoke are the salts of chlorogenic acid and cynarin. The sweetening of substances by temporarily modifying the tongue, rather than by adding a substance sweet in itself, may provide an alternative to currently used nonnutritive sweeteners.

  9. Two species of myxomycetes causing slime mold of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Cho, Weon Dae

    2007-06-01

    Specimens collected from sweet potato plants with slime mold symptoms in fields in Daejeon, Korea were examined. Two species of Myxomycetes, Fuligo septica and Stemonitis herbatica were identified based on their morphological characteristics. This is the first report that the two species of Myxomycetes cause slime mold of sweet potato in Korea.

  10. Using less atrazine in sweet corn: challenges to overcome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the near future, growers may see further restrictions on their most widely used weed control tactic - atrazine. Studies were conducted throughout the major processing sweet corn growing areas in North America to determine the impact of using less atrazine postemergence on sweet corn production. I...

  11. Phenotypic evaluation of sweet sorghum lines for bioethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stem juice of sweet sorghum is rich in fermentable sugars and is a desirable primary material for alcoholic fermentation. Today, interest in growing sweet sorghum for fermentable sugars is increasing worldwide; thus there is strong demand for elite varieties and hybrids offering high sugar yiel...

  12. Sweet Structural Signatures Unveiled in Ketohexoses.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L

    2016-11-14

    The conformational behaviour of naturally occurring ketohexoses has been revealed in a supersonic expansion by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled with a laser ablation source. Three, two and one conformers of d-tagatose, d-psicose and l-sorbose, respectively, have been identified by their rotational constants extracted from the analysis of the spectra. Singular structural signatures involving the hydroxyl groups OH(1) and OH(2) have been disentangled from the intricate intramolecular hydrogen bond networks stabilising the most abundant conformers. The present results place the old Shallenberger and Kier sweetness theories on a firmer footing.

  13. Evaluation of sweet sorghum for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Monroe, G.E.; Nichols, R.L.; Gascho, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Among 8 varieties of sweet sorghum grown in Tifton loamy sand, Keller, MN, 1500 and Ramada had similar yields of stalks, 41-44 t/ha, and fermentable sugars, 5.8-5.9 t/ha, that were significantly higher than for other varieties. For the 3 high-yielding varieties, a farm-scale 3-roll mill extracted 32% of stalk weight as juice that contained 43% of stalk sugar. Juice was fermented and ethanol distilled with 81% of theoretical yield. 8 refs.

  14. Sweet's mechanism in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Scudder, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sweet's mechanism occurs in the solar wind, at D-sheets near 1 AU. Conductivities on the order of 10,000 esu are obtained, which is on the order of the local plasma frequency. This implies that the effective collision frequency is on the order of the plasma frequency. The lateral extent of D-sheets is approximately 0.01 AU to 0.001 AU. Hundreds of such D-sheets are probably present between the orbits of Venus and Earth at any instant.

  15. [Sweet protein thaumatin and it's genetic engineering].

    PubMed

    Kong, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Qi; Gao, Liang; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Qi-Zhi

    2003-03-01

    Thaumatin is one of the sweetest substances known to date,it is important to study the thaumatin. The biochemical properties of thaumatin have been clarified clearly. Thaumatin had been isolated and sequenced. The mechanism of the sweetness of thaumatin may be due to the combination of some special groups and the receptors. The exact function of thaumatin is still not clear. Although gene engineering of thaumatin has been carried out for 20 years, there are still some difficulties to be solved for using in the market.

  16. Sweet taste liking is associated with impulsive behaviors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Burkhardt, Anne; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that sensitivity to rewarding stimuli is positively associated with impulsive behaviors, including both impulsive decision making and inhibitory control. The current study examined associations between the hedonic value of a sweet taste and two forms of impulsivity (impulsive choice and impulsive action) in healthy young adults (N = 100). Participants completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various sweetness concentrations. Subjects also completed measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting), and impulsive action (go/no-go task). Subjects who discounted more steeply (i.e., greater impulsive choice) liked the high sweetness concentration solutions more. By contrast, sweet liking was not related to impulsive action. These findings indicate that impulsive choice may be associated with heightened sensitivity to the hedonic value of a rewarding stimulus, and that these constructs might share common underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:24987343

  17. Sweet taste receptor signaling network: possible implication for cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Mastorakis, Nikos E; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special "sweet" molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  18. Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuyong; Cheung, Lily S; Li, Shuo; Eom, Joon-Seob; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Yan; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B; Feng, Liang

    2015-11-12

    Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loading for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythium infection. Here we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Insights into the structure-function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux.

  19. Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex

    DOE PAGES

    Tao, Yuyong; Cheung, Lily S.; Li, Shuo; ...

    2015-10-19

    Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loadingmore » for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythium infection. In this paper, we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Finally, insights into the structure–function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux.« less

  20. Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yuyong; Cheung, Lily S.; Li, Shuo; Eom, Joon-Seob; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Yan; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B.; Feng, Liang

    2015-10-19

    Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loading for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythium infection. In this paper, we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Finally, insights into the structure–function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux.

  1. Leptin suppresses sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine STC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-09-22

    Leptin is an important hormone that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis by acting on central and peripheral targets. In the gustatory system, leptin is known to selectively suppress sweet responses by inhibiting the activation of sweet sensitive taste cells. Sweet taste receptor (T1R2+T1R3) is also expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells and contributes to nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption. Because of the similarities in expression patterns between enteroendocrine and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that they may also share similar mechanisms used to modify/regulate the sweet responsiveness of these cells by leptin. Here, we used mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 and examined potential effect of leptin on Ca(2+) responses of STC-1 cells to various taste compounds. Ca(2+) responses to sweet compounds in STC-1 cells were suppressed by a rodent T1R3 inhibitor gurmarin, suggesting the involvement of T1R3-dependent receptors in detection of sweet compounds. Responses to sweet substances were suppressed by ⩾1ng/ml leptin without affecting responses to bitter, umami and salty compounds. This effect was inhibited by a leptin antagonist (mutant L39A/D40A/F41A) and by ATP gated K(+) (KATP) channel closer glibenclamide, suggesting that leptin affects sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells via activation of leptin receptor and KATP channel expressed in these cells. Moreover, leptin selectively inhibited sweet-induced but not bitter-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from STC-1 cells. These results suggest that leptin modulates sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells to regulate nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption in the gut. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar Accumulation in Leaves of Arabidopsis sweet11/sweet12 Double Mutants Enhances Priming of the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Pierre; Korn, Martin; Engelsdorf, Timo; Sonnewald, Uwe; Koch, Christian; Voll, Lars M.

    2017-01-01

    In compatible interactions, biotrophic microbial phytopathogens rely on the supply of assimilates by the colonized host tissue. It has been found in rice that phloem localized SWEET sucrose transporters can be reprogrammed by bacterial effectors to establish compatibility. We observed that sweet11/sweet12 double mutants, but not single mutants, exhibited increased resistance toward the fungal hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum (Ch), both in the biotrophic and the necrotrophic colonization phase. We therefore investigated if the phloem localized transporters AtSWEET11 and AtSWEET12 represent additive susceptibility factors in the interaction of Arabidopsis with Ch. AtSWEET12-YFP fusion protein driven by the endogenous promoter strongly accumulated at Ch infection sites and in the vasculature upon challenge with Ch. However, susceptibility of sweet12 single mutants to Ch was comparable to wild type, indicating that the accumulation of AtSWEET12 at Ch infection sites does not play a major role for compatibility. AtSWEET12-YFP reporter protein was not detectable at the plant–pathogen interface, suggesting that AtSWEET12 is not targeted by Ch effectors. AtSWEET11-YFP accumulation in pAtSWEET11:AtSWEET11-YFP plants were similar in Ch infected and mock control leaves. A close inspection of major carbohydrate metabolism in non-infected control plants revealed that soluble sugar and starch content were substantially elevated in sweet11/sweet12 double mutants during the entire diurnal cycle, that diurnal soluble sugar turnover was increased more than twofold in sweet11/sweet12, and that accumulation of free hexoses and sucrose was strongly expedited in double mutant leaves compared to wild type and both single mutants during the course of Ch infection. After 2 days of treatment, free and conjugated SA levels were significantly increased in infected and mock control leaves of sweet11/sweet12 relative to all other genotypes, respectively. Induced genes in mock treated

  3. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p < 0.05). A slight change of the microstructures of sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p < 0.05). After heat treatment, gas retention of the dough with sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p < 0.05). In addition, specific loaf volume of sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm(3)/g) ( p < 0.05). Thus, heat treatment at 90 ℃ to sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  4. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  10. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  11. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  12. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  13. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  14. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Availability http://bicmku.in/ProADD PMID:25097386

  15. The role of sweet taste in satiation and satiety.

    PubMed

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-09-02

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual's ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity.

  16. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of sweet responses of taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-03-01

    Taste receptor cells play a major role in detection of chemical compounds in the oral cavity. Information derived from taste receptor cells, such as sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami is important for evaluating the quality of food components. Among five basic taste qualities, sweet taste is very attractive for animals and influences food intake. Recent studies have demonstrated that sweet taste sensitivity in taste receptor cells would be affected by leptin and endocannabinoids. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on leptin receptor Ob-Rb in the hypothalamus. Endocannabinoids such as anandamide [N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)] and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are known as orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain to induce appetite and stimulate food intake. At the peripheral gustatory organs, leptin selectively suppresses and endocannabinoids selectively enhance sweet taste sensitivity via Ob-Rb and CB1 expressed in sweet sensitive taste cells. Thus leptin and endocannabinoids not only regulate food intake via central nervous systems but also modulate palatability of foods by altering peripheral sweet taste responses. Such reciprocal modulation of leptin and endocannabinoids on peripheral sweet sensitivity may play an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical constituents and health effects of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Nie, Shaoping; Zhu, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to their unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects. Factors affecting the nutritional composition and bio-functions of sweet potato include the varieties, plant parts, extraction time and solvents, postharvest storage, and processing. The assays for bio-function evaluation also contribute to the variations among different studies. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the chemical composition of sweet potato, and their bio-functions studied in vitro and in vivo. Leaves, stems, and stalks of sweet potato remain much underutilized on commercial levels. Sweet potato can be further developed as a sustainable crop for diverse nutritionally enhanced and value-added food products to promote human health. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Sweet Taste in Satiation and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity. PMID:25184369

  20. Acute Tryptophan Depletion and Sweet Food Consumption by Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; Spring, Bonnie; McChargue, Dennis; Hitsman, Brian; Smith, Malaina; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Serotonergic involvement has been implicated in preferential consumption of treat foods. We tested the effect of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) on food consumption by overweight and lean adults with and without a history of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). ATD and taste-matched placebo challenges were administered double-blind in counter-balanced order. Participants were classified as lean (n = 36) or overweight (n=19) on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and sweet food consumption were assessed via a test meal 8-hours following ATD. Four food items of comparable palatability were offered as a part of the test: two sweet (one carbohydrate-rich, and one protein-rich) and two non-sweet (one carbohydrate-rich, and one protein-rich). As compared to the placebo challenge, ATD significantly increased sweet calorie intake among overweight participants and increased their propensity to consume sweet food first before any other type of food. Lean participants’ sweet calorie intake and food preference were unaffected by ATD. Findings suggest serotonergic involvement in the sweet food consumption by overweight individuals. PMID:19171315

  1. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  2. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    PubMed

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation.

  3. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  4. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  5. A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips.

    PubMed

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y; Stull, Judith C; Abarintos, Ray A; Khan, Neiladri K; Park, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  7. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products.

  8. Characterization of a Torulaspora delbrueckii diploid strain with optimized performance in sweet and frozen sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Maria José; Pallotti, Claudia; Andreu, Pasqual; Aguilera, Jaime; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2007-05-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is a baker's yeast that is highly tolerant to freeze-thaw stress, making it suitable for frozen dough technology. The T. delbrueckii strain PYCC5321, isolated from traditional bread dough, combines this tolerance with a high degree of ionic and osmotic stress resistance. However, the industrial use of this strain for frozen and sweet frozen baking is hampered by its small cell size, which causes clogging problems at the filtering stage. Here, we report the construction of a stable diploid strain of T. delbrueckii PYCC5321, which we named Td21-2n. The new strain was more than 2.7-fold bigger than their haploid counterpart, whereas biomass yield, stress resistance and sweet dough leavening ability were found to be similar in both strains. Moreover, the gassing power of the diploid after dough freezing also remained unaltered. Thus, Td21-2n meets the requirements necessary for industrial production and is suitable for application in frozen sweet baking products.

  9. Histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome presenting with annular erythematous plaques*

    PubMed Central

    Marcarini, Renata; de Araujo, Raquel Nardelli; Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Medeiros, Karina Bittencourt; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Maceira, Juan Manuel Piñeiro

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease described in 2005 as a variant of the classical Sweet's Syndrome (SS). Histopathologically, the dermal inflammatory infiltrate is composed mainly of mononuclear cells that have a histiocytic appearance and represent immature myeloid cells. We describe a case of Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome in an 18-year-old man. Although this patient had clinical manifestations compatible with SS, the cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous annular plaques, which are not typical for this entity and have not been described in histiocytic form so far. The histiocytic subtype was confirmed by histopathological analysis that showed positivity for myeloperoxidase in multiple cells with histiocytic appearance. PMID:28300927

  10. Sweet's syndrome as the presenting manifestation of gall bladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Rashmi; Jain, Anshu; Mittal, Ankur; Shirazi, Nadia

    2012-10-12

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic inflammatory dermatosis presenting with sudden onset tender red to purple papules and nodules, fever and neutrophilia. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, pregnancy, inflammatory bowel disease, drugs and malignancy are some of the known aetiological factors. Paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome accounts for 15-20% cases and thus forms an important subset. At times its onset helps in suspecting an underlying malignancy, thus making timely intervention possible. In the present case report Sweet's syndrome was the presenting feature of gall bladder adenocarcinoma; an association that has been rarely reported before.

  11. Sweet's syndrome associated with cellulitis - a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Resende, Cristina; Santos, Rui; Pereira, Teresa; Brito, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic dermatosis with worldwide distribution that has been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases, infections, malignancies, drugs, and pregnancy. The disease is idiopathic in up to 50% of patients. A 64-year-old woman, diagnosed with right limb cellulitis (4 days of evolution), was seen at our department, due to persistent cellulitis and progressive appearance of painful nodules and plaques in both shins and the right forearm (2 days of evolution). Taken together, clinical, laboratory and pathological data suggested the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome, probably secondary to cellulitis of the right inferior limb. We suggest that cellulitis may be associated with Sweet's syndrome, a rare association in the literature.

  12. Modification of the Sweetness and Stability of Sweet-Tasting Protein Monellin by Gene Mutation and Protein Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiulei; Li, Lei; Yang, Liu; Liu, Tianming; Cai, Chenggu; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Natural sweet protein monellin has a high sweetness and low calorie, suggesting its potential in food applications. However, due to its low heat and acid resistance, the application of monellin is limited. In this study, we show that the thermostability of monellin can be improved with no sweetness decrease by means of sequence, structure analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We analyzed residues located in the α-helix as well as an ionizable residue C41. Of the mutants investigated, the effects of E23A and C41A mutants were most remarkable. The former displayed significantly improved thermal stability, while its sweetness was not changed. The mutated protein was stable after 30 min incubation at 85°C. The latter showed increased sweetness and slight improvement of thermostability. Furthermore, we found that most mutants enhancing the thermostability of the protein were distributed at the two ends of α-helix. Molecular biophysics analysis revealed that the state of buried ionizable residues may account for the modulated properties of mutated proteins. Our results prove that the properties of sweet protein monellin can be modified by means of bioinformatics analysis, gene manipulation, and protein modification, highlighting the possibility of designing novel effective sweet proteins based on structure-function relationships. PMID:26881217

  13. The sorghum SWEET gene family: stem sucrose accumulation as revealed through transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    SWEET is a newly identified family of sugar transporters. Although SWEET transporters have been characterized by using Arabidopsis and rice, very little knowledge of sucrose accumulation in the stem region is available, as these model plants accumulate little sucrose in their stems. To elucidate the expression of key SWEET genes involved in sucrose accumulation of sorghum, we performed transcriptome profiling by RNA-seq, categorization using phylogenetic trees, analysis of chromosomal synteny, and comparison of amino acid sequences between SIL-05 (a sweet sorghum) and BTx623 (a grain sorghum). We identified 23 SWEET genes in the sorghum genome. In the leaf, SbSWEET8-1 was highly expressed and was grouped in the same clade as AtSWEET11 and AtSWEET12 that play a role in the efflux of photosynthesized sucrose. The key genes in sucrose synthesis (SPS3) and that in another step of sugar transport (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) were also highly expressed, suggesting that sucrose is newly synthesized and actively exported from the leaf. In the stem, SbSWEET4-3 was uniquely highly expressed. SbSWEET4-1, SbSWEET4-2, and SbSWEET4-3 were categorized into the same clade, but their tissue specificities were different, suggesting that SbSWEET4-3 is a sugar transporter with specific roles in the stem. We found a putative SWEET4-3 ortholog in the corresponding region of the maize chromosome, but not the rice chromosome, suggesting that SbSWEET4-3 was copied after the branching of sorghum and maize from rice. In the panicle from the heading through to 36 days afterward, SbSWEET2-1 and SbSWEET7-1 were expressed and grouped in the same clade as rice OsSWEET11/Xa13 that is essential for seed development. SbSWEET9-3 was highly expressed in the panicle only just after heading and was grouped into the same clade as AtSWEET8/RPG1 that is essential for pollen viability. Five of 23 SWEET genes had SNPs that caused nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions between SIL-05 and BTx623. We determined the key

  14. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  15. Unveiling the Sweet Conformations of Ketohexoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, C.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; Daly, A. M.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The conformational behavior of ketohexoses D-Fructose, L-Sorbose, D-Tagatose and D-Psicose has been revealed from their rotational spectra. A broadband microwave spectrometer (CP-FTMW) has been used to rapidly acquire the rotational spectra in the 6 to 12 GHz frequency range. All observed species are stabilized by complicated intramolecular hydrogen-bonding networks. Structural motifs related to the sweetness of ketohexoses are revealed. G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, B. H. Pate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2008, 79, 053103. S. Mata, I. Peña, C. Cabezas, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91.

  16. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  17. Sweet Syndrome: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Villarreal, C D; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Villarreal-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    Sweet syndrome is the most representative entity of febrile neutrophilic dermatoses. It typically presents in patients with pirexya, neutrophilia, painful tender erytomatous papules, nodules and plaques often distributed asymmetrically. Frequent sites include the face, neck and upper extremities. Affected sites show a characteristical neutrophilic infiltrate in the upper dermis. Its etiology remains elucidated, but it seems that can be mediated by a hypersensitivity reaction in which cytokines, followed by infiltration of neutrophils, may be involved. Systemic corticosteroids are the first-line of treatment in most cases. We present a concise review of the pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment update of this entity. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Sweet's syndrome. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1981-08-01

    A case of relentlessly recurrent, violently inflammatory, and extremely painful Sweet's syndrome of twenty-three years' duration is presented. For many years lesions were often solitary, and frequently localized to the left adductor thigh. This led to the misdiagnosis of the condition as recurrent herpes simplex. For twenty-three years the disease was localized to the left lower extremity. Recurrences became more protracted during the past two years. The most prominent symptom was lesional pain, and recently this could not be relieved with narcotic analgesics. Lesions were asymmetric, bright red, raised, painful and had sharp borders. The largest lesion measured 18 cm in diameter. Response to systemic steroids was prompt and dramatic, and healing occurred without scarring.

  19. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  20. ADD and ADHD: An Overview for School Counselors. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pledge, Deanna S.

    School counselors are often consultants for parents and teachers on problems that children and adolescents face. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is one such problem. It is frequently misunderstood, presenting a challenge for parents and teachers alike. The counselor is a resource for initial identification and interventions at home and in the…

  1. Serving Students Diagnosed with ADD: Avoiding Deficits in Professional Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Gary; Carey, Sean P.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Hakola, this issue) on legal rights of students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Presents contrasting perspective on educational services for children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, linked more closely to professional research and practice than to law. Concerns discussed are grounded in…

  2. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with the Child Who Has ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2006-01-01

    The terms ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are applied to several symptoms, including: difficulty in paying attention, distractibility, having a hard time following through on things, and sometimes over-activity and impulsivity. There are many different reasons why children have these symptoms.…

  3. Four Simple Ways to Add Movement in Daily Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding movement to classroom activities not only engages students, but also may improve the classroom climate and reduce disruptions. In this article, the author discusses four simple activities to add movement in daily lessons. These activities are: (1) Vocabulary/Notes around the Room; (2) Cooperative Learning: Posting Task Assignments; (3)…

  4. Water Softeners: How Much Sodium Do They Add?

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy eating I'm trying to watch the sodium in my diet. Should I be concerned about sodium from water softeners? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Regular tap water contains very little sodium. The amount of sodium a water softener adds ...

  5. Face equipment lighting: integrated vs. add-on

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, F.E.

    1982-10-01

    The problems of providing lighting on face equipment are examined. In the US, some equipment manufacturers are building-in lighting systems to their machinery; others will install lighting systems as add-on or retrofitted items. The pros and cons of each method are examined and the views of manufacturers are quoted.

  6. Digging Postholes Adds Depth and Authenticity to a Shallow Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtue, David C.; Buchanan, Anne; Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of high-stakes testing and accountability, many social studies teachers struggle to find creative ways to add depth and authenticity to a broad, shallow curriculum. Teachers can use the time after tests are administered for students to reflect back on the social studies curriculum and select topics they want to study more deeply…

  7. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  8. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines…

  9. Four Simple Ways to Add Movement in Daily Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding movement to classroom activities not only engages students, but also may improve the classroom climate and reduce disruptions. In this article, the author discusses four simple activities to add movement in daily lessons. These activities are: (1) Vocabulary/Notes around the Room; (2) Cooperative Learning: Posting Task Assignments; (3)…

  10. Medicalised Pupils: The Case of ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing number of life's problems conceptualised and interpreted through the prism of disease; among them are those affecting pupils at school. Witness the cases of hyperactivity and deficient attention, so often diagnosed as ADD/ADHD. Research indicates that there is at least some tendency towards overdiagnosis of…

  11. How HR Leaders Can Add Value to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Norm; Ulrich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is safe to say that human resource leaders whole-heartedly believe that the HR function should add value to an organization. However, many wonder where to start. In this article, the authors outline three ways in which the HR function, and the HR leader, can create sustained value for an organization and its stakeholders.

  12. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  13. Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities—sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami—can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5’-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors. PMID:25853419

  14. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewon; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  15. In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Tavares, Fernanda Ferreira; dos Santos, Maria Clézia; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; de Santana, Aléa Dayane Dantas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4 × 5 × 2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg·L−1), and two temperatures (18 and 25°C). The second experiment was conducted in a 4 × 3 × 3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137), three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%), and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30 g·L−1). Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%), shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0 mg·L−1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30 g·L−1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts. PMID:24563627

  16. Histiocytoid giant cellulitis-like Sweet's syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    So, Jessica Kim; Carlos, Casey A; Frucht, Corey S; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-01-25

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is an uncommon variant in which the dermal infiltrate is composed of mononuclear cells with a histiocytic appearance that represent immature myeloid cells. Giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome is a recently described variant characterized by relapsing widespread giant lesions. We report a unique patient with histiocytoid giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome and review the current literature on histiocytoid Sweet syndrome and giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome. We reviewed PubMed for the following terms and have reviewed the literature: histiocytoid, giant cellulitis-like, and Sweet syndrome. Six individuals, including our patient, have been reported with giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome; four had obesity, two had a hematologic malignancy, and one had breast cancer. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome has been reported in association with autoimmune diseases, infection or inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, medications, and other conditions. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare variant of Sweet syndrome, often associated with malignancy. Giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome has been reported in six individuals; four of the patients were obese and three of the patients had an associated cancer. Our patient had histiocytoid giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome-associated myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder. The diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome or giant cellulitis-like Sweet syndrome should prompt the clinician to consider additional evaluation for a Sweet syndrome-associated malignancy.

  17. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

  18. Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2012-01-01

    For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized.

  19. 22. 1812 AND SWEET LEAF UNITED PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. 1812 AND SWEET LEAF UNITED PRIMITIVE BAPTIST CHURCH AT 1814, NORTH FRONTS - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. Striatal Dopamine Links Gastrointestinal Rerouting to Altered Sweet Appetite.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Niu, Jingjing; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Zhang, Xiaobing; Su, Jiansheng; Tong, Jenny; Schwartz, Gary J; van den Pol, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-01-12

    Reductions in calorie intake contribute significantly to the positive outcome of bariatric surgeries. However, the physiological mechanisms linking the rerouting of the gastrointestinal tract to reductions in sugar cravings remain uncertain. We show that a duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) intervention inhibits maladaptive sweet appetite by acting on dopamine-responsive striatal circuitries. DJB disrupted the ability of recurrent sugar exposure to promote sweet appetite in sated animals, thereby revealing a link between recurrent duodenal sugar influx and maladaptive sweet intake. Unlike ingestion of a low-calorie sweetener, ingestion of sugar was associated with significant dopamine effluxes in the dorsal striatum, with glucose infusions into the duodenum inducing greater striatal dopamine release than equivalent jejunal infusions. Consistently, optogenetic activation of dopamine-excitable cells of the dorsal striatum was sufficient to restore maladaptive sweet appetite in sated DJB mice. Our findings point to a causal link between striatal dopamine signaling and the outcomes of bariatric interventions.

  1. Striatal Dopamine Links Gastrointestinal Rerouting to Altered Sweet Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Niu, Jingjing; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Zhang, Xiaobing; Su, Jiansheng; Tong, Jenny; Schwartz, Gary J; van den Pol, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in calorie intake contribute significantly to the positive outcome of bariatric surgeries. However, the physiological mechanisms linking the rerouting of the gastrointestinal tract to reductions in sugar cravings remain uncertain. We show that a duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) intervention inhibits maladaptive sweet appetite by acting on dopamine-responsive striatal circuitries. DJB disrupted the ability of recurrent sugar exposure to promote sweet appetite in sated animals, thereby revealing a link between recurrent duodenal sugar influx and maladaptive sweet intake. Unlike ingestion of a low-calorie sweetener, ingestion of sugar was associated with significant dopamine effluxes in dorsal striatum, with glucose infusions into the duodenum inducing greater striatal dopamine release than equivalent jejunal infusions. Consistently, optogenetic activation of dopamine-excitable cells of dorsal striatum was sufficient to restore maladaptive sweet appetite in sated DJB mice. Our findings point to a causal link between striatal dopamine signaling and the outcomes of bariatric interventions. PMID:26698915

  2. Reversible extensive leukoencephalopathy in Sweet disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Hineno, Akiyo; Kodaira, Minori; Machida, Kazuko; Ishii, Wataru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Shimojo, Hisashi; Uhara, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kanji; Morita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Ikeda, Shu-ich

    2008-12-15

    Sweet disease, also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is an idiopathic multisystem inflammatory disorder characterised by erythematous skin lesions and fever. "Neuro-Sweet disease" is a rare central nervous system involvement that coexists with the characteristic cutaneous lesions of Sweet disease. Here, we report a case of Sweet disease complicated with acute encephalopathy. This case showed extensive lesions in the cerebral white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without pleocytosis. After steroid therapy, the patient's clinical syndrome recovered completely with no significant neurological deficits or abnormal findings on brain MRI, and normalization of the high CSF protein concentration. Both clinical and MRI findings suggested that the marked leukoencephalopathy in this case was mainly due to reversible oedema rather than destructive structural alterations in the cerebral parenchyma.

  3. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    PubMed

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli.

  4. Cortical microtubules in sweet clover columella cells developed in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Electron micrographs of columella cells from sweet clover seedlings grown and fixed in microgravity revealed longitudinal and cross sectioned cortical microtubules. This is the first report demonstrating the presence and stability of this network in plants in microgravity.

  5. Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Supriya; Umakanth, A V; Tonapi, V A; Sharma, Rita; Sharma, Manoj K

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production. It is a C4 crop with low input requirements and accumulates high levels of sugars in its stalks. However, large-scale planting on marginal lands would require improved varieties with optimized biofuel-related traits and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering this, many studies have been carried out to generate genetic and genomic resources for sweet sorghum. In this review, we discuss various attributes of sweet sorghum that make it an ideal candidate for biofuel feedstock, and provide an overview of genetic diversity, tools, and resources available for engineering and/or marker-assisting breeding of sweet sorghum. Finally, the progress made so far, in identification of genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) important for agronomic traits and ongoing molecular breeding efforts to generate improved varieties, has been discussed.

  6. Whitefly transmission of the Sweet potato leaf curl virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is highly adaptive and polyphagous on taxonomically diverse species of plants on a global scale. This whitefly transmits numerous plant viruses, including Begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). We recently found the Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus (SPLCV) ...

  7. Sweet and Sour Preferences During Childhood: Role of Early Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early experience on sweet and sour preferences in children. Eighty-three children were divided into four groups based on the type of formula fed during infancy and age. By using a forced-choice, sip-and-swallow procedure, we determined the level of sweetness and sourness preferred in juice. Children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas, which have a distinctive sour and bitter taste and unpleasant odor, preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice when compared to older children who were fed similar formulas. No such difference was observed between the groups for sweet preference. However, the level of sweetness preferred in juice was related to the sugar content of the child's favorite cereal and whether the mother routinely added sugar to their foods. These data illustrate the wide variety of experiential factors that can influence flavor preferences during childhood. PMID:12430162

  8. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

  9. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

  10. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  11. The Sweet Pee Model for Sglt2 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Joseph P.; Onay, Tuncer; Sison, Karen; Sivaskandarajah, Gavasker; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Li, Lingli; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Flenniken, Ann; Paragas, Neal; Barasch, Jon M.; Adamson, S. Lee; Osborne, Lucy; Rossant, Janet; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    Inhibiting renal glucose transport is a potential pharmacologic approach to treat diabetes. The renal tubular sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) reabsorbs approximately 90% of the filtered glucose load. An animal model with sglt2 dysfunction could provide information regarding the potential long-term safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors, which are currently under clinical investigation. Here, we describe Sweet Pee, a mouse model that carries a nonsense mutation in the Slc5a2 gene, which results in the loss of sglt2 protein function. The phenotype of Sweet Pee mutants was remarkably similar to patients with mutations in the Scl5a2 gene. The Sweet Pee mutants had improved glucose tolerance, higher urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium, and growth retardation. Renal physiologic studies demonstrated a prominent distal osmotic diuresis without enhanced natriuresis. Sweet Pee mutants did not exhibit increased KIM-1 or NGAL, markers of acute tubular injury. After induction of diabetes, Sweet Pee mice had better overall glycemic control than wild-type control mice, but had a higher risk for infection and an increased mortality rate (70% in homozygous mutants versus 10% in controls at 20 weeks). In summary, the Sweet Pee model allows study of the long-term benefits and risks associated with inhibition of SGLT2 for the management of diabetes. Our model suggests that inhibiting SGLT2 may improve glucose control but may confer increased risks for infection, malnutrition, volume contraction, and mortality. PMID:21209254

  12. The Sweet Pee model for Sglt2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ly, Joseph P; Onay, Tuncer; Sison, Karen; Sivaskandarajah, Gavasker; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Li, Lingli; Bonventre, Joseph V; Flenniken, Ann; Paragas, Neal; Barasch, Jon M; Adamson, S Lee; Osborne, Lucy; Rossant, Janet; Schnermann, Jurgen; Quaggin, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    Inhibiting renal glucose transport is a potential pharmacologic approach to treat diabetes. The renal tubular sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) reabsorbs approximately 90% of the filtered glucose load. An animal model with sglt2 dysfunction could provide information regarding the potential long-term safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors, which are currently under clinical investigation. Here, we describe Sweet Pee, a mouse model that carries a nonsense mutation in the Slc5a2 gene, which results in the loss of sglt2 protein function. The phenotype of Sweet Pee mutants was remarkably similar to patients with mutations in the Scl5a2 gene. The Sweet Pee mutants had improved glucose tolerance, higher urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium, and growth retardation. Renal physiologic studies demonstrated a prominent distal osmotic diuresis without enhanced natriuresis. Sweet Pee mutants did not exhibit increased KIM-1 or NGAL, markers of acute tubular injury. After induction of diabetes, Sweet Pee mice had better overall glycemic control than wild-type control mice, but had a higher risk for infection and an increased mortality rate (70% in homozygous mutants versus 10% in controls at 20 weeks). In summary, the Sweet Pee model allows study of the long-term benefits and risks associated with inhibition of SGLT2 for the management of diabetes. Our model suggests that inhibiting SGLT2 may improve glucose control but may confer increased risks for infection, malnutrition, volume contraction, and mortality.

  13. Determinants of sweetness in proteins: a topological approach.

    PubMed

    Temussi, Piero Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste in mammals is accounted for by a single receptor that shares homology with a metabotropic glutamate receptor. Most sweeteners are small molecular weight molecules that interact with small cavities in the so-called Venus Flytrap domains of the sweet receptor. The mechanism of action of larger molecules such as sweet proteins is, however, more difficult to interpret. The first and still the only general mechanism proposed for the action of sweet proteins, the "wedge model," hypothesizes that proteins bind to an external binding site of the active conformation of the sweet receptor. Here, I have extended the concept that inspired the wedge model using a combination of structural analysis, bioinformatics tools, and a relatively large dataset of mutations of the two most extensively studied sweet proteins, monellin and brazzein. I show here that it is possible to single out, among the ensemble yielded by low-resolution docking, a unique complex that satisfies simple topological constraints. These models of the complexes of monellin and brazzein are fully consistent with experimental evidence, thus providing predicting power for further validation of the wedge model. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Acral manifestations of Sweet syndrome (neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands).

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Tüzün, Yalçın

    Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hand (NDH) is a rare localized variant of the syndrome, originally described two decades ago by Strutton et al. The lesions of NDH and Sweet syndrome are similar, as indicated in the first report of NDH. Both diagnoses are characterized by an acute onset of fever, leukocytosis, and tender, erythematous infiltrated plaques. There are also bullae and ulceration in NDH, in contrast to Sweet syndrome, in which bullae are quite uncommon, especially at the early stages. Similar to Sweet syndrome, the majority of NDH patients are women (69%). Patients with NDH present with fever, peripheral neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and/or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level, but at a significantly lower rate than those in Sweet syndrome (33%). Similar to Sweet syndrome, NDH has been associated with the following conditions: Malignancies (particularly hematological [21%], most common of which is acute myelogenous leukemia, but many other malignancies as well), inflammatory bowel disease (19%), medication and vaccination-related eruptions, bacterial and viral infections, rheumatologic diseases, and others. The clues to the diagnosis of NDH are the same as for Sweet syndrome. Awareness of this diagnosis is important not only to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical therapy and to expediently initiate the administration of steroids for this highly responsive dermatosis, but also to conduct an appropriate workup to exclude associated diseases, especially malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Clinical analysis of Sweet syndrome with myelodysplasia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y N; Zhuang, J L; Zhao, W L; Fang, K; Liu, Y H; Jin, H Z; Li, L

    2016-06-14

    To study the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic features of Sweet syndrome with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The clinical data of 3 patients with Sweet syndrome and MDS diagnosed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between October 1988 and November 2015 were reviewed. The laboratory test results, histopathological findings, and therapeutic regimens of these patients were analyzed retrospectively. The three cases were 29, 49 and 49 years old, respectively, including 2 females and 1 male. Two patients presented with Sweet syndrome before the onset of MDS, the other one patient developed Sweet syndrome and MDS simultaneously. The rash of all of these patients manifested as red painful papules in face, trunk and limbs, as well as edematous plaques and nodules. Histopathological examination of skin confirmed the diagnosis of Sweet syndrome. Complete blood count showed cytopenia of at least one lineage. Bone marrow cytology showed dysplasia of hematopoietic cells with abnormal high proportion of myeloblasts. Bone marrow pathology results were normal in 2 patients, while hypoplasia of hematopoietic tissue with excess adipose tissue was found in 1 patient. All the patients were treated with corticosteroid or immunosuppressants and skin lesions alleviated. But relapse was common in process of corticosteroid reduction. Sweet syndrome may be a precursor of MDS. The clinical manifestations, histopathological and hematological findings of these rare cases are characteristic. Corticosteroid indicates short-term response. The patients who had recurrent skin lesions should be further examined to exclude MDS.

  16. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    PubMed

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde.

  17. The SWEET family of sugar transporters in grapevine: VvSWEET4 is involved in the interaction with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Chong, Julie; Piron, Marie-Christine; Meyer, Sophie; Merdinoglu, Didier; Bertsch, Christophe; Mestre, Pere

    2014-12-01

    During plant development, sugar export is determinant in multiple processes such as nectar production, pollen development and long-distance sucrose transport. The plant SWEET family of sugar transporters is a recently identified protein family of sugar uniporters. In rice, SWEET transporters are the target of extracellular bacteria, which have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to modify their expression and acquire sugars to sustain their growth. Here we report the characterization of the SWEET family of sugar transporters in Vitis vinifera. We identified 17 SWEET genes in the V. vinifera 40024 genome and show that they are differentially expressed in vegetative and reproductive organs. Inoculation with the biotrophic pathogens Erysiphe necator and Plasmopara viticola did not result in significant induction of VvSWEET gene expression. However, infection with the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea triggered a strong up-regulation of VvSWEET4 expression. Further characterization of VvSWEET4 revealed that it is a glucose transporter localized in the plasma membrane that is up-regulated by inducers of reactive oxygen species and virulence factors from necrotizing pathogens. Finally, Arabidopsis knockout mutants in the orthologous AtSWEET4 were found to be less susceptible to B. cinerea. We propose that stimulation of expression of a developmentally regulated glucose uniporter by reactive oxygen species production and extensive cell death after necrotrophic fungal infection could facilitate sugar acquisition from plant cells by the pathogen. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  19. Family nurse practitioners: "value add" in outpatient chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    Nurse practitioners are capable leaders in primary care design as practices nationwide move to consider and adopt the patient-centered medical home. The chronic care model provides a structure to enhance the care of chronic illness. Nurse practitioners are instrumental in many areas of this model as both leaders and caregivers. Safety and quality are basic medical home goals; nurse practitioners enhance both. The addition of a nurse practitioner to a practice is an effective "value add" in every way.

  20. Higher Curvature Effects in the ADD and RS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    Over the last few years several extra-dimensional models have been introduced in attempt to deal with the hierarchy problem. These models can lead to rather unique and spectacular signatures at Terascale colliders such as the LHC and ILC. The ADD and RS models, though quite distinct, have many common feature including a constant curvature bulk, localized Standard Model(SM) fields and the assumption of the validity of the EH action as a description of gravitational interactions.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-05-19

    Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors' efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups--plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen the course of psychosis. Better designed

  2. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  3. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-10

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  4. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  5. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  6. Interactions of the sweet-tasting proteins thaumatin and lysozyme with the human sweet-taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Ide, Nobuyuki; Sato, Eriko; Ohta, Keisuke; Masuda, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2009-07-08

    This study investigated the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin and lysozyme by both an in vitro cell-based assay and an in vivo sensory analysis to elucidate the differences between in vitro and in vivo response profiles. Hek293 cells were constructed that stably expressed the human T1R2+T1R3 sweet-taste receptor, and their responses to thaumatin and lysozyme were analyzed by monitoring the levels of intracellular cAMP. The results indicated that thaumatin and lysozyme as well as aspartame induced a decrease in the intracellular cAMP accumulation of the T1R2+T1R3-transfected cells and that EC(50) values of thaumatin and lysozyme determined by cell-based assay are well-consistent with the results of the sweetness threshold value determined by sensory analysis in the presence of 140 mM NaCl. The results of both in vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that the sweetness inhibitor lactisole significantly suppressed the sweetness of thaumatin and lysozyme.

  7. [Role of the sweet taste receptor in glucose metabolism: no sweets for diabetes?].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Kawahara, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is closely associated with our daily diets and has become a global health problem with increasing number of patients. Maintaining energy homeostasis is essentially required for the treatment of diabetes. Energy metabolism starts with taking in a meal. Nutrients including amino acids, fatty acids and glucose in the digest have been shown to act on the neuroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and thereby play important roles in energy homeostasis. Therefore, the GI tract is now recognized as a sensor system for nutrient signals. Taste receptor type 1 member 2 (T1R2) is known to function as a co-receptor with T1R3 to detect sweet chemicals in the taste buds. It has been proposed that the T1R2/T1R3 receptor complex acts as sweet sensor in the intestine, and plays a pivotal role in sensing sugars and maintaining glucose homeostasis through incretin secretion. To clarify the physiological roles of T1R2 in glucose homeostasis, T1r2-lacZ knock-in/knock-out mice were generated. We found lacZ gene expression in the GI tract where T1r3 expression has been reported. Interestingly, the T1r2-lacZ knock-in mice showed impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose challenge but not on intraperitoneal injection. However, the fasting glucose level in T1r2-lacZ knock-in mice was comparable to that in wild type mice. These results suggest an important role of the sweet taste receptor system in the intestine when stimulated by glucose. Therefore, the roles of T1R2 will be presented and the mechanism for metabolic homeostasis will be discussed.

  8. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-10-04

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity.

  9. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  10. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  11. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  13. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons... formula expenses (add-ons). In addition to calculating operating subsidy based on the PEL and UEL, a PHA's eligible formula expenses shall be increased by add-ons. The allowed add-ons are: (a) Self-sufficiency....

  14. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons... formula expenses (add-ons). In addition to calculating operating subsidy based on the PEL and UEL, a PHA's eligible formula expenses shall be increased by add-ons. The allowed add-ons are: (a) Self-sufficiency....

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers). Progress report, June 1984-August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The following tests are reported: with eggs, with larvae in sweet potato roots, with larvae in sweet potato slices, with pupae in sweet potato roots, with adults, and sterility studies. Data are presented. (MHR)

  16. Two light, sweet Indonesian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-10-31

    Two crudes from Southeast Asia have been assayed. Belida, from the South Natuna Sea, is a light, sweet crude, with an API gravity of 45.1 [degree] and almost no sulfur (0.02 wt %). Hydra, from the Zone of Cooperation between Indonesia and Australia in the Timor Sea, has a gravity of 37.5 API and a sulfur content of 0.08 wt%. Belida operator Conoco Indonesia Ltd. began phase-two oil flow from a directional development well last October. Production from the field was 84,665 b/d on Oct. 21, 1993, and was expected to reach 90,000 b/d by the end of that month. The operator expected a peak of 100,00 b/d some time this year. The second crude, Hydra, is from the first well drilled in the Zone of Cooperation between Indonesia and Australia. Marathon Oil Co. spudded the first Hydra well in block ZOCA 9-11 in late 1992. As of early last year, five operating groups were expected to drill seven wells in second-half 1993. And a total of 26 wells has been committed for the Zone of Cooperation between 1995 and 1997, making the area a hotbed of exploration. Although the Journal has acquired no additional information on the Hydra program since that time, the assay may provided an idea of the quality of the crudes from that area.

  17. Microbial products from sweet potato wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial production of methane from alkaline sweet potato wastes was studied. Assessment of methane production potential was based on total COD of the wastes. A single-stage and a two-stage system were studied. In both systems, to ensure stable operation and high performance, methane fermenters had to be initially seeded with large quantities of methane formers. A 50% inoculum (based on total fermenter volume) was found to be most effective. Methane formers tended to aggregate to form spherical particles which had extremely high settling rates, this eliminated the requirement of cell recycle. In both single-stage and two-stage systems the rates of gas production was sufficiently fast to induce thorough mixing of the fermenter contents. At low residence times of two and four days the two-stage system achieved significantly higher conversions. Gas production started almost immediately after feeding the methane fermenter of the two-stage system. The conversions in the methane fermenter of a two-stage system could be predicted by a model based on Contois' kinetics. The composition of the gas produced in this fermenter could also be predicted from the distribution of the organic acids in the effluent from the acid fermenter. The acid formation stage was studied in a chemostat operated at a fixed residence time of 5.5 hours. The highest yield of 0.09 g protein/g glucose consumed was obtained at pH 5.5 and 37/sup 0/C.

  18. Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato

    SciTech Connect

    Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

  19. Pyrolytic characteristics of sweet potato vine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tipeng; Dong, Xiaochen; Jin, Zaixing; Su, Wenjing; Ye, Xiaoning; Dong, Changqing; Lu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    To utilized biomass for optimum application, sweet potato vine (SPV) was studied on its pyrolytic characteristics by TGA and Py-GC/MS analysis as a representative of biomass with low lignin content and high extractives content. Results indicated that lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives contents were 7.85 wt.%, 33.01 wt.%, 12.25 wt.% and 37.12 wt.%, respectively. In bio-oil, sugars content firstly increased from 8.76 wt.% (350 °C) to 13.97 wt.% (400 °C) and then decreased to 9.19 wt.% (500 °C); linear carbonyls and linear acids contents decreased from 16.58 wt.% and 17.45 wt.% to 5.26 wt.% and 4.03 wt.%, respectively; furans content increased from 7.10 wt.% to 15.47 wt.%. The content 11.86 wt.% of levoglucose at 400 °C, 15.41 wt.% of acetic acid at 350 °C and 6.94 wt.% of furfural at 500 °C suggested good pyrolysis selectivity of SPV.

  20. Reciprocal modulation of sweet taste by leptin and endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2010-01-01

    Sweet taste perception is important for animals to detect carbohydrate source of calories and has a critical role in the nutritional status of animals. Recent studies demonstrated that sweet taste responses can be modulated by leptin and endocannabinoids [anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol]. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor, Ob-Rb. Leptin is shown to selectively suppress sweet taste responses in wild-type mice but not in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. In marked contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via CB(1) receptors in hypothalamus and limbic forebrain to induce appetite and stimulate food intake. In the peripheral taste system, endocannabinoids also oppose the action of leptin and enhance sweet taste sensitivities in wild-type mice but not in mice genetically lacking CB(1) receptors. These findings indicate that leptin and endocannabinoids not only regulate food intake via central nervous systems but also may modulate palatability of foods by altering peripheral sweet taste responses via their cognate receptors.

  1. Integration of Sweet Taste and Metabolism Determines Carbohydrate Reward.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Maria Geraldine; Babbs, Richard Keith; Patel, Barkha; Fobbs, Wambura; Kroemer, Nils B; Garcia, Elizabeth; Yeomans, Martin R; Small, Dana M

    2017-08-21

    Post-ingestive signals related to nutrient metabolism are thought to be the primary drivers of reinforcement potency of energy sources. Here, in a series of neuroimaging and indirect calorimetry human studies, we examine the relative roles of caloric load and perceived sweetness in driving metabolic, perceptual, and brain responses to sugared beverages. Whereas caloric load was manipulated using the tasteless carbohydrate maltodextrin, sweetness levels were manipulated using the non-nutritive sweetener sucralose. By formulating beverages that contain different amounts of maltodextrin+sucralose, we demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load, metabolic response, and reinforcement potency, which is driven in part by the extent to which sweetness is proportional to caloric load. In particular, we show that (1) lower-calorie beverages can produce greater metabolic response and condition greater brain response and liking than higher-calorie beverages and (2) when sweetness is proportional to caloric load, greater metabolic responses are observed. These results demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load and reward and describe an unanticipated role for sweet taste in regulating carbohydrate metabolism, revealing a novel mechanism by which sugar-sweetened beverages influence physiological responses to carbohydrate ingestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SWEET sugar transporters for phloem transport and pathogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Qing

    2014-03-01

    Many intercellular solute transport processes require an apoplasmic step, that is, efflux from one cell and subsequent uptake by an adjacent cell. Cellular uptake transporters have been identified for many solutes, including sucrose; however, efflux transporters have remained elusive for a long time. Cellular efflux of sugars plays essential roles in many processes, such as sugar efflux as the first step in phloem loading, sugar efflux for nectar secretion, and sugar efflux for supplying symbionts such as mycorrhiza, and maternal efflux for filial tissue development. Furthermore, sugar efflux systems can be hijacked by pathogens for access to nutrition from hosts. Mutations that block recruitment of the efflux mechanism by the pathogen thus cause pathogen resistance. Until recently, little was known regarding the underlying mechanism of sugar efflux. The identification of sugar efflux carriers, SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters), has shed light on cellular sugar efflux. SWEETs appear to function as uniporters, facilitating diffusion of sugars across cell membranes. Indeed, SWEETs probably mediate sucrose efflux from putative phloem parenchyma into the phloem apoplasm, a key step proceeding phloem loading. Engineering of SWEET mutants using transcriptional activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-based genomic editing allowed the engineering of pathogen resistance. The widespread expression of the SWEET family promises to provide insights into many other cellular efflux mechanisms.

  3. Expecting yoghurt drinks to taste sweet or pleasant increases liking.

    PubMed

    Kuenzel, Johanna; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; El Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle; Thomas, Anna

    2011-02-01

    This experiment studied the effect of cues on liking of yoghurt drinks. We examined how hedonic (degrees of like/dislike) and sensory (level of sweetness/saltiness) cues affected liking ratings. In the learning phase, thirty-nine participants learned to associate cues with yoghurt drinks. Cues were learned for mildly and highly salty and sweet yoghurts. Sweet yoghurts were used as liked, salty yoghurts as disliked stimuli. Half the participants associated the cues with yoghurt liking (i.e. hedonic cues), the other half with the sweetness or saltiness of the yoghurt drink (i.e. sensory cues). In the test phase a cue was presented to participants subliminally (20 ms) or supraliminally (500 ms) before they tasted and rated liking of one of three yoghurt drinks in each category. The three yoghurt drinks consisted of the trained samples and a new third drink situated approximately half-way in between. The cue-drink combination was either congruent (the cued drink was given) or incongruent (two degrees of incongruence). For sweet yoghurt drinks cue-following assimilation effects were found for the supraliminal but not the subliminal cue presentations. For salty yoghurts, no effects of cue were found. This indicates that the nature of the drinks itself plays a critical role in modulating assimilation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of Highly Sweet Compounds from Natural Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Kennelly, Edward J.

    1995-08-01

    Sucrose, the most widely used sweetener globally, is of plant origin. In addition, a number of other plant constituents are employed as dietary sucrose substitutes in one or more countries, including the diterpenoid, stevioside, the triterpenoid, glycyrrhizin, and the protein, thaumatin. Accordingly, there has been much interest in discovering further examples of potently sweet compounds of natural origin, for potential use in foods, beverages, and medicines. Approximately 75 plant-derived compounds are presently known, mainly representative of the flavonoid, proanthocyandin, protein, steroidal saponin, and terpenoid chemotypes. In our program directed towards the elucidation of further highly sweet molecules from plants, candidate sweet-tasting plants for laboratory investigation are obtained from ethnobotanical observations in the field or in the existing literature. Examples of novel sweet-tasting compounds obtained so far are the sesquiterpenoids, hernandulcin and 4beta-hydroxyhemandulcin; the triterpenoids, abrusosides A-D; a semi-synthetic dihydroflavonol based on the naturally occurring substance, dihydroquercetin 3-acetate; and the proanthocyanidin, selligueain A. Natural product sweeteners may be of potential commercial use per se, and can be used for synthetic modification to produce improved sweeteners, and can also be of value scientifically to aid in the better understanding of structure-sweetness relationships.

  5. Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Esteban; Ares, Gastón; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Varela, Pablo; Bologna, Franco; Lado, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Richard P J; Booth, David A

    2010-08-01

    We present the first experiment that was based on a novel analysis of the mental processes of choice. Sensed material characteristics such as the sweetness of a drink and symbolic attributes such as the source of sweetness stated on the label are put into the same units of influence on the response. Most users of low-calorie drinks thought about the energy in a drink quite differently from the way they decided how sweet and how low in calories they liked the drink to be. Also the female diet drink users thought about energy content differently from most of the male users of sugar drinks. In both groups' ratings of likelihood of choice and in sugar drink users' estimates of energy content, sweetness and labelled calories were usually treated as separate stimuli or ideas. In contrast, some female diet drink users treated sweetness and perceived calories as the same, whereas no male sugar drink user did. Such findings illustrate how this approach spans the gap between sensory perception and conceptualised knowledge.

  7. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  8. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse.

  9. Astronomical imaging by filtered weighted-shift-and-add technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez

    1986-01-01

    The weighted-shift-and-add speckle imaging technique is analyzed using simple assumptions. The end product is shown to be a convolution of the object with a typical point-spread function (psf) that is similar in shape to the telescope psf and depends marginally on the speckle psf. A filter can be applied to each data frame before locating the maxima, either to identify the speckle locations (matched filter) or to estimate the instantaneous atmospheric psf (Wiener filter). Preliminary results show the power of the technique when applied to photon-limited data and to extended objects.

  10. Add/Compare/Select Circuit For Rapid Decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Becker, Neal D.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype decoding system operates at 200 Mb/s. ACS (add/compare/select) gate array is highly integrated emitter-coupled-logic circuit implementing arithmetic operations essential to Viterbi decoding of convolutionally encoded data signals. Principal advantage of circuit is speed. Operates as single unit performing eight additions and finds minimum of eight sums, or operates as two independent units, each performing four additions and finding minimum of four sums. Flexibility enables application to variety of different codes. Includes built-in self-testing circuitry, enabling unit to be tested at full speed with help of only simple test fixture.

  11. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Processor. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in canning or freezing processing sweet corn for human... green outer envelope. Usable tons. The quantity of sweet corn for which the producer is compensated...

  12. Structural basis for the facilitative diffusion mechanism by SemiSWEET transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongchan; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Keitaro; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    SWEET family proteins mediate sugar transport across biological membranes and play crucial roles in plants and animals. The SWEETs and their bacterial homologues, the SemiSWEETs, are related to the PQ-loop family, which is characterized by highly conserved proline and glutamine residues (PQ-loop motif). Although the structures of the bacterial SemiSWEETs were recently reported, the conformational transition and the significance of the conserved motif in the transport cycle have remained elusive. Here we report crystal structures of SemiSWEET from Escherichia coli, in the both inward-open and outward-open states. A structural comparison revealed that SemiSWEET undergoes an intramolecular conformational change in each protomer. The conserved PQ-loop motif serves as a molecular hinge that enables the ‘binder clip-like’ motion of SemiSWEET. The present work provides the framework for understanding the overall transport cycles of SWEET and PQ-loop family proteins.

  13. Sweet Potato Peels and Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Oluyori, Abimbola Peter; Shaw, Arun Kumar; Olatunji, Gabriel Ademola; Rastogi, Preeti; Meena, Sanjeev; Datta, Dipak; Arora, Ashish; Reddy, Sammajay; Puli, Saidha

    2016-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of an alcoholic extract from the peels of Ipomoea batatas Lam has been carried out. Sulforhodamine B and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the anticancer and antioxidant potential, respectively, while silica gel column chromatography (CC) was used to isolate compounds that were characterized using 1D- and 2D-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and mass spectrometry. The alcoholic extract was fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. The n-hexane fraction which showed the most promising anticancer activity was further fractionated via silica gel CC into IB-F002A, IB-F002B, and IB-F002C. Of these, IB-F002C was the most active with IC50 values 24.75, 47.91, 52.37, 34.17, 46.07, and 25.89 μg/ml against breast, colon-1, colon-2, ovary, lung, and head/neck cancer cell lines, respectively. The bioassay-guided isolation from IB-F002C afforded a glucocerebroside, which showed 10.51%, 12.19%, 16.14%, and 34.05% inhibition of head and neck, breast-1, colon-1, and ovarian cancer cell lines, respectively. Octadecyl coumarate, 7-hydroxycoumarin, and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin that showed different antioxidant potentials were also identified in this study. Sweet potato peel, which is usually discarded as waste, contains constituents that can serve as dietary components to prevent the development of different types of cancer.

  14. Multiple mutations of the critical amino acid residues for the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, brazzein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Won; Cha, Ji-Eun; Jo, Hyun-Joo; Kong, Kwang-Hoon

    2013-06-01

    We have previously identified critical residues important for sweetness of the sweet protein brazzein by site-directed mutagenesis (Yoon, Kong, Jo, & Kong, 2011). In order to elucidate the interaction mechanisms of brazzein with the sweet taste receptor, we made multiple mutations of three residues (His31 in loop 30-33, Glu36 in β-strand III, and Glu41 in loop 40-43). We found that all double mutations (H31R/E36D, H31R/E41A and E36D/E41A) made the molecules sweeter than des-pE1M-brazzein and three single mutants. Moreover, the triple mutation (H31R/E36D/E41A) made the molecule significantly sweeter than three double mutants. These results strongly support the hypothesis that brazzein binds to the multisite surface of the sweet taste receptor. Our findings also suggest that mutations reducing the overall negative charge and/or increasing the positive charge favour sweet-tasting protein potency.

  15. Does Chiropractic ‘Add Years to Life’?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    2004-01-01

    The chiropractic cliché “Chiropractic Adds Life to Years and Years to Life” was examined for validity. It was assumed that chiropractors themselves would be the best informed about the health benefits of chiropractic care. Chiropractors would therefore be most likely to receive some level of chiropractic care, and do so on a long-term basis. If chiropractic care significantly improves general health then chiropractors themselves should demonstrate longer life spans than the general population. Two separate data sources were used to examine chiropractic mortality rates. One source used obituary notices from past issues of Dynamic Chiropractic from 1990 to mid-2003. The second source used biographies from Who Was Who in Chiropractic – A Necrology covering a ten year period from 1969–1979. The two sources yielded a mean age at death for chiropractors of 73.4 and 74.2 years respectively. The mean ages at death of chiropractors is below the national average of 76.9 years and is below their medical doctor counterparts of 81.5. This review of mortality date found no evidence to support the claim that chiropractic care “Adds Years to Life.” PMID:17549121

  16. Sweet proteins--potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-02-09

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  17. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  18. The twisted relation between Pnu and SWEET transporters.

    PubMed

    Jaehme, Michael; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary relation between sugar and vitamin transporters from the SWEET and Pnu families is unclear. They have similar 3D structures, but differ in the topology of their secondary structure elements, and lack significant sequence similarity. Here we analyze the structures and sequences of different members of the SWEET and Pnu transporter families and propose an evolutionary pathway by which they may have diverged from a common ancestor. A 3D domain swapping event can explain the topological differences between the families, as well as the puzzling observation that a highly conserved and essential sequence motif of the SWEET family (the PQ loop) is absent from the Pnu transporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral, post-oral and genetic interactions in sweet appetite.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2006-11-30

    Inbred mouse strains differ in their preferences for sweeteners, due in part to variations in their T1R3 sweet taste receptor. Recent studies of sweet sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) and subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice indicate that experiential and post-oral effects of sugar substantially modify sweetener preference. In fact, the strain difference in sucrose preference disappeared after the mice were given 23 h/day tests with sucrose at ascending concentrations (0.5-32%). Intragastric infusions of sucrose (16%) also conditioned increased preference for and absolute intake of flavored sweet solutions in B6 and 129 mice. An operant analysis of sweetener appetite revealed, unexpectedly, that sugar-experienced 129 mice respond more vigorously than B6 mice for 16% sucrose rewards. These findings indicate that experiential and nutritional factors can, to some degree, override genetic differences in peripheral taste sensitivity in determining food appetite.

  20. Preservation of chopped sweet sorghum using sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhoff, S.R.; Bender, D.A.; Okos, M.R.; Peart, R.M.

    1983-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an attractive feedstock for fermentation but its sugars degrade quickly after harvest. The effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage and temperature on the storability of chopped Rio sweet sorghum was studied. Four SO/sub 2/ dosage levels (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% w.b.) and five storage temperatures (-16, 2, 12, 22 and 32/sup 0/C) were investigated. The samples were stored in constant temperature incubators for three months. Fermentable sugars, sample pH and initial and final SO/sub 2/ levels were determined. All three non-zero levels of SO/sub 2/ adequately preserved the chopped sweet sorghum with no significant decrease in the total fermentable sugars.

  1. Oral, Post-Oral and Genetic Interactions in Sweet Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains differ in their preferences for sweeteners, due in part to variations in their T1R3 sweet taste receptor. Recent studies of sweet sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) and subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice indicate that experiential and post-oral effects of sugar substantially modify sweetener preference. In fact, the strain difference in sucrose preference disappeared after the mice were given 23 h/day tests with sucrose at ascending concentrations (0.5 - 32%). Intragastric infusions of sucrose (16%) also conditioned increased preference for and absolute intake of flavored sweet solutions in B6 and 129 mice. An operant analysis of sweetener appetite revealed, unexpectedly, that sugar-experienced 129 mice respond more vigorously than B6 mice for 16% sucrose rewards. These findings indicate that experiential and nutritional factors can, to some degree, override genetic differences in peripheral taste sensitivity in determining food appetite. PMID:16647093

  2. Type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Francielle Chiavelli; Daxbacher, Egon Luiz Rodrigues; Neumann, Antonielle Borges Faria; Jeunon, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease characterized by manifestations in the peripheral nerves and skin. The course of the disease may be interrupted by acute phenomena called reactions. This article reports a peculiar case of type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like features as the first clinical manifestation of leprosy, resulting in a delay in the diagnosis due to unusual clinical presentation. The patient had clinical and histopathological features reminiscent of Sweet's syndrome associated with clusters of vacuolated histiocytes containing acid-fast bacilli isolated or forming globi. Herein, it is discussed how to recognize type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome features, the differential diagnosis with type 1 leprosy reaction and the treatment options. When this kind of reaction is the first clinical presentation of leprosy, the correct diagnosis might be not suspected clinically, and established only with histopathologic evaluation. PMID:27438203

  3. Sweet's syndrome: a very rare association with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Partha Sarathi; Sherpa, Pasang Lahmu; Ray, Achintya Narayan; Saha, Bikram Kr; Santra, Tuhin; Saha, Sanchita; Chakrabarti, Indranil

    2013-05-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a common infection in developing countries, including India. It can induce several cutaneous reactions such as erythema nodosum, and erythema induratum; however, association of tuberculosis with Sweet's syndrome (also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is extremely rare. Here we present an interesting case of sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis with Sweet's syndrome. A 55-year-old female who was receiving a regimen of four antitubercular drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol- HRZE) for six weeks for sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis developed new onset high-grade fever for 15 days along with multiple reddish brown plaques and nodules involving the face as well as all four limbs of the body. Histopathology of the skin lesion was suggestive of Sweet's syndrome. The patient responded well to immunosuppressive steroid therapy.

  4. Losigamone add-on therapy for partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yousheng; Luo, Man; Wang, Jin; Luo, Hongye

    2012-06-13

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide; nearly a third of these people are not well controlled by a single antiepileptic drug and usually require treatment with a combination of two or more antiepileptic drugs. In recent years, many newer antiepileptic drugs have been investigated as add-on therapy for partial epilepsy; losigamone is one of these drugs and is the focus of this systematic review. To investigate the efficacy and safety of losigamone when used as an add-on therapy for partial epilepsy. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (1 May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4 of 12, The Cochrane Library, 2012) and MEDLINE (1 May 2012). We searched trials registers and contacted the manufacturer of losigamone and authors of included studies for additional information. There were no language restrictions. Randomized controlled add-on trials comparing losigamone with placebo for partial epilepsy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcomes were 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency and seizure freedom; the secondary outcomes were treatment withdrawal and adverse events. Results are presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or 99% CIs (for the individual listed adverse events to make an allowance for multiple testing). Two trials involving a total of 467 patients were eligible for inclusion. Both trials assessed losigamone 1200 or 1500 mg/d as an add-on therapy for partial epilepsy. One trial was assessed as being of good methodologic quality while the other was of uncertain quality. For the efficacy outcomes, results did show patients taking losigamone were significantly more likely to achieve a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency (RR 1.75; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.72), but associated with a significant increase of treatment withdrawal when compared with those

  5. Losigamone add-on therapy for partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yousheng; Luo, Man; Wang, Jin; Luo, Hongye

    2015-12-10

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide; nearly a third of these people are not well controlled by a single antiepileptic drug (AED) and usually require treatment with a combination of two or more AEDs. In recent years, many newer AEDs have been investigated as add-on therapy for partial epilepsy; losigamone is one of these drugs and is the focus of this systematic review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2012 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6). To investigate the efficacy and safety of losigamone when used as an add-on therapy for partial epilepsy. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (16 February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 16 February 2015) and MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 16 February 2015). We searched trials registers and contacted the manufacturer of losigamone and authors of included studies for additional information. We did not impose any language restrictions. Randomized controlled, add-on trials comparing losigamone with placebo for partial epilepsy. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcomes were 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency and seizure freedom; the secondary outcomes were treatment withdrawal and adverse events. Results are presented as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or 99% CIs (for the individual listed adverse events to make an allowance for multiple testing). Two trials involving a total of 467 patients, aged over 18 years, were eligible for inclusion. Both trials assessed losigamone 1200 mg/day or 1500 mg/day as an add-on therapy for partial epilepsy. One trial was assessed as being of good methodological quality while the other was of uncertain quality. For the efficacy outcomes, results did show patients taking losigamone were significantly more likely to achieve a 50% or

  6. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue-Almqvist, Jesusa; Jin, Xuelin; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  11. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating...) Chocolate liquor; (3) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats, oils, and stearins other than cacao fat....

  12. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... specified dairy ingredient. (b) Optional ingredients. (1) Safe and suitable vegetable derived fats,...

  13. Impact of added nutrients in sweet sorghum syrup fermentation to produce ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work demonstrated that sweet sorghum syrup was efficiently converted to ethanol by yeast. Fermentation broth with sweet sorghum syrup performed better (at least faster) than with only pure sugars due to the pH-buffering effect of sweet sorghum syrup solutions. Sugar solutions containing up to 2...

  14. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.129 Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008...

  15. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This progress report covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest; effects of ..gamma.. radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates). Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses. (DLC)

  16. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The effects of (GAMMA) radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates) are discussed. Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses.

  17. Riboflavin-binding protein exhibits selective sweet suppression toward protein sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, Kenji; Matano, Mami; Kondo, Azusa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Udaka, Shigezo

    2007-02-01

    Riboflavin-binding protein (RBP) is well known as a riboflavin carrier protein in chicken egg and serum. A novel function of RBP was found as a sweet-suppressing protein. RBP, purified from hen egg white, suppressed the sweetness of protein sweeteners such as thaumatin, monellin, and lysozyme, whereas it did not suppress the sweetness of low molecular weight sweeteners such as sucrose, glycine, D-phenylalanine, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and stevioside. Therefore, the sweet-suppressing activity of RBP was apparently selective to protein sweeteners. The sweet suppression by RBP was independent of binding of riboflavin with its molecule. Yolk RBP, with minor structural differences compared with egg white RBP, also elicited a weaker sweet suppression. However, other commercially available proteins including ovalbumin, ovomucoid, beta-lactogloblin, myoglobin, and albumin did not substantially alter the sweetness of protein sweeteners. Because a prerinse with RBP reduced the subsequent sweetness of protein sweeteners, whereas the enzymatic activity of lysozyme and the elution profile of lysozyme on gel permeation chromatography were not affected by RBP, it is suggested that the sweet suppression is caused by an interaction of RBP with a sweet taste receptor rather than with the protein sweeteners themselves. The selectivity in the sweet suppression by RBP is consistent with the existence of multiple interaction sites within a single sweet taste receptor.

  18. 75 FR 46901 - Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and... sweet cherries imported from Australia into the United States. We are also adding to the treatment...-0140) a proposal\\2\\ to amend the regulations by adding new treatment schedules for sweet cherries and...

  19. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  20. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste.

    PubMed

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A S

    2017-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations. Each sweetener was prepared in solution neat and in mixture with either clofibric acid or lactisole. Clofibric acid inhibited sweetness of every sweetener. Consistent with competitive binding, inhibition by clofibric acid was diminished with increasing sweetener concentration. This study provides in vivo evidence that the lipid-lowering drug clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception and is, therefore, a T1R carbohydrate receptor inhibitor. Our results are consistent with previous in vitro findings. Given that T1R2-T1R3 may in part regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, future studies should investigate the metabolic effects of T1R inhibition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied.

  3. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  4. Sweet's syndrome with pulmonary involvement: Case report and literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Bussy, S.; Labarca, G.; Cabello, F.; Cabello, H.; Folch, E.; Majid, A.

    2012-01-01

    A 74 year old female presented with fever, associated with papules and plaque in her upper and lower extremities. Exams revealed blood leukocytosis and a positive urine culture. Antibiotic therapy was initiated with no clinical response. After 1 week, chest X-ray showed right upper lobe alveolar infiltrate. A skin biopsy of the lesion showed infiltration by neutrophils, consistent with Sweet's Syndrome. Patient's condition progressively worsened, requiring oxygentherapy. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were normal, transbronchial biopsies suggested lung involvement of Sweet 's syndrome. Antibiotic therapy was stopped. Corticosteroid were started. Therapy resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:26029596

  5. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, Donald C.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  6. Solution structure of the thermostable sweet-tasting protein brazzein.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J E; Abildgaard, F; Dzakula, Z; Ming, D; Hellekant, G; Markley, J L

    1998-06-01

    The fruit of Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon contains a small, sweet-tasting protein named brazzein. The structure of brazzein in solution was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at pH 5.2 and 22 degrees C. The brazzein fold, which contains one alpha-helix and three strands of antiparallel beta-sheet, does not resemble that of either of the other two sweet-tasting proteins with known structures, monellin and thaumatin. Instead, the structure of brazzein resembles those of plant gamma-thionins and defensins and arthropod toxins. Sequence comparisons predict that members of a newly-identified family of serine proteinase inhibitors share the brazzein fold.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of the sweet protein brazzein.

    PubMed

    Izawa, H; Ota, M; Kohmura, M; Ariyoshi, Y

    1996-07-01

    The sweet protein brazzein isolated from the fruit of the African plant, Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon is 2000-500 times sweeter than sucrose and consists of 54 amino acid residues with four intramolecular disulfide bonds. Brazzein was prepared by the fluoren-9-yl-methoxycarbonyl solid-phase method, and was identical to natural brazzein by high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy, peptide mapping, and taste evaluation. The D enantiomer of brazzein was also synthesized, and was shown to be the mirror image of brazzein. The D enantiomer (ent-brazzein) was devoid of any sweetness and was essentially tasteless.

  8. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    SciTech Connect

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-12-15

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  9. Hydrogen-bonding and the sweet taste mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathlouthi, M.; Portmann, M. O.

    1990-09-01

    The tripartite glucophores (AH-B,γ) of some natural (sugars) and artificial (Aspartame, Acesulfame, Saccharin, NHDHC and Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweeteners are proposed. These propositions are based on the molecular structure and infrared spectra of the studied molecules. The role of water in the sweet taste mechanism of small carbohydrates and artificial sweeteners was derived from the Raman spectra of their aqueous solutions. Comparison of the intensities and frequencies of the calculated components of the experimental Raman band of water on the one hand and of aqueous solutions of sweeteners on the other permitted interpretation of the role of water in the sweetness mechanism.

  10. [The psychophysics of sweet taste. 7. New determination of sweet taste parameters of acesulfame, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, glucose and sorbitol].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, K

    1995-01-01

    By means of a new method (double staircase) concentration pairs of equal intensity for the sweet compounds acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate-Na, saccharine-Na, dextrose and glucitol were determined with sucrose on 6 or 7 equidistant scaled levels, respectively, with 4 repetitions. The parameters maximal intensity Rm, the concentration coefficient b and the mean Rm/b, respectively, are calculated for each substance from the known parameters for sucrose using the exponential function R = Rm(1-e-bS/Rm), which describes the sweetness intensity R in dependence of the concentration S. For exact determination of the maximal intensity the upper concentration level was fixed at very high degree. Additionally, the relative sweetness of each concentration level of each substance is calculated. In all cases the exponential function is valid without limitation. The statistical parameters are homogenous and are laying within the applied staircase method. Systematical deviations could not be found.

  11. Monosodium glutamate and sweet taste: generalization of conditioned taste aversion between glutamate and sweet stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Heyer, B R; Taylor-Burds, C C; Tran, L H; Delay, E R

    2003-09-01

    Even though monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a prototypical umami substance, previous studies reported that a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to MSG, mixed with amiloride to block the taste of sodium, generalizes to sucrose. These findings suggest that the taste of glutamate mimics the taste of sucrose and raise the question of whether glutamate has a broadly tuned sweet taste component. To test this hypothesis, CTA experiments were conducted to test for generalization between MSG and several sweet stimuli: sucrose, glucose, maltose, saccharin and SC-45647. Strong bidirectional generalization was seen between MSG mixed with amiloride and sucrose, glucose, saccharin and SC-45647. Weak generalization was seen between MSG and maltose, and sucrose and maltose. None of the CTAs generalized to NMDA. These findings support the hypothesis that the taste of MSG has broadly tuned, sweet-like characteristics, possibly due to the convergence of afferent signals for MSG, natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

  12. SWEET17, a facilitative transporter, mediates fructose transport across the tonoplast of Arabidopsis roots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Woei-Jiun; Nagy, Reka; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Pfrunder, Stefanie; Yu, Ya-Chi; Santelia, Diana; Frommer, Wolf B; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Fructose (Fru) is a major storage form of sugars found in vacuoles, yet the molecular regulation of vacuolar Fru transport is poorly studied. Although SWEET17 (for SUGARS WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTERS17) has been characterized as a vacuolar Fru exporter in leaves, its expression in leaves is low. Here, RNA analysis and SWEET17-β-glucuronidase/-GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN fusions expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveal that SWEET17 is highly expressed in the cortex of roots and localizes to the tonoplast of root cells. Expression of SWEET17 in roots was inducible by Fru and darkness, treatments that activate accumulation and release of vacuolar Fru, respectively. Mutation and ectopic expression of SWEET17 led to increased and decreased root growth in the presence of Fru, respectively. Overexpression of SWEET17 specifically reduced the Fru content in leaves by 80% during cold stress. These results intimate that SWEET17 functions as a Fru-specific uniporter on the root tonoplast. Vacuoles overexpressing SWEET17 showed increased [14C]Fru uptake compared with the wild type. SWEET17-mediated Fru uptake was insensitive to ATP or treatment with NH4Cl or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, indicating that SWEET17 functions as an energy-independent facilitative carrier. The Arabidopsis genome contains a close paralog of SWEET17 in clade IV, SWEET16. The predominant expression of SWEET16 in root vacuoles and reduced root growth of mutants under Fru excess indicate that SWEET16 also functions as a vacuolar transporter in roots. We propose that in addition to a role in leaves, SWEET17 plays a key role in facilitating bidirectional Fru transport across the tonoplast of roots in response to metabolic demand to maintain cytosolic Fru homeostasis.

  13. Add-on gabapentin in the treatment of opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Raga, José; Sabater, Ana; Perez-Galvez, Bartolome; Castellano, Miguel; Cervera, Gaspar

    2004-05-01

    Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug shown to be effective in the treatment of pain disorders and appears to be useful as well for several psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal and cocaine dependence. Gabapentin, at a dose of 600 mg three times a day, was evaluated as an add-on medication to a standard detoxification regime in seven heroin dependent individuals undergoing outpatient opiate withdrawal treatment. All seven patients successfully completed opiate detoxification and commenced opiate antagonist treatment with naltrexone on day five of withdrawal treatment, as scheduled. No adverse event was noted. Gabapentin appeared to lead a reduction in symptomatic medication and an overall beneficial effect on symptoms of heroin withdrawal.

  14. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  15. Surface treatment and modification of metals to add biofunction.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Takao

    2017-09-26

    To add biocompatibility or biofunction to metal surface, an intelligent interface between metals and tissues must be acquired. Tremendous surface modification techniques are currently studied to create the intelligent interface. In particular, bone formation or bone bonding is major purpose of the surface modifications. Time transient of surface modification techniques are summarized and the importance of roughened or porous surface to combine materials with bone tissue is demonstrated. As an example of surface modification, electrodeposition of poly(ethylene glycol) to inhibit biofilm formation is introduced. A dual-functional surface is formed on titanium by micro arc oxidation. In addition, the effect of topography on the elongation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells was confirmed on the hybrid micrometer-level and nanometer-level grooves of titanium surface. Metal surface is possibly biofunctionalized by various surface modification techniques.

  16. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  17. Lamotrigine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Panebianco, Mariangela; Marson, Anthony G

    2016-06-22

    This is an updated version of the Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1.Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, affecting almost 0.5% to 1% of the population. For nearly 30% of these people, their epilepsy is refractory to currently available drugs. Pharmacological treatment remains the first choice to control epilepsy. Lamotrigine is one of the newer antiepileptic drugs and is the topic of this review. Lamotrigine in combination with other antiepileptic drugs (add-on) can reduce seizures, but with some adverse effects. The aim of this systematic review was to overview the current evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of lamotrigine when used as an adjunctive treatment for people with refractory partial epilepsy. To determine the effects of lamotrigine on (1) seizures, (2) adverse effect profile, and (3) cognition and quality of life, compared to placebo controls, when used as an add-on treatment for people with refractory partial epilepsy. For the previous version of the review, the authors searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (January 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2010), and reference lists of articles.For this update, we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (28 May 2015), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to May 2015), and reference lists of articles. We also contacted the manufacturers of lamotrigine (GlaxoSmithKline). No language restrictions were imposed. Randomised placebo-controlled trials of people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy of any age, in which an adequate method of concealment of randomisation was used. The studies were double-, single- or unblinded. For cross-over studies, the first treatment period was treated as a parallel trial. Eligible participants were adults or children with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. For this update, two

  18. Advances in functional use of sweet potato, [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sandra L; Sanders, Sheila A

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as Sweet potato chips and fries, Sweet potato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from Sweet potato. The majority of recent patents fall under the category of ornamental products and alternative food products, with only a few fuel ethanol products. Figure 1 shows the major categories of patented alternative products from Sweet potato.

  19. College Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD): Implications for Learning Assistance Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Shevawn; Wyland, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Examines the research and theory about attention deficit disorder (ADD) in college students and discusses how learning assistance professionals can better assist college students with ADD. Appended in this article are strategies for faculty/learning center professionals in accommodating students with ADD and a list of suggested readings. Contains…

  20. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee. For...

  1. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee. For...

  2. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units with add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and...

  3. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  4. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  5. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  6. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  7. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  8. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  9. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  10. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  11. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  12. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  13. The Development of Sweet Taste: From Biology to Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Bobowski, Nuala K.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2016-01-01

    From the age of two years, an American child is more likely to consume a sugar-sweetened product than a fruit or vegetable on any given day—a troubling statistic, given that food preferences are established early in childhood, as well as the strong association between this dietary pattern and increased risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. Here, we review the ontogeny and biopsychology of sweet taste, highlighting how a biological drive to prefer sweetness at high concentrations during childhood, which would have conferred an advantage in environments of scarcity, now predisposes children to overconsume all that is sweet in a modern food system replete with added sugars. We review the power of sweet taste to blunt expressions of pain and mask bad tastes in foods as well as factors that predispose some to consume high-sugar diets, including experiential learning and taste preferences driven in part by genetics. Understanding children’s unique vulnerability to our current food environment, rich in both nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners, is highlighted as a priority for future research to develop evidence-based strategies to help establish healthy dietary behaviors early in life. PMID:27193110

  14. Angiotensin II modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Iwata, Shusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-04-10

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying gustatory detection of dietary sodium is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that Angiotensin II (AngII), a major mediator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis, modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities, and that this modulation critically influences ingestive behaviors in mice. Gustatory nerve recording demonstrated that AngII suppressed amiloride-sensitive taste responses to NaCl. Surprisingly, AngII also enhanced nerve responses to sweeteners, but had no effect on responses to KCl, sour, bitter, or umami tastants. These effects of AngII on nerve responses were blocked by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist CV11974. In behavioral tests, CV11974 treatment reduced the stimulated high licking rate to NaCl and sweeteners in water-restricted mice with elevated plasma AngII levels. In taste cells AT1 proteins were coexpressed with αENaC (epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, an amiloride-sensitive salt taste receptor) or T1r3 (a sweet taste receptor component). These results suggest that the taste organ is a peripheral target of AngII. The specific reduction of amiloride-sensitive salt taste sensitivity by AngII may contribute to increased sodium intake. Furthermore, AngII may contribute to increased energy intake by enhancing sweet responses. The linkage between salty and sweet preferences via AngII signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand ...

  16. Fats, Oils, and Sweets. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and avoiding excesses of fats, oils, and sweets. It presents appealing alternatives to these unhealthy foods. Colorful photographs support…

  17. Alternatives to atrazine for weed management in processing sweet corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atrazine has been the most widely used herbicide in North American processing sweet corn for decades; however, increased restrictions in recent years have reduced or eliminated atrazine use in certain production areas. The objective of this study was to identify the best stakeholder-derived weed man...

  18. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H

    2015-08-31

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m² (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  19. Escaping Slavery: "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sue Ann

    This lesson uses the picture book "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt" by Deborah Hopkinson and an interactive website to enhance third- through fifth-grade students' understanding of the Underground Railroad and slavery, development of reading comprehension skills, and application of mapping skills. During three 45-60 minute lessons,…

  20. Electrochemical evaluation of sweet sorghum fermentable sugar bioenergy feedstock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redox active constituents of sorghum, e.g., anthocyanin, flavonoids, and aconitic acid, putatively contribute to its pest resistance. Electrochemical reactivity of sweet sorghum stem juice was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three fema...

  1. 62. Sweet Annie Hollow Trail. This is an example of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Sweet Annie Hollow Trail. This is an example of a concrete box culvert faced with rusticated stone withan arch reflecting the rigid frame bridges along the parkway. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Reducing fermentable sugar losses in stored sweet sorgum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Bryan, W.L.; Clayton, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 3000 ppm was shown to preserve chopped sweet sorgum in ambient storage for 2 months. Juice from the preserved sorgum was treated with lime, the precipitate removed, and fermented to ethanol without a reduction in fermentation rate or yield. Sulfur dioxide at 4000 ppm preserved the chopped sorgum for over 4 months.

  3. Fats, Oils, and Sweets. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and avoiding excesses of fats, oils, and sweets. It presents appealing alternatives to these unhealthy foods. Colorful photographs support…

  4. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  5. Development of hybrid sweet sorghum for the Southeast USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  6. Investigation of the stabilization and preservation of sweet sorghum juices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum juice is extremely vulnerable to microbial spoilage during storage because of its high water activity and rich sugar medium, and this represents a major technical challenge. The effects of clarification (80ºC; limed to pH 6.5;5 ppm polyanionic flocculant) and UV-C irradiation were inve...

  7. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-03-05

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

  8. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  9. Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.

    PubMed

    Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration.

  10. The development of sweet taste: From biology to hedonics.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K; Reed, Danielle R

    2016-06-01

    From the age of 2 years, an American child is more likely to consume a sugar-sweetened product than a fruit or vegetable on any given day-a troubling statistic, given that food preferences are established early in childhood, as well as the strong association between this dietary pattern and increased risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. Here, we review the ontogeny and biopsychology of sweet taste, highlighting how a biological drive to prefer sweetness at high concentrations during childhood, which would have conferred an advantage in environments of scarcity, now predisposes children to overconsume all that is sweet in a modern food system replete with added sugars. We review the power of sweet taste to blunt expressions of pain and mask bad tastes in foods as well as factors that predispose some to consume high-sugar diets, including experiential learning and taste preferences driven in part by genetics. Understanding children's unique vulnerability to our current food environment, rich in both nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners, is highlighted as a priority for future research to develop evidence-based strategies to help establish healthy dietary behaviors early in life.

  11. Reproducibility of the measurement of sweet taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Luo, Wendy; Herman, William H

    2012-12-01

    Developing interventions to prevent and treat obesity are medical and public health imperatives. Taste is a major determinant of food intake and reliable methods to measure taste preferences need to be established. This study aimed to establish the short-term reproducibility of sweet taste preference measurements using 5-level sucrose concentrations in healthy adult volunteers. We defined sweet taste preference as the geometric mean of the preferred sucrose concentration determined from two series of two-alternative, forced-choice staircase procedures administered 10min apart on a single day. We repeated the same procedures at a second visit 3-7days later. Twenty-six adults (13 men and 13 women, age 33.2±12.2years) completed the measurements. The median number of pairs presented for each series was three (25th and 75th percentiles: 3, 4). The intraclass correlation coefficients between the measurements was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.92) within a few days. This study showed high short-term reproducibility of a simple, 5-level procedure for measuring sweet taste preferences. This method may be useful for assessing sweet taste preferences and the risks resulting from those preferences.

  12. Path analysis of agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G M R; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Teixeira, D H L; Bruzi, A T; Durães, N N L; Fagundes, T G

    2015-12-09

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol production due to its succulent stalks that contain directly fermentable sugars. Since many traits need to be considered in the selection process to breed superior cultivars for ethanol production, then correlations between the traits might be of use to help the breeder define optimal improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the principal agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of primary and secondary traits on ethanol production per hectare. In total, 45 sweet sorghum genotypes (lineage/hybrids) were evaluated in an experiment designed in an alpha lattice 5 x 9. The data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. A detailed study of simple correlations was accomplished using path analysis. The experimental precision was high, with an accuracy above 76%. The various genotypes showed genetic variation for all agronomic and industrial traits, except stalk diameter. Some agro-industrial traits showed significant simple correlations with ethanol production, but according to the path analysis, some of these traits did not show a significant direct or indirect effect on ethanol production. The results highlighted the primary and secondary traits with practical relevance to sweet sorghum breeding, since they showed director indirect effects on ethanol production.

  13. Yield components in hybrid versus inbred sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) should be an ideal biofuel crop for the southeastern United States, but the current cultivars are all pure lines, which makes seed production difficult. Hybrid seed can be easily produced on short-statured plants, but less is known about other advantages ...

  14. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  15. Reactions of Sweet Corn Hybrids to Prevalent Diseases and Herbicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This 27-year summary is of University of Illinois sweet corn nurseries from 1984 to 2010, and includes the reactions of 800 hybrids to eight diseases and three herbicides. Commercially-available and pre-commercial hybrids included 547 shrunken-2 hybrids (317 yellow, 152 bi-color, and 78 white), 117 ...

  16. Investigation of the effects of color on judgments of sweetness using a taste adaptation method.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Shimoda, Kazumasa

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that color can affect the judgment of taste. For example, a dark red color enhances the subjective intensity of sweetness. However, the underlying mechanisms of the effect of color on taste have not been fully investigated; in particular, it remains unclear whether the effect is based on cognitive/decisional or perceptual processes. Here, we investigated the effect of color on sweetness judgments using a taste adaptation method. A sweet solution whose color was subjectively congruent with sweetness was judged as sweeter than an uncolored sweet solution both before and after adaptation to an uncolored sweet solution. In contrast, subjective judgment of sweetness for uncolored sweet solutions did not differ between the conditions following adaptation to a colored sweet solution and following adaptation to an uncolored one. Color affected sweetness judgment when the target solution was colored, but the colored sweet solution did not modulate the magnitude of taste adaptation. Therefore, it is concluded that the effect of color on the judgment of taste would occur mainly in cognitive/decisional domains.

  17. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    PubMed

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  18. Presynaptic gain control drives sweet and bitter taste integration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bonnie; Chui, Vincent; Mann, Kevin; Gordon, Michael D

    2014-09-08

    The sense of taste is critical in determining the nutritional suitability of foods. Sweet and bitter are primary taste modalities in mammals, and their behavioral relevance is similar in flies. Sweet taste drives the appetitive response to energy sources, whereas bitter taste drives avoidance of potential toxins and also suppresses the sweet response [1, 2]. Despite their importance to survival, little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms underlying integration of sweet and bitter taste. Here, we describe a presynaptic gain control mechanism in Drosophila that differentially affects sweet and bitter taste channels and mediates integration of these opposing stimuli. Gain control is known to play an important role in fly olfaction, where GABAB receptor (GABABR) mediates intra- and interglomerular presynaptic inhibition of sensory neuron output [3-5]. In the taste system, we find that gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) responding to sweet compounds express GABABR, whereas those that respond to bitter do not. GABABR mediates presynaptic inhibition of calcium responses in sweet GRNs, and both sweet and bitter stimuli evoke GABAergic neuron activity in the vicinity of GRN axon terminals. Pharmacological blockade and genetic reduction of GABABR both lead to increased sugar responses and decreased suppression of the sweet response by bitter compounds. We propose a model in which GABA acts via GABABR to expand the dynamic range of sweet GRNs through presynaptic gain control and suppress the output of sweet GRNs in the presence of opposing bitter stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

    2014-07-01

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.

  1. Psychophysical Evaluation of Sweetness Functions Across Multiple Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Low, Julia Y Q; McBride, Robert L; Lacy, Kathleen E; Keast, Russell S J

    2017-02-01

    Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A). Sweetness intensity for all sweeteners was measured using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. There were strong correlations between DT and RT of all 4 caloric sweeteners across people (r = 0.62-0.90, P < 0.001), and moderate correlations between DT and RT for both of the NNS (r = 0.39-0.48, P < 0.05); however, weaker correlations were observed between the DT or RT of the caloric sweeteners and NNS (r = 0.26-0.48, P < 0.05). The DT and RT of glucose and fructose were not correlated with DT or RT of sucralose (P > 0.05). In contrast, there were strong correlations between the sweetness intensity ratings of all sweeteners (r = 0.70-0.96, P < 0.001). This suggests those caloric sweeteners and NNS access at least partially independent mechanisms with respect to DT and RT measures. At suprathreshold level, however, the strong correlation between caloric sweeteners and NNS through weak, moderate, and strong intensity indicates a commonality in sweet taste mechanism for the perceived intensity range.

  2. Saliva pH affects the sweetness sense.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Ken-Ichi; Okino, Yuichiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kojima, Rena; Uchibori, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Yaushiro; Ota, Yoshihide

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a prediction system for taste sense according to the biochemical data of saliva. The present study included 100 participants ages ≥20 y without physical, mental, or dental disabilities. Saliva samples were collected from the participants and subjected to biochemical analyses. Taste examination (sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness) was performed using the dropped disk method. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed between the taste sense properties and biochemical data of saliva. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that sweetness sensitivity (in which a higher score indicates lower sensitivity) was significantly affected by various biochemical properties, with the strongest influence being pH. The following prediction equation was determined: Sweetness sensitivity = 1.38 + (-0.12 × low pH [1: If pH <6.7, 0: otherwise]) + (0.80 × high pH [1: If pH >7.3, 0: otherwise]) + (0.04 × Fe [μg/dL]). Analysis of variance showed an overall significant effect of these variables on sweetness sensitivity (R(2) = 0.74; P < 0.01). Saliva pH most strongly affects the sweetness sensitivity. This prediction can be used for evaluations of variations in dietary choices and to help individuals make healthy food choices to maintain health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Paris, Harry S

    2015-08-01

    Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries CE were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century CE and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century CE present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  4. Efficient extraction method to collect sugar from sweet sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is a domesticated grass containing a sugar-rich juice that can be readily utilized for ethanol production. Most of the sugar is stored inside the cells of the stalk tissue and can be difficult to release, a necessary step before conventional fermentation. While this crop holds much promise as an arid land sugar source for biofuel production, a number of challenges must be overcome. One lies in the inherent labile nature of the sugars in the stalks leading to a short usable storage time. Also, collection of sugars from the sweet sorghum stalks is usually accomplished by mechanical squeezing, but generally does not collect all of the available sugars. Results In this paper, we present two methods that address these challenges for utilization of sweet sorghum for biofuel production. The first method demonstrates a means to store sweet sorghum stalks in the field under semi-arid conditions. The second provides an efficient water extraction method that can collect as much of the available sugar as feasible. Operating parameters investigated include temperature, stalk size, and solid–liquid ratio that impact both the rate of sugar release and the maximal amount recovered with a goal of low water use. The most desirable conditions include 30°C, 0.6 ratio of solid to liquid (w/w), which collects 90 % of the available sugar. Variations in extraction methods did not alter the efficiency of the eventual ethanol fermentation. Conclusions The water extraction method has the potential to be used for sugar extraction from both fresh sweet sorghum stalks and dried ones. When combined with current sugar extraction methods, the overall ethanol production efficiency would increase compared to current field practices. PMID:23305036

  5. Identification of novel sweet protein for nutritional applications.

    PubMed

    Gnanavel, Mutharasu; Serva Peddha, Muthukumar

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has increased exponentially in recent years around the globe, especially in India. Sweet proteins have the potential to substitute the sugars, by acting as natural, good and low calorie sweeteners. They also do not trigger a demand for insulin in diabetic patients unlike sucrose. In humans, the sweet taste perception is mainly due to taste-specific G protein-coupled heterodimeric receptors T1R2-T1R3. These receptors recognize diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners such as monelin, brazzein, thaumatin, curculin, mabinlin, miraculin and pentadin. Structural modeling of new sweetener proteins will be a great leap in further advancement of knowledge and their utility as sweeteners. We have explored the fingerprints of sweetness by studying the aminoacid composition and structure properties of the above proteins. The structural analysis of monellin revealed that the individual A or B chains of monellin are not contributing to its sweetness. However, the native conformation and ionic interaction between AspB7 of monellin with active site of T1R2-T1R3 receptor, along with hydrogen bonding stability of IleB6 and IleB8 are responsible for the sweet taste. Based on structural similarity search, we found a new hypothetical protein from Shewanella loihica, which has the presence of Asp(32) with adjacent isoleucine residues. Further, we examined the lead protein by two-step docking for the study of interaction of functionally conserved residues with receptors. The identified protein showed similar ionic and hydrophobic interactions with monelin. This gives a promising opportunity to explore this protein for potential health application in the low calorie sweetener industry viz., soft drinks, snacks, food, chocolate industries etc.

  6. Identification of novel sweet protein for nutritional applications

    PubMed Central

    Gnanavel, Mutharasu; Serva Peddha, Muthukumar

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has increased exponentially in recent years around the globe, especially in India. Sweet proteins have the potential to substitute the sugars, by acting as natural, good and low calorie sweeteners. They also do not trigger a demand for insulin in diabetic patients unlike sucrose. In humans, the sweet taste perception is mainly due to taste-specific G protein-coupled heterodimeric receptors T1R2-T1R3. These receptors recognize diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners such as monelin, brazzein, thaumatin, curculin, mabinlin, miraculin and pentadin. Structural modeling of new sweetener proteins will be a great leap in further advancement of knowledge and their utility as sweeteners. We have explored the fingerprints of sweetness by studying the aminoacid composition and structure properties of the above proteins. The structural analysis of monellin revealed that the individual A or B chains of monellin are not contributing to its sweetness. However, the native conformation and ionic interaction between AspB7 of monellin with active site of T1R2-T1R3 receptor, along with hydrogen bonding stability of IleB6 and IleB8 are responsible for the sweet taste. Based on structural similarity search, we found a new hypothetical protein from Shewanella loihica, which has the presence of Asp32 with adjacent isoleucine residues. Further, we examined the lead protein by two-step docking for the study of interaction of functionally conserved residues with receptors. The identified protein showed similar ionic and hydrophobic interactions with monelin. This gives a promising opportunity to explore this protein for potential health application in the low calorie sweetener industry viz., soft drinks, snacks, food, chocolate industries etc. PMID:22125379

  7. Psychophysical Evaluation of Sweetness Functions Across Multiple Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Low, Julia Y.Q.; McBride, Robert L.; Lacy, Kathleen E.

    2017-01-01

    Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18–52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A). Sweetness intensity for all sweeteners was measured using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. There were strong correlations between DT and RT of all 4 caloric sweeteners across people (r = 0.62–0.90, P < 0.001), and moderate correlations between DT and RT for both of the NNS (r = 0.39–0.48, P < 0.05); however, weaker correlations were observed between the DT or RT of the caloric sweeteners and NNS (r = 0.26–0.48, P < 0.05). The DT and RT of glucose and fructose were not correlated with DT or RT of sucralose (P > 0.05). In contrast, there were strong correlations between the sweetness intensity ratings of all sweeteners (r = 0.70–0.96, P < 0.001). This suggests those caloric sweeteners and NNS access at least partially independent mechanisms with respect to DT and RT measures. At suprathreshold level, however, the strong correlation between caloric sweeteners and NNS through weak, moderate, and strong intensity indicates a commonality in sweet taste mechanism for the perceived intensity range. PMID:27765786

  8. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  9. Functional role of oligomerization for bacterial and plant SWEET sugar transporter family.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Hu, Yi Bing; Chen, Li-Qing; Sosso, Davide; Ducat, Daniel C; Hou, Bi-Huei; Frommer, Wolf B

    2013-09-24

    Eukaryotic sugar transporters of the MFS and SWEET superfamilies consist of 12 and 7 α-helical transmembrane domains (TMs), respectively. Structural analyses indicate that MFS transporters evolved from a series of tandem duplications of an ancestral 3-TM unit. SWEETs are heptahelical proteins carrying a tandem repeat of 3-TM separated by a single TM. Here, we show that prokaryotes have ancestral SWEET homologs with only 3-TM and that the Bradyrhizobium japonicum SemiSWEET1, like Arabidopsis SWEET11, mediates sucrose transport. Eukaryotic SWEETs most likely evolved by internal duplication of the 3-TM, suggesting that SemiSWEETs form oligomers to create a functional pore. However, it remains elusive whether the 7-TM SWEETs are the functional unit or require oligomerization to form a pore sufficiently large to allow for sucrose passage. Split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid and split GFP assays indicate that Arabidopsis SWEETs homo- and heterooligomerize. We examined mutant SWEET variants for negative dominance to test if oligomerization is necessary for function. Mutation of the conserved Y57 or G58 in SWEET1 led to loss of activity. Coexpression of the defective mutants with functional A. thaliana SWEET1 inhibited glucose transport, indicating that homooligomerization is necessary for function. Collectively, these data imply that the basic unit of SWEETs, similar to MFS sugar transporters, is a 3-TM unit and that a functional transporter contains at least four such domains. We hypothesize that the functional unit of the SWEET family of transporters possesses a structure resembling the 12-TM MFS structure, however, with a parallel orientation of the 3-TM unit.

  10. Functional role of oligomerization for bacterial and plant SWEET sugar transporter family

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Hu, Yi Bing; Chen, Li-Qing; Sosso, Davide; Ducat, Daniel C.; Hou, Bi-Huei; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic sugar transporters of the MFS and SWEET superfamilies consist of 12 and 7 α-helical transmembrane domains (TMs), respectively. Structural analyses indicate that MFS transporters evolved from a series of tandem duplications of an ancestral 3-TM unit. SWEETs are heptahelical proteins carrying a tandem repeat of 3-TM separated by a single TM. Here, we show that prokaryotes have ancestral SWEET homologs with only 3-TM and that the Bradyrhizobium japonicum SemiSWEET1, like Arabidopsis SWEET11, mediates sucrose transport. Eukaryotic SWEETs most likely evolved by internal duplication of the 3-TM, suggesting that SemiSWEETs form oligomers to create a functional pore. However, it remains elusive whether the 7-TM SWEETs are the functional unit or require oligomerization to form a pore sufficiently large to allow for sucrose passage. Split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid and split GFP assays indicate that Arabidopsis SWEETs homo- and heterooligomerize. We examined mutant SWEET variants for negative dominance to test if oligomerization is necessary for function. Mutation of the conserved Y57 or G58 in SWEET1 led to loss of activity. Coexpression of the defective mutants with functional A. thaliana SWEET1 inhibited glucose transport, indicating that homooligomerization is necessary for function. Collectively, these data imply that the basic unit of SWEETs, similar to MFS sugar transporters, is a 3-TM unit and that a functional transporter contains at least four such domains. We hypothesize that the functional unit of the SWEET family of transporters possesses a structure resembling the 12-TM MFS structure, however, with a parallel orientation of the 3-TM unit. PMID:24027245

  11. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-07-31

    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  12. Add-on angiotensin receptor blockade with maximized ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R

    2001-06-01

    cardiac output. However, there was a mean 14% increase (95% CI, 3 to 26%, P = 0.017) in GFR attributable to losartan therapy. A concomitant fall in plasma renin activity by 32% was seen (95% CI, -15%, - 45%, P = 0.002). No hyperkalemia, hypotension, or acute renal failure occurred in the trial. These results were not attributable to sequence or carryover effects. Add-on losartan therapy did not improve proteinuria or ABP over one month of add on therapy. Improvement of GFR and fall in plasma renin activity suggest that renal hemodynamic and endocrine changes are more sensitive measures of AT1 receptor blockade. Whether add-on AT1 receptor blockade causes antiproteinuric effects or long-term renal protection requires larger and longer prospective, randomized controlled trials.

  13. Characterization of the modes of binding between human sweet taste receptor and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Koizumi, Ayako; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Takaharu; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi; Ishiguro, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    One of the most distinctive features of human sweet taste perception is its broad tuning to chemically diverse compounds ranging from low-molecular-weight sweeteners to sweet-tasting proteins. Many reports suggest that the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2-hT1R3), a heteromeric complex composed of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits belonging to the class C G protein-coupled receptor family, has multiple binding sites for these sweeteners. However, it remains unclear how the same receptor recognizes such diverse structures. Here we aim to characterize the modes of binding between hT1R2-hT1R3 and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds by functional analysis of a series of site-directed mutants and by molecular modeling-based docking simulation at the binding pocket formed on the large extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of hT1R2. We successfully determined the amino acid residues responsible for binding to sweeteners in the cleft of hT1R2 ATD. Our results suggest that individual ligands have sets of specific residues for binding in correspondence with the chemical structures and other residues responsible for interacting with multiple ligands.

  14. Characterization of the Modes of Binding between Human Sweet Taste Receptor and Low-Molecular-Weight Sweet Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Takaharu; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi; Ishiguro, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    One of the most distinctive features of human sweet taste perception is its broad tuning to chemically diverse compounds ranging from low-molecular-weight sweeteners to sweet-tasting proteins. Many reports suggest that the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2–hT1R3), a heteromeric complex composed of T1R2 and T1R3 subunits belonging to the class C G protein–coupled receptor family, has multiple binding sites for these sweeteners. However, it remains unclear how the same receptor recognizes such diverse structures. Here we aim to characterize the modes of binding between hT1R2–hT1R3 and low-molecular-weight sweet compounds by functional analysis of a series of site-directed mutants and by molecular modeling–based docking simulation at the binding pocket formed on the large extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of hT1R2. We successfully determined the amino acid residues responsible for binding to sweeteners in the cleft of hT1R2 ATD. Our results suggest that individual ligands have sets of specific residues for binding in correspondence with the chemical structures and other residues responsible for interacting with multiple ligands. PMID:22536376

  15. Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

  16. Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli.

  17. Sweetness of sweet protein thaumatin is more thermoresistant under acid conditions than under neutral or alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, R; Kitabatake, N

    2001-02-01

    Thermostability of thaumatin and mechanisms of thermoinactivation were examined at 80 degrees C in the pH range from 2 to 10. The sweetness of thaumatin disappeared on heating at pH above 7 for 15 min, but the sweetness remained even after heating at 80 degrees C for 4 h at pH 2. This indicated that the sweet protein thaumatin is more thermoresistant under acid conditions than under neutral or alkaline conditions. Prolonged heating of thaumatin under acid conditions slowly reduced sweetness, and produced a heterogeneous population of molecules, all of which was soluble and monomeric. The resultant molecules were clearly distinct from those generated by heating at pH above 7. Hydrolysis of peptide bonds and other irreversible chemical reactions slowly took place in the molecule heated under acid conditions, and it would be, in part, a cause of thermoinactivation of thaumatin under acid conditions. The thermostability of thaumatin and the mechanism of thermoinactivation were largely dependent on pH.

  18. ADD and the College Student: A Guide for High School and College Students with Attention Deficit Disorder. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Patricia O., Ed.

    This handbook contains practical information and advice to help students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) transition from high school to college. Part 1 provides an introduction to ADD and includes a questionnaire identifying the characteristics of a person with ADD. Part 2 describes life with ADD. It explains how ADD can affect high school…

  19. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  20. Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Chemokines Add Complexity to a Complex System

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Johnson, Zoë; Bonvin, Pauline; Handel, Tracy M.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines have two types of interactions that function cooperatively to control cell migration. Chemokine receptors on migrating cells integrate signals initiated upon chemokine binding to promote cell movement. Interactions with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) localize chemokines on and near cell surfaces and the extracellular matrix to provide direction to the cell movement. The matrix of interacting chemokine–receptor partners has been known for some time, precise signaling and trafficking properties of many chemokine–receptor pairs have been characterized, and recent structural information has revealed atomic level detail on chemokine–receptor recognition and activation. However, precise knowledge of the interactions of chemokines with GAGs has lagged far behind such that a single paradigm of GAG presentation on surfaces is generally applied to all chemokines. This review summarizes accumulating evidence which suggests that there is a great deal of diversity and specificity in these interactions, that GAG interactions help fine-tune the function of chemokines, and that GAGs have other roles in chemokine biology beyond localization and surface presentation. This suggests that chemokine–GAG interactions add complexity to the already complex functions of the receptors and ligands. PMID:28792472

  1. Ventilator add-on for delivering PET tracer gases.

    PubMed

    Kaisti, Kaike K; Mäkitalo, Jukka; Sipilä, Hannu T; Teräs, Mika I P; Scheinin, Harry

    2004-06-01

    The increasing use of PET for assessing cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood volume in critically ill patients has created a need for reliable technical solutions for delivering (15)O-tracer gases to mechanically ventilated subjects. Our objective was to create such a solution. We designed a ventilator add-on unit that enables complex functional brain studies using labeled oxygen and carbon monoxide gases as tracers. The unit manages both steady-state and bolus inhalations, and the latter can be manually initiated using a remote trigger. All parts conducting breathing gases can be sterilized. The unit can be operated during both spontaneous pressure support breathing and volume-controlled ventilation. It supports the standard safety features and alarms of the ventilator and includes an overflow valve in the bolus reservoir. The count rate curves obtained using the new unit were similar to those from the standard bag-inhalation method. The unit we describe offers an economical and easily operated solution for providing uninterrupted ventilator treatment while performing PET brain studies, and the provided treatment meets intensive care criteria.

  2. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  3. Length-dependent [Ca2+] sensitivity adds stiffness to muscle.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Dinant A; Van Soest, Arthur Knoek J; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2005-09-01

    It is well documented that muscle fibers become more sensitive for [Ca2+] with increasing sarcomere length. In mechanical terms this length-dependent [Ca2+] sensitivity (LDCS) adds to the stiffness of muscle fibers, because muscle force, normalized for the force-length relationship at maximal stimulation, increases with contractile element (CE) length. Although LDCS is well-documented in the physiological literature, it is ignored in most motor control studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of LDCS as a contributor to the stiffness of a muscle. Comparison of experimental data with predictions derived from the model of activation dynamics proposed by Hatze (Myocybernetic Control Models of Skeletal Muscle, University of South Africa, Pretoria, 1981, pp. 31-42) indicated that this model captures the main characteristics of LDCS well. It was shown that LDCS accounts for the experimentally observed shifts in optimum length at sub-maximal stimulation levels. Furthermore, it was shown that in conditions with low-to-medium muscle stimulation, the contribution of LDCS to the total amount of stiffness provided by the muscle is substantial. It was concluded that LDCS is an important muscle property and should be taken into account in studies concerning motor control.

  4. Climatic Drivers of Past Antarctic Ice Sheet Evolution Add Nonlinearly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigchelaar, M.; Timmermann, A.; Pollard, D.; Friedrich, T.; Heinemann, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet has varied substantially in shape and volume in the past, with evidence for strong regional differences in evolution history. Recent observations of change in the Antarctic environment indicate that different regions respond differently to ongoing changes in global climate -- over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet strong increases in sub-shelf melt rates indicate a sensitivity to changes in ocean temperature and circulation, while in East Antarctica the mass balance is increasingly positive due to an increase in accumulation in response to rising temperatures. Modeling the long term evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet can help address questions about its regional sensitivity to external forcing. We have conducted experiments with an established ice sheet model over the last eight glacial cycles using spatially and temporally varying climate forcing from an EMIC. These simulations indicate a glacial-interglacial amplitude of ~11m SLE. Using a series of sensitivity experiments we address the dominant climatic forcing of this evolution. While sea level changes are the main driver of grounding line movement, they alone are not sufficient to explain the full glacial amplitude. Local insolation changes contribute to the initiation of terminations, while accumulation and sub-shelf melt changes feed back positively and negatively respectively onto the ice sheet evolution. This implies that climatic drivers add nonlinearly and the full spectrum of climate forcing needs to be considered when evaluating the sensitivity of the Antarctic ice sheet to past and future climate change.

  5. Inactivation of trypsin inhibitors in sweet potato and taro tubers during processing.

    PubMed

    Kiran, K Sasi; Padmaja, G

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the extent of elimination of trypsin inhibitors during processing of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) tubers, a detailed study was conducted using tubers processed by oven drying, cooking, and microwave baking. Between 80 and 90% trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity was retained in sweet potato chips up to 2h at 70 degrees C. Among the four cultivars of sweet potatoes, RS-III-2 trypsin inhibitors were more heat labile. Heating at 100 degrees C led to rapid inactivation of TI of sweet potatoes. Varietal differences in thermal stability were more pronounced for the trypsin inhibitors of taro than sweet potatoes. Taro inhibitors were also more rapidly inactivated than sweet potato TI. Between 17 and 31% TI activity was retained in cooked tuber pieces of sweet potatoes, while only 3-10% were retained in taro cultivars. Very effective inactivation of trypsin inhibitors of sweet potatoes and taro could be obtained through microwave baking. Flour prepared from taro was devoid of TI activity, while 5-12% TI activity was retained in the flour prepared from sweet potatoes. The study clearly established that among the four techniques used, microwave baking and flour preparation were the best methods to eliminate TI from sweet potatoes and taro.

  6. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    PubMed

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  7. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  8. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-02-18

    Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while the impulse activity in non

  9. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  10. Bioethanol production from sweet potato using Saccharomyces diastaticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suryani, Irma; Pradia Paundradewa, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sweet potato contains about 16 to 40% dry matter and about 70-90% of the dry matter is a carbohydrate made up of starch, sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin so suitable for used as raw material for bioethanol. In this study focused on the manufacture of bioethanol with changes in temperature and concentration variations of yeast with sweet potato raw materials used yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus. Operating variables used are at a temperature of 30°C; 31,475°C; 35°C; 38,525°C; and 40°C with a yeast concentration of 25.9%; 30%; 40%; 50% and 54.1%. The experimental results obtained, the optimum conditions of ethanol fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus on 36,67 °C temperature and yeast concentration of 43,43 % v / v.

  11. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  12. Genetic variation in the physical properties of sweet potato starch.

    PubMed

    Collado, L S; Mabesa, R C; Corke, H

    1999-10-01

    Sweet potato starch, prepared from 44 genotypes adapted to Philippine conditions, showed wide variation and distinctly different pasting profiles in Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) analysis at 11% and 7% starch concentration. At 11% starch concentration, the pasting profiles were type A, characterized by high to moderate peak with a major breakdown and low cold paste viscosity. At 7%, the pasting profile was generally type C, characterized by the absence of a distinct peak with none to very slight breakdown and high cold paste viscosity. However, differentiation among genotypes was better achieved from RVA pasting profiles at 11% starch concentration. Peak viscosity (PV) and hot paste viscosity (HPV) at 11% starch paste concentration had significant negative correlation with amylose content. PV, HPV, and setback ratio were significantly correlated to adhesiveness of the starch gel. Sweet potato starch generally had high swelling volume but low solubilities at 92.5 degrees C.

  13. Preservation of potential fermentables in sweet sorghum by ensiling.

    PubMed

    Linden, J C; Henk, L L; Murphy, V G; Smith, D H; Gabrielsen, B C; Tengerdy, R P; Czako, L

    1987-11-01

    Pressed and wilted samples of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var. Rio] were ensiled for periods up to 155 days. A kinetic study of the biochemical changes which occurred during ensiling showed that in wilted sorghum ensilage invert sugars and mannitol levels collectively were maintained at 65% of the original ferment able sugar content of the sorghum. The acidic environment produced by ensiling also served as a pretreatment that resulted in enhanced yields of reducing sugar when the sorghum was contacted with cellulolytic enzymes. The quantity of sugar obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis more than compensated for carbohydrate used by organisms during the ensiling process. Both Saccharomyces uvarum and Clostridium acetobutylicum were able to ferment a medium constituted from pressed sorghum juice and the solution resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum ensilage.

  14. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  15. Compaction measurements on the Sweet Lake test well

    SciTech Connect

    Jogi, P.N.; Kalra, S.; Gray, K.E.; Thompson, T.W.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of compressibilities, moduli, compaction coefficients, porosities, and permeabilities have been conducted on cores from Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 in the Sweet Lake Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. All rock parameters show nonlinear behavior with changing reservoir pressure. Compressibilities and uniaxial compaction coefficients decline rapidly with pore pressure reduction. Porosity reduction was generally less than 10%; permeability reduction was 30 to 40%. Additional tests are in progress.

  16. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  17. Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

  18. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  19. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  20. Sweet sorghum: an alcohol crop for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.; Arthur, M.F.

    1980-12-01

    Assuming that alcohol can be produced from sweet sorghum, growers need such incentives as high potential alcohol yield per acre, lower fertilizer and water inputs, more-efficient feedstock, high biomass yield, potential as a cash crop, and favorable economic considerations in relation to other crops. Problems with juice preservation, harvesting equipment, transportation to processing plants, and treatment of by-products must be overcome before such use for large-scale production is likely. 4 tables. (DCK)

  1. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  2. Influence of malt roasting on the oxidative stability of sweet wort.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Signe; Lund, Marianne N; Petersen, Mikael A; Jespersen, Birthe M; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-06-06

    Influence of malt roasting on the oxidative stability of sweet wort was evaluated based on radical intensity, volatile profile, content of transition metals (Fe and Cu) and thiols. Malt roasting had a large influence on the oxidative stability of sweet wort. Light sweet worts were more stable with low radical intensity, low Fe content, and ability to retain volatile compounds when heated. At mild roasting, the Fe content in the wort increased but remained close to constant with further roasting. Dark sweet worts were less stable with high radical intensities, high Fe content, and a decreased ability to retain volatiles. Results suggested that the Maillard reaction compounds formed during the roasting of malt are prooxidants in sweet wort. A thiol-removing capacity was observed in sweet wort, and it was gradually inhibited by malt roasting. It is possibly caused by thiol oxidizing enzymes present in the fresh malt.

  3. Starch saccharification and fermentation of uncooked sweet potato roots for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Caifa; Shen, Yanhu; Ding, Tielin; Ma, Daifu; Hua, Zichun; Sun, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An energy-saving ethanol fermentation technology was developed using uncooked fresh sweet potato as raw material. A mutant strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from mildewed sweet potato was used to produce abundant raw starch saccharification enzymes for treating uncooked sweet potato storage roots. The viscosity of the fermentation paste of uncooked sweet potato roots was lower than that of the cooked roots. The ethanol fermentation was carried out by Zymomonas mobilis, and 14.4 g of ethanol (87.2% of the theoretical yield) was produced from 100g of fresh sweet potato storage roots. Based on this method, an energy-saving, high efficient and environment-friendly technology can be developed for large-scale production of fuel ethanol from sweet potato roots.

  4. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in Sweet's syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tzelepis, Elias; Kampolis, Christos F; Vlachadami, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Alamani, Maria; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is characterized by fever, leukocytosis and tender erythematous plaques, which show infiltration by mature neutrophils on histological examination. Pulmonary involvement is rare in Sweet's syndrome. We describe the case of a 17-year-old man with a myelodysplastic syndrome following therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed Sweet's syndrome and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. In addition, we conducted a review of the related English literature. Literature review yielded six similar reports of biopsy-proven cryptogenic organizing pneumonia associated with Sweet's syndrome. We present the clinical and laboratory characteristics, as well as the response to treatment, of all cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia reported in patients with Sweet's syndrome. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare manifestation of Sweet's syndrome, which may be complicated by respiratory failure. Prompt treatment with corticosteroids usually leads to clinical and radiographic improvement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Molecular mechanism of substrate recognition and transport by the AtSWEET13 sugar transporter.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Zhu, Yongping; Liu, Min; Zhou, Ye; Lu, Guangyuan; Lan, Lan; Wang, Xianping; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2017-09-19

    Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEETs) are recently identified sugar transporters that can discriminate and transport di- or monosaccharides across a membrane following the concentration gradient. SWEETs play key roles in plant biological processes, such as pollen nutrition, nectar secretion, seed filling, and phloem loading. SWEET13 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSWEET13) is an important sucrose transporter in pollen development. Here, we report the 2.8-Å resolution crystal structure of AtSWEET13 in the inward-facing conformation with a substrate analog, 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate, bound in the central cavity. In addition, based on the results of an in-cell transport activity assay and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer analysis, we suggest a mechanism for substrate selectivity based on the size of the substrate-binding pocket. Furthermore, AtSWEET13 appears to form a higher order structure presumably related to its function.

  6. Visual influence of shapes and semantic familiarity on human sweet sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; Roy, Soumyajit; Chen, Meng-Ling; Zhang, Gen-Hua

    2013-09-15

    Vision influences taste. It is known that color plays an important role in flavor perception. However, the effect of other features of visual information such as shapes and semantic familiarity of words on the taste perception, particularly on taste sensitivity, is not clear yet. Here we study whether the sweet taste sensitivity of the subjects is affected by such visual inputs. By displaying basic geometric patterns or words with different degrees of semantic familiarity as visual inputs, the subjects rate the hedonic and semantic familiar scores, and taste a series of sucrose solutions, and their sweet sensitivities are accordingly analyzed. Our results show (1) shapes with curvature like circle and ellipse, with higher hedonic scores, increase the sweet sensitivity, whereas angular shapes like square, rectangle, triangle and pentagram do not affect sweet sensitivity; (2) semantic familiar words, with higher hedonic ratings as well, increase sweet sensitivity, whereas unfamiliar words do not affect or even reduce sweet sensitivities.

  7. A New Insight into the Evolution and Functional Divergence of SWEET Transporters in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Qin, Mengfan; Qiao, Xin; Cheng, Yinsheng; Li, Xiaolong; Zhang, Huping; Wu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    SWEET genes are a recently identified plant gene family that play an indispensable role in sugar efflux. However, no systematic study has been performed in pear. In this research, 18 SWEET transporters identified in pear, almost twice the number found in woodland strawberry and Japanese apricot, were divided into four clades. Conserved motifs and six exons of the SWEET transporters were found in six species. SWEET transporters contained seven transmembrane segments (TMSs) that evolved from an internal duplication of an ancestral three-TMSs unit, connected by TMS4. This is the first direct evidence identifying internal repeats through bioinformatics analysis. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication and dispersed duplication represent the main driving forces for SWEET family evolution in six species, with former duplications more important in pear. Gene expression results suggested that PbSWEET15 and PbSWEET17 have no expression in any tissues because of critical lost residues and that 62.5% of PbSWEET duplicate gene pairs have functional divergence. Additionally, PbSWEET6, PbSWEET7 and PbSWEET14 were found to play important roles in sucrose efflux from leaves, and the high expression of PbSWEET1 and PbSWEET2 might contribute to unloading sucrose from the phloem in the stem. Finally, PbSWEET5, PbSWEET9 and PbSWEET10 might contribute to pollen development. Overall, our study provides important insights into the evolution of the SWEET gene family in pear and four other Rosaceae, and the important candidate PbSWEET genes involved in the development of different tissues were identified in pear.

  8. Differential modulation of the lactisole 'Sweet Water Taste' by sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Cynthia; Nachtigal, Danielle; Slack, Jay P; Green, Barry G

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure to taste stimuli and certain chemicals can cause water to have a taste. Here we studied further the 'sweet water taste' (SWT) perceived after exposure to the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Experiment 1 investigated an incidental observation that presenting lactisole in mixture with sucrose reduced the intensity of the SWT. The results confirmed this observation and also showed that rinsing with sucrose after lactisole could completely eliminate the SWT. The generalizability of these findings was investigated in experiment 2 by presenting 5 additional sweeteners before, during, or after exposure to lactisole. The results found with sucrose were replicated with fructose and cyclamate, but the 3 other sweeteners were less effective suppressors of the SWT, and the 2 sweeteners having the highest potency initially enhanced it. A third experiment investigated these interactions on the tongue tip and found that the lactisole SWT was perceived only when water was actively flowed across the tongue. The same experiment yielded evidence against the possibility that suppression of the SWT following exposure to sweeteners is an aftereffect of receptor activation while providing additional support for a role of sweetener potency. Collectively these results provide new evidence that complex inhibitory and excitatory interactions occur between lactisole and agonists of the sweet taste receptor TAS1R2-TAS1R3. Receptor mechanisms that may be responsible for these interactions are discussed in the context of the current model of the SWT and the possible contribution of allosteric modulation.

  9. Sweet wine production by two osmotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Teresa; de Lerma, Nieves López; Moreno, Juan; Peinado, Rafael A; Millán, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan C

    2013-06-01

    The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce sweet wine is difficult because yeast is affected by a hyperosmotic stress due to the high sugar concentrations in the fermenting must. One possible alternative could be the coimmobilization of the osmotolerant yeast strains S. cerevisiae X4 and X5 on Penicillium chrysogenum strain H3 (GRAS) for the partial fermentation of raisin musts. This immobilized has been, namely, as yeast biocapsules. Traditional sweet wine (that is, without fermentation of the must) and must partially fermented by free yeast cells were also used for comparison. Partially fermented sweet wines showed higher concentration of the volatile compounds than traditionally produced wines. The wines obtained by immobilized yeast cells reached minor concentrations of major alcohols than wines by free cells. The consumption of specific nitrogen compounds was dependent on yeast strain and the cellular immobilization. A principal component analysis shows that the compounds related to the response to osmotic stress (glycerol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, and butanediol) clearly differentiate the wines obtained with free yeasts but not the wines obtained with immobilized yeasts. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Cocaine decreases saccharin preference without altering sweet taste sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Roebber, Jennifer K.; Izenwasser, Sari; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, saccharin consumption is suppressed when the sweet taste stimulus is paired with moderate doses of cocaine. Several hypotheses have been used to explain the seemingly contradictory effect of decreased consumption of a normally preferred substance following a highly rewarding drug. A common theme across these hypotheses is that saccharin is interpreted as less rewarding after cocaine pairing. We considered the alternative possibility that suppression is caused not by a change in reward circuitry, but rather by a change in taste detection, for instance by altering the afferent taste response and decreasing sensitivity to sweet taste stimuli. To evaluate this possibility, we measured saccharin taste sensitivity of mice before and after a standard cocaine-pairing paradigm. We measured taste sensitivity using a brief-access lickometer equipped with multiple concentrations of saccharin solution and established concentration-response curves before and after saccharin-cocaine pairing. Our results indicate that the EC50 for saccharin was unaltered following pairing. Instead, the avidity of licking saccharin, an indicator of motivation, was depressed. Latency to first-lick, a negative indicator of motivation, was also dramatically increased. Thus, our findings are consistent with the interpretation that saccharin-cocaine pairing results in devaluing of the sweet taste reward. PMID:25812471

  11. Cocaine decreases saccharin preference without altering sweet taste sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Roebber, Jennifer K; Izenwasser, Sari; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-06-01

    In rodents, saccharin consumption is suppressed when the sweet taste stimulus is paired with moderate doses of cocaine. Several hypotheses have been used to explain the seemingly contradictory effect of decreased consumption of a normally preferred substance following a highly rewarding drug. A common theme across these hypotheses is that saccharin is interpreted as less rewarding after cocaine pairing. We considered the alternative possibility that suppression is caused not by a change in reward circuitry, but rather by a change in taste detection, for instance by altering the afferent taste response and decreasing sensitivity to sweet taste stimuli. To evaluate this possibility, we measured saccharin taste sensitivity of mice before and after a standard cocaine-pairing paradigm. We measured taste sensitivity using a brief-access lickometer equipped with multiple concentrations of saccharin solution and established concentration-response curves before and after saccharin-cocaine pairing. Our results indicate that the EC50 for saccharin was unaltered following pairing. Instead, the avidity of licking saccharin, an indicator of motivation, was depressed. Latency to first-lick, a negative indicator of motivation, was also dramatically increased. Thus, our findings are consistent with the interpretation that saccharin-cocaine pairing results in devaluing of the sweet taste reward. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulating the growth and development of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, D.A.

    1983-06-01

    An existing dynamic grain sorghum growth model was modified to predict the growth and development of sweet sorghum. Modifications were made to the leaf area/stalk length, leaf extinction and dry matter partitioning modules. The model predicted dates of half-bloom and physiological maturity for sweet sorghum with good accuracy. Total dry matter was consistently underpredicted, suggesting the need for further model refinements (e.g. potential net photosynthesis calculation). Dry matter partitioning was calibrated with one set of field data and was checked with another data set. The dry matter partitioning modifications checked out well for the two data sets; however, more research is required to expand the confidence of the empirical partitioning procedure. Another area of future research should be the partitioning of dry matter into fermentable and nonfermentable portions. One potential use of a dynamic sweet sorghum model would be to schedule commercial harvesting systems. Other production interactions could also be investigated to assess the implications of integrating sorghum into established cropping systems. Economic assessments could also be made by entering the yield coefficients from the crop model into a linear programming framework. Eventually, validated crop growth models could be transferred from the research arena to agricultural producers, allowing them to improve their management decisions.

  13. Acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish optimal conditions for the acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for maximal ethanol yield. The starch contents of two sweet potato cultivars (Georgia Red and TG-4), based on fresh weight, were 21.1 +/- 0.6% and 27.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively. The results of acid hydrolysis experiments showed the following: (1) both hydrolysis rate and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration were a function of HCL concentration, temperature, and time; (2) the reducing sugars were rapidly formed with elevated concentrations of HCl and temperature, but also destroyed quickly; and (3) HMF concentration increased significantly with the concentration of HCl, temperature, and hydrolysis time. Maximum reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% HMF (based on wet weight) was achieved after heating 8% SPS for 15 min in 1N HCl at 110/sup 0/C. Degraded 8% SPS (1N HCl, 97/sup 0/C for 20 min or 110/sup 0/C for 10 min) was utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation and 3.8% ethanol (v/v) was produced from 1400 mL fermented wort. This is equal to 41.6 g ethanol (200 proof) from 400 g of fresh sweet potato tuber (Georgia Red) or an ethanol yield potential of 431 gal of 200-proof ethanol/acre (from 500 bushel tubers/acre).

  14. Sweet cherries from farm to table: A review.

    PubMed

    Habib, Muzammil; Bhat, Mudassir; Dar, B N; Wani, Ali Abas

    2017-05-24

    In order to enable long-distance transportation and ensure that the fruit presents the requisite quality on arrival at markets, the cherry industry for direct consumption needs to prolong post-harvest shelf life. Sweet cherries are highly perishable, non-climacteric fruits with shelf life of 7-14 days in cold storage. Their shelf life is shortened by loss of firmness, color and flavor, stem discoloration, desiccation and mould growth. Various factors such as harvest time, proper handling and cooling practices and above all packaging, greatly influence the shelf life of cherries. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). It is one of the fastest growing packaging technologies and has many advantages for different food products. Properly designed modified atmosphere packs can be exploited to lower respiration rates and thus ripening of fruits which results in least changes in physiochemical parameters of sweet cherries during postharvest storage. This paper intended to review a broad spectrum of studies dealt with the use of MAP for preservation of sweet cherries cultivars with an interest for future research work.

  15. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning® Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning® Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication. These

  16. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  17. Crohn's Disease Associated with Sweet's Syndrome and Sjögren's Syndrome Treated with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Erina N.; Nguyen, Khanh K.; Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Prindiville, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The association of Crohn's disease (CD) and Sweet's syndrome is rare and the presence of Sjögren's syndrome in Crohn's disease is even rarer, with only three reports found in the literature. We describe two cases of Crohn's disease associated with Sweet's syndrome, one of which is the first case of CD and Sweet's concomitantly associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Both cases responded rapidly to Infliximab therapy with complete resolution of the skin lesions. PMID:16050146

  18. Control system for a furfural refining unit receiving heavy sweet charge oil

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, F.; Begnaud, J.; Sequeira, A.

    1980-07-08

    A control system is described for a furfural refining unit receiving heavy sweet charge oil and furfural solvent, one of which is maintained at a fixed rate while the flow rate of the other is controlled by the control system, wherein the system treats the received heavy sweet charge oil with the received furfural to yield extract mix and raffinate, comprising gravity analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing a signal API corresponding to the API gravity of the heavy sweet charge oil, flash point analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing a signal FL corresponding to the flash point temperature of the heavy sweet charge oil, viscosity analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing signals KV/sub 150/ and KV/sub 210/ corresponding to the kinematic viscosities, corrected to 150 and 210/sup 0/F, respectively, sulfur analyzer means for sampling the heavy sweet charge oil and providing a signal S corresponding to the sulfur content of the heavy sweet charge oil, flow rate sensing means for sensing the flow rates of the heavy sweet charge oil and of the furfural and providing signals chg and solv, corresponding to the charge oil flow rate and the furfural flow rate, respectively, temperature sensing means sensing the temperature of the extract mix and providing a corresponding signal t, and control means connected to all of the analyzer means, and to all the sensing means for controlling the other flow rate of the heavy sweet charge oil and the furfural flow rates in accordance with signals API, FL, KV/sub 150/, KV/sub 210/, S, T, CHG and SOLV; wherein said control means includes VI signal means connected to the viscosity analyzer means for providing a signal VI corresponding to the viscosity index of the heavy sweet charge oil in accordance with the kinematic viscosity signals KV/sub 150/, KV/sub 210/ and SUS/sub 210/.

  19. The Bamboo-Eating Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Has a Sweet Tooth: Behavioral and Molecular Responses to Compounds That Taste Sweet to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Reed, Danielle R.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume

  20. Metabolic characterization and antioxidant activity in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) Campania accessions: Metabolic characterization of sweet cherry accessions.

    PubMed

    Mirto, Antonio; Iannuzzi, Federica; Carillo, Petronia; Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Fuggi, Amodio

    2018-02-01

    The failure of the antioxidant scavenging system in advanced ripening stages, causing oxidative stress, is one of the most important factor of fruit decay. Production of rich antioxidant fruit could represent a way to delay fruit senescence and preserve its characteristics. We investigated the antioxidant metabolites (ascorbate, glutathione, tocopherols, and polyphenols) and enzymes (ascorbic peroxidases, peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases) involved in the antioxidant response in forty-three accessions of sweet cherry fruits from Campania region. Our results highlight accessions with high antioxidant metabolites contents but low enzymatic activities. These represent important factors in both pre- and post-harvest on the qualitative and nutritional characteristics of sweet cherry. Observed differences are probably due to endogenous characteristics making these accessions particularly interesting for breeding programs aimed to improve fruit quality and shelf-life and for addressing the cultivation of a specific characterized cultivar based on the intended use, fresh consumption or processed products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic interactions of begomoviruses with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (genus Crinivirus) in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Wilmer J; Galvez, Marco; Fuentes, Segundo; Tugume, Joab; Kreuze, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Three hundred and ninety-four sweet potato accessions from Latin America and East Africa were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of begomoviruses, and 46 were found to be positive. All were symptomless in sweet potato and generated leaf curling and/or chlorosis in Ipomoea setosa. The five most divergent isolates, based on complete genome sequences, were used to study interactions with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), known to cause synergistic diseases with other viruses. Co-infections led to increased titres of begomoviruses and decreased titres of SPCSV in all cases, although the extent of the changes varied notably between begomovirus isolates. Symptoms of leaf curling only developed temporarily in combination with isolate StV1 and coincided with the presence of the highest begomovirus concentrations in the plant. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequence analysis revealed that co-infection of SPCSV with isolate StV1 led to relatively increased siRNA targeting of the central part of the SPCSV genome and a reduction in targeting of the genomic ends, but no changes to the targeting of StV1 relative to single infection of either virus. These changes were not observed in the interaction between SPCSV and the RNA virus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (genus Potyvirus), implying specific effects of begomoviruses on RNA silencing of SPCSV in dually infected plants. Infection in RNase3-expressing transgenic plants showed that this protein was sufficient to mediate this synergistic interaction with DNA viruses, similar to RNA viruses, but exposed distinct effects on RNA silencing when RNase3 was expressed from its native virus, or constitutively from a transgene, despite a similar pathogenic outcome. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Autonomic nervous system responses to sweet taste: evidence for habituation rather than pleasure.

    PubMed

    Leterme, A; Brun, L; Dittmar, A; Robin, O

    2008-03-18

    Previous recordings of the variations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters associated with each primary taste (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) showed that sweet taste induced very weak ANS responses, in the same range or weaker than responses evoked by mineral water. The purpose of this study was then to determine whether this weak ANS activation reflects the pleasant hedonic valence of sweet or the habituation of the organism to this innate-accepted taste. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects (8 males and 12 females, mean age=22.85 years) participated in the experiment. Taste stimuli were a solution of 0.3 M sucrose and three sweet flavours (orange juice, coke, lemonade) as "pleasant" sweet stimuli, and a solution of 0.15 M NaCl as an "unpleasant" stimulus. "Evian" mineral water served as the diluent and as a neutral stimulus. Throughout the test, five ANS parameters (skin potential and skin resistance, skin blood flow and skin temperature, instantaneous heart rate) were simultaneously and continuously recorded. After they had tasted each solution, subjects filled out a questionnaire in which they had to evaluate the hedonic dimension and the sweet intensity of each gustative stimulus. The lack of correlation between the mean hedonic scores associated with the four sweet stimuli and the mean values of the autonomic parameter variations tends to indicate that the weak ANS responses induced by the sweet gustative stimuli rather reflect the habituation of the organism to sweet taste than a gradation in sensory pleasure.

  3. Development of sweet sorghum as an energy crop. Volume III. Integration concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Scantland, D.A.; Riddle, W.E.; McClure, T.A.; Woodford, P.G.; Honton, E.J.; Lipinsky, E.S.

    1980-12-12

    For the past 3 years, Battelle's Columbus Division and several co-investigators have conducted interregional investigations related to biomass and sugar production for conversion to alcohol and other fuels. These investigations have emphasized primarily the production of sweet sorghum and sugarcane due to their ability to produce high biomass and readily fermentable sugars' yields which allow a highly favorable energy balance when converted to ethanol. The primary goal of the 1979 research program was to determine the agronomic and economic feasibility of developing sweet sorghum, sweet sorghum hybrids, and sugarcane as energy-producing crops in selected geographic regions of the United States. The objectives of the research include the following: (1) to conduct a prefeasibility analysis of the potential for integrating sugarcane and sugar beet production/processing with sweet sorghum; and (2) to formulate an analytical approach to estimate the economic impact of growing sweet sorghum as an energy crop upon the US agricultural system. This volume is comprised of two separate investigations pertaining to potential integration of sweet sorghum into US agriculture. The first investigation entitled, Economic Potential for Integrating Alcohol Fuels Production from Sweet Sorghum with Other Carbohydrate Crops conducted independently, looks at integration of sweet sorghum from a microeconomic viewpoint, i.e., what would be the effects of combining sweet sorghum with other sugar crops to produce alcohol in terms of plant investment and operating costs.

  4. Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-07-27

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species-selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species-dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds.

  5. Primary sensitization to sweet bell pepper pollen in greenhouse workers with occupational allergy.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A M; Groenewoud, G C M; de Jong, N W; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    2003-10-01

    In a previous investigation, a high prevalence of allergy to sweet bell pepper pollen was found among exposed horticulture workers. Allergy to plant-derived food is often the consequence of primary sensitization to common pollen allergens. We therefore investigated the cross-reactivity between sweet bell pepper pollen and pollen from grass, birch or mugwort. We selected 10 sera from greenhouse workers who had, besides specific IgE against sweet bell pepper pollen, also IgE to grass, birch or mugwort pollen. Cross-reactivity was tested by the inhibition of IgE binding to solid-phase coupled sweet bell pepper pollen extract. The 10 sera were also analysed for IgE binding to sweet bell pepper pollen by immunoblotting. With these sera, no or small inhibition of IgE binding to sweet bell pepper pollen extract was observed with grass, birch and mugwort pollen. With immunoblotting, major IgE-binding structures were seen at 14, 29 and 69 kDa in sweet bell pepper pollen extract. The results of our study demonstrate that sweet bell pepper pollen contains allergens that have no or limited cross-reactivity with common pollen allergens. With sera from the 10 patients tested, sensitization to sweet bell pepper pollen was not the consequence of primary sensitization to common pollen allergens.

  6. Detection of sweet tastants by a conserved group of insect gustatory receptors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Wisotsky, Zev; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2014-01-28

    Sweet taste cells play critical roles in food selection and feeding behaviors. Drosophila sweet neurons express eight gustatory receptors (Grs) belonging to a highly conserved clade in insects. Despite ongoing efforts, little is known about the fundamental principles that underlie how sweet tastants are detected by these receptors. Here, we provide a systematic functional analysis of Drosophila sweet receptors using the ab1C CO2-sensing olfactory neuron as a unique in vivo decoder. We find that each of the eight receptors of this group confers sensitivity to one or more sweet tastants, indicating direct roles in ligand recognition for all sweet receptors. Receptor response profiles are validated by analysis of taste responses in corresponding Gr mutants. The response matrix shows extensive overlap in Gr-ligand interactions and loosely separates sweet receptors into two groups matching their relationships by sequence. We then show that expression of a bitter taste receptor confers sensitivity to selected aversive tastants that match the responses of the neuron that the Gr is derived from. Finally, we characterize an internal fructose-sensing receptor, Gr43a, and its ortholog in the malaria mosquito, AgGr25, in the ab1C expression system. We find that both receptors show robust responses to fructose along with a number of other sweet tastants. Our results provide a molecular basis for tastant detection by the entire repertoire of sweet taste receptors in the fly and lay the foundation for studying Grs in mosquitoes and other insects that transmit deadly diseases.

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Species-dependent Sweet Taste toward Artificial Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-01-01

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species towards the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than that of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds. PMID:21795555

  8. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  9. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    PubMed Central

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene. PMID:28322320

  10. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  11. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission... the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission... the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance...

  16. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Low, Julia Y. Q.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  17. A preliminary study on the application of natural sweet proteins in agar-based gels.

    PubMed

    Miele, Nicoletta A; Di Monaco, Rossella; Dell'Amura, Francesca; Rega, Michele F; Picone, Delia; Cavella, Silvana

    2017-04-01

    Natural sweet proteins may be used as sugar replacer in simple liquid food systems but their applicability in more complex matrices has not been investigated yet. Gelling agent nature and texture characteristics as well as type and distribution of a stimulus in a gel could affect taste perception through inhibition or enhancement of tastants migration to the receptors. The mechanical, nonoral texture and time-intensity sweetness characteristics of sweet proteins MNEI and super sweet Y65R mutant, aspartame and saccharin added at a concentration iso-sweet to 40 g/L of sucrose in three agar gel concentrations (1%, 1.5%, and 2%) were evaluated. The results have shown that agar concentration and agar sweetener interaction particularly affect mechanical fracture stress and non oral hardness of the sweetened gels. Time intensity results illustrated that unlike in solution, the intensity of sweet taste in a gelled system over time decreases. Indeed, the behavior of the sweet proteins differed greatly in the gelled system compared to when they are in solution. MNEI has been proved to be a high-potency sweetener for beverages, but the possibility to use it in semisolid foodstuff was not investigated yet. This study represented a preliminary characterization of two variants of natural sweetener monellin, MNEI and Y65R in semisolid model foodstuff. The data were an important scientific contribution to the knowledge of sweet proteins in agar-based gels and could be useful in order to extend the possible application of these sweet proteins as low calorie sweeteners in semisolid foodstuffs. Some problems concerning their delivered sweetness in agar gels were underlined and their application should be optimized in order to improve sweetness conveyed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 20 Ways To...Collaborate with Families of Children with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Smita; Smith, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty ideas for collaborating with families of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) providing information about ADD to families; (2) planning meetings to accommodate family members; (3) addressing the language needs of families; (4) helping family members develop their advocacy skills; and (5) helping families network with…

  19. It All ADDs Up: Help for Children with Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    Suggestions for working with students with attention deficit disorders (ADD) include: seek medical evaluation; discuss treatment options with the physician and school; communicate with the child's teachers; provide feedback, praise, and consequences; help the child develop social skills; understand when ADD with hyperactivity is disabling; know…

  20. Test Review: Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales and Brown ADD Diagnostic Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Linda

    1996-01-01

    This article on the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) Scale for Adolescents and the Brown ADD Scale for Adults describes the tests' recommended uses, administration, components, standardization, reliability, and validity. The self-report measures are designed for initial screening, as one part of a comprehensive diagnostic assessment, and for…

  1. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under... eliminate a fee. For example, the Director may: (a) Reduce any fee to adjust for any inequities...

  2. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under... eliminate a fee. For example, the Director may: (a) Reduce any fee to adjust for any inequities...

  3. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under... eliminate a fee. For example, the Director may: (a) Reduce any fee to adjust for any inequities...

  4. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  5. 75 FR 73075 - Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and... of Pella, Iowa (Complainant) filed a motion to add a document as Exhibit P-28 to its July 2, 2010... wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The...

  6. 20 Ways To...Collaborate with Families of Children with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Smita; Smith, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty ideas for collaborating with families of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) providing information about ADD to families; (2) planning meetings to accommodate family members; (3) addressing the language needs of families; (4) helping family members develop their advocacy skills; and (5) helping families network with…

  7. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  9. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  10. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  11. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a taxon added to the noxious weeds lists in § 360.200. Details of the petitioning process for adding a taxon...

  12. Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome: Similarities with Subtypes of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matazow, Gail S.; Hynd, George W.

    Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) often exhibit problems in visual spatial perception, math achievement, and social skills, and it has been postulated that this constellation of behaviors may constitute Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome (RHDS). This study examined 21 children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H),…

  13. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance.... 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control Systems Compliance... compliance options by using an emissions control system . . . Fiberboard mat dryer heated zones (at...

  14. Power Parenting for Children with ADD/ADHD: A Practical Parent's Guide for Managing Difficult Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Grad L.

    The first step in dealing with an attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD) child's difficult behavior is to understand its origins. This book presents behavior management techniques to help parents care for their ADD child while ensuring that the child continues to develop positive, healthy self-esteem. The guide shows how to: (1) ensure an accurate…

  15. OCDMA Add/Drop Multiplexer of Self-Healing Rings/Ultrafast Multidimentional Optical CDMA Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    encoderAdd data EDFA TDL ATT PC DSF Fig. 3. Schematic of the optical CDMA add/drop multiplexer. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; TDL: tunable optical...delay line; ATT: attenuator; PC: polarization controller; DSF : dispersion shifted fiber. Distribution Statement: Approved for public release

  16. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  17. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  18. Factor Structure of the PAS-ADD Checklist with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Taylor, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The PAS-ADD Checklist is designed to screen for likely mental health problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The specificity of recommended subscales derived from diagnostic criteria is unclear. This paper therefore investigates the factor structure of the PAS-ADD Checklist to determine the adequacy of empirically…

  19. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  20. 76 FR 58074 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Sanja Iveković: Sweet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Sanja Ivekovi : Sweet Violence... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Sanja Ivekovi : Sweet Violence,'' imported...