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Sample records for dead sensor diagnosis

  1. Multiple sensor fault diagnosis for dynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Chih; Jeng, Jyh-Cheng

    2010-10-01

    Modern industrial plants are usually large scaled and contain a great amount of sensors. Sensor fault diagnosis is crucial and necessary to process safety and optimal operation. This paper proposes a systematic approach to detect, isolate and identify multiple sensor faults for multivariate dynamic systems. The current work first defines deviation vectors for sensor observations, and further defines and derives the basic sensor fault matrix (BSFM), consisting of the normalized basic fault vectors, by several different methods. By projecting a process deviation vector to the space spanned by BSFM, this research uses a vector with the resulted weights on each direction for multiple sensor fault diagnosis. This study also proposes a novel monitoring index and derives corresponding sensor fault detectability. The study also utilizes that vector to isolate and identify multiple sensor faults, and discusses the isolatability and identifiability. Simulation examples and comparison with two conventional PCA-based contribution plots are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  2. Pedestrian dead reckoning using a novel sensor module that interfaces with modern smart devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimac, Philip J.; Demar, Richard W.; Hewitt, Gregory F. S.; McKenna, Mark J.; Jordan, Eric M.; Fordham, Matthew; Haas, John W.

    2015-05-01

    Tracking individuals in areas such as dense urban environments and building interiors is desirable for numerous critical applications, but has been problematic mainly because of the unreliability or unavailability of GPS in many locations of interest. To date, tracking applications that utilize inertial sensors within smart devices have had varied degrees of success: accuracy typically dips below that of standard GPS within minutes and depends strongly on the quality of the sensors in the device, as well as the location that the device is carried on the body. In this paper we present a sensor module that interfaces with modern smart devices and which utilizes a low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf, 9-axis IMU and pressure sensor to provide an advanced pedestrian dead reckoning solution. The sensor module is designed to communicate with the smart device (e.g., iOS, Android or Windows) via the audio jack and is intended for use as a beltmounted pedestrian tracker. In addition to describing the device hardware and functionality, we present our approach to processing the sensor module data streams to determine a user's position. Results using the prototype sensor module in operationally relevant scenarios is presented and discussed.

  3. Breath sensors for lung cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2015-03-15

    The scope of the applications of breath sensors is abundant in disease diagnosis. Lung cancer diagnosis is a well-fitting health-related application of this technology, which is of utmost importance in the health sector, because lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancer types, and it brings a high yearly global burden. The aim of this review is first to provide a rational basis for the development of breath sensors for lung cancer diagnostics from a historical perspective, which will facilitate the transfer of the idea into the rapidly evolving sensors field. Following examples with diagnostic applications include colorimetric, composite, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticle-based, and surface acoustic wave sensor arrays. These select sensor applications are widened by the state-of-the-art developments in the sensors field. Coping with sampling sourced artifacts and cancer staging are among the debated topics, along with the other concerns like proteomics approaches and biomimetic media utilization, feature selection for data classification, and commercialization.

  4. Isolability of faults in sensor fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2011-10-01

    A major concern with fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods is their robustness with respect to noise and modeling uncertainties. With this in mind, several approaches have been proposed to minimize the vulnerability of FDI methods to these uncertainties. But, apart from the algorithm used, there is a theoretical limit on the minimum effect of noise on detectability and isolability. This limit has been quantified in this paper for the problem of sensor fault diagnosis based on direct redundancies. In this study, first a geometric approach to sensor fault detection is proposed. The sensor fault is isolated based on the direction of residuals found from a residual generator. This residual generator can be constructed from an input-output or a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based model. The simplicity of this technique, compared to the existing methods of sensor fault diagnosis, allows for more rational formulation of the isolability concepts in linear systems. Using this residual generator and the assumption of Gaussian noise, the effect of noise on isolability is studied, and the minimum magnitude of isolable fault in each sensor is found based on the distribution of noise in the measurement system. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to clarify this approach.

  5. Activity classification and dead reckoning for pedestrian navigation with wearable sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zuolei; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiangfen

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses an approach which integrates activity classification and dead reckoning techniques in step-based pedestrian navigation. In the proposed method, the pedestrian is equipped with a prototype wearable sensor module to record accelerations and determine the headings while walking. To improve the step detection accuracy, different types of activities are classified according to extracted features by means of a probabilistic neural network (PNN). The vertical acceleration data, which indicate the periodic vibration during gait cycle are filtered through a wavelet transform before being used to count the steps and assess the step length from which the distance traveled is estimated. By coupling the distance with the azimuth, navigation through pedestrian dead reckoning is implemented. This research provides a possible seamless pedestrian navigation solution which can be applied to a wide range of areas where the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal remains vulnerable. Results of two experiments in this paper reveal that the proposed approach is effective in reducing navigation errors and improving accuracy.

  6. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster–Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods. PMID:26797611

  7. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kaijuan; Xiao, Fuyuan; Fei, Liguo; Kang, Bingyi; Deng, Yong

    2016-01-18

    Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster-Shafer (D-R) evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods.

  8. Distributed adaptive diagnosis of sensor faults using structural response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and consistency of wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be compromised by sensor faults, leading to miscalibrations, corrupted data, or even data loss. Several research approaches towards fault diagnosis, referred to as ‘analytical redundancy’, have been proposed that analyze the correlations between different sensor outputs. In wireless SHM, most analytical redundancy approaches require centralized data storage on a server for data analysis, while other approaches exploit the on-board computing capabilities of wireless sensor nodes, analyzing the raw sensor data directly on board. However, using raw sensor data poses an operational constraint due to the limited power resources of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a new distributed autonomous approach towards sensor fault diagnosis based on processed structural response data is presented. The inherent correlations among Fourier amplitudes of acceleration response data, at peaks corresponding to the eigenfrequencies of the structure, are used for diagnosis of abnormal sensor outputs at a given structural condition. Representing an entirely data-driven analytical redundancy approach that does not require any a priori knowledge of the monitored structure or of the SHM system, artificial neural networks (ANN) are embedded into the sensor nodes enabling cooperative fault diagnosis in a fully decentralized manner. The distributed analytical redundancy approach is implemented into a wireless SHM system and validated in laboratory experiments, demonstrating the ability of wireless sensor nodes to self-diagnose sensor faults accurately and efficiently with minimal data traffic. Besides enabling distributed autonomous fault diagnosis, the embedded ANNs are able to adapt to the actual condition of the structure, thus ensuring accurate and efficient fault diagnosis even in case of structural changes.

  9. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  10. Sensor fault diagnosis with a probabilistic decision process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Reza; Langari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a probabilistic approach to sensor fault diagnosis is presented. The proposed method is applicable to systems whose dynamic can be approximated with only few active states, especially in process control where we usually have a relatively slow dynamics. Unlike most existing probabilistic approaches to fault diagnosis, which are based on Bayesian Belief Networks, in this approach the probabilistic model is directly extracted from a parity equation. The relevant parity equation can be found using a model of the system or through principal component analysis of data measured from the system. In addition, a sensor detectability index is introduced that specifies the level of detectability of sensor faults in a set of analytically redundant sensors. This index depends only on the internal relationships of the variables of the system and noise level. The method is tested on a model of the Tennessee Eastman process and the result shows a fast and reliable prediction of fault in the detectable sensors.

  11. Distributed model-based nonlinear sensor fault diagnosis in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chun; Lynch, Jerome P.; Liu, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensors operating in harsh environments have the potential to be error-prone. This paper presents a distributive model-based diagnosis algorithm that identifies nonlinear sensor faults. The diagnosis algorithm has advantages over existing fault diagnosis methods such as centralized model-based and distributive model-free methods. An algorithm is presented for detecting common non-linearity faults without using reference sensors. The study introduces a model-based fault diagnosis framework that is implemented within a pair of wireless sensors. The detection of sensor nonlinearities is shown to be equivalent to solving the largest empty rectangle (LER) problem, given a set of features extracted from an analysis of sensor outputs. A low-complexity algorithm that gives an approximate solution to the LER problem is proposed for embedment in resource constrained wireless sensors. By solving the LER problem, sensors corrupted by non-linearity faults can be isolated and identified. Extensive analysis evaluates the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.

  12. Ventilation/perfusion scan and dead space in pulmonary embolism: are they useful for the diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Giuntini, C

    2001-12-01

    The diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism, based on the mismatch of the ventilation/perfusion scan, was developed some 30 years ago on the following assumption: since the disorder involves the pulmonary vessels, it was surmised that in the embolized regions lung alveoli are unperfused or poorly perfused but well ventilated. Hence, it was inferred that this disorder was characterized, unlike parenchymal disease, by ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the affected lung zones and by an obvious increase of wasted ventilation, i.e., dead space. As matter of fact, experimental evidence on the redistribution of ventilation away from the vascular occluded lung had been already obtained in the early 60s of the last century. More recently, the behavior of regional pulmonary ventilation (V(A)) and blood flow (Q) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has been studied by applying the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). It has been shown that the development of lung units with high V(A)/Q ratio (those with relative prevalence of perfusion obstruction) is accompanied by substantial redistribution of ventilation away from these units. Furthermore, radioisotopic techniques, used to visualize the topographic distributions of V(A) and Q in the same patients studied by MIGET, have shown reduced or absent V(A) in the embolized regions. This may occur by different mechanisms in the various stages of APE: bronchoconstriction mediated by local hypocapnia, atelectasis (occasionally hemorrhagic) related to alteration of surfactant production, bronchiolar obstruction and pulmonary infarction ascribed to degenerative and/or necrotic changes secondary to insufficient blood flow. In dogs and humans alike, the dead space measured by MIGET does not increase and that obtained from CO2 increases far less than the amount of unperfused lung in APE thus confirming a substantial redistribution of ventilation away from the embolized lung zones. Taken together, all these

  13. Chip-Based Sensors for Disease Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhichao

    Nucleic acid analysis is one of the most important disease diagnostic approaches in medical practice, and has been commonly used in cancer biomarker detection, bacterial speciation and many other fields in laboratory. Currently, the application of powerful research methods for genetic analysis, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene expression profiling using fluorescence microarrays, are not widely used in hospitals and extended-care units due to high-cost, long detection times, and extensive sample preparation. Bioassays, especially chip-based electrochemical sensors, may be suitable for the next generation of rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection tools. Herein, we report three different microelectrode platforms with capabilities enabled by nano- and microtechnology: nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), nanostructured microelectrodes (NMEs), and hierarchical nanostructured microelectrodes (HNMEs), all of which are able to directly detect unpurified RNA in clinical samples without enzymatic amplification. Biomarkers that are cancer and infectious disease relevant to clinical medicine were chosen to be the targets. Markers were successfully detected with clinically-relevant sensitivity. Using peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as probes and an electrocatalytic reporter system, NEEs were able to detect prostate cancer-related gene fusions in tumor tissue samples with 100 ng of RNA. The development of NMEs improved the sensitivity of the assay further to 10 aM of DNA target, and multiplexed detection of RNA sequences of different prostate cancer-related gene fusion types was achieved on the chip-based NMEs platform. An HNMEs chip integrated with a bacterial lysis device was able to detect as few as 25 cfu bacteria in 30 minutes and monitor the detection in real time. Bacterial detection could also be performed in neat urine samples. The development of these versatile clinical diagnostic tools could be extended to the detection of various

  14. Open Circuit Resonant Sensors for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, John J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program work was begun to investigate the feasibility of sensor systems for detecting and diagnosing damage to aircraft composite structures and materials. Specific interest for this study was in damage initiated by environmental storm hazards and the direct effect of lightning strikes on the material structures of a composite aircraft in flight. A series of open circuit resonant sensors was designed, fabricated, characterized, and determined to be a potentially viable means for damage detection and diagnosis of composite materials. The results of this research and development effort are documented in this report.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  16. Dead reckoner navigation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R.; Sweet, L.

    1981-01-01

    A previous dead reckoner involved a classical gyrocompass, a Hewlett-Packard minicomputer, and a true airspeed sensor. In an effort to bring the cost of this system more in line with the realities of general aviation, recent work was done on replacing the minicomputer with a microcomputer and implementing a fluidic rate sensor in the compass system in place of the directional gyro.

  17. Optic fiber pulse-diagnosis sensor of traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J. S.; Jin, W.; Zhao, B. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Wang, C.; Li, S. J.; Zhang, F. X.; Peng, G. D.

    2013-09-01

    The wrist-pulse is a kind of signals, from which a lot of physiological and pathological status of patients are deduced according to traditional Chinese medicine theories. This paper designs a new optic fiber wrist-pulse sensor that based on a group of FBGs. Sensitivity of the optic fiber wrist-pulse measurement system reaches 0.05% FS and the range reaches 50kPa. Frequency response is from 0 Hz to 5 kHz. A group of typical pulse signal is given out in the paper to compare different status of patient. It will improve quantification of pulse diagnosis greatly.

  18. Fault diagnosis for micro-gas turbine engine sensors via wavelet entropy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can't be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient.

  19. Fault Diagnosis for Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Sensors via Wavelet Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. PMID:22163734

  20. Diagnosis and sensor validation through knowledge of structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarl, Ethan A.; Jamieson, John R.; Delaune, Carl I.

    1987-01-01

    The liquid oxygen expert system 'LES' is proposed as the first capable of diagnostic reasoning from sensor data, using model-based knowledge of structure and function to find the expected state of all system objects, including sensors. The approach is generally algorithmic rather than heuristic, and represents uncertainties as sets of possibilities. Functional relationships are inverted to determine hypothetical values for potentially faulty objects, and may include conditional functions not normally considered to have inverses.

  1. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-sheng; Xu, Yong-hui; Yang, Jing-li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

  2. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Hui; Yang, Jing-Li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

  3. Sensor Fault Detection and Diagnosis Simulation of a Helicopter Engine in an Intelligent Control Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan; Kurtkaya, Mehmet; Duyar, Ahmet

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a fault detection and diagnosis scheme for the sensor faults of a helicopter engine. The scheme utilizes a model-based approach with real time identification and hypothesis testing which can provide early detection, isolation, and diagnosis of failures. It is an integral part of a proposed intelligent control system with health monitoring capabilities. The intelligent control system will allow for accommodation of faults, reduce maintenance cost, and increase system availability. The scheme compares the measured outputs of the engine with the expected outputs of an engine whose sensor suite is functioning normally. If the differences between the real and expected outputs exceed threshold values, a fault is detected. The isolation of sensor failures is accomplished through a fault parameter isolation technique where parameters which model the faulty process are calculated on-line with a real-time multivariable parameter estimation algorithm. The fault parameters and their patterns can then be analyzed for diagnostic and accommodation purposes. The scheme is applied to the detection and diagnosis of sensor faults of a T700 turboshaft engine. Sensor failures are induced in a T700 nonlinear performance simulation and data obtained are used with the scheme to detect, isolate, and estimate the magnitude of the faults.

  4. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen; Xie, Chunhe; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Shou, Yehang; Tang, Yongchuan

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B), can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster–Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection. PMID:27649193

  5. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Xie, Chunhe; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Shou, Yehang; Tang, Yongchuan

    2016-09-15

    Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B), can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection.

  6. Sensor Data Fusion with Z-Numbers and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Xie, Chunhe; Zhuang, Miaoyan; Shou, Yehang; Tang, Yongchuan

    2016-01-01

    Sensor data fusion technology is widely employed in fault diagnosis. The information in a sensor data fusion system is characterized by not only fuzziness, but also partial reliability. Uncertain information of sensors, including randomness, fuzziness, etc., has been extensively studied recently. However, the reliability of a sensor is often overlooked or cannot be analyzed adequately. A Z-number, Z = (A, B), can represent the fuzziness and the reliability of information simultaneously, where the first component A represents a fuzzy restriction on the values of uncertain variables and the second component B is a measure of the reliability of A. In order to model and process the uncertainties in a sensor data fusion system reasonably, in this paper, a novel method combining the Z-number and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is proposed, where the Z-number is used to model the fuzziness and reliability of the sensor data and the D-S evidence theory is used to fuse the uncertain information of Z-numbers. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it provides a more robust measure of reliability to the sensor data, and the complementary information of multi-sensors reduces the uncertainty of the fault recognition, thus enhancing the reliability of fault detection. PMID:27649193

  7. Silicon Nanowire Sensors Enable Diagnosis of Patients via Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Shehada, Nisreen; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Pariente, Enrique S; Brönstrup, Gerald; Christiansen, Silke; Johnson, Douglas W; Leja, Marcis; Davies, Michael P A; Liran, Ori; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam

    2016-07-26

    Two of the biggest challenges in medicine today are the need to detect diseases in a noninvasive manner and to differentiate between patients using a single diagnostic tool. The current study targets these two challenges by developing a molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW FET) and showing its use in the detection and classification of many disease breathprints (lung cancer, gastric cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The fabricated SiNW FETs are characterized and optimized based on a training set that correlate their sensitivity and selectivity toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) linked with the various disease breathprints. The best sensors obtained in the training set are then examined under real-world clinical conditions, using breath samples from 374 subjects. Analysis of the clinical samples show that the optimized SiNW FETs can detect and discriminate between almost all binary comparisons of the diseases under examination with >80% accuracy. Overall, this approach has the potential to support detection of many diseases in a direct harmless way, which can reassure patients and prevent numerous unpleasant investigations. PMID:27383408

  8. Vibration Sensor Data Denoising Using a Time-Frequency Manifold for Machinery Fault Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods. PMID:24379045

  9. Vibration sensor data denoising using a time-frequency manifold for machinery fault diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-12-27

    Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods.

  10. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-01-01

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method. PMID:25192318

  11. Robust dead reckoning system for mobile robots based on particle filter and raw range scan.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-09-04

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  12. Guided wave diagnosis in composite grid structure with embedded FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Masataro; Arai, Takeo; Takeda, Nobuo

    2007-04-01

    The authors tried to construct a structural health monitoring (SHM) system to identify damage in composite grid structure called Advanced Grid Structure (AGS) by using two types of guided waves, compressional and flexural waves, propagating along ribs of AGS. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors network embedded in AGS is utilized as their receivers. AGS is defined as trussed structures whose ribs are made of Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). AGS has often been applied to aerospace structures because it is structurally effective and redundant. The authors had reported one possible method of SHM of AGS by monitoring of static strain distribution with embedded FBG sensors network in AGS. In this paper, we propose another possible method of SHM of AGS. We utilized two types of guided waves, compressional and flexural waves, for damage diagnosis. First, we verified our proposed system experimentally. The results confirmed that FBG sensors could measure both elastic waves and two types of guided waves were generated with the proposed system. Then, some basic characteristics of compressional and flexural wave propagations were clarified experimentally to find that compressional wave has directionality and flexural wave has isotropy. Based on the characteristics, the authors proposed two types of damage diagnosis methods with compressional and flexural waves, respectively. Moreover, those proposed methods were applied to two specific damage types, rib crack and debonding between ribs and skin. The specific damage diagnosis methods were verified experimentally to find that damages could be detected by those methods.

  13. Optimal Design of the Absolute Positioning Sensor for a High-Speed Maglev Train and Research on Its Fault Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dapeng; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song; Zhang, Junge

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and receiving coils and realizes the hardware and the software for the sensor. In order to enhance the reliability of the sensor, a support vector machine is used to recognize the fault characters, and the signal flow method is used to locate the faulty parts. The diagnosis information not only can be sent to an upper center control computer to evaluate the reliability of the sensors, but also can realize on-line diagnosis for debugging and the quick detection when the maglev train is off-line. The absolute positioning sensor we study has been used in the actual project. PMID:23112619

  14. Optimal design of the absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and research on its fault diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dapeng; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song; Zhang, Junge

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies an absolute positioning sensor for a high-speed maglev train and its fault diagnosis method. The absolute positioning sensor is an important sensor for the high-speed maglev train to accomplish its synchronous traction. It is used to calibrate the error of the relative positioning sensor which is used to provide the magnetic phase signal. On the basis of the analysis for the principle of the absolute positioning sensor, the paper describes the design of the sending and receiving coils and realizes the hardware and the software for the sensor. In order to enhance the reliability of the sensor, a support vector machine is used to recognize the fault characters, and the signal flow method is used to locate the faulty parts. The diagnosis information not only can be sent to an upper center control computer to evaluate the reliability of the sensors, but also can realize on-line diagnosis for debugging and the quick detection when the maglev train is off-line. The absolute positioning sensor we study has been used in the actual project.

  15. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of self-validating multifunctional sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-li; Chen, Yin-sheng; Zhang, Li-li; Sun, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy for self-validating multifunctional sensors is presented in this paper. The sparse non-negative matrix factorization-based method can effectively detect faults by using the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and the variables contribution plots based on SPE statistic can help to locate and isolate the faulty sensitive units. The complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition is employed to decompose the fault signals to a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The sample entropy (SampEn)-weighted energy values of each IMFs and the residual are estimated to represent the characteristics of the fault signals. Multi-class support vector machine is introduced to identify the fault mode with the purpose of diagnosing status of the faulty sensitive units. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other fault detection strategies such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and fault diagnosis strategies such as empirical mode decomposition coupled with support vector machine. The proposed strategy is fully evaluated in a real self-validating multifunctional sensors experimental system, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID research topic of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

  16. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Li; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Li; Sun, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy for self-validating multifunctional sensors is presented in this paper. The sparse non-negative matrix factorization-based method can effectively detect faults by using the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and the variables contribution plots based on SPE statistic can help to locate and isolate the faulty sensitive units. The complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition is employed to decompose the fault signals to a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The sample entropy (SampEn)-weighted energy values of each IMFs and the residual are estimated to represent the characteristics of the fault signals. Multi-class support vector machine is introduced to identify the fault mode with the purpose of diagnosing status of the faulty sensitive units. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other fault detection strategies such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and fault diagnosis strategies such as empirical mode decomposition coupled with support vector machine. The proposed strategy is fully evaluated in a real self-validating multifunctional sensors experimental system, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID research topic of self-validating multifunctional sensors. PMID:27370486

  17. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Li; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Li; Sun, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy for self-validating multifunctional sensors is presented in this paper. The sparse non-negative matrix factorization-based method can effectively detect faults by using the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and the variables contribution plots based on SPE statistic can help to locate and isolate the faulty sensitive units. The complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition is employed to decompose the fault signals to a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The sample entropy (SampEn)-weighted energy values of each IMFs and the residual are estimated to represent the characteristics of the fault signals. Multi-class support vector machine is introduced to identify the fault mode with the purpose of diagnosing status of the faulty sensitive units. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other fault detection strategies such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and fault diagnosis strategies such as empirical mode decomposition coupled with support vector machine. The proposed strategy is fully evaluated in a real self-validating multifunctional sensors experimental system, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID research topic of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

  18. Sensors and systems for space applications: a methodology for developing fault detection, diagnosis, and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, John L.; Beekman, Randy M.; Buchanan, David B.; Farner, Scott; Gershzohn, Gary R.; Khuzadi, Mbuyi; Mikula, D. F.; Nissen, Gerry; Peck, James; Taylor, Shaun

    2007-04-01

    Human space travel is inherently dangerous. Hazardous conditions will exist. Real time health monitoring of critical subsystems is essential for providing a safe abort timeline in the event of a catastrophic subsystem failure. In this paper, we discuss a practical and cost effective process for developing critical subsystem failure detection, diagnosis and response (FDDR). We also present the results of a real time health monitoring simulation of a propellant ullage pressurization subsystem failure. The health monitoring development process identifies hazards, isolates hazard causes, defines software partitioning requirements and quantifies software algorithm development. The process provides a means to establish the number and placement of sensors necessary to provide real time health monitoring. We discuss how health monitoring software tracks subsystem control commands, interprets off-nominal operational sensor data, predicts failure propagation timelines, corroborate failures predictions and formats failure protocol.

  19. Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  20. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  1. Privacy-Preserving Self-Helped Medical Diagnosis Scheme Based on Secure Two-Party Computation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Wenmin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing growth of wireless sensor networks in pervasive medical care, people pay more and more attention to privacy in medical monitoring, diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. On one hand, we expect the public health institutions to provide us with better service. On the other hand, we would not like to leak our personal health information to them. In order to balance this contradiction, in this paper we design a privacy-preserving self-helped medical diagnosis scheme based on secure two-party computation in wireless sensor networks so that patients can privately diagnose themselves by inputting a health card into a self-helped medical diagnosis ATM to obtain a diagnostic report just like drawing money from a bank ATM without revealing patients' health information and doctors' diagnostic skill. It makes secure self-helped disease diagnosis feasible and greatly benefits patients as well as relieving the heavy pressure of public health institutions. PMID:25126107

  2. "I Owe Her So Much; Without Her I Would Be Dead": Developing a Model of Mother-Infant Bonding Following a Maternal Antenatal HIV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, Kate; Evangeli, Michael; Anderson, Jane; Zetler, Sarah; Scourse, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Women can face a period of psychological vulnerability following antenatal HIV diagnosis, affecting feelings about both the pregnancy and motherhood. Our study explored the impact of being diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy on mother-infant bonding. Grounded Theory was used to assess perceived challenges and facilitating factors for mother-infant bonding for 10 mothers given an HIV diagnosis during pregnancy. Data analysis led to a model of mother-infant bonding composed of four theoretical codes: (a) facing barriers to bonding, (b) feeling disconnected from the baby, (c) developing a special bond, and (d) strengthening and moving on. Challenges with bonding emerged primarily during early stages after diagnosis and birth, with maternal resilience and positivity about the future developing as the infant HIV testing process progressed. Study recommendations include more timely information regarding vertical transmission and more targeted psychological support along with greater promotion of services to support women diagnosed with HIV antenatally.

  3. Diagnosis of Intoxication by the Organophosphate VX: Comparison Between an Electrochemical Sensor and Ellman´s Photometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Hrabinova, Martina; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor is introduced as a tool applicable for diagnosis of intoxication by cholinesterase inhibitors caused by the well-known nerve agent VX. The traditional Ellman method was chosen for comparison with the sensor's analytical parameters. Both methods are based on estimation of blood cholinesterase inhibition as a marker of intoxication. While Ellman's method provided a limit of detection of 5.2×10-7 M for blood containing VX, the electrochemical sensor was able to detect 4.0×10-7 M. Good correlation between both methods was observed (R = 0.92). The electrochemical sensor could be considered a convenient tool for a fast yet accurate method, easily available for field as well as laboratory use. Time and cost savings are key features of the sensor-based assay.

  4. [Dreams and the dead].

    PubMed

    Mestre, Claire

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the issue of dreams and the dead as an essential tool for transcultural psychotherapy and how the dreamlike vision of the dead and its interpretation constitute a turning point in transcultural therapy. Drawing from a clinical example, the author illustrates how the spatial analogy between dreams and the world of the dead has allowed a patient to reconstruct a psychological space severely disturbed by trauma endured.

  5. Machine-learning-based diagnosis of schizophrenia using combined sensor-level and source-level EEG features.

    PubMed

    Shim, Miseon; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Recently, an increasing number of researchers have endeavored to develop practical tools for diagnosing patients with schizophrenia using machine learning techniques applied to EEG biomarkers. Although a number of studies showed that source-level EEG features can potentially be applied to the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia, most studies have used only sensor-level EEG features such as ERP peak amplitude and power spectrum for machine learning-based diagnosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we used both sensor-level and source-level features extracted from EEG signals recorded during an auditory oddball task for the classification of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. EEG signals were recorded from 34 patients with schizophrenia and 34 healthy controls while each subject was asked to attend to oddball tones. Our results demonstrated higher classification accuracy when source-level features were used together with sensor-level features, compared to when only sensor-level features were used. In addition, the selected sensor-level features were mostly found in the frontal area, and the selected source-level features were mostly extracted from the temporal area, which coincide well with the well-known pathological region of cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia. Our results suggest that our approach would be a promising tool for the computer-aided diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  6. Machine-learning-based diagnosis of schizophrenia using combined sensor-level and source-level EEG features.

    PubMed

    Shim, Miseon; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Kim, Do-Won; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Recently, an increasing number of researchers have endeavored to develop practical tools for diagnosing patients with schizophrenia using machine learning techniques applied to EEG biomarkers. Although a number of studies showed that source-level EEG features can potentially be applied to the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia, most studies have used only sensor-level EEG features such as ERP peak amplitude and power spectrum for machine learning-based diagnosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we used both sensor-level and source-level features extracted from EEG signals recorded during an auditory oddball task for the classification of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. EEG signals were recorded from 34 patients with schizophrenia and 34 healthy controls while each subject was asked to attend to oddball tones. Our results demonstrated higher classification accuracy when source-level features were used together with sensor-level features, compared to when only sensor-level features were used. In addition, the selected sensor-level features were mostly found in the frontal area, and the selected source-level features were mostly extracted from the temporal area, which coincide well with the well-known pathological region of cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia. Our results suggest that our approach would be a promising tool for the computer-aided diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:27427557

  7. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  8. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  9. Vibration sensor-based bearing fault diagnosis using ellipsoid-ARTMAP and differential evolution algorithms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Qinglu; Zhang, Yanchao

    2014-06-16

    Effective fault classification of rolling element bearings provides an important basis for ensuring safe operation of rotating machinery. In this paper, a novel vibration sensor-based fault diagnosis method using an Ellipsoid-ARTMAP network (EAM) and a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is proposed. The original features are firstly extracted from vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition. Then, a minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy algorithm is introduced to select the most prominent features so as to decrease feature dimensions. Finally, a DE-based EAM (DE-EAM) classifier is constructed to realize the fault diagnosis. The major characteristic of EAM is that the sample distribution of each category is realized by using a hyper-ellipsoid node and smoothing operation algorithm. Therefore, it can depict the decision boundary of disperse samples accurately and effectively avoid over-fitting phenomena. To optimize EAM network parameters, the DE algorithm is presented and two objectives, including both classification accuracy and nodes number, are simultaneously introduced as the fitness functions. Meanwhile, an exponential criterion is proposed to realize final selection of the optimal parameters. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, the vibration signals of four types of rolling element bearings under different loads were collected. Moreover, to improve the robustness of the classifier evaluation, a two-fold cross validation scheme is adopted and the order of feature samples is randomly arranged ten times within each fold. The results show that DE-EAM classifier can recognize the fault categories of the rolling element bearings reliably and accurately.

  10. Vibration Sensor-Based Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using Ellipsoid-ARTMAP and Differential Evolution Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Qinglu; Zhang, Yanchao

    2014-01-01

    Effective fault classification of rolling element bearings provides an important basis for ensuring safe operation of rotating machinery. In this paper, a novel vibration sensor-based fault diagnosis method using an Ellipsoid-ARTMAP network (EAM) and a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is proposed. The original features are firstly extracted from vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition. Then, a minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy algorithm is introduced to select the most prominent features so as to decrease feature dimensions. Finally, a DE-based EAM (DE-EAM) classifier is constructed to realize the fault diagnosis. The major characteristic of EAM is that the sample distribution of each category is realized by using a hyper-ellipsoid node and smoothing operation algorithm. Therefore, it can depict the decision boundary of disperse samples accurately and effectively avoid over-fitting phenomena. To optimize EAM network parameters, the DE algorithm is presented and two objectives, including both classification accuracy and nodes number, are simultaneously introduced as the fitness functions. Meanwhile, an exponential criterion is proposed to realize final selection of the optimal parameters. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, the vibration signals of four types of rolling element bearings under different loads were collected. Moreover, to improve the robustness of the classifier evaluation, a two-fold cross validation scheme is adopted and the order of feature samples is randomly arranged ten times within each fold. The results show that DE-EAM classifier can recognize the fault categories of the rolling element bearings reliably and accurately. PMID:24936949

  11. Performance limitations of label-free sensors in molecular diagnosis using complex samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Manoj

    2016-03-01

    Label-free biosensors promised a paradigm involving direct detection of biomarkers from complex samples such as serum without requiring multistep sample processing typical of labelled methods such as ELISA or immunofluorescence assays. Label-free sensors have witnessed decades of development with a veritable zoo of techniques available today exploiting a multitude of physical effects. It is appropriate now to critically assess whether label-free technologies have succeeded in delivering their promise with respect to diagnostic applications, particularly, ambitious goals such as early cancer detection using serum biomarkers, which require low limits of detection (LoD). Comparison of nearly 120 limits of detection (LoD) values reported by labelled and label-free sensing approaches over a wide range of detection techniques and target molecules in serum revealed that labeled techniques achieve 2-3 orders of magnitude better LoDs. Data from experiments where labelled and label-free assays were performed simultaneously using the same assay parameters also confirm that the LoD achieved by labelled techniques is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude better than that by label-free techniques. Furthermore, label-free techniques required significant signal amplification, for e.g. using nanoparticle conjugated secondary antibodies, to achieve LoDs comparable to labelled methods substantially deviating from the original "direct detection" paradigm. This finding has important implications on the practical limits of applying label-free detection methods for molecular diagnosis.

  12. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  13. Enhanced Sensitivity of Gas Sensor Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin-Film Transistors for Disease Diagnosis and Environment Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Marco R; Izquierdo, José E E; Braga, Guilherme S; Dirani, Ely A T; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Rodríguez, Estrella F G; Fonseca, Fernando J

    2015-01-01

    Electronic devices based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) have the potential to supply the demand for portable and low-cost gadgets, mainly as sensors for in situ disease diagnosis and environment monitoring. For that reason, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the active layer in the widely-used bottom-gate/bottom-contact OTFT structure was deposited over highly-doped silicon substrates covered with thermally-grown oxide to detect vapor-phase compounds. A ten-fold organochloride and ammonia sensitivity compared to bare sensors corroborated the application of this semiconducting polymer in sensors. Furthermore, P3HT TFTs presented approximately three-order higher normalized sensitivity than any chemical sensor addressed herein. The results demonstrate that while TFTs respond linearly at the lowest concentration values herein, chemical sensors present such an operating regime mostly above 2000 ppm. Simultaneous alteration of charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage is responsible for pushing the detection limit down to units of ppm of ammonia, as well as tens of ppm of alcohol or ketones. Nevertheless, P3HT transistors and chemical sensors could compose an electronic nose operated at room temperature for a wide range concentration evaluation (1-10,000 ppm) of gaseous analytes. Targeted analytes include not only biomarkers for diseases, such as uremia, cirrhosis, lung cancer and diabetes, but also gases for environment monitoring in food, cosmetic and microelectronics industries.

  14. Enhanced Sensitivity of Gas Sensor Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin-Film Transistors for Disease Diagnosis and Environment Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Marco R.; Izquierdo, José E. E.; Braga, Guilherme S.; Dirani, Ely A. T.; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A.; Rodríguez, Estrella F. G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic devices based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) have the potential to supply the demand for portable and low-cost gadgets, mainly as sensors for in situ disease diagnosis and environment monitoring. For that reason, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the active layer in the widely-used bottom-gate/bottom-contact OTFT structure was deposited over highly-doped silicon substrates covered with thermally-grown oxide to detect vapor-phase compounds. A ten-fold organochloride and ammonia sensitivity compared to bare sensors corroborated the application of this semiconducting polymer in sensors. Furthermore, P3HT TFTs presented approximately three-order higher normalized sensitivity than any chemical sensor addressed herein. The results demonstrate that while TFTs respond linearly at the lowest concentration values herein, chemical sensors present such an operating regime mostly above 2000 ppm. Simultaneous alteration of charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage is responsible for pushing the detection limit down to units of ppm of ammonia, as well as tens of ppm of alcohol or ketones. Nevertheless, P3HT transistors and chemical sensors could compose an electronic nose operated at room temperature for a wide range concentration evaluation (1–10,000 ppm) of gaseous analytes. Targeted analytes include not only biomarkers for diseases, such as uremia, cirrhosis, lung cancer and diabetes, but also gases for environment monitoring in food, cosmetic and microelectronics industries. PMID:25912354

  15. Enhanced Sensitivity of Gas Sensor Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin-Film Transistors for Disease Diagnosis and Environment Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Marco R; Izquierdo, José E E; Braga, Guilherme S; Dirani, Ely A T; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Rodríguez, Estrella F G; Fonseca, Fernando J

    2015-01-01

    Electronic devices based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) have the potential to supply the demand for portable and low-cost gadgets, mainly as sensors for in situ disease diagnosis and environment monitoring. For that reason, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the active layer in the widely-used bottom-gate/bottom-contact OTFT structure was deposited over highly-doped silicon substrates covered with thermally-grown oxide to detect vapor-phase compounds. A ten-fold organochloride and ammonia sensitivity compared to bare sensors corroborated the application of this semiconducting polymer in sensors. Furthermore, P3HT TFTs presented approximately three-order higher normalized sensitivity than any chemical sensor addressed herein. The results demonstrate that while TFTs respond linearly at the lowest concentration values herein, chemical sensors present such an operating regime mostly above 2000 ppm. Simultaneous alteration of charge carrier mobility and threshold voltage is responsible for pushing the detection limit down to units of ppm of ammonia, as well as tens of ppm of alcohol or ketones. Nevertheless, P3HT transistors and chemical sensors could compose an electronic nose operated at room temperature for a wide range concentration evaluation (1-10,000 ppm) of gaseous analytes. Targeted analytes include not only biomarkers for diseases, such as uremia, cirrhosis, lung cancer and diabetes, but also gases for environment monitoring in food, cosmetic and microelectronics industries. PMID:25912354

  16. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener.

    PubMed

    An, Yun-Kyu; Shen, Zhiqi; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-09-16

    This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ.

  17. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Lightning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chuantong; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage and empennage structures, control surfaces and coverings. However, the potential damage from the direct and indirect effects of lightning strikes is of increased concern to aircraft designers and operators. When a lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface must be found by visual inspection, and then assessed for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. In this paper, a new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented. The method and system are based on open circuit (SansEC) sensor technology developed at NASA Langley Research Center. SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect damage in composite materials. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. Unique electrical signatures are used for damage detection and diagnosis. NASA LaRC has both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection.

  18. A Distributed Multi-hop Low Cost Time Synchronization Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network developed for Bridge Diagnosis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Haitao; Ogai, Harutoshi; Ding, Zhehan

    Due to the oceanic climate and frequent earthquakes in Japan, bridge health diagnosis is a problem of greater complexity. In bridge diagnosis system, we develop a wireless sensor network to sample and gather the vibration data of bridge. Time synchronization is a crucial component for the wireless sensor network (WSN), because large populations of sensor nodes will collaborate in order to complete the measuring data at the same time, data gathering, data fusion and localization. In the wireless sensor network with large scale of energy limited nodes, multi-hop time synchronization is necessarily applied. To solve above mentioned problem, some protocols such as RBS, TSPN FTPS etc. are proposed. However most of the algorithms mainly focus on the precision of synchronization. In fact energy efficiency is also a challenge in a resource-limited WSN. In this paper an improved time synchronization scheme is proposed with the purpose of reducing energy consumption and lengthening whole WSN'life. Performance analyses, simulations and realization in node hardware of WSN are also presented.

  19. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener.

    PubMed

    An, Yun-Kyu; Shen, Zhiqi; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ. PMID:27649200

  20. Stripe-PZT Sensor-Based Baseline-Free Crack Diagnosis in a Structure with a Welded Stiffener

    PubMed Central

    An, Yun-Kyu; Shen, Zhiqi; Wu, Zhishen

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board. Moreover, a new frequency-wavenumber analysis-based baseline-free crack diagnosis algorithm minimizes false alarms caused by environmental variations by avoiding simple comparison with the baseline data accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique is numerically as well as experimentally validated using a plate-like structure with a welded stiffener, reveling that it successfully identifies and localizes a crack in HAZ. PMID:27649200

  1. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  2. Airdata sensor based position estimation and fault diagnosis in aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevil, Hakki Erhan

    Aerial refueling is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight. In aerial refueling operations, the receiver aircraft is exposed to nonuniform wind field induced by tanker aircraft, and this nonuniform wind field leads to differences in readings of airdata sensors placed at different locations on the receiver aircraft. There are advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon. As an advantage, it is used as a mechanism to estimate relative position of the receiver aircraft inside the nonuniform wind field behind the tanker. Using the difference in the measurements from multiple identical sensors, a model of the nonuniform wind field that is organized as maps of the airspeed, side slip angle and angle of attack as functions of the relative position is prepared. Then, using the developed algorithms, preformed maps and instant sensor readings, the relative position receiver aircraft is determined. The disadvantage of the phenomenon is that the differences in readings of airdata sensors cause false fault detections in a redundant-sensor-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system developed based on the assumption of identical sensor readings from three airdata sensors. Such FDI algorithm successfully performs detection and isolation of sensor faults when the receiver aircraft flies solo or outside the wake of the tanker aircraft. However, the FDI algorithm yields false fault detection when the receiver aircraft enters the tanker's wake. This problem can be eliminated by modifying the FDI algorithm. For the robustness, the expected values of the sensor measurements are incorporated in the FDI algorithm, instead of the assumption of identical measurements from the sensors. The expected values, which depend on the position of the receiver relative to the tanker, are obtained from the maps of the nonuniform wind field as functions of the relative position. The new robust FDI detects and isolates sensor

  3. Dynamic Nanoparticle-Based Flexible Sensors: Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma from Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Nicole; Lavie, Ofer; Paz, Moran; Segev, Yakir; Haick, Hossam

    2015-10-14

    Flexible sensors based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated into a dynamic cross-reactive diagnostic sensing array. Each bending state of the GNP-based flexible sensor gives unique nanoparticle spatial organization, altering the interaction between GNP ligands and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which increases the amount of data obtainable from each sensor. Individual dynamic flexible sensor could selectively detect parts per billion (ppb) level VOCs that are linked with ovarian cancers in exhaled breath and discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples, but do not relate to ovarian cancer per se. Strain-related response successfully discriminated between exhaled breath collected from control subjects and those with ovarian cancer, with data from a single sensor being sufficient to obtain 82% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors, such as tobacco consumption and comorbidities. The approach raises the hope of achieving an extremely simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnostic procedure for cancer and other diseases. PMID:26352191

  4. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop

  5. A regenerative label-free fiber optic sensor using surface plasmon resonance for clinical diagnosis of fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tan Tai; Bea, Sun Oh; Kim, Dong Min; Yoon, Won Jung; Park, Jin-Won; An, Seong Soo A; Ju, Heongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We present the regenerative label-free fiber optical biosensor that exploits surface plasmon resonance for quantitative detection of fibrinogen (Fbg) extracted from human blood plasma. Materials and methods The sensor head was made up of a multimode optical fiber with its polymer cladding replaced by metal composite of nanometer thickness made of silver, aluminum, and nickel. The Ni layer coated allowed a direct immobilization of histidine-tagged peptide (HP) on its metal surface without an additional cross-linker in between. On the coated HP layer, immunoglobulin G was then immobilized for specific capturing of Fbg. Results We demonstrated a real-time quantitative detection of Fbg concentrations with limit of detection of ~10 ng/mL. The fact that the HP layer could be removed by imidazole with acid also permitted us to demonstrate the regeneration of the outermost metal surface of the sensor head for the sensor reusability. Conclusion The sensor detection limit was estimated to be ~10 pM, which was believed to be sensitive enough for detecting Fbg during the clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, strokes, and Alzheimer’s diseases. PMID:26347331

  6. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electromechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based device provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of the benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis for the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for mechanical characterization of the tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make it conducting. The electromechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers 180μm × 180μm area and the size of the complete device is 20mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1mm and the thickness was 8μm. The region of interest was 200μm × 200μm. Microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancer breast tissue specimens. PMID:26526747

  7. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor Technology for Lightning Mitigation and Damage Detection and Diagnosis for Composite Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Smith, Laura J.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods to protect composite aircraft from lightning strike damage rely on a conductive layer embedded on or within the surface of the aircraft composite skin. This method is effective at preventing major direct effect damage and minimizes indirect effects to aircraft systems from lightning strike attachment, but provides no additional benefit for the added parasitic weight from the conductive layer. When a known lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface are visually inspected and checked for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. A new multi-functional lightning strike protection (LSP) method has been developed to provide aircraft lightning strike protection, damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft surfaces. The method incorporates a SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces forming a "Smart skin" surface for aircraft lightning zones certified to withstand strikes up to 100 kiloamperes peak current. SansEC sensors are open-circuit devices comprised of conductive trace spiral patterns sans (without) electrical connections. The SansEC sensor is an electromagnetic resonator having specific resonant parameters (frequency, amplitude, bandwidth & phase) which when electromagnetically coupled with a composite substrate will indicate the electrical impedance of the composite through a change in its resonant response. Any measureable shift in the resonant characteristics can be an indication of damage to the composite caused by a lightning strike or from other means. The SansEC sensor method is intended to diagnose damage for both in-situ health monitoring or ground inspections. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical framework is established for the use of open circuit sensors to perform damage detection and diagnosis on carbon fiber composites. Both computational and experimental analyses were conducted to validate this new method and system for

  8. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study. PMID:24351636

  9. Communicating with the Dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Paul

    2000-03-01

    Communicating with dead persons is popular in the new paranatural (paranormal-spiritual) paradigm that has emerged today. This view violates physicalist principles. Scientists have investigated survival questions for over 150 years. Beginning with the Fox sisters in 1848, they have examined reports of apparitions and ghosts, rappings, table turnings, teleportation, levitation, and other alleged physicalist manifestations in séances. Such reports were discredited by uncovering hoaxes by alleged mediums, e.g. Eusapia Palladino (1910s), Marjorie Crandon (1920s), etc. In recent decades there has been a revival of interest in survival with reports of near-death experiences. Skeptics ask: Are such persons clinically dead? Today, channelers such as James Van Praagh, John Edwards, and Sylvia Browne claim to communicate directly with the dead (the "Sixth Sense"). There is no attempt at physical confirmation or independent eyewitness corroboration so essential for scientific inquiry. Subjective claims are uncritically accepted at their face value, though alternative naturalistic explanations can be given for the alleged phenomena.

  10. A novel magnetic bead bioassay platform using a microchip-based sensor for infectious disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aytur, Turgut; Foley, Jonathan; Anwar, Mekhail; Boser, Bernhard; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P Robert

    2006-07-31

    New technologies are greatly needed to improve laboratory tests that can be used in point-of-care clinical settings. Here, a biosensor was used to detect micron-scale paramagnetic beads in order to replace the conventional enzymatic label used in ELISAs. This novel biosensor was fabricated through standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing and was used to quantify magnetic beads bound to the sensor surface by immunological recognition, analogous to ELISA. CMOS technology can integrate multiple laboratory functions into the sensor chip, potentially enabling inexpensive, compact and sophisticated diagnostic systems for a number of diseases. We present results for two immunological assays: antigen capture of purified mouse IgG and detection of human anti-dengue virus IgG in clinical serum samples. The sensitivity of detecting purified protein with magnetic beads was comparable to ELISA. We found a high correlation between the ELISA optical density and the biosensor output in the clinical assay. We also demonstrate the use of a controlled magnetic field to remove non-specifically bound magnetic beads from the sensor surface, effectively washing the sensor surface. This novel sensor can be mass-produced at low cost and can detect magnetic beads bound to the surface through specific antibody-antigen interactions, making it a potential platform for new simplified and rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests.

  11. Specific capture of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces for infectious disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    A long-sought goal for infectious disease care is a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool that is compatible with the needs of low-resource settings. To identify target biomarkers of infectious diseases, immunoassays utilizing the binding affinity between antigen and antibody have been widely used. In immunoassays, the interaction between antigen and antibody on sensor surfaces should be precisely controlled for specific identification of targets. This paper studies the specific capturing mechanisms of target bacteria onto sensor surfaces through investigation of combined effects of capillary action and binding affinity. As a model system, cells of both Escherichia coli and the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strain of Mycobacterium bovis were used to study specific and nonspecific capturing mechanisms onto a microtip sensor. The capillary action was observed to arrange the concentrated cells onto the two-dimensional sensor surface. Due to the capillary-induced organization of target cells on the antibody-functionalized sensor surface, the number of the captured target cells was three times greater than that of the non-targeted cells. The capturing and detection capabilities varied with the width of a microtip. The specific capturing mechanism can be used to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of an immunoassay.

  12. A hybrid optic-fiber sensor network with the function of self-diagnosis and self-healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shibo; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hongxia

    2014-11-01

    We develop a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber network with distributed fiber-optic sensors and quasi-distributed FBG sensor arrays which detect vibrations, temperatures and strains at the same time. The network has the ability to locate the failure sites automatically designated as self-diagnosis and make protective switching to reestablish sensing service designated as self-healing by cooperative work of software and hardware. The processes above are accomplished by master-slave processors with the help of optical and wireless telemetry signals. All the sensing and optical telemetry signals transmit in the same fiber either working fiber or backup fiber. We take wavelength 1450nm as downstream signal and wavelength 1350nm as upstream signal to control the network in normal circumstances, both signals are sent by a light emitting node of the corresponding processor. There is also a continuous laser wavelength 1310nm sent by each node and received by next node on both working and backup fibers to monitor their healthy states, but it does not carry any message like telemetry signals do. When fibers of two sensor units are completely damaged, the master processor will lose the communication with the node between the damaged ones.However we install RF module in each node to solve the possible problem. Finally, the whole network state is transmitted to host computer by master processor. Operator could know and control the network by human-machine interface if needed.

  13. Detection of IFN-γ for latent tuberculosis diagnosis using an anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitive sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Hyoung; Chang, Young Wook; Bok, Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyejon; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-15

    We describe a rapid, sensitive, and label-free method to detect interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a biomarker of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). IFN-γ is detected by measuring the capacitance change caused by its binding to an anti-IFN-γ antibody. The antibody is immobilized on the surface of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO)-based capacitive sensor. With this technique, IFN-γ can be detected in the range of ~0.1 pg/ml to ~10 ng/ml, with a detection limit of 0.2 pg/ml. We have also measured the concentration of IFN-γ in clinical samples using the AAO-based capacitive sensor and compared this concentration with the results of the commercial QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) ELISA kit to determine whether the two sets of data are consistent. Comparable results were obtained with the two measurement strategies, demonstrating the applicability of the AAO-based capacitive sensor to the diagnosis of LTBI.

  14. Investigation of a passive sensor array for diagnosis of loosening of endoprosthetic implants.

    PubMed

    Ruther, Cathérine; Schulze, Christian; Boehme, Andrea; Nierath, Hannes; Ewald, Hartmut; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Kluess, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    Currently, imaging methods are used to diagnose loosening of endoprosthetic implants, but fail to achieve 100% accuracy. In this study, a passive sensor array which is based on the interaction between magnetic oscillators inside the implant and an excitation coil outside the patient was investigated. The excited oscillators produce sound in the audible range, which varies according to the extent of loosening. By performing several experimental tests, the sensor array was optimized to guarantee reproducible and selective excitation of the sound emission. Variation in the distance between the oscillators demonstrated a definite influence on the quality of the generated sound signal. Furthermore, a numerical design analysis using the boundary element method was generated for consideration of the magnetic field and the selectivity of the oscillators during excitation. The numerical simulation of the coil showed the higher selectivity of a coil with a C-shape compared to a cylindrical coil. Based on these investigations, the passive sensor system reveals the potential for detection of implant loosening. Future aims include the further miniaturization of the oscillators and measurements to determine the sensitivity of the proposed sensor system.

  15. Onboard Nonlinear Engine Sensor and Component Fault Diagnosis and Isolation Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    A method detects and isolates in-flight sensor, actuator, and component faults for advanced propulsion systems. In sharp contrast to many conventional methods, which deal with either sensor fault or component fault, but not both, this method considers sensor fault, actuator fault, and component fault under one systemic and unified framework. The proposed solution consists of two main components: a bank of real-time, nonlinear adaptive fault diagnostic estimators for residual generation, and a residual evaluation module that includes adaptive thresholds and a Transferable Belief Model (TBM)-based residual evaluation scheme. By employing a nonlinear adaptive learning architecture, the developed approach is capable of directly dealing with nonlinear engine models and nonlinear faults without the need of linearization. Software modules have been developed and evaluated with the NASA C-MAPSS engine model. Several typical engine-fault modes, including a subset of sensor/actuator/components faults, were tested with a mild transient operation scenario. The simulation results demonstrated that the algorithm was able to successfully detect and isolate all simulated faults as long as the fault magnitudes were larger than the minimum detectable/isolable sizes, and no misdiagnosis occurred

  16. Investigation of a Passive Sensor Array for Diagnosis of Loosening of Endoprosthetic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ruther, Cathérine; Schulze, Christian; Boehme, Andrea; Nierath, Hannes; Ewald, Hartmut; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Kluess, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Currently, imaging methods are used to diagnose loosening of endoprosthetic implants, but fail to achieve 100% accuracy. In this study, a passive sensor array which is based on the interaction between magnetic oscillators inside the implant and an excitation coil outside the patient was investigated. The excited oscillators produce sound in the audible range, which varies according to the extent of loosening. By performing several experimental tests, the sensor array was optimized to guarantee reproducible and selective excitation of the sound emission. Variation in the distance between the oscillators demonstrated a definite influence on the quality of the generated sound signal. Furthermore, a numerical design analysis using the boundary element method was generated for consideration of the magnetic field and the selectivity of the oscillators during excitation. The numerical simulation of the coil showed the higher selectivity of a coil with a C-shape compared to a cylindrical coil. Based on these investigations, the passive sensor system reveals the potential for detection of implant loosening. Future aims include the further miniaturization of the oscillators and measurements to determine the sensitivity of the proposed sensor system. PMID:23344370

  17. Long term reliability and machine operation diagnosis with fiber optic sensors at large turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, T.; Strack, S.; Villnow, M.; Weidner, J. R.; Willsch, M.

    2013-05-01

    The increasing quantity of renewable energy in electric power generation leads to a higher flexibility in the operation of conventional power plants. The turbo generator has to face the influence of frequent start-stop-operation on thermal movement and vibration of the stator end windings. Large indirect cooled turbo generators have been equipped with FBG strain and temperature sensors to monitor the influence of peak load operation. Fiber optic accelerometers measure the vibration of the end windings at several turbine generators since many years of operation. The long term reliability of fiber optic vibration, temperature and strain sensors has been successfully proved during years of online operation. The analysis of these data in correlation to significant operation parameter lead to important diagnostic information.

  18. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258

  19. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258

  20. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-05-11

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Physically-based modeling of speed sensors for fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfgang; Jungjohann, Jonas; Schulte, Horst

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a generic physically-based modeling framework for encoder type speed sensors is derived. The consideration takes into account the nominal fault-free and two most relevant fault cases. The advantage of this approach is a reconstruction of the output waveforms in dependence of the internal physical parameter changes which enables a more accurate diagnosis and identification of faulty incremental encoders i.a. in wind turbines. The objectives are to describe the effect of the tilt and eccentric of the encoder disk on the digital output signals and the influence of the accuracy of the speed measurement in wind turbines. Simulation results show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.

    2015-07-01

    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  3. Near Real-time Immuno-optical Sensor for Diagnosing Single Point Mutation (A model System: Sensor for Factor V Leiden Diagnosis)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung A.; Ren, Yongjie; Sharma, Vivek R.; Peiper, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Factor V leiden (FVL) is an abnormality of factor V (FV), a blood coagulation factor. It is a hereditary blood coagulation disorder with a high frequency (3–7% of general population). The most common type of FVL is caused by a single amino acid mutation and, therefore, its diagnosis is currently done only by DNA analysis, which takes a long time and is expensive. We have developed a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective, sandwich immuno-optical sensing method. To produce monoclonal antibodies against FV or FVL, having minimal cross-reactivity with the other molecule, a 20 amino acid sequence (20-mer) of FV or FVL at around the mutation site was utilized. The antibodies were screened first with the 20-mers and then with native FV or FVL molecules and they showed some cross reactivity. Using two antibodies having strongest affinity to either FV or FVL molecule, a FV and a FVL preferred sensors, were produced. After verifying that the levels of the antibody affinity to the two different molecules remained constant with changes in analyte concentration, a two-sensor system is developed to quantify FV and FVL in plasma samples. The system quantified the levels of FV and FVL at the maximum error of 0.5 μg/ml-plasma, in their physiological concentration range of 0–12 μg/ml-plasma. The levels of both molecules may provide us whether the patient has FVL or not but also the seriousness level of the disease (homozygous and different level of heterozygous). PMID:19318242

  4. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  5. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience. PMID:20726184

  6. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  7. Optical and dielectric sensors based on antimicrobial peptides for microorganism diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael R.; Avelino, Karen Y. P. S.; Ribeiro, Kalline L.; Franco, Octavio L.; Oliveira, Maria D. L.; Andrade, Cesar A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural compounds isolated from a wide variety of organisms that include microorganisms, insects, amphibians, plants, and humans. These biomolecules are considered as part of the innate immune system and are known as natural antibiotics, presenting a broad spectrum of activities against bacteria, fungi, and/or viruses. Technological innovations have enabled AMPs to be utilized for the development of novel biodetection devices. Advances in nanotechnology, such as the synthesis of nanocomposites, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have permitted the development of nanostructured platforms with biocompatibility and greater surface areas for the immobilization of biocomponents, arising as additional tools for obtaining more efficient biosensors. Diverse AMPs have been used as biological recognition elements for obtaining biosensors with more specificity and lower detection limits, whose analytical response can be evaluated through electrochemical impedance and fluorescence spectroscopies. AMP-based biosensors have shown potential for applications such as supplementary tools for conventional diagnosis methods of microorganisms. In this review, conventional methods for microorganism diagnosis as well new strategies using AMPs for the development of impedimetric and fluorescent biosensors are highlighted. AMP-based biosensors show promise as methods for diagnosing infections and bacterial contaminations as well as applications in quality control for clinical analyses and microbiological laboratories. PMID:25191319

  8. Optical and dielectric sensors based on antimicrobial peptides for microorganism diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael R; Avelino, Karen Y P S; Ribeiro, Kalline L; Franco, Octavio L; Oliveira, Maria D L; Andrade, Cesar A S

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural compounds isolated from a wide variety of organisms that include microorganisms, insects, amphibians, plants, and humans. These biomolecules are considered as part of the innate immune system and are known as natural antibiotics, presenting a broad spectrum of activities against bacteria, fungi, and/or viruses. Technological innovations have enabled AMPs to be utilized for the development of novel biodetection devices. Advances in nanotechnology, such as the synthesis of nanocomposites, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have permitted the development of nanostructured platforms with biocompatibility and greater surface areas for the immobilization of biocomponents, arising as additional tools for obtaining more efficient biosensors. Diverse AMPs have been used as biological recognition elements for obtaining biosensors with more specificity and lower detection limits, whose analytical response can be evaluated through electrochemical impedance and fluorescence spectroscopies. AMP-based biosensors have shown potential for applications such as supplementary tools for conventional diagnosis methods of microorganisms. In this review, conventional methods for microorganism diagnosis as well new strategies using AMPs for the development of impedimetric and fluorescent biosensors are highlighted. AMP-based biosensors show promise as methods for diagnosing infections and bacterial contaminations as well as applications in quality control for clinical analyses and microbiological laboratories.

  9. New Life From Dead Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraaf, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)

  10. Dead reckoning pedometer

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Jr., Robert F.; Hofstetter, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A system to determine the location of a person within a structure utilizes a magnetometer, magnets, pressure sensors and a CPU to calculate the length and direction of each step. The data may be displayed to the wearer, preferably on a map or floorplan and may be broadcast to persons outside the structure.

  11. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer's method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  12. Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

  13. Sensor technologies and non-destructive monitoring for dampness diagnosis in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Gómez Heras, Miguel; Fort González, Rafael; Valles Iriso, Javier; José Varas Muriel, María

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a case study based on results of monitoring campaigns developed in San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). This Church was built in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries (Romanesque style) with dolostone ashlars. It was reconstructed in the sixteenth century (Renaissance style) with rubble stone and mortar, brick and an earth fill. Different sections on walls and floors (north and south oriented) have been selected based on a preliminary study of moisture distribution on stone and masonry wall. The behavior of different materials has been studied according to the influence of indoor (microclimatic conditions) and outdoor conditions (weather conditions) and taking into account constructive facts. Several sensing technologies as dataloggers and wireless sensor networks (WSN) together to other non invasive techniques as thermal imaging, portable moisture meter, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been conducted. By means of this study it has been possible to establish an analysis methodology to determine the dampness origin in each case. Conclusions related to the each technique according to its effectiveness in the detection of decay problems have been established. Research funded by Geomateriales 2(S2013/MIT-2914) and Deterioration of stone materials in the interior of historic buildings as a result induced variation of its microclimate (CGL2011-27902) projects. The cooperation received from the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio (ref. 921349), the Laboratory Network in Science and Technology for Heritage Conservation (RedLabPat, CEI Moncloa) and the Diocese of Alcalá is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Deadly viral syndrome mimics.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Robert

    2004-11-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (ie, "the common cold") have several hundred causes, the most common of which include rhino-virus, coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. The clinical presentation varies with symptoms. Every emergency department, no matter what the demographics, cares for patients with this constellation of symptoms. Emergency physicians examine, diagnose, and treat these disorders frequently. With increasing burdens being placed on emergency physicians, it is possible to assume a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection without generating a complete differential diagnosis. The challenge is to identify and recognize the distinctions between an innocuous upper respiratory tract infection and a life-threatening disease "mimic" or entities. This article discusses some of these life-threatening mimics.

  15. The use of a gas chromatography-sensor system combined with advanced statistical methods, towards the diagnosis of urological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aggio, Raphael B. M.; de Lacy Costello, Ben; White, Paul; Khalid, Tanzeela; Ratcliffe, Norman M.; Persad, Raj; Probert, Chris S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to aid the selection of men undergoing biopsies. Its use remains controversial. We propose a GC-sensor algorithm system for classifying urine samples from patients with urological symptoms. This pilot study includes 155 men presenting to urology clinics, 58 were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 24 with bladder cancer and 73 with haematuria and or poor stream, without cancer. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to assess the discrimination achieved, while linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) were used as statistical models for sample classification. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), repeated 10-fold cross-validation (10FoldCV), repeated double cross-validation (DoubleCV) and Monte Carlo permutations were applied to assess performance. Significant separation was found between prostate cancer and control samples, bladder cancer and controls and between bladder and prostate cancer samples. For prostate cancer diagnosis, the GC/SVM system classified samples with 95% sensitivity and 96% specificity after LOOCV. For bladder cancer diagnosis, the SVM reported 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity after LOOCV, while the DoubleCV reported 87% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with SVM showing 78% and 98% sensitivity between prostate and bladder cancer samples. Evaluation of the results of the Monte Carlo permutation of class labels obtained chance-like accuracy values around 50% suggesting the observed results for bladder cancer and prostate cancer detection are not due to over fitting. The results of the pilot study presented here indicate that the GC system is able to successfully identify patterns that allow classification of urine samples from patients with urological cancers. An accurate diagnosis based on urine samples would reduce the number of negative prostate biopsies performed, and the frequency of surveillance cystoscopy

  16. Application of HFCT and UHF sensors in on-line partial discharge measurements for insulation diagnosis of high voltage equipment.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment. PMID:25815452

  17. Application of HFCT and UHF sensors in on-line partial discharge measurements for insulation diagnosis of high voltage equipment.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-03-25

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment.

  18. Application of HFCT and UHF Sensors in On-Line Partial Discharge Measurements for Insulation Diagnosis of High Voltage Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Fernando; Garnacho, Fernando; Ortego, Javier; Sánchez-Urán, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV) insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS) compartment. PMID:25815452

  19. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  20. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones.

  1. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  2. Dead Star Rumbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time.

    These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago.

    Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia.

    An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps.

    Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars.

    This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons.

    Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen.

    The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30

  3. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers. PMID:16999036

  4. HIV and Tuberculosis: a Deadly Human Syndemic

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Candice K.; Ernst, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: A syndemic is defined as the convergence of two or more diseases that act synergistically to magnify the burden of disease. The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate control of the TB-HIV syndemic, the long-term TB elimination target set for 2050 will not be reached. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both HIV and TB. Moreover, multidisciplinary approaches that consider HIV and TB together, rather than as separate problems and diseases, will be necessary to prevent further worsening of the HIV-TB syndemic. This review examines current knowledge of the state and impact of the HIV-TB syndemic and reviews the epidemiological, clinical, cellular, and molecular interactions between HIV and TB. PMID:21482729

  5. A Study on Electronic Nose for Clinical Breath Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Le; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Yanjie; Ying, Kejing

    2009-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases and the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. The high mortality in patients with lung cancer results, in part, from the lack of effective tools to diagnose the disease at an early stage before it has spread to regional nodes or has metastasized beyond the lung. The electronic nose combined with a diagnosis model which based on the biomarkers can provide a non-invasive and more convenient method. The article presented an improved e-Nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors and an a diagnosis model to diagnose lung cancer.

  6. Performance Evaluation: A Deadly Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Reichel, Mary

    1994-01-01

    W. Edwards Deming condemned performance evaluations as a deadly disease afflicting American management. He argued that performance evaluations nourish fear, encourage short-term thinking, stifle teamwork, and are no better than lotteries. This article examines library literature from Deming's perspective. Although that literature accepts…

  7. Who are the Unclaimed Dead?

    PubMed

    Quinet, Kenna; Nunn, Samuel; Ballew, Alfarena

    2016-01-01

    Unclaimed dead are deceased persons with no known next of kin (NoK) or NoK was located but did not claim the deceased. Unclaimed dead in Marion County, Indiana, 2004-2011, are examined. Comparisons are provided of the unclaimed to the claimed dead population and county death patterns. Race, gender, marital status, age, location, manner and cause of death, NoK, and days to disposition are analyzed. The unclaimed dead were disproportionately male, slightly more likely to be Black, younger at death, died from natural causes, had unknown marital status, were equally likely as not to have NoK, did not die in a hospital, and were subject to autopsy. Nearly half the unclaimed had NoK who did not claim the body; the other half had no identifiable NoK. Unclaimed were more likely to have an autopsy and to die from external causes. Most unclaimed were identified by means outside fingerprints or DNA. PMID:26524620

  8. Dead Time of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Tudisco, S.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Zimbone, M.

    2011-06-01

    Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is the new generation of Geiger-Muller counter device developed in semiconductor technology [S. Privitera et al. Sensors Journal, vol 8 Iss. 8 (2008) 4636; S. Tudisco et al. IEEE Sensors Journal vol 8 ISS 7-8 (2008) 1324; S. Cova et al. Applied Optics 35 (1996) 1956]. Physical dead time model and noise production process has been analyzed and their corrections have been performed [S.H. Lee, R.P. Gardner, M. Jae, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 263 (2007) 46]. We have been able to extract the real amount of incident photon rate up to 10 7cps using a device with 0.97μs total deadtime. We also developed the equation of the noise count rate vs incoming photon rate, supported by Montecarlo simulation and experimental data. We marked the difference between dark rate and noise count rate, and introduced the noise rate inside the hybrid deadtime equation used for SPAD device.

  9. Dead Reckoning Pedometer Graphical User Interface

    2003-04-26

    The Dead Reckoning Pedometer Graphical User Interface (DRP GUI) software is tasked with maturing the technology described in a WSRC patent application. This patent application describes an electronic navigation system that records human foot movements, in three dimensions, for the purpose of determining position, distance, and speed of a walking person. The simiplest form of the apparatus consists of a magnetometer (an instrument that measures magnetic field strength) on one foot and a small permanentmore » magnet on another foot with pressure sensors on each foot. When a person takes a step, the foot will hit the ground and produce a signal on the pressure sensor. This will trigger a reading of the magnetometer so that the relative position of one foot to the other can be calculated. This same process is repeated for each step. The DRP could be very useful for tracking emergency personnel such as firemen, policemen, and paramedics when they travel within a building. Technologies such as global positioning systems to not work within buildings. The goal of the DRP GUI V1.0.0 software is to provide a three-dimensional graphical user interface that will allow WSRC to demonstrate the DRP concepts to potential patent licensees. It is hoped that a partnership will allow WSRC and another company to further develop the DRP technology and software into a commercial product.« less

  10. Dead Reckoning Pedometer Graphical User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Harpring, Larry

    2003-04-26

    The Dead Reckoning Pedometer Graphical User Interface (DRP GUI) software is tasked with maturing the technology described in a WSRC patent application. This patent application describes an electronic navigation system that records human foot movements, in three dimensions, for the purpose of determining position, distance, and speed of a walking person. The simiplest form of the apparatus consists of a magnetometer (an instrument that measures magnetic field strength) on one foot and a small permanent magnet on another foot with pressure sensors on each foot. When a person takes a step, the foot will hit the ground and produce a signal on the pressure sensor. This will trigger a reading of the magnetometer so that the relative position of one foot to the other can be calculated. This same process is repeated for each step. The DRP could be very useful for tracking emergency personnel such as firemen, policemen, and paramedics when they travel within a building. Technologies such as global positioning systems to not work within buildings. The goal of the DRP GUI V1.0.0 software is to provide a three-dimensional graphical user interface that will allow WSRC to demonstrate the DRP concepts to potential patent licensees. It is hoped that a partnership will allow WSRC and another company to further develop the DRP technology and software into a commercial product.

  11. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  12. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  13. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  14. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  15. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  16. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  17. Normative seeds for deadly martyrdoms.

    PubMed

    Tobeña, Adolf; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    Even if Lankford's biographical examination of perpetrators of suicidal attacks serves to alert us on the role played by individual factors in their recruitment, psychological frailties, distress, or coercion do not exhaust the causal pathways to deadly martyrdom. Normative personality attributes must be explored further in order to ascertain plausible roots of murderous sacrifice. We have advanced (Tobeña 2004b; 2009; 2011) a template of normative temperamental traits that could lead activists to the threshold of volunteering for murderous missions.

  18. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electro-mechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as the characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on the design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis of the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for the mechanical characterization of tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0 μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make them conducting. The electro-mechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers a 180 μm  ×  180 μm area and the size of the complete device is 20 mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1 mm and the thickness was 8 μm. The region of interest was 200 μm  ×  200 μm. A microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancers breast tissue specimens.

  19. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt.

    PubMed

    Brugger, E Christian

    2016-06-01

    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary). This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the conclusion that the signs of complex bodily integration exhibited in ventilated brain dead bodies are true expressions of somatic integration are unpersuasive; that is, they are not adequate to exclude reasonable doubt against the conclusion that BD bodies are dead. Since we should not treat as corpses what for all we know might be living human beings, it follows that we have an obligation to treat BD individuals as if they were living human beings. PMID:27075192

  20. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  1. "Dead quasars" in nearby galaxies?

    PubMed

    Rees, M J

    1990-02-16

    The nuclei of some galaxies undergo violent activity, quasars being the most extreme instances of this phenomenon. Such activity is probably short-lived compared to galactic lifetimes, and was most prevalent when the universe was only about one-fifth of its present age. A massive black hole seems the inevitable end point of such activity, and dead quasars should greatly outnumber active ones. In recent years, studies of stellar motions in the cores of several nearby galaxies indicate the presence of central dark masses which could be black holes. This article discusses how such evidence might be corroborated, and the potential implications for our understanding of active galaxies and black holes.

  2. Eating the dead in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gwyn

    2013-12-01

    Cannibalism has been poorly understood and has seldom been studied, since it was often suppressed by missionaries and colonial administrators, and very few societies still practise it. Cannibalistic practices are more complex than was originally thought. They may be supported in societies under stress or in times of famine, to reflect aggression and antisocial behaviour (in cases where the bodies of enemies killed in battle or people who have harmed the family are eaten), or to honour a dead kinsman. It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns of Ranavalona I in the period 1829 - 1853. Two types of cannibalism have been described: exocannibalism, where enemies were consumed, and endocannibalism, where dead relatives were eaten to assist their passing to the world of the ancestors, or to prolong contact with beloved and admired family members and absorb their good qualities. This article reviews some of the beliefs and motivations that surrounded the cannibalistic practices of the people of Madagascar in the 19th century.  PMID:24300654

  3. Fault diagnosis for manifold absolute pressure sensor(MAP) of diesel engine based on Elman neural network observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingmin; Zhang, Fujun; Cui, Tao; Zhou, Jinlong

    2016-03-01

    Intake system of diesel engine is a strong nonlinear system, and it is difficult to establish accurate model of intake system; and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can't be diagnosed easily using model-based methods. Thus, a fault diagnosis method based on Elman neural network observer is proposed. By comparing simulation results of intake pressure based on BP network and Elman neural network, lower sampling error magnitude is gained using Elman neural network, and the error is less volatile. Forecast accuracy is between 0.015-0.017 5 and sample error is controlled within 0-0.07. Considering the output stability and complexity of solving comprehensively, Elman neural network with a single hidden layer and with 44 nodes is presented as intake system observer. By comparing the relations of confidence intervals of the residual value between the measured and predicted values, error variance and failures in various fault types. Then four typical MAP faults of diesel engine can be diagnosed: complete failure fault, bias fault, precision degradation fault and drift fault. The simulation results show: intake pressure is observable and selection of diagnostic strategy parameter reasonably can increase the accuracy of diagnosis; the proposed fault diagnosis method only depends on data and structural parameters of observer, not depends on the nonlinear model of air intake system. A fault diagnosis method is proposed not depending system model to observe intake pressure, and bias fault and precision degradation fault of MAP of diesel engine can be diagnosed based on residuals.

  4. "Dead quasars" in nearby galaxies?

    PubMed

    Rees, M J

    1990-02-16

    The nuclei of some galaxies undergo violent activity, quasars being the most extreme instances of this phenomenon. Such activity is probably short-lived compared to galactic lifetimes, and was most prevalent when the universe was only about one-fifth of its present age. A massive black hole seems the inevitable end point of such activity, and dead quasars should greatly outnumber active ones. In recent years, studies of stellar motions in the cores of several nearby galaxies indicate the presence of central dark masses which could be black holes. This article discusses how such evidence might be corroborated, and the potential implications for our understanding of active galaxies and black holes. PMID:17746076

  5. More Dead than Dead: Perceptions of Persons in the Persistent Vegetative State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T. Anne; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the…

  6. A single-step enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor composed of functional multilayer coatings for the diagnosis of marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Funano, Shun-ichi; Sugahara, Masato; Henares, Terence G; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    A single-step, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor, composed of functional multilayer coatings, was developed in this study. The coatings were composed of substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating, hydrogel coating, and soluble coating containing an enzyme-labeled antibody. The response mechanism involved a spontaneous immunoreaction triggered by capillary action-mediated introduction of a sample antigen solution and subsequent separation of unreacted enzyme-labeled antibodies and antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complexes by the molecular sieving effect of the hydrogel. An enzyme reaction at the substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating/hydrogel coating interface resulted in a protein-selective fluorescence response. An antigen concentration-dependent response was obtained for diagnostic marker protein samples (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7.14-16.7 mg mL(-1); alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 1.4-140 ng mL(-1); C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.5-10 μg mL(-1)) that cover a clinically important concentration range. The successful measurement of CRP in diluted serum samples demonstrated the application of this capillary sensor.

  7. Respect for the dead and dying.

    PubMed

    Preus, A

    1984-11-01

    Against the thesis that permanently unconscious persons cannot be harmed, and thus are not owed moral deference, it is argued that even the dead can be harmed and are owed moral respect, so a fortiori those dubiously or not quite dead deserve some moral deference.

  8. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  9. The dead spot of a tennis racket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    1997-08-01

    It is shown that a tennis racket has a dead spot, but it does not have a well-defined sweet spot, when measured in terms of the rebound of a tennis ball. A ball dropped onto the center of the strings bounces to about 30% its original height. The bounce is much weaker near the tip of the racket, being almost zero at the dead spot. These effects are explained in terms of the effective mass and rotational inertia of the racket, and by reference to the behavior of other cantilevered beams. It is concluded, somewhat paradoxically, that the best place to hit a serve or smash is at the dead spot.

  10. Indoor localization using pedestrian dead reckoning updated with RFID-based fiducials.

    PubMed

    House, Samuel; Connell, Sean; Milligan, Ian; Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Chiang, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe a low-cost wearable system that tracks the location of individuals indoors using commonly available inertial navigation sensors fused with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags placed around the smart environment. While conventional pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) calculated with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is susceptible to sensor drift inaccuracies, the proposed wearable prototype fuses the drift-sensitive IMU with a RFID tag reader. Passive RFID tags placed throughout the smart-building then act as fiducial markers that update the physical locations of each user, thereby correcting positional errors and sensor inaccuracy. Experimental measurements taken for a 55 m × 20 m 2D floor space indicate an over 1200% improvement in average error rate of the proposed RFID-fused system over dead reckoning alone.

  11. A novel quinternary alloy (Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4) nanostructured sensor for biomedical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheam, A. S.; Al-Douri, Y.; Gopinath, S. C. B.; Hashim, U.

    2016-08-01

    A new quinternary alloy (Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4) nanostructure with different proportions of cadmium (Cd) was synthesised using spin coating technique on oxidized silicon (100) substrate and analysed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD peaks were shifted towards the lower angle side with increasing Cd concentrations. A shift of PL band gap from 1.79 eV (x = 0) to 1.69 eV (x = 1) was observed. We attributed this phenomenon to the phase transition from kesterite to stannite phase in the series of Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) quinternary alloy nanostructures. Further, the generated novel structure was found to be more suitable for biomedical diagnosis, as evidenced by dengue serotype-2 detection with higher specificity. The biosensor shown with quinternary alloy nanostructure could attain the sensitivity to 100 fM and able to discriminate specific DNA from dengue against single and triple mis-match sequences. The biosensor demonstrated here with a novel Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4 quinternary alloy nanostructure opens the way for developing high-performance biosensors.

  12. A novel quinternary alloy (Cu2Zn1‑xCdxSnS4) nanostructured sensor for biomedical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheam, A. S.; Al-Douri, Y.; Gopinath, S. C. B.; Hashim, U.

    2016-08-01

    A new quinternary alloy (Cu2Zn1‑xCdxSnS4) nanostructure with different proportions of cadmium (Cd) was synthesised using spin coating technique on oxidized silicon (100) substrate and analysed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD peaks were shifted towards the lower angle side with increasing Cd concentrations. A shift of PL band gap from 1.79 eV (x = 0) to 1.69 eV (x = 1) was observed. We attributed this phenomenon to the phase transition from kesterite to stannite phase in the series of Cu2Zn1‑xCdxSnS4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) quinternary alloy nanostructures. Further, the generated novel structure was found to be more suitable for biomedical diagnosis, as evidenced by dengue serotype-2 detection with higher specificity. The biosensor shown with quinternary alloy nanostructure could attain the sensitivity to 100 fM and able to discriminate specific DNA from dengue against single and triple mis-match sequences. The biosensor demonstrated here with a novel Cu2Zn1‑xCdxSnS4 quinternary alloy nanostructure opens the way for developing high-performance biosensors.

  13. Detection of dead regions in the cochlea: relevance for combined electric and acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian C J; Glasberg, Brian; Schlueter, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A dead region is a region in the cochlea where the inner hair cells and/or the auditory neurones are functioning very poorly, if at all. People who are being considered for a combination of a cochlear implant and a hearing aid typically have a dead region in the parts of the cochlea that normally respond to medium and high frequencies, but have some functional hearing at lower frequencies. For such people, it may be useful to determine the edge frequency, f(e), of any dead region. This may be relevant to choosing the most appropriate insertion depth of the electrode array, and to the way that frequencies in the input signal are mapped to acoustic and electric stimulation. It may also be helpful in interpreting the results of research studies. This paper reviews methods for diagnosing dead regions and defining the value of f(e). It is argued that the value of f(e) cannot be determined reliably from the audiogram, although a dead region is likely to be present at a given frequency when the hearing loss at that frequency is 70 dB or more. When a sinusoidal signal is reported as sounding highly distorted or noise-like, a dead region may be present at the signal frequency, but again this is not a reliable indicator. The TEN test is a simple clinical method for diagnosis of dead regions. Where this test gives a positive diagnosis, it is recommended that psychophysical tuning curves be measured to define the value of f(e) more precisely. PMID:19955720

  14. Time and volume dependence of dead space in healthy and surfactant-depleted rat lungs during spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dassow, Constanze; Schwenninger, David; Runck, Hanna; Guttmann, Josef

    2013-11-01

    Volumetric capnography is a standard method to determine pulmonary dead space. Hereby, measured carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled gas volume is analyzed using the single-breath diagram for CO2. Unfortunately, most existing CO2 sensors do not work with the low tidal volumes found in small animals. Therefore, in this study, we developed a new mainstream capnograph designed for the utilization in small animals like rats. The sensor was used for determination of dead space volume in healthy and surfactant-depleted rats (n = 62) during spontaneous breathing (SB) and mechanical ventilation (MV) at three different tidal volumes: 5, 8, and 11 ml/kg. Absolute dead space and wasted ventilation (dead space volume in relation to tidal volume) were determined over a period of 1 h. Dead space increase and reversibility of the increase was investigated during MV with different tidal volumes and during SB. During SB, the dead space volume was 0.21 ± 0.14 ml and increased significantly at MV to 0.39 ± 0.03 ml at a tidal volume of 5 ml/kg and to 0.6 ± 0.08 ml at a tidal volume of 8 and 11 ml/kg. Dead space and wasted ventilation during MV increased with tidal volume. This increase was mostly reversible by switching back to SB. Surfactant depletion had no further influence on the dead space increase during MV, but impaired the reversibility of the dead space increase.

  15. Time and volume dependence of dead space in healthy and surfactant-depleted rat lungs during spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dassow, Constanze; Schwenninger, David; Runck, Hanna; Guttmann, Josef

    2013-11-01

    Volumetric capnography is a standard method to determine pulmonary dead space. Hereby, measured carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled gas volume is analyzed using the single-breath diagram for CO2. Unfortunately, most existing CO2 sensors do not work with the low tidal volumes found in small animals. Therefore, in this study, we developed a new mainstream capnograph designed for the utilization in small animals like rats. The sensor was used for determination of dead space volume in healthy and surfactant-depleted rats (n = 62) during spontaneous breathing (SB) and mechanical ventilation (MV) at three different tidal volumes: 5, 8, and 11 ml/kg. Absolute dead space and wasted ventilation (dead space volume in relation to tidal volume) were determined over a period of 1 h. Dead space increase and reversibility of the increase was investigated during MV with different tidal volumes and during SB. During SB, the dead space volume was 0.21 ± 0.14 ml and increased significantly at MV to 0.39 ± 0.03 ml at a tidal volume of 5 ml/kg and to 0.6 ± 0.08 ml at a tidal volume of 8 and 11 ml/kg. Dead space and wasted ventilation during MV increased with tidal volume. This increase was mostly reversible by switching back to SB. Surfactant depletion had no further influence on the dead space increase during MV, but impaired the reversibility of the dead space increase. PMID:23950167

  16. Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160326.html Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases? High levels of physical ... Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting lots of exercise may reduce your risk for five common diseases, ...

  17. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response Many people have never heard of sepsis, or ... tract infection) and then a powerful and harmful response by your body’s own immune system . “With sepsis, ...

  18. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data. PMID:19547086

  19. Remote diagnosis server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  20. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable disease listed in § 71.32(b) may not be brought into a U.S. port unless the body is (a) properly embalmed...

  1. 42 CFR 71.55 - Dead bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead bodies. 71.55 Section 71.55 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.55 Dead bodies. The remains of a person who died of a communicable disease listed in § 71.32(b) may not be brought into a U.S. port unless the body is (a) properly embalmed...

  2. Dead zones and extrasolar planetary properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2006-01-01

    Most low-mass protostellar discs evolve in clustered environments where they are affected by external radiation fields, while others evolve in more isolated star-forming regions. Assuming that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is the main source of viscosity, we calculate the size of a poorly ionized, MRI inactive and hence low viscosity region - the `dead zone'- in these protostellar discs. We include disc ionization by X-rays, cosmic rays, radioactive elements and thermal collisions, recombination by molecules, metals and grains, as well as the effect of turbulence stimulation in the dead zone by the active layers lying above it. We also calculate the gap-opening masses of planets, which are determined by a disc's viscosity and a disc aspect ratio, for discs in these environments and compare them with each other. We find that the dead zone is a robust feature of the protostellar discs that is largely independent of their environment, typically stretching out to ~15 au. We analyse the possible effects of dead zones on planet formation, migration and eccentricity evolution. We show that the gap-opening mass inside the dead zone is expected to be of the order of terrestrial and ice giant mass planets while that outside the dead zone is Jovian or super-Jovian mass planets, largely independent of the star-forming environment. We show that dead zones can significantly slow down both type I and type II planetary migration due to their lower viscosity. We also find that the growth of eccentricity of massive extrasolar planets is particularly favourable through the planet-disc interaction inside the dead zones due to the large gaps expected to be opened by planets.

  3. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  4. Necrotising Myositis, the Deadly Impersonator

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Abou-Foul, A. K.; Yusaf, A.; Holton, J.; Cogswell, L.

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of patients with necrotising myositis who presented initially with limb pain and swelling on a background of respiratory complaints. Patient 1, a previously well 38-year-old female, underwent various investigations in the emergency department for excessive lower limb pain and a skin rash. Patient 2, a 61-year-old female with a background of rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension, presented to accident and emergency feeling generally unwell and was treated for presumed respiratory sepsis. Both deteriorated rapidly and were referred to the plastic surgery team with soft tissue necrosis, impending multiorgan failure and toxaemia. Large areas of necrotic muscle and skin were debrided, which grew group A streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes. Patient 1 had a high above knee amputation of the left leg with extensive debridement of the right. Despite aggressive surgical intervention and microbiological input with intensive care support, patient 2 died. These two cases highlight the importance of early diagnosis and prompt surgical and pharmacological intervention in managing this life-threatening disease. Pain is the primary symptom with skin changes being a late and subtle sign in a septic patient. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotising Fasciitis (LRINEC) may be of use if there is concern to aid diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. PMID:25506031

  5. Can the dead be brought into disrepute?

    PubMed

    Masterton, Malin; Hansson, Mats G; Höglund, Anna T; Helgesson, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Queen Christina of Sweden was unconventional in her time, leading to hypotheses on her gender and possible hermaphroditic nature. If genetic analysis can substantiate the latter claim, could this bring the queen into disrepute 300 years after her death? Joan C. Callahan has argued that if a reputation changes, this constitutes a change only in the group of people changing their views and not in the person whose reputation it is. Is this so? This paper analyses what constitutes change and draws out the implications to the reputation of the dead. It is argued that a reputation is a relational property which can go through changes. The change is "real" for the group changing their views on Queen Christina and of a Cambridge kind for the long dead queen herself. Cambridge changes result in new properties being acquired, some of which can be of significance. Although the dead cannot go through any non-relational changes, it is possible for the dead to change properties through Cambridge changes. In this sense changes in reputation do affect the dead, and thus Queen Christina can acquire a new property, in this case possibly a worse reputation. PMID:17549606

  6. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  7. Effect of dead material in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of dead material in any practical calorimeter system is simply a fact of life. The task for the designer, then, is to understand the impact on the Physics in question, and strive to minimize it. The aim of this note is to use the ``Hanging File`` test data, which has fined grained individual readout of about 100 depth segments, to explore impact of dead material on the mean and r.m.s. of the hadronic distribution. The amount and location of the dead material is varied. It important to remember that the Hanging File data was calibrated, EM to HCAL compartment, so as to minimize the electron to pion energy dependence. In practical terms e/pie was made = 1.0 at an incident energy of about 100 GeV. Note that the PB(EM) + FE(HCAL) calorimeter was not a compensating device.

  8. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  9. Hydrocarbon potential of Dead Sea Rift valley

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.; Kashai, E.L.; Croker, P.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Dead Sea Rift is one of the world's unique geologic and topographic features, whose petroleum potential has not yet been evaluated. The sector of the Dead Sea is an asymmetric graben 20 km (12 mi) from rim to rim and over 120 km (75 mi) long. The total throw from the west rim, where the Upper Cretaceous crops out to the deeper portion of the grabens, is more than 8 km (26,200 ft). Throw on the eastern side is considerably greater as the valley wall is largely Precambrian. The level of the Dead Sea is -400 m (-1300 ft) - the lowest place on earth. Asphalt blocks floating from the Dead Sea, along with asphalt and heavy oil seeps in the valley, have been known since biblical times. These are suggestive of leaks from deeper accumulations. Although some exploration drilling has been done, no test has yet reached objectives in the deeper sunken block where the Miocene is figured to be at a depth of at least 7 km (23,000 ft.)

  10. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  11. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  12. ON HYDRODYNAMIC MOTIONS IN DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2009-10-20

    We investigate fluid motions near the midplane of vertically stratified accretion disks with highly resistive midplanes. In such disks, the magnetorotational instability drives turbulence in thin layers surrounding a resistive, stable dead zone. The turbulent layers in turn drive motions in the dead zone. We examine the properties of these motions using three-dimensional, stratified, local, shearing-box, non-ideal, magnetohydrodynamical simulations. Although the turbulence in the active zones provides a source of vorticity to the midplane, no evidence for coherent vortices is found in our simulations. It appears that this is because of strong vertical oscillations in the dead zone. By analyzing time series of azimuthally averaged flow quantities, we identify an axisymmetric wave mode particular to models with dead zones. This mode is reduced in amplitude, but not suppressed entirely, by changing the equation of state from isothermal to ideal. These waves are too low frequency to affect sedimentation of dust to the midplane, but may have significance for the gravitational stability of the resulting midplane dust layers.

  13. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and standards for protection of nuclear weapons (paragraph (c) of this section AR 50-5-1) and for... weapon). Use it only in extreme need, when all lesser means have failed or cannot reasonably be used. Use... property (such as operable weapons or ammunition) which could cause deadly harm to others in the hands...

  14. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and standards for protection of nuclear weapons (paragraph (c) of this section AR 50-5-1) and for... weapon). Use it only in extreme need, when all lesser means have failed or cannot reasonably be used. Use... property (such as operable weapons or ammunition) which could cause deadly harm to others in the hands...

  15. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and standards for protection of nuclear weapons (paragraph (c) of this section AR 50-5-1) and for... weapon). Use it only in extreme need, when all lesser means have failed or cannot reasonably be used. Use... property (such as operable weapons or ammunition) which could cause deadly harm to others in the hands...

  16. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and standards for protection of nuclear weapons (paragraph (c) of this section AR 50-5-1) and for... weapon). Use it only in extreme need, when all lesser means have failed or cannot reasonably be used. Use... property (such as operable weapons or ammunition) which could cause deadly harm to others in the hands...

  17. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and standards for protection of nuclear weapons (paragraph (c) of this section AR 50-5-1) and for... weapon). Use it only in extreme need, when all lesser means have failed or cannot reasonably be used. Use... property (such as operable weapons or ammunition) which could cause deadly harm to others in the hands...

  18. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  19. More dead than dead: perceptions of persons in the persistent vegetative state.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T Anne; Wegner, Daniel M

    2011-11-01

    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the tendency to focus on the bodies of PVS patients at the expense of their minds. Experiment 3 found that PVS is also perceived as "worse" than death: people deem early death better than being in PVS. These studies suggest that people perceive the minds of PVS patients as less valuable than those of the dead - ironically, this effect is especially robust for those high in religiosity. PMID:21798528

  20. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    PubMed

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  1. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  2. Estimating the Dead Space Volume Between a Headform and N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Using Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Lei, Zhipeng; Yang, James

    2015-01-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) dead space is an important factor for respirator design. The dead space refers to the cavity between the internal surface of the FFR and the wearer's facial surface. This article presents a novel method to estimate the dead space volume of FFRs and experimental validation. In this study, six FFRs and five headforms (small, medium, large, long/narrow, and short/wide) are used for various FFR and headform combinations. Microsoft Kinect Sensors (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) are used to scan the headforms without respirators and then scan the headforms with the FFRs donned. The FFR dead space is formed through geometric modeling software, and finally the volume is obtained through LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA). In the experimental validation, water is used to measure the dead space. The simulation and experimental dead space volumes are 107.5-167.5 mL and 98.4-165.7 mL, respectively. Linear regression analysis is conducted to correlate the results from Kinect and water, and R(2) = 0.85.

  3. Estimating the Dead Space Volume Between a Headform and N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Using Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Lei, Zhipeng; Yang, James

    2015-01-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) dead space is an important factor for respirator design. The dead space refers to the cavity between the internal surface of the FFR and the wearer's facial surface. This article presents a novel method to estimate the dead space volume of FFRs and experimental validation. In this study, six FFRs and five headforms (small, medium, large, long/narrow, and short/wide) are used for various FFR and headform combinations. Microsoft Kinect Sensors (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) are used to scan the headforms without respirators and then scan the headforms with the FFRs donned. The FFR dead space is formed through geometric modeling software, and finally the volume is obtained through LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA). In the experimental validation, water is used to measure the dead space. The simulation and experimental dead space volumes are 107.5-167.5 mL and 98.4-165.7 mL, respectively. Linear regression analysis is conducted to correlate the results from Kinect and water, and R(2) = 0.85. PMID:25800663

  4. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  5. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  6. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  7. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  8. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section 314.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and...

  9. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section 1203b... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  10. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  11. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Toward a World without War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg

    Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…

  12. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  13. 14 CFR § 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of deadly force. § 1203b.106 Section Â... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. NASA security force personnel may use deadly force only when necessary, that is, when the officer has a...

  14. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes...

  15. Dead Sea Minerals loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alberto; Kubowicz, Stephan; Alderighi, Michele; Bartoli, Cristina; Piras, Anna Maria; Schmid, Ruth; Chiellini, Federica

    2011-10-15

    Therapeutic properties of Dead Sea Water (DSW) in the treatment of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and photo aging UV damaged skin have been well established. DSW is in fact rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and strontium which are known to exploit anti-inflammatory effects and to promote skin barrier recovery. In order to develop a Dead Sea Minerals (DSM) based drug delivery system for topical therapy of skin diseases, polymeric nanoparticles based on Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-butyl vinyl ether) 5% grafted with monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 MW (PEG) and 95% grafted with 2-methoxyethanol (VAM41-PEG) loaded with DSM were prepared by means of a combined miniemulsion/solvent evaporation process. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized in terms of dimension, morphology, biocompatibility, salt content and release. Cytocompatible spherical nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of about 300 nm, a time controlled drug release profile and a high formulation yield were obtained.

  16. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  17. Perturbative search for dead-end CFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-05-01

    To explore the possibility of self-organized criticality, we look for CFTs without any relevant scalar deformations (a.k.a. dead-end CFTs) within power-counting renormalizable quantum field theories with a weakly coupled Lagrangian description. In three dimensions, the only candidates are pure (Abelian) gauge theories, which may be further deformed by Chern-Simons terms. In four dimensions, we show that there are infinitely many non-trivial candidates based on chiral gauge theories. Using the three-loop beta functions, we compute the gap of scaling dimensions above the marginal value, and it can be as small as and robust against the perturbative corrections. These classes of candidates are very weakly coupled and our perturbative conclusion seems difficult to refute. Thus, the hypothesis that non-trivial dead-end CFTs do not exist is likely to be false in four dimensions.

  18. Zero dead volume tube to surface seal

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for connecting a tube to a surface that creates a dead volume seal. The apparatus is composed of three components, a body, a ferrule, and a threaded fitting. The ferrule is compressed onto a tube and a seal is formed between the tube and a device retained in the body by threading the fitting into the body which provides pressure that seals the face of the ferrule to a mating surface on the device. This seal can be used at elevated temperatures depending on the materials used. While the invention has been developed for use with micro-machined silicon wafers used in Capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC), it can be utilized anywhere for making a gas or fluid face seal to the surface of a device that has near zero dead volume.

  19. Improving measurement of Chesapeake Bay's dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In the 1930s, researchers first noticed that the Chesapeake Bay had a dead zone, an expanse of water with drastically reduced concentrations of oxygen. In the 1980s, hypoxia—low-oxygen conditions—gave way in some places to anoxia—a near-total depletion of dissolved oxygen. A lack of oxygen makes the water inhospitable for many marine organisms, and the Chesapeake Bay is the focus of major ecosystem rehabilitation efforts.

  20. Surviving deadness in the analytic experience.

    PubMed

    Koritar, Endre

    2014-12-01

    The transference/countertransference (third space) analysis is considered to be central in the therapeutic effectiveness of the analytic process. Less emphasis has been placed on the actual experiences of analyst and analysand in the conflictual reenactment of third space experience and its resolution. This paper recounts the shared experience of a patient who was silent throughout most of the analysis, and my reaction, in fantasy and enactment, to this disturbing experience-both for him and for myself. I argue that it is the affective re-experiencing of past repressed trauma in the analytic space that has a therapeutic impact, leading to growth in the patient and also the therapist. I contrast Freud's emphasis on insight, making the unconscious conscious, with Ferenczi's suggestion that the therapeutic impact lies in the repetition of past traumatic experience in the analysis but with the possibility of a different outcome with a more benign object, leading to symbolic representation of repressed trauma. Re-experiencing and symbolization, in the third space, of past traumatic experience can be an exit point from the endless repetition of trauma in internal and external object relations, leading to a new beginning in the patient's life. Immersed in the experience of deadness in the analysis, which had become a dead womb, the struggle to remain alive and thinking led to a rupture out of the dead womb, like the Caesura of birth, into aliveness and the ability to mentalize what had previously remained unmentalized. PMID:25434889

  1. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  2. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  3. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  4. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  5. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dead poultry from a quarantined area. 82.6 Section 82.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.6 Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Except...

  6. Vertical Mixing in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertman, Isaac; Ozer, Tal; Katsenelson, Boris; Lensky, Nadav

    2015-04-01

    For hundreds of years, the Dead Sea was characterized by a stable haline stratification, supported by runoff. The penetration of the winter convection was limited to an upper mixed layer (UML) of about 30-50 m. Below the UML, a stable halocline prevented the mixing. As a result of the runoff reduction, the UML salinity increased and the gravitational stability diminished. During the winter of 1978-1979, the sea water overturned, ending the long-term stable hydrological regime. Since 1979, the haline stratification structure reoccurred twice after extremely rainy winters, in 1980-82 and 1992-1995. In other years, the sea was entirely mixed by winter thermal convection ( which occurs from November to March ) and had a seasonal pycnocline beneath the UML during summer. Profiles of temperature and quasi-salinity (density anomaly from 1000 kg/m3 for the chosen reference temperature of 32° C) during the last 19 years, show the formation of summer ``overturning halocline'' beneath the UML, and the thermocline that supports the stable stratification. Another warm and saline layer is formed also during the summer period near the bottom. This layer spreads from the southern part of the sea, where end-brine is discharged to the sea from the Israeli and Jordanian salt plants' evaporation ponds. The end-brine has extremely high salinity (˜ 350 g/kg) and, in spite of the high temperatures ( ˜ 45° C), high density (1350 kg/m^3), it therefore spreads as a gravitational current in the Dead Sea deep basin. Estimation of the density ratio (Rρ) for the Dead Sea water (where measurements of water salinity is quite difficult) was done using quasi-salinity (σ32) and potential temperature (θ): Rρ= [α(partialθ/partial z)]/[β(partial σ32/partial z)], where α and β are temperature expansion and quasi-salinity contraction coefficients respectively. The values of α and β for the Dead Sea water were defined from water samples collected during 2008. The Rρ values confirm that

  7. Post mortem findings in sows and gilts euthanised or found dead in a large Swedish herd

    PubMed Central

    Engblom, Linda; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Lundeheim, Nils; Belák, Katinka; Andersson, Kjell; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to get information on post mortem diagnoses of sows found dead or euthanised and to understand the diagnoses aetiology (causative background). Moreover, the study was to evaluate the association between the clinical symptoms observed on farm and post mortem findings. Methods A large Swedish herd was studied from January to September 2006. During the 32-week period 3.9% of the removed sows and gilts (old enough to be mated) were found dead, 12.0% were euthanised and the rest were sent to slaughter. Of 32 sows/gilts found dead 17 (53%) were post mortem examined, and of 98 sows euthanised 79 (81%) were examined. The 96 examined carcasses were after 70 sows and 26 gilts. The findings at examination were together with data from the herd monitoring program PigWin Sugg the base for the descriptive statistics presented. Results The average parity number at removal was 2.8 for those found dead and 2.1 for those euthanised. The highest number euthanised and found dead was in parity 0 (gilts). The main proportion of post mortem examinations was made on sows being in the period = 28 d of gestation at death (37.5%), followed by weaning to next service period (24.0%). Arthritis, with an incidence of 36.4% was the most common main finding of pathological-anatomical diagnosis (PAD). Of sows/gilts found dead were circulatory/cardiac failure (23.5%) and trauma related injuries (23.5%) most common PAD. The most commonly observed clinical symptom and reason for euthanasia of the sows/gilts was lameness. Notably, in 43% of the cases with PAD arthritis, the clinical symptoms suggested it being a fracture. Further one or more abscesses (38.5%) and teeth injuries (31.0%) were common findings when also incidental findings were included. Conclusion This post mortem study based on carcasses from sows/gilts found dead or euthanised showed that arthritis was a significant problem in the studied herd and that post mortem examination was important to get

  8. Iranian nurses’ experiences of brain dead donors care in intensive care units: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Kanani, Tahereh; Abedi, Heidarali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Care of brain dead donors is complex, critical, and sensitive and has a direct and positive impact on the end result of organ and tissue transplantation process. This study describes the nurses’ experiences of care of brain dead donors in intensive care units (ICU). Materials and Methods: This research was performed by phenomenological method that is a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to gather the data. The researcher reached to data saturation by deep interviews conducted with eight participants from ICU nurses in Isfahan hospitals who cooperated in care of brain dead donors. Data analysis was performed according to Colaizzi analysis method. Results: Interviews were analyzed and the results of analysis led to “Excruciating tasks” as the main theme formed by psychological effects of facing the situation, heavy and stressful care, defect of scientific knowledge, conflict between feeling and duty, outcome of attitude change in behavior, emotional responses to perceived psychological afflictions, doubt to medical diagnosis, spiritual perceptions, and biological responses when faced with the situation. Conclusion: Caring of brain dead organ donors is difficult and stressful for intensive care nurses and can be a threat for nurses’ health and quality of nursing care. So, providing suitable physical, mental, and working conditions is necessary to make suitable background to maintain and increase nurses’ health and quality of care and effective cooperation of this group of health professionals in organ procurement process. PMID:24554946

  9. Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Maekawa, T; Nakajima, K; Sadamitsu, D; Tateishi, A

    1998-11-01

    Long-term heart rate fluctuations in postoperative and brain-dead patients were investigated. Heart rates were monitored continuously, and the data were stored, edited, and interpolated to allow for data lost during calibration and disconnection of the sensors for various treatments. Heart rate power spectra were calculated using the fast Fourier transform method. The power spectra of the patients who recovered showed that the heart rate fluctuated and produced a 1/f relationship, termed 1/f fluctuations, whereas those of patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) consisted of white-noise-like signals. The power spectra in brain-dead patients showed a 1/f relationship under steady-state conditions, while the power density and variation of the frequency distribution were lower than those in a normal subject. Therefore, 1/f fluctuations appear to be universal and occur independent of the central nervous system. PMID:9844751

  10. A Whole-Cell Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on a Leucine Auxotroph of Escherichia coli Displaying a Gold-Binding Protein: Usefulness for Diagnosis of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Min-Ah; Park, Jung Hun; Cho, Daeyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Moon Il; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-03-01

    We developed a whole-cell surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a leucine auxotroph of Escherichia coli displaying a gold-binding protein (GBP) in response to cell growth and applied this sensor to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease, which is represented by the elevated leucine level in blood. The leucine auxotroph was genetically engineered to grow displaying GBP in a proportion to the concentration of target amino acid leucine. The GBP expressed on the surface of the auxotrophs directly bound to the golden surface of an SPR chip without the need for any additional treatment or reagents, which consequently produced SPR signals used to determine leucine levels in a test sample. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were further applied to the SPR system, which significantly enhanced the signal intensity up to 10-fold by specifically binding to GBP expressed on the cell surface. Finally, the diagnostic utility of our system was demonstrated by its employment in reliably determining different statuses of maple syrup urine disease based on a known cutoff level of leucine. This new approach based on an amino acid-auxotrophic E. coli strain expressing a GBP that binds to an SPR sensor holds great promise for detection of other metabolic diseases of newborn babies including homocystinuria and phenylketonuria, which are also associated with abnormal levels of amino acids. PMID:26828904

  11. Comet 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Spectrometer Graph

    This artist's concept illustrates a comet being torn to shreds around a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29-38. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed a cloud of dust around this white dwarf that may have been generated from this type of comet disruption. The findings suggest that a host of other comet survivors may still orbit in this long-dead solar system.

    The white dwarf G29-38 began life as a star that was about three times as massive as our sun. Its death involved the same steps that the sun will ultimately undergo billions of years from now. According to theory, the G29-38 star became brighter and brighter as it aged, until it bloated up into a dying star called a red giant. This red giant was large enough to engulf and evaporate any terrestrial planets like Earth that happened to be in its way. Later, the red giant shed its outer atmosphere, leaving behind a shrunken skeleton of star, called a white dwarf. If the star did host a planetary system, outer planets akin to Jupiter and Neptune and a remote ring of icy comets would remain.

    The Spitzer observations provide observational evidence for this orbiting outpost of comet survivors. Astronomers speculate that one such comet was knocked into the inner regions of G29-38, possibly by an outer planet. As the comet approached very close to the white dwarf, it may have been torn apart by the star's tidal forces. Eventually, all that would be left of the comet is a disk of dust.

    This illustration shows a comet in the process of being pulverized: part of it still exists as a chain of small clumps, while the rest has already spread out into a dusty disk. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke apart in a similar fashion when it plunged into Jupiter in 1994. Evidence for Comets Found in Dead Star's Dust The graph of data, or spectrum, from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a dead star, or white dwarf, called G29

  12. The five deadly sins of science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Tracz, Vitek

    2015-01-01

    Science cannot progress without scientists reporting their findings. And yet researchers have given control of this central pillar of the scientific process to science publishers, who are in the business of serving the interests of their journals; these are not always the same as the interests of science. This editorial describes the problems with the process of preparing and publishing research findings, and with judging their veracity and significance, and then explains how we at Faculty of 1000 are starting to tackle the ‘deadly sins’ of science publishing. PMID:26097694

  13. [A case of lycanthropy with deadly violence].

    PubMed

    Bénézech, M; De Witte, J; Etchepare, J J; Bourgeois, M

    1989-01-01

    After a short historical review of the contemporary medical literature, the authors analyze a new and original observation of lycanthropy. He is a 28 years old man, imprisoned for deadly violence, who has been showing, for many years, the belief of being transformed into a werewolf during depersonalization episodes when he presents a lycanthropic behaviour. Our observation is closer to hysteria and mythomania on an antisocial personality, although it seems difficult to place the mental pathology of this alcoholic recidivist delinquent into a nosographical frame.

  14. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  15. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  16. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts. PMID:25738763

  17. Vector graph assisted pedestrian dead reckoning using an unconstrained smartphone.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts. PMID:25738763

  18. Ethics of Practicing Medical Procedures on Newly Dead and Nearly Dead Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jeffrey T; Rosner, Fred; Cassell, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the ethical issues raised by physicians performing, for skill development, medically nonindicated invasive medical procedures on newly dead and dying patients. DESIGN Literature review; issue analysis employing current normative ethical obligations, and evaluation against moral rules and utilitarian assessments manifest in other common perimortem practices. RESULTS Practicing medical procedures for training purposes is not uncommon among physicians in training. However, empiric information is limited or absent evaluating the effects of this practice on physician competence and ethics, assessing public attitudes toward practicing medical procedures and requirements for consent, and discerning the effects of a consent requirement on physicians' clinical competence. Despite these informational gaps, there is an obligation to secure consent for training activities on newly and nearly dead patients based on contemporary norms for informed consent and family respect. Paradigms of consent-dependent societal benefits elsewhere in health care support our determination that the benefits from physicians practicing procedures does not justify setting aside the informed consent requirement. CONCLUSION Current ethical norms do not support the practice of using newly and nearly dead patients for training in invasive medical procedures absent prior consent by the patient or contemporaneous surrogate consent. Performing an appropriately consented training procedure is ethically acceptable when done under competent supervision and with appropriate professional decorum. The ethics of training on the newly and nearly dead remains an insufficiently examined area of medical training. PMID:12390553

  19. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars.

    Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust.

    Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  20. AGSM Intelligent Devices/Smart Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project provides development and qualification of Smart Sensors capable of self-diagnosis and assessment of their capability/readiness to support operations. These sensors will provide pressure and temperature measurements to use in ground systems.

  1. Photographic Study Of A Dead-Pressed Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swallowe, G. M.; Field, J. E.

    1983-03-01

    High speed photography in conjunction with electron microscopy and a pressure measuring technique have been used to investigate the differences between dead-pressed and non-dead-pressed samples of the primary explosive Mercury Fulminate (Hg Ful). Photographs of reaction propagation were taken in transmitted light using a specially adapted drop-weight machine with transparent anvils. The results of these experiments suggested a mechanism for dead-pressing in Hg Ful based on the microscopic internal structure of the compacted explosive.

  2. Turbulence, Transport, and Waves in Ohmic Dead Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gole, Daniel; Simon, Jacob B.; Lubow, Stephen H.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    We use local numerical simulations to study a vertically stratified accretion disk with a resistive mid-plane that damps magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This is an idealized model for the dead zones that may be present at some radii in protoplanetary and dwarf novae disks. We vary the relative thickness of the dead and active zones to quantify how forced fluid motions in the dead zone change. We find that the residual Reynolds stress near the mid-plane decreases with increasing dead zone thickness, becoming negligible in cases where the active to dead mass ratio is less than a few percent. This implies that purely Ohmic dead zones would be vulnerable to episodic accretion outbursts via the mechanism of Martin & Lubow. We show that even thick dead zones support a large amount of kinetic energy, but this energy is largely in fluid motions that are inefficient at angular momentum transport. Confirming results from Oishi & Mac Low, the perturbed velocity field in the dead zone is dominated by an oscillatory, vertically extended circulation pattern with a low frequency compared to the orbital frequency. This disturbance has the properties predicted for the lowest order r mode in a hydrodynamic disk. We suggest that in a global disk similar excitations would lead to propagating waves, whose properties would vary with the thickness of the dead zone and the nature of the perturbations (isothermal or adiabatic). Flows with similar amplitudes would buckle settled particle layers and could reduce the efficiency of pebble accretion.

  3. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  4. Lighting up a Dead Star's Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the scattered remains of an exploded star named Cassiopeia A. Spitzer's infrared detectors 'picked' through these remains and found that much of the star's original layering had been preserved.

    In this false-color image, the faint, blue glow surrounding the dead star is material that was energized by a shock wave, called the forward shock, which was created when the star blew up. The forward shock is now located at the outer edge of the blue glow. Stars are also seen in blue. Green, yellow and red primarily represent material that was ejected in the explosion and heated by a slower shock wave, called the reverse shock wave.

    The picture was taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera and is a composite of 3.6-micron light (blue); 4.5-micron light (green); and 8.0-micron light (red).

  5. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  6. Speaking to the dead: images of the dead in contemporary art.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Mary

    2011-05-01

    In this article I explore works by three artists in which we can see images that relate to bereavement. In the work of the first two, Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook and Andres Serrano, we can see photographic images (still and moving) of human corpses, which have been criticized as morbid and unhealthy. However I argue that it is not in fact images of death or the dead that are problematic but those images which present or evoke evidence of the emotions associated with death, and create a situation where we imagine the circumstances of our own deaths or the death of those we love. Images of the dead are acceptable as long as they do not cause pain to the living, as in a video game fantasy or a fiction, or are seen as other and distant. In the second group of works, by Gustgav Metzger, The Absent Dead: The Surrogate Body, the body is not present either because the death has taken place at a distance, either in time or geographically, or both, and a new site must be created. In this section, I discuss Metzger's auto-destructive art and argue that these works, through their ephemerality, embody a form of 'meaning making' and a possibility of the benefits of grief as described by Parkes.

  7. Zombie Vortices: The Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks are Not Dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip; Pei, Suyang; Barranco, Joe; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Numerical simulations, using both the anelastic and fully compressible equations of motion, show that the ``dead zones'' of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) around forming stars are unstable and filled with vortex-dominated turbulence with Mach and Rossby numbers of order 0.2 - 0.3. The dead zones are regions in which the temperature is too cool for the gas to ionize and be destabilized by instabilities associated with the magnetic field. The ``dead zones'' were thought, by most authors, to be stable to all purely-hydrodynamic instabilities because the flow has an angular momentum that increases with increasing radius in a PPD and is therefore stable by Rayleigh's theorem. However, that theorem in not applicable to stratified flows, such as those in a PPD. We summarize our simulations with emphasis on the finite-amplitude trigger of the instability and show that when the trigger is Kolmogorov noise, the Mach number of the noise that is needed to create instability is proportional to Re - 1 / 2 , where Re is the Reynolds number of the initial noise.

  8. Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes with Dead-Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The determination of closed-loop response of processes containing dead-time is typically not covered in undergraduate process control, possibly because the solution by Laplace transforms requires the use of Pade approximation for dead-time, which makes the procedure lengthy and tedious. A computer-aided method is described which simplifies the…

  9. Zero-dead-time operation of interleaved atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, G W; Takase, K; Wu, X; Deslauriers, L; Roy, S; Kasevich, M A

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate a zero-dead-time operation of atomic clocks. This clock reduces sensitivity to local oscillator noise, integrating as nearly 1/τ whereas a clock with dead time integrates as 1/τ(1/2) under identical conditions. We contend that a similar scheme may be applied to improve the stability of optical clocks.

  10. Recipe for Hypoxia: Playing the Dead Zone Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastler, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Dead zones--areas experiencing low levels of dissolved oxygen--are growing in shallow ocean waters around the world. Research has shown that dead zones form as a result of a specific type of pollution, called nutrient enrichment or eutrophication, and are found in almost every coastal zone where humans have large populations. Concepts related to…

  11. Zero-dead-time operation of interleaved atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, G W; Takase, K; Wu, X; Deslauriers, L; Roy, S; Kasevich, M A

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate a zero-dead-time operation of atomic clocks. This clock reduces sensitivity to local oscillator noise, integrating as nearly 1/τ whereas a clock with dead time integrates as 1/τ(1/2) under identical conditions. We contend that a similar scheme may be applied to improve the stability of optical clocks. PMID:24206471

  12. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the...

  13. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1.422 Section 1.422 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of...

  14. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  15. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... explosives). (3) Nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the theft, sabotage, or unauthorized control of a nuclear weapon or nuclear explosive device. (4) Special nuclear material. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent...

  16. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... explosives). (3) Nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the theft, sabotage, or unauthorized control of a nuclear weapon or nuclear explosive device. (4) Special nuclear material. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent...

  17. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... explosives). (3) Nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the theft, sabotage, or unauthorized control of a nuclear weapon or nuclear explosive device. (4) Special nuclear material. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent...

  18. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... explosives). (3) Nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the theft, sabotage, or unauthorized control of a nuclear weapon or nuclear explosive device. (4) Special nuclear material. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent...

  19. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... explosives). (3) Nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent the theft, sabotage, or unauthorized control of a nuclear weapon or nuclear explosive device. (4) Special nuclear material. When deadly force reasonably appears to be necessary to prevent...

  20. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal representative (executor, administrator, etc.) of the deceased inventor may file...

  1. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal representative (executor, administrator, etc.) of the deceased inventor may make the necessary oath...

  2. Helicopter Gravity Survey in the Dead Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, H.-J.; Meyer, Uwe; Choi, Sungchan

    2010-03-01

    Earthquakes have been reported in the Middle East since biblical times. Seismological studies demonstrate that many damaging earthquakes occurred along the Dead Sea Transform (DST), a long shear zone that extends from the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat through the Dead Sea into the Sea of Galilee. To better understand the behavior and dynamics of the Dead Sea Transform, the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) interdisciplinary and international project was initiated in 2006. The DST, which forms one of the world’s largest pull-apart basins (120 kilometers long, 20 kilometers wide, and about 10 kilometers deep), is a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults that accommodates about 105 kilometers of relative motion between the African and Arabian plates. To study the DST in places where it is easily accessible, the DESIRE project area focused on the Dead Sea basin (Figure 1).

  3. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, J.A.; Krueger, F.P.

    1987-10-05

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events. 5 figs.

  4. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, John A.; Krueger, Frederick P.

    1988-09-20

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events.

  5. Modeling the circulation of the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Steve; Lensky, Nadav; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline, terminal lake located at the lowest point on the land surface of the Earth. Its current level is more than 429 m below MSL, and due to a negative water balance (mainly anthropogenic), the lake level has been dropping at an average rate of more than 1 m/yr for more than 30 years. The mean salinity has also been steadily increasing and today is close to 280 psu. The region of the Dead Sea is a unique landscape that has important historical, cultural, and economic value and therefore such an extreme change of the lake has significant environmental and economic consequences. In recent years there has been a notable increase in observing and monitoring of the lake through continuous measurements from several fixed buoys as well as during quasi-regular cruises. In order to complement the measurements and improve our understanding of the dynamics of this unique lake a three dimensional circulation model is being developed. Previous modeling efforts were limited mainly to a one dimensional column model which was coupled to a comprehensive physio-chemical model and used for long term multi-decadal simulations. In this study the focus is on understanding the dynamical processes that control the lake-wide circulation on time scales ranging from days to seasons. The first step was to replace the equation of state with an equation appropriate for the hypersaline conditions, in addition to some minor tuning of the turbulence closure scheme. Results will be presented from preliminary simulations of the wind driven circulation in various seasons. A case study of a recent unusual winter flooding event, during which the lake level rose by more than 20 cm over a two month period, will also be presented. The model successfully simulated the observed transition from holomictic to meromictic conditions and epilimnion dilution during this event, as well as the restoration of holomictic conditions when the level started to drop again. The relationship

  6. Micro-facies of Dead Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Schwab, Markus J.; Brauer, Achim; Frank, Ute; Dulski, Peter; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Enzel, Yehouda; Waldmann, Nicolas; Ariztegui, Daniel; Drilling Party, Dsddp

    2013-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments infilling the Dead Sea basin (DSB) provide a rare opportunity to trace changing climates in the eastern Mediterranean-Levant region throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. In this context, high-resolution investigation of changes in sediment micro- facies allow deciphering short-term climatic fluctuations and changing environmental conditions in the Levant. The Dead Sea is a terminal lake with one of the largest drainage areas in the Levant, located in the Mediterranean climate zone and influenced also by the Saharo-Arabian deserts. Due to drastic climatic changes in this region, an exceptionally large variety of lacustrine sediments has been deposited in the DSB. These sediments, partially the results of changing lake levels, primarily represent changes in precipitation (e.g. Enzel et al., 2008). Evaporites (halite and gypsum) reflect dry climatic conditions during interglacials, while alternated aragonite-detritus (AAD) is deposited during glacial lake level high-stands. Here we present the first micro-facies inventory of a ~450 m long sediment profile from the deepest part of the northern DSB (ICDP site 5017-1, ~300 m water depth). The sediment record comprises the last two glacial-interglacial cycles, with mainly AAD facies in the upper part of the Amora Formation (penultimate glacial) and the last glacial Lisan Formation. The last interglacial Samra and the Holocene Zeelim Formations are predominantly characterized by thick bedded halite deposits, intercalated by partly laminated detrital marl sequences. Representative sections of the different facies types have been analyzed for micro-facies on petrographic thin sections, supported by high-resolution µXRF element scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements and microscopic fluorescence analysis. Furthermore, Holocene sediments retrieved at the deep basin core site have been compared to their shallow-water counterpart at the western margin of the lake (core DSEn; Migowski et al., 2004

  7. Bulimia, anorexia nervosa, and diabetes. Deadly combinations.

    PubMed

    Hillard, J R; Hillard, P J

    1984-06-01

    Bulimia, anorexia nervosa, and diabetes often coexist, and eating disorders among diabetics frequently go unrecognized. This combination of conditions can have life-threatening effects. Consequently, diagnosis and the medical and psychological management of these patients is of critical importance. The authors outline the complex interactions among the biologic, psychological, and social factors involved in these disorders.

  8. Is Space-based Interferometry Dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, David; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carr, J.; Fich, M.; Fischer, J.; Goldsmith, P.; Greaves, J.; Griffin, M.; Helou, G.; Ivison, R.; Kuchner, M.; Lyon, R.; Matsuo, H.; Rinehart, S. A.; Serabyn, E.; Shibai, H.; Silverberg, R.; Staguhn, J.; Unwin, S.; Wilner, D.; Wootten, A.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of the Decadal Survey and a January 2011 meeting of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG), one might be tempted to conclude that space interferometry is dead. We explain why this slogan is hyperbole, summarize the steps currently being taken to prepare for a space-based far-IR interferometer, and reiterate the science case for an imaging and spectroscopic interferometer - SPIRIT - that would operate in space at long infrared wavelengths. Space-based interferometry is alive and well, but the center of activity has shifted to a spectral region (25 to 400 microns) in which no alternative measurement technique can provide information essential to answering several scientific questions deemed compelling by the Decadal Survey. Astrophysicists will use SPIRIT to: discover how the conditions for habitability arise during planetary system formation; find and characterize exoplanets by measuring their sculpting effects on protoplanetary and debris disks; and study the formation, merger history, and star formation history of galaxies.

  9. Dead space reduction by Kolobow's endotracheal tube does not justify the waiving of volume monitoring in small, ventilated lungs.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, Hans; Wendel, Rena; Roehr, Charles C; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    In ventilated preterm infants the flow sensor contributes significantly to the total apparatus dead space, which may impair gas exchange. The aim of the study was to quantify to which extent a dead space reduced Kolobow tube (KB) without flow sensor improves the gas exchange compared with a conventional ventilator circuit with flow sensor [Babylog 8000 (BL)]. In a cross-over trial in 14 tracheotomized, surfactant-depleted (saline lavage) and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (age <12 h; body weight 705-1200 g) BL and KB was applied alternately for 15 min and blood gases were recorded. The inner diameter of the endotracheal tube was 3.6 mm and the apparatus dead space of BL and KB including the endotracheal tube were 3.0 and 1.34 mL. Despite a 50 % apparatus dead space reduction with KB compared to BL statistically significant improvements were only observed for body weights <900 g. In this weight group median paCO2 was decreased by 5 mmHg (p < 0.01), whereas the improvement decreased with decreasing baseline paCO2. Furthermore, median paO2 was increased by 4 mmHg (p < 0.05) and O2 saturation was increased by 2.5 % (p < 0.05). No significant changes were seen in the circulatory parameters. In very small, ventilated lungs the use of KB improved the gas exchange; however, the improvement was moderate and does not justify the waiving of volume monitoring.

  10. Neutropenic Enterocolitis: New Insights Into a Deadly Entity.

    PubMed

    Sachak, Taha; Arnold, Michael A; Naini, Bita V; Graham, Rondell P; Shah, Sejal S; Cruise, Michael; Park, Jason Y; Clark, Lindsey; Lamps, Laura; Frankel, Wendy L; Theodoropoulos, Nicole; Arnold, Christina A

    2015-12-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a deadly ileocecal-based disease seen in patients with a recent history of chemotherapy. As histology is not included in the current diagnostic criteria, the pathologic features of NE are poorly understood. We undertook a multi-institutional study of NE, and report helpful clinical clues, such as immunosuppression (n=20/20), recent chemotherapy (n=17/18), neutropenia (n=16/18) gastrointestinal symptoms (n=19/19), abnormal imaging studies of the cecum/right colon (n=11/14), and positive microbiological studies (n=13/15). Fever (n=9/15) and sepsis (n=8/16) were also common. Pathologically, the cecum/right colon was always involved (n=17/17), but findings were identified in other bowel segments as well. NE lesions consisted of patchy necrosis (n=18/20), infiltrating organisms (n=17/20), hemorrhage (n=15/20), ulcer (n=15/19), edema (n=15/20), and depletion of inflammatory cells (n=15/20). Seventy-nine percent (n=15/19) of patients with histologically confirmed NE died: 47% (n=7/15) of these deaths were attributed to NE and the remainder to the patients' underlying conditions. Importantly, we observed a clinical diagnostic discordancy rate of 35% (n=9/26): 15% (n=3/20) of histologically confirmed NE were clinically unsuspected, and 26% (n=6/23) of clinically suspected NE represented a different disease process. Alternative diagnoses included unspecified colitis, infection, graft-versus-host disease, relapsed malignancy, mycophenolate injury, appendicitis, and ischemia. The causes of death in patients with NE mimics included unrecognized appendicitis and unrecognized graft-versus-host disease. To improve diagnostic accuracy, we propose that histology be required for a diagnosis of "definitive NE," with other clinically suspicious cases reported as "suspicious for NE" until all other possible diagnoses have been reasonably excluded.

  11. Dead space mask eliminates central apnea at altitude.

    PubMed

    Patz, David S; Patz, Michael D; Hackett, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Travelers to high altitude may have disturbed sleep due to periodic breathing with frequent central apneas. We tested whether a mask with added dead space could reduce the central apneas of altitude. 16 subjects were recruited, age 18-35, residing at 4600 ft (1400 m). They each slept one night with full polysomnographic monitoring, including end tidal CO2, in a normobaric hypoxia tent simulating 12,000 ft. (3658 m) altitude. Those who had a central apnea index (CAI) >20/h returned for a night in the tent for dead space titration, during which they slept with increasing amounts of dead space, aiming for a CAI <5/h or <10% of baseline. Then each subject slept another night with the titrated amount of dead space. Of the 16 subjects, 5 had a central apnea index >20/h mean 49.1, range 21.4-131.5/hr. In each of the 5, the dead space mask reduced the CAI by at least 88% to a mean of 3.1, range 0.9-7.1/h, (p=0.04). Hypopnea index was unchanged. Three subjects required 500 cc of dead space or less. One subject required 860 cc, and one required 2.1 L. Morning symptoms and arousal index were not significantly affected by the dead space mask. Dead space did not appear to increase the CO2 reserve. At 12,000 ft., central apneas can be effectively reduced with a dead space mask, but clinical utility will require further evaluation.

  12. Uncertainty evaluation of dead zone of diagnostic ultrasound equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. M.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Braz, D. S.; Petrella, L. I.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a model for evaluating measurement uncertainty of a feature used in the assessment of ultrasound images: dead zone. The dead zone was measured by two technicians of the INMETRO's Laboratory of Ultrasound using a phantom and following the standard IEC/TS 61390. The uncertainty model was proposed based on the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. For the tested equipment, results indicate a dead zone of 1.01 mm, and based on the proposed model, the expanded uncertainty was 0.17 mm. The proposed uncertainty model contributes as a novel way for metrological evaluation of diagnostic imaging by ultrasound.

  13. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Robert J; Rosenberg, Rutger

    2008-08-15

    Dead zones in the coastal oceans have spread exponentially since the 1960s and have serious consequences for ecosystem functioning. The formation of dead zones has been exacerbated by the increase in primary production and consequent worldwide coastal eutrophication fueled by riverine runoff of fertilizers and the burning of fossil fuels. Enhanced primary production results in an accumulation of particulate organic matter, which encourages microbial activity and the consumption of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. Dead zones have now been reported from more than 400 systems, affecting a total area of more than 245,000 square kilometers, and are probably a key stressor on marine ecosystems.

  14. Adaptive control with variable dead-zone nonlinearities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlicki, D.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.; Stein, G.

    1984-01-01

    It has been found that fixed error dead-zones as defined in the existing literature result in serious degradation of performance, due to the conservativeness which characterizes the determination of their width. In the present paper, variable width dead-zones are derived for the adaptive control of plants with unmodeled dynamics. The derivation makes use of information available about the unmodeled dynamics both a priori as well as during the adaptation process, so as to stabilize the adaptive loop and at the same time overcome the conservativeness and performance limitations of fixed-dead zone adaptive or fixed gain controllers.

  15. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  16. Groundwater-Lake Interaction in the Dead Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Dead Sea hypersaline water system is unique in terms of its unusual geochemical composition, rapid lake level changes and water composition of the brines discharging along its shoreline. The Dead Sea can be used as a natural lab for studying groundwater-seawater interaction and saline water hydrological circulation along the aquifer-sea boundary. It provides an opportunity to follow the geochemical processes along a flow path from the lake into the aquifer and back into the lake. The lake level has been dropping since the 1960's due to human interference in its water budget, reaching a rate of 1 m/yr in recent years. Saline water circulation in coastal aquifers may be a major process that governs trace element mass balances in coastal areas. This study uses radium isotopes in order to quantify the lake water circulation in the Dead Sea aquifer. There are four naturally-occurring radium isotopes, with half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 years which are chain products of uranium and thorium isotopes. Radium isotopes are usually enriched in saline groundwater and therefore are good candidates for estimating seawater or hypersaline lake water circulation in the aquifer. Compared to most natural water bodies, the Dead Sea is extremely enriched in radium and barium, where both 226Ra and 228Ra activities and Ba concentration (145, 1-2 dpm/L and 5 mg/L, respectively) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in ocean water, whereas the salinity of the Dead Sea is only 10 times higher. Circulated Dead Sea water in the aquifer contains decreased concentrations of 226Ra (60 dpm/L), Ba (1.5 mg/L), Sr (300 relative to 340 mg/L in the Dead Sea) and Sulfate (250 relative to 392 mg/L). We suggest that the low 226Ra and Ba concentrations are due to precipitation of barite and celestine from the supersaturated Dead Sea water on entering the aquifer. 228Ra and the shorter-lived 224Ra and 223Ra, which have much lower activities in the Dead Sea (up to 1.8, 3 and 0.8 dpm

  17. Cirrhosis and trauma: a deadly duo.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A Britton; Wilson, Ashley K; Franklin, Glen A; Miller, Frank B; Richardson, J David; Rodriguez, Jorge L

    2005-12-01

    It has been previously reported that trauma patients with cirrhosis undergoing emergency abdominal operations exhibit a fourfold increase in mortality independent of their Child's classification. We undertook this review to assess the impact of cirrhosis on trauma patients. We reviewed the records of patients from 1993 to 2003 with documented hepatic cirrhosis and compared them to a 2:1 control population without hepatic cirrhosis and matched for age, sex, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Demographic, severity of injury, and outcome data were recorded. Student's t test and X2 were used for statistical analysis and a P < 0.05 was significant. Sixty-one patients had documented cirrhosis and were compared to 156 matched controls. Comparing the two groups demonstrates there was no difference in age, ISS, or GCS. Intensive care stay, hospital length of stay, blood requirements in the first 24 hours postinjury, and mortality (33% vs 1%) was significantly greater in the trauma patients with cirrhosis. Fifty-five per cent of deaths in the cirrhosis group was due to sepsis, and, as the Child's class increases, so does the mortality (Child's A, 15%; B, 37%; and C, 63%). In 64 per cent of cirrhotics without an emergent abdominal operation, mortality was 21 per cent. In the 36 per cent of cirrhotics who had emergent abdominal operation, mortality was 55 per cent. Hepatic cirrhosis in trauma patients, regardless of severity of injury or the need for an abdominal intervention, is a poor prognostic indicator. The necessity of an abdominal operative intervention further amplifies this effect. Trauma and cirrhosis is, in fact, a deadly duo.

  18. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal? A hydro-economic-institutional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Presently, just 100 million cubic meters per year (MCM/year) of the 1,000+ MCM/year that historically flowed in the lower Jordan River reach the Dead Sea. Israeli, Jordanian, and Syrian dam and extraction projects built over seven decades have principally caused the reduced flow, associated falling Dead Sea level, shrinking surface area, sink holes, salinity, and other catastrophic problems. These problems will be magnified in the face of up to 20% reductions in precipitation expected with climate change. The fix proposed by Jordan, Israel, and Palestine—and now under study by the World Bank—envisions building a $US 5 billion multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. Yet alternatives to raise the Dead Sea level that could take advantage of hydrologic variability remain unstudied. Here we show system-wide hydrologic and economic impacts of and discusses institutional management for alternatives to raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the inter-tied Israel-Jordan-Palestinian water systems show the desalination component of the Red Sea-Dead Sea project is economically unviable. Further, many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country together increase economic benefits and can reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. In all cases, results show that net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as the flow volume delivered to the Dead Sea increases. These findings suggest that (i) each country has little individual incentive to allow water to flow to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions—such as the World Bank—that seek to raise the Dead should instead offer the countries direct incentives to deliver water rather than build them new infrastructure. The work expands the set of viable options to raise the Dead Sea level and can help the World Bank and others recommend whether

  19. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  20. Assessment and Management of Dead-Wood Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al

  1. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality Study ... three quarters of this population living in cities, city planning must be part of a comprehensive solution to ...

  2. Extreme flood events in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlborn, Marieke; Ben Dor, Yoav; Schwab, Markus J.; Neugebauer, Ina; Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Erel, Yigal; Enzel, Yehouda; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline, terminal lake located within the Dead Sea basin at the lowest continental elevation on Earth (~425 m below mean sea level). Extreme hydro-meteorological events in terms of flash floods occur regularly during the wet season in the Dead Sea basin and adjacent mountain ranges. However, little is known about the impact of these extreme floods on the sedimentary dynamics in the Dead Sea and possible links to long-term climate changes. The trilateral research project PALEX (Paleoclimate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - Levante: Paleohydrology and Extreme Flood Events) was recently initiated within the framework of the DFG priority program 1006 ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) to investigate extreme flood events in the Dead Sea basin during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Within the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) the ~455 m long sediment core 5017-1 was recovered from the northern Dead Sea basin. Previously published results (Neugebauer et al., 2014, 2015) have demonstrated the occurrence of extreme flood events represented in the sediments as thick graded detrital layers during Late Holocene dry phases. Based on these results we will apply a comprehensive analytical approach including microfacies analyses, μXRF element scanning, and stable isotope geochemistry to different time intervals of core 5017-1. Particularly, we aim to investigate the structure and composition of detrital layers in order to decipher sediment transport mechanisms and the provenance of the flood-triggered sediments. The overarching goal is to establish a high-resolution extreme flood time series for the Dead Sea basin on the basis of a previously established radiocarbon and U-Th chronology (Torfstein et al., 2015; Neugebauer et al., 2014) and to study a possible link between the frequency and magnitude of extreme flood events and the long-term climate trend. Neugebauer I, Brauer A, Schwab MJ, et al. (2014) Lithology of

  3. Experimental dead-time distortions of poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A. R.

    1983-07-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves.

  4. Metagenomic insights into important microbes from the Dead Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C.; Baker, B.; Seitz, K.; Temperton, B.; Gillies, L.; Rabalais, N. N.; Mason, O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal regions of eutrophication-driven oxygen depletion are widespread and increasing in number. Also known as dead zones, these regions take their name from the deleterious effects of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 mg/L) on shrimp, demersal fish, and other animal life. Dead zones result from nutrient enrichment of primary production, concomitant consumption by chemoorganotrophic aerobic microorganisms, and strong stratification that prevents ventilation of bottom water. One of the largest dead zones in the world occurs seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), where hypoxia can reach up to 22,000 square kilometers. While this dead zone shares many features with more well-known marine oxygen minimum zones, it is nevertheless understudied with regards to the microbial assemblages involved in biogeochemical cycling. We performed metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on six samples from the 2013 nGOM dead zone from both hypoxic and oxic bottom waters. Assembly and binning led to the recovery of over fifty partial to nearly complete metagenomes from key microbial taxa previously determined to be numerically abundant from 16S rRNA data, such as Thaumarcheaota, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR324, Synechococcus spp., and Planctomycetes. These results provide information about the roles of these taxa in the nGOM dead zone, and opportunities for comparing this region of low oxygen to others around the globe.

  5. Teleseismic traveltimes residuals across the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.

    2014-12-01

    New findings of the structure of the Dead Sea sedimentary basin and its eastern and western bordering regions are obtained by P and PKP wave relative traveltime residuals of 644 teleseisms, as recorded by the Dead Sea Integrated Research portable seismic network in the Dead Sea basin and its neighboring regions. The Lisan Peninsula is characterized by relatively small teleseismic traveltime residuals of about 0.14 s, in the latitude range of 31.22°-31.37° and at the longitude of 35.50°, slowly decreasing toward the west. The largest teleseismic traveltime residuals are in the southern Dead Sea basin, south of the Lisan Peninsula in the latitude range of 31.05°-31.15° and along longitude 35.45° and continuing southward toward the Amaziahu Fault, reaching values of 0.4-0.5 s. There is a small positive residual at the Amaziahu Fault and a small negative residual south of it probably marking the southern end of the Dead Sea basin. East and west of the Dead Sea basin the mean teleseismic traveltime residuals are negative with overall averages of -0.35 s and -0.45 s, respectively. Using the teleseismic residuals, we estimate the horizontal dimensions of the Lisan salt diapir to be 23 km × 13 km at its widest and a maximal thickness of about 7.2 km. The thickness of the Mount Sodom salt diapir is estimated as 6.2 km.

  6. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  7. Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Gupta, Babita; Balakrishnan, Ira; Vij, Aarti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study). Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment) Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex), mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student's t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations. PMID:23983281

  8. A deadly prion disease: fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, Dianne G; Dreher, H Michael

    2003-12-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is an inherited disease caused by a mutation in the protein prion gene. Symptoms of FFI closely resemble those of familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, making genetic testing and histological examination of brain tissue the only means to determine a definitive diagnosis. The disease is rare--approximately 60 cases have been detected worldwide since 1986. Incubation time of the disease may be as long as 30 years; death generally occurs within 1 year of the onset of symptoms. There is no known procedure or treatment for delaying the onset of symptoms or modifying the disease course. Nurses who confront patients with FFI will be challenged to provide care to a patient and family who are facing certain death.

  9. Aris-Taylor dispersion in tubes with dead ends.

    PubMed

    Dagdug, Leonardo; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Skvortsov, Alexei T

    2014-07-14

    This paper deals with transport of point Brownian particles in a cylindrical tube with dead ends in the presence of laminar flow of viscous fluid in the cylindrical part of the tube (Poiseuille flow). It is assumed that the dead ends are identical and are formed by spherical cavities connected to the cylindrical part of the tube by narrow necks. The focus is on the effective velocity and diffusivity of the particles as functions of the mean flow velocity and geometric parameter of the tube. Entering a dead end, the particle interrupts its propagation along the tube axis. Later it returns, and the axial motion continues. From the axial propagation point of view, the particle entry into a dead end and its successive return to the flow is equivalent to the particle reversible binding to the tube wall. The effect of reversible binding on the transport parameters has been previously studied assuming that the particle survival probability in the bound state decays as a single exponential. However, this is not the case when the particle enters a dead end, since escape from the dead end is a non-Markovian process. Our analysis of the problem consists of two steps: First, we derive expressions for the effective transport parameters in the general case of non-Markovian binding. Second, we find the effective velocity and diffusivity by substituting into these expressions known results for the moments of the particle lifetime in the dead end [L. Dagdug, A. M. Berezhkovskii, Yu. A. Makhnovskii, and V. Yu. Zitserman, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 224712 (2007)]. To check the accuracy of our theory, we compare its predictions with the values of the effective velocity and diffusivity obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations. The comparison shows excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and numerical results. PMID:25028036

  10. Use of High Sensitivity GNSS Receiver Doppler Measurements for Indoor Pedestrian Dead Reckoning

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G.; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein. PMID:23539033

  11. Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.

    PubMed

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-03-28

    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein.

  12. Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning.

    PubMed

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein. PMID:23539033

  13. Teleseismic travel times residuals across the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Rami; Dorbath, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    New findings of the structure of the Dead Sea sedimentary basin and its eastern and western bordering regions were obtained by applying P and PKP wave relative travel time residuals of 644 teleseisms, as recorded by the DESIRE portable seismic network in the Dead Sea basin and its outskirts. The Lisan is characterized by relatively small teleseismic travel time residuals of about 0.14 sec, in the latitude range of 31.220-31.370 and longitude of 35.500, slowly degrading towards west. The largest teleseismic travel time residuals are in the southern Dead Sea basin, south of the Lisan in the latitude range of 31.050-31.150 and along longitude 35.450 and continuing southward towards Amatzyahu Fault, reaching values of 0.3 to 0.4 sec. We get small positive residual in the Amatzyahu Fault and small negative residual south of it marking probably the southern end of the Dead Sea basin. East and west of the Dead Sea basin the mean teleseismic travel time residuals are negative having an over whole average of -0.35 sec and -0.45 sec, respectively. Using the teleseismic residuals we estimate the horizontal dimensions of the Lisan salt diapir to be 20 km X 12 km at its widest place and a maximal thickness of about 7.2 km. The thickness of the Mt. Sodom salt diapir is estimated as 6.2 km.

  14. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  15. The Dead Sea Transform and the Dead Sea Basin - Structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Desire Groups, D A

    2004-12-01

    DESERT and DESIRE, two multi-national, interdisciplinary research efforts by teams from Germany, Israel, Jordan and Palestine focused on the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB), respectively. The DST has accommodated left-lateral transform motion of 105 km between the African and Arabian plates since early Miocene (ca. 20 My), creating during this process also the prime example of a pull-apart basin, the DSB. Within DESERT the DST segment between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea called Arava/Araba Fault (AF) was studied with the following results. On plate tectonic scale the AF is a narrow, sub-vertical zone cutting through crust and lithosphere to more than 50 km depth, while the Moho depth increases smoothly from 26 km to 39 km from W to E under the DST. Several faults exist in the upper crust in a ca. 40 km wide zone around the AF, but none has kilometer-size zones of decreased seismic velocities/zones of high electrical conductivities typical for damage zones. Across the sub-vertical AF abrupt changes in lithology can be identified to a depth of 4 kilometers. The AF also acts as a barrier to fluids. The AF is the main active fault of the DST system but it has only accommodated a limited part (up to 60 km) of the overall 105 km of sinistral plate motion. Now inactive fault strands in the vicinity of the present day AF took up lateral motion until about 5 Ma ago, when the main, active fault trace shifted ca. 1 km westward to its present position. In the top few hundred meters of the AF a locally transpressional regime occurs in a 100 to 300 m wide zone of deformed and displaced material, bordered by sub-parallel faults forming positive flower structures. The damage zones of the individual faults are only 5 to 20 m wide. This narrow width is significantly smaller than at other major strike-slip faults of similar magnitude. Most of these findings are corroborated by thermo-mechanical modeling that show shear deformation in the lithosphere under the

  16. The Dead Sea Transform and the Dead Sea Basin - Structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Desire Groups, D A

    2007-12-01

    DESERT and DESIRE, two multi-national, interdisciplinary research efforts by teams from Germany, Israel, Jordan and Palestine focused on the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB), respectively. The DST has accommodated left-lateral transform motion of 105 km between the African and Arabian plates since early Miocene (ca. 20 My), creating during this process also the prime example of a pull-apart basin, the DSB. Within DESERT the DST segment between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea called Arava/Araba Fault (AF) was studied with the following results. On plate tectonic scale the AF is a narrow, sub-vertical zone cutting through crust and lithosphere to more than 50 km depth, while the Moho depth increases smoothly from 26 km to 39 km from W to E under the DST. Several faults exist in the upper crust in a ca. 40 km wide zone around the AF, but none has kilometer-size zones of decreased seismic velocities/zones of high electrical conductivities typical for damage zones. Across the sub-vertical AF abrupt changes in lithology can be identified to a depth of 4 kilometers. The AF also acts as a barrier to fluids. The AF is the main active fault of the DST system but it has only accommodated a limited part (up to 60 km) of the overall 105 km of sinistral plate motion. Now inactive fault strands in the vicinity of the present day AF took up lateral motion until about 5 Ma ago, when the main, active fault trace shifted ca. 1 km westward to its present position. In the top few hundred meters of the AF a locally transpressional regime occurs in a 100 to 300 m wide zone of deformed and displaced material, bordered by sub-parallel faults forming positive flower structures. The damage zones of the individual faults are only 5 to 20 m wide. This narrow width is significantly smaller than at other major strike-slip faults of similar magnitude. Most of these findings are corroborated by thermo-mechanical modeling that show shear deformation in the lithosphere under the

  17. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    PubMed

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  18. Targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors improves renal function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Damman, Jeffrey; Hoeger, Simone; Boneschansker, Leo; Theruvath, Ashok; Waldherr, Ruediger; Leuvenink, Henri G; Ploeg, Rutger J; Yard, Benito A; Seelen, Marc A

    2011-05-01

    Kidneys recovered from brain-dead donors have inferior outcomes after transplantation compared to kidneys from living donors. Since complement activation plays an important role in renal transplant related injury, targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors might improve renal function after transplantation. Brain death (BD) was induced in Fisher rats by inflation of an epidurally placed balloon catheter and ventilated for 6h. BD animals were treated with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) 1h before or 1h after BD. Kidney transplantation was performed and 7 days after transplantation animals were sacrificed. Plasma creatinine and urea were measured at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after transplantation. Renal function was significantly better at day 1 after transplantation in recipients receiving a sCR1 pre-treated donor kidney compared to recipients of a non-treated donor graft. Also treatment with sCR1, 1h after the diagnosis of BD, resulted in a better renal function after transplantation. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1beta and TGF-beta were significantly lower in renal allografts recovered from treated donors. This study shows that targeting complement activation, during BD in the donor, leads to an improved renal function after transplantation in the recipient.

  19. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  20. Physiological dead space and effective parabronchial ventilation in ducks.

    PubMed

    Hastings, R H; Powell, F L

    1986-01-01

    Gas exchange in avian lungs is described by a cross-current model that has several differences from the alevolar model of mammalian gas exchange [e.g., end-expired PCO2 greater than arterial PCO2 (PaCO2)]. Consequently the methods available for estimating effective ventilation and physiological dead space (VDphys) in alveolar lungs are not suitable for an analysis of gas exchange in birds. We tested a method for measuring VDphys in birds that is functionally equivalent to the conventional alveolar VDphys. A cross-current O2-CO2 diagram was used to define the ideal expired point (PEi) and VDphys was calculated as from the equation, VDphys = [(PEiCO2--PECO2)/PEiCO2]. VT, where VT is tidal volume. In seven Pekin ducks VDphys was 13.8 ml greater than anatomic dead space and measured changes in the instrument dead space volume. VDphys also reflected changes in ventilation-perfusion inequality induced by temporary unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion. Bohr dead space, calculated by substituting end-expired PCO2 for PEiCO2, was insensitive to such inhomogeneity. Enghoff dead space, calculated by substituting PaCO2 for PEiCO2, is theoretically incorrect for cross-current gas exchange and was often less than anatomic dead space. We conclude that VDphys is a useful index of avian gas exchange and propose a standard definition for effective parabronchial ventilation (VP) analogous to alveolar ventilation (i.e., VP = VE--VDphys, where VE is total ventilation).

  1. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  2. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  3. Dead space in the breathing apparatus; interaction with ventilation.

    PubMed

    Warkander, D E; Lundgren, C E

    1995-09-01

    Dead space in breathing apparatus may cause increased ventilation and/or CO2 retention. Interactions between ventilation and dead space were tested in the breathing apparatus of three divers: a full face mask with an oro-nasal cup (AGA), a full face mask without an oro-nasal cup (EXO-26) but designed to minimize dead space, and one mouthpiece. Experiments were performed at three depths; 0, 30 and 45 m seawater (msw). The breathing gas was air except at 30 msw where it was 36 O2 in N2. Five certified SCUBA divers were exercised at three levels (0, 50 and 100 W). Ventilation and gas exchange were measured. The dead space in the AGA mask was not influenced by either depth or exercise (mean 0.201). The mean dead space of the EXO-26 was 0.341, but it increased with exercise (p < 0.001) and decreased with depth (p < 0.03). Since the dead space can vary with ventilation levels it is not sufficient to test breathing apparatus only at rest as is required by the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. The mean ventilation with the EXO-26 was higher than with the AGA by 10% at 50 W (p < 0.05) and by 12% (p < 0.01) at 100 W. The same comparison for end-tidal CO2 showed mean increase by 0.30 kPa at the 100-W workload (P < 0.05); changes at other workloads were not statistically significant. Comparisons of the mean inspired PCO2 to the maximum values considered acceptable by various organizations showed that the mouthpiece was always acceptable, the AGA mask was marginally acceptable or better, while sometimes the EXO-26 was not acceptable.

  4. Computer simulation of processes in the dead-end furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorin, A. S.; Khaustov, S. A.; Zaharushkin, Russia N. A.

    2014-10-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire-tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead-end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead-end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered.

  5. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  6. Comprehensive Measurements of Wind Systems at the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kalthoff, Norbert; Wieser, Andreas; Alpert, Pinhas; Lati, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). To the West the Judean Mountains (up to 1000 m amsl) and to the East the Moab mountains (up to 1300 m amsl) confine the north-south oriented valley. The whole region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and together with the steep orography, this forms a quite complex and unique environment. The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric, hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. Previous studies showed that the valley's atmosphere is often governed by periodic wind systems (Bitan, 1974), but most of the studies were limited to ground measurements and could therefore not resolve the three dimensional development and evolution of these wind systems. Performed airborne measurements found three distinct layers above the Dead Sea (Levin, 2005). Two layers are directly affected by the Dead Sea and the third is the commonly observed marine boundary layer over Israel. In the framework of DESERVE a field campaign with the mobile observatory KITcube was conducted to study the three dimensional structure of atmospheric processes at the Dead Sea in 2014. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allows temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements in an atmospheric volume of about 10x10x10 km3. With this data set, the development and evolution of typical local wind systems, as well as the impact of regional scale wind conditions on the valley's atmosphere could be analyzed. The frequent development of a nocturnal drainage flow with wind velocities of over 10 m s-1, the typical lake breeze during the day, its onset and vertical extension as well as strong downslope winds

  7. Comprehensive Measurements of Wind Systems at the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kalthoff, Norbert; Wieser, Andreas; Alpert, Pinhas; Lati, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). To the West the Judean Mountains (up to 1000 m amsl) and to the East the Moab mountains (up to 1300 m amsl) confine the north-south oriented valley. The whole region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and together with the steep orography, this forms a quite complex and unique environment. The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric, hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. Previous studies showed that the valley's atmosphere is often governed by periodic wind systems (Bitan, 1974), but most of the studies were limited to ground measurements and could therefore not resolve the three dimensional development and evolution of these wind systems. Performed airborne measurements found three distinct layers above the Dead Sea (Levin, 2005). Two layers are directly affected by the Dead Sea and the third is the commonly observed marine boundary layer over Israel. In the framework of DESERVE a field campaign with the mobile observatory KITcube was conducted to study the three dimensional structure of atmospheric processes at the Dead Sea in 2014. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allows temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements in an atmospheric volume of about 10x10x10 km3. With this data set, the development and evolution of typical local wind systems, as well as the impact of regional scale wind conditions on the valley's atmosphere could be analyzed. The frequent development of a nocturnal drainage flow with wind velocities of over 10 m s‑1, the typical lake breeze during the day, its onset and vertical extension as well as strong downslope

  8. Sensor web: a new instrument concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delin, Kevin A.; Jackson, Shannon P.

    2001-05-01

    The confluence of the rapidly expanding sensor, computation, and telecommunication industries has allowed for a new instrument concept: the Sensor Web. A Sensor Web consists of intra-communicating, spatially-distributed sensor pods that are deployed to monitor and explore environments. It is capable of automated reasoning for it can perform intelligent autonomous operations in uncertain environments, respond to changing environmental conditions, and carry out automated diagnosis and recovery. Sensor Webs could have as much an impact on the uses of sensors as the Internet did on the uses of computers. Sensor Webs are often confused with distributed sensors or sensor networks. The unique feature of the Sensor Web is that information gathered by one pod is shared and used by other pods. In contrast, sensor networks merely gather data and information gathered by a particular pod on such a network does not influence the behavior of another pod. Thus, sensor networks collect data while Sensor Webs can react and modify their behavior on the basis of the collected data. This paper will outline the potential of the Sensor Web concept and describe the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sensor Webs Project. In particular, a prototype Sensor Web deployed at the Huntington Botanical Gardens will be discussed.

  9. An intra-body molecular communication networks framework for continuous health monitoring and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chahibi, Youssef; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2015-01-01

    Intra-body communication networks are designed to interconnect nano- or micro-sized sensors located inside the body for health monitoring and drug delivery. The most promising solutions are made of implanted nanosensors to timely monitor the body for the presence of specific diseases and pronounce a diagnosis without the intervention of a physician. In this manner, several deadly health conditions such as heart attacks are avoided through the early in vivo detection of their biomarkers. In reality, nanosensors are challenged by the individual specificities, molecular noise, limited durability, and low energy resources. In this paper, a framework is proposed for estimating and detecting diseases and localizing the nanosensors. This framework is based on molecular communication, a novel communication paradigm where information is conveyed through molecules. Through the case study of the shedding of endothelial cells as an early biomarker for heart attack, the intra-body molecular communication networks framework is shown to resolve major issues with in vivo nanosensors and lay the foundations of low-complexity biomedical signal processing algorithms for continuous disease monitoring and diagnosis. PMID:26737190

  10. An intra-body molecular communication networks framework for continuous health monitoring and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chahibi, Youssef; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2015-01-01

    Intra-body communication networks are designed to interconnect nano- or micro-sized sensors located inside the body for health monitoring and drug delivery. The most promising solutions are made of implanted nanosensors to timely monitor the body for the presence of specific diseases and pronounce a diagnosis without the intervention of a physician. In this manner, several deadly health conditions such as heart attacks are avoided through the early in vivo detection of their biomarkers. In reality, nanosensors are challenged by the individual specificities, molecular noise, limited durability, and low energy resources. In this paper, a framework is proposed for estimating and detecting diseases and localizing the nanosensors. This framework is based on molecular communication, a novel communication paradigm where information is conveyed through molecules. Through the case study of the shedding of endothelial cells as an early biomarker for heart attack, the intra-body molecular communication networks framework is shown to resolve major issues with in vivo nanosensors and lay the foundations of low-complexity biomedical signal processing algorithms for continuous disease monitoring and diagnosis.

  11. Monitoring and modeling of sinkholes affecting the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea through satellite interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessari, Giulia; Pasquali, Paolo; Floris, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques have been applied to investigate sinkholes affecting the Jordanian coast of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is a hyper saline terminal lake located in a pull-apart basin. Most of the area is characterized by highly karstic and fractured rock formations that are connected with faults. Karstic conduits extend from the land into the sea. Since the 1960s, the Dead Sea level is dropping at an increasing rate: from about 60 cm/yr in the 1970s up to 1 m/yr in the 2000s. From about the mid-1980s, sinkholes appeared more and more frequently over and around the emerged mudflats and salt flats. Strong subsidence and landslides also affect some segments of the coast. Nowadays, several thousands of sinkholes attest that the degradation of the Dead Sea coast is worsening. Deformation analysis has been focused on the Ghor Al Haditha area, located in the South-Eastern part of the lake coast. SAR data acquired by three different sensors, ERS, ENVISAT and COSMO- SkyMed have been analysed. 70 ERS images from 1992 to 2009 and 30 ENVISAT images from 2003 to 2010 have been processed. SBAS technique has been applied to define surface velocity and displacement maps. Results obtained from the SBAS technique, applied to ERS and Envisat data, highlight a diffuse subsiding of the entire Eastern coast of the Dead Sea. It was not possible to detect single sinkholes because of the resolution of these sensors (25m2) and the small size of each punctual event that is generally varying from a few meters to a hundred meters diameter. Furthermore, SBAS has been applied to 23 COSMO-SkyMed SAR satellite images from December 2011 to May 2013. The high resolution of these data (3m x 3m) and the short revisiting time allowed precise information of the displacement of punctual sinkholes beyond the overall subsidence of the coast. A specific sinkhole has been identified in order to understand its temporal evolution. The considered

  12. Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Joseph E.; Benson, Robert; Kramer, Laura; Kauffman, Elizabeth B.; Eidson, Millicent; Campbell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Using oral swab samples to detect West Nile virus in dead birds, we compared the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) assay with VecTest and real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivities of RAMP and VecTest for testing corvid species were 91.0% and 82.1%, respectively. PMID:16318736

  13. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Baden, Michael [MD, New York Police, New York, New York, United States

    2016-07-12

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  14. Differentiation between Viable and Dead Cryptosporidium Oocysts Using Fluorochrome Staining.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Tatsuya; Rai, Shiba Kumar; Uga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    The use of nucleic acid staining with a fluorochrome dye to differentiate viable and dead (heat-killed) Cryptosporidium oocysts was assessed. The specificities (percentage of unstained viable oocysts) and sensitivities (percentage of stained dead oocysts) of the seven tested dyes (SYTO-17® and SYTO-59® to 64®) ranged from 65 to 76% (average 71%) and 83 to 95% (average 91%), respectively. SYTO-59 and SYTO-17 imparted greater color (4+) intensity than the other dyes (2+ or less). Of these two dyes, SYTO-17 exhibited more brightness and slower discoloration and was selected for use in further experiments. The optimum staining time for SYTO-17 at 37℃ was one hour or more (sensitivity of 96%). Dye concentrations of 20 and 30 µM resulted in maximal color intensity, and no further improvement was observed with further increases in dye concentration. Staining a mixture of viable and dead oocysts (1:1 ratio) with 20 µM dye at 37℃ for one hour yielded the expected results (approximately 50%), but no remarkable increase in the percent staining with time (up to 8 hours) was observed. In this study, no ghost oocysts were observed. The present study indicated that the fluorogenic nucleic acid dye SYTO-17 could be used to discriminate between live and dead Cryptosporidium oocysts. PMID:27363397

  15. FORMATION OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN A DEAD ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Armitage, Philip J.; Alexander, Richard D.

    2013-08-10

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 AU from the center of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely, and hence planet formation may be more difficult there.

  16. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  17. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  18. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related children's…

  19. How Long Has Grandpa Been Dead and Other Forensic Mysteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baden, Michael

    2006-05-17

    Was the baby born alive? Can a child's brain really be shaken hard enough to cause death? Was the body dead before going into the water? Does a lightening strike cause any unique changes in the body? Why are hair and maggots becoming so important to the forensic scientist? Let's talk.

  20. Michoacan People, Customs, and the Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulhardt, Mary

    This curriculum guide is intended: (1) to expose students to the people and customs of Michoacan, Mexico; (2) to explore the meaning of traditional Day of the Dead customs through hands-on experiences; and (3) to build the self-esteem of second language learners of Mexican descent. During the study, students whose primary language is Spanish read…

  1. "The Northern Lights" Investigative Reporting Covers Deadly Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srour, George

    2001-01-01

    Presents a story package from the high school newspaper "The Northern Lights," called "Deadly Decisions." Includes an editorial, an eyewitness account, a timeline of the coverage itself, an interview with a local TV reporter, photographs, and a graph of the events the stories covered. (SR)

  2. Pablo Remembers: The Fiesta of the Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancona, George

    This children's book describes how Pablo, a young Mexican boy, and his family celebrate the Day of the Dead (El Dia de Los Muertos). This holiday takes place on the first and second day of November and honors relatives and friends who have died. The holiday celebrates their spiritual return to Earth to share a special feast with the living, and…

  3. Piecing Together the Past: The Dead Sea Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Eugene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the astonishing coordination of archaeological and scholarly activities surrounding the Dead Sea Scrolls. First discovered by Bedouin nomads in 1947, the Scrolls consist of a few complete manuscripts and over 80,000 fragments. Discusses the early Christian sect that produced the Scrolls, and provides current perspectives on the…

  4. Identifying and Extinguishing Dysfunctional and Deadly Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to define an organization's culture in terms of its dominant behavioral practices and their molar consequences, from the shop floor to the executive suite (Redmon & Mason, 2001). Dysfunctional and potentially deadly practices (for the organization as a whole) can be "latent." They often go undetected until their dramatic…

  5. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    The deepest point on Earth, the Dead Sea level, has been dropping alarmingly since 1978 by 0.7 m/a on average due to the accelerating water consumption in the Jordan catchment and stood in 2008 at 420 m below sea level. In this study, a terrain model of the surface area and water volume of the Dead Sea was developed from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data using ArcGIS. The model shows that the lake shrinks on average by 4 km(2)/a in area and by 0.47 km(3)/a in volume, amounting to a cumulative loss of 14 km(3) in the last 30 years. The receding level leaves almost annually erosional terraces, recorded here for the first time by Differential Global Positioning System field surveys. The terrace altitudes were correlated among the different profiles and dated to specific years of the lake level regression, illustrating the tight correlation between the morphology of the terrace sequence and the receding lake level. Our volume-level model described here and previous work on groundwater inflow suggest that the projected Dead Sea-Red Sea channel or the Mediterranean-Dead Sea channel must have a carrying capacity of >0.9 km(3)/a in order to slowly re-fill the lake to its former level and to create a sustainable system of electricity generation and freshwater production by desalinization. Moreover, such a channel will maintain tourism and potash industry on both sides of the Dead Sea and reduce the natural hazard caused by the recession.

  6. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes that occurred in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin was divided into 9 regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the good station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes out of the 494 mechanisms we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in good agreement with the Arava fault on the eastern side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of sigma1 and sigma2 or the switching of sigma2 and sigma3as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  7. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  8. A Seismic Profile Across the Southern Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechie, J.; Stiller, M.; Meiler, M.; Weber, M.; Abu-Ayyash, K.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; El-Kelani, R.; Qabbani, I.; Desire Group

    2006-12-01

    As part of the DESIRE project seismic wide-angle reflection / refraction (WRR) and near-vertical incidence reflection (NVR) measurements were completed in spring 2006 across the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the region of the southern Dead Sea basin. The DST with a total of about 105 km multi-stage left-lateral shear since about 18 Ma ago, accommodates the movement between the Arabian and African plates. It connects the spreading centre in the Red Sea with the Taurus collision zone in Turkey over a length of about 1100 km. With a sedimentary infill of about 10 km in places, the southern Dead Sea basin is the largest pull-apart basin along the DST and one of the largest pull-apart basins on Earth. The WRR measurements comprised 11 shots recorded by 200 three-component and 400 one-component instruments spaced 300 m to 1.2 km apart along the whole length of the E-W trending 240 km long profile. The NVR measurements were carried out along the central 100 km of the E-W trending profile and consisted of a 90-fold vibroseis survey along the western 50 km and an 18-fold explosive source survey along the eastern 50 km of the profile. First results of modelling of the P-wave WRR data and a field example from the NVR data will be presented. Together with results from previously completed seismic profiles in the region, these new results will constrain models of the formation of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the region of the southern Dead Sea basin. potsdam.de/pb2/pb22/projects/index_e.html

  9. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    The deepest point on Earth, the Dead Sea level, has been dropping alarmingly since 1978 by 0.7 m/a on average due to the accelerating water consumption in the Jordan catchment and stood in 2008 at 420 m below sea level. In this study, a terrain model of the surface area and water volume of the Dead Sea was developed from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data using ArcGIS. The model shows that the lake shrinks on average by 4 km(2)/a in area and by 0.47 km(3)/a in volume, amounting to a cumulative loss of 14 km(3) in the last 30 years. The receding level leaves almost annually erosional terraces, recorded here for the first time by Differential Global Positioning System field surveys. The terrace altitudes were correlated among the different profiles and dated to specific years of the lake level regression, illustrating the tight correlation between the morphology of the terrace sequence and the receding lake level. Our volume-level model described here and previous work on groundwater inflow suggest that the projected Dead Sea-Red Sea channel or the Mediterranean-Dead Sea channel must have a carrying capacity of >0.9 km(3)/a in order to slowly re-fill the lake to its former level and to create a sustainable system of electricity generation and freshwater production by desalinization. Moreover, such a channel will maintain tourism and potash industry on both sides of the Dead Sea and reduce the natural hazard caused by the recession. PMID:19252888

  10. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants. PMID:26241658

  11. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants. PMID:26241658

  12. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jianming; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.

  13. 78 FR 24462 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice...

  14. 78 FR 62354 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected...

  15. 78 FR 16565 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected...

  16. Analysis of archaeal communities in Gulf of Mexico dead zone sediments.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments may contribute significantly to Louisiana continental shelf “dead zone” hypoxia but limited information hinders comparison of sediment biogeochemistry between norm-oxic and hypoxic seasons. Dead zone sediment cores collected during hypoxia (September 2006) had higher l...

  17. Coding for Communication Channels with Dead-Time Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Coding schemes have been designed and investigated specifically for optical and electronic data-communication channels in which information is conveyed via pulse-position modulation (PPM) subject to dead-time constraints. These schemes involve the use of error-correcting codes concatenated with codes denoted constrained codes. These codes are decoded using an interactive method. In pulse-position modulation, time is partitioned into frames of Mslots of equal duration. Each frame contains one pulsed slot (all others are non-pulsed). For a given channel, the dead-time constraints are defined as a maximum and a minimum on the allowable time between pulses. For example, if a Q-switched laser is used to transmit the pulses, then the minimum allowable dead time is the time needed to recharge the laser for the next pulse. In the case of bits recorded on a magnetic medium, the minimum allowable time between pulses depends on the recording/playback speed and the minimum distance between pulses needed to prevent interference between adjacent bits during readout. The maximum allowable dead time for a given channel is the maximum time for which it is possible to satisfy the requirement to synchronize slots. In mathematical shorthand, the dead-time constraints for a given channel are represented by the pair of integers (d,k), where d is the minimum allowable number of zeroes between ones and k is the maximum allowable number of zeroes between ones. A system of the type to which the present schemes apply is represented by a binary- input, real-valued-output channel model illustrated in the figure. At the transmitting end, information bits are first encoded by use of an error-correcting code, then further encoded by use of a constrained code. Several constrained codes for channels subject to constraints of (d,infinity) have been investigated theoretically and computationally. The baseline codes chosen for purposes of comparison were simple PPM codes characterized by M-slot PPM

  18. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses...

  19. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  20. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  1. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  2. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  3. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  4. 77 FR 64373 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... in Ancient Times,'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... corrected here to change the exhibition name to ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times,'' imported from abroad for...

  5. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  6. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  7. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  8. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  9. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead).

  10. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for peace for each…

  11. Low-Dead-Volume Inlet for Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naylor, Guy; Arkin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas introduction from near-ambient pressures to high vacuum traditionally is accomplished either by multi-stage differential pumping that allows for very rapid response, or by a capillary method that allows for a simple, single-stage introduction, but which often has a delayed response. Another means to introduce the gas sample is to use the multi-stage design with only a single stage. This is accomplished by using a very small conductance limit. The problem with this method is that a small conductance limit will amplify issues associated with dead-volume. As a result, a high-vacuum gas inlet was developed with low dead-volume, allowing the use of a very low conductance limit interface. Gas flows through the ConFlat flange at a relatively high flow rate at orders of magnitude greater than through the conductance limit. The small flow goes through a conductance limit that is a double-sided ConFlat.

  12. Low-Dead-Volume Inlet for Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naylor, Guy; Arkin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Gas introduction from near-ambient pressures to high vacuum traditionally is accomplished either by multi-stage differential pumping that allows for very rapid response, or by a capillary method that allows for a simple, single-stage introduction, but which often has a delayed response. Another means to introduce the gas sample is to use the multi-stage design with only a single stage. This is accomplished by using a very small conductance limit. The problem with this method is that a small conductance limit will amplify issues associated with dead -volume. As a result, a high -vacuum gas inlet was developed with low dead -volume, allowing the use of a very low conductance limit interface. Gas flows through the ConFlat flange at a relatively high flow rate at orders of magnitude greater than through the conductance limit. The small flow goes through a conductance limit that is a double-sided ConFlat.

  13. Diffusing capacity and anatomic dead space for carbon-18 monoxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Mazzone, R. W.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult to measure with a respiratory mass spectrometer because of the similar mass numbers of CO and nitrogen, but this is possible using carbon-18 monoxide. The mass resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity, and background were all found to be adequate. The measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity was examined. Unless the mean alveolar volume during breath holding is used in the calculation, the value for Dco obtained depends on which portion of the alveolar sample is analyzed. The anatomic dead space for CO was found to be almost the same as that for argon suggesting that the diffusion rate at the dead space-alveolar gas interface was not greatly affected by the alveolar concentration of the gas.

  14. The death effect in literary evaluation: reverence for the dead?

    PubMed

    Green, Joseph P; Mohler, Eric W

    It is commonly believed that the value of art and other creative works increases after the death of the artist. In an attempt to examine this so-called death effect we presented a short story to N = 431 undergraduate students asking how much money they would hypothetically spend to purchase a literary work. We experimentally manipulated: 1) whether the author died or moved after publishing a short story, and, 2) the gender of the author. Participants randomly received one of four possible biographical descriptions about the author. We predicted that participants would offer higher purchase prices and subjectively evaluate the work more positively when they believed the author was dead. Results were consistent with this hypothesis perhaps reflecting a certain reverence for the dead. We also found that evaluations of the story were more favorable when the purported gender of the author matched that of the participant.

  15. Raising the dead: war, reparation, and the politics of memory.

    PubMed Central

    Summerfield, D.

    1995-01-01

    All societies attach a different range of meanings to war than to natural disasters, and questions of societal recognition, reparation, and justice are generally central. Most modern conflict has been grounded in the use of terror to control and silence whole populations. Those abusing power typically refuse to acknowledge their dead victims, as if they had never existed and were mere wraiths in the memories of those left behind. This denial, and the impunity of those who maintain it, must be challenged if survivors are to make sense of their losses and the social fabric is to mend. For the names and fate of the dead to be properly lodged in the public record of their times also illuminates the costs that may flow from the philosophies and practices of the Western led world order, ones which health workers should be in a position to influence. Images p495-a p496-a p496-b PMID:7647648

  16. Magnetic "dead" layer at a complex oxide interface

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Weidong; Pennycook, Stephen J; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2008-01-01

    Recent magnetic measurements at La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} interfaces led to conflicting interpretations: a magnetic 'dead' layer on the LCMO side or antiparallel Cu and Mn magnetic moments. Here we report results of first-principles density-functional calculations of position-dependent magnetic couplings between interlayer and intralayer Mn atoms. The couplings in the first few layers near the interface are found to be weak ferromagnetic or even antiferromagnetic. The results suggest that a 'dead' magnetic layer 2-3 atoms thick is present, as needed to account for the observations.

  17. Improving inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by detecting unmodified switched-on lamps in buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases. PMID:24394599

  18. Improving Inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by Detecting Unmodified Switched-on Lamps in Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Antonio R.; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases. PMID:24394599

  19. Improving inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning by detecting unmodified switched-on lamps in buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Zampella, Francisco; Seco, Fernando

    2014-01-03

    This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept, the implementation details of the LM-assisted PDR fusion scheme using a particle filter, and several simulated and experimental tests, using a light sensor-equipped Galaxy S3 smartphone and an external foot-mounted inertial sensor. The evaluation includes the LM-assisted PDR approach as well as the fusion with other signals of opportunity (WiFi, RFID, Magnetometers or Map-matching) in order to compare their contribution in obtaining high accuracy indoor localization. The integrated solution achieves a localization error lower than 1 m in most of the cases.

  20. Modification in amino acids of Dead Sea Scroll Parchments.

    PubMed

    Sobel, H; Ajie, H

    1992-12-01

    Fragments of Dead Sea Scroll Parchments were extracted for collagen and subjected to amino acid analysis. In modern parchment samples, 90% or more of the protein could be extracted in hot aqueous solution as collagen. In the ancient specimens, 70% or less was extractable. The hot-solution insoluble material was analyzed for collagen. In the soluble extract, the quantity of tyrosine, histidine, and methionine was reduced. Dityrosine was detected. The need to extend such studies is discussed.

  1. Detailed seismicity analysis of the southern Dead Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, Benjamin; Asch, Guenter; Hofstetter, Rami; Haberland, Christian; Jaser, Darwish; El-Kelani, Radwan; Weber, Michael

    2013-04-01

    While the Dead Sea basin has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge about the micro-seismicity, its distribution and characteristics is limited. Therefore, within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. Within 18 month of recording 650 events were detected. Based on an already published tomography study clustering, focal mechanisms, statistics and the distribution of the micro-seismicity in relation to the velocity models from the tomography are analyzed. The determined b-value of 0.7 indicates a relatively high risk of large earthquakes compared to the moderate microseismic activity. The distribution of the seismicity suggests an asymmetric basin with a vertical strike slip fault forming the eastern boundary of the basin, and an inclined western boundary, made up of strike-slip and normal faults. Furthermore, significant differences between the area North and South of the Boqeq fault were observed. South of the Boqeq fault the western boundary is inactive while the entire seismicity occurs at the eastern boundary and below the basin-fill sediments. The largest events occurred here, their focal mechanisms represent the northwards transform motion of the Arabian plate along the Dead Sea Transform. The vertical extension of the the spatial and temporal cluster from February 2007 is interpreted as being related to the locking of the region around the Boqeq fault. North of the Boqeq fault similar seismic activity occurs at both boundaries most notably within the basin-fill sediments, displaying mainly small events with strike-slip mechanism and normal faulting in EW direction. Therefore, we suggest that the Boqeq fault forms the border between the "single" transform fault and the pull-apart basin with two active border faults.

  2. [Serotonin dysfunctions in the background of the seven deadly sins].

    PubMed

    Janka, Zoltán

    2003-11-20

    The symbolic characters of the Seven Deadly Sins can be traced from time to time in the cultural history of human mankind, being directly specified in certain artistic products. Such are, among others, the painting entitled "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Lost Things" by Hieronymus Bosch and the poems Divina Commedia and The Foerie Queene by Dante Alighieri and Edmund Spenser, respectively. However, there are several paragraphs referring to these behaviours of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Bible and in the dramas of William Shakespeare. The objective of the present review is to propose that dysfunctions in the central serotonergic system might be involved in the neurobiology of these 'sinful' behaviour patterns. Evidences indicate that behaviour traits such as Accidia (Sloth), Luxuria (Lust, Lechery), Superbia (Pride), Ira (Wrath, Anger), Invidia (Envy), Avaritia (Greed, Avarice), and Gula (Gluttony) can relate to the functional alterations of serotonin in the brain. Results of biochemical and molecular genetic (polymorphism) studies on the human serotonergic system (receptor, transporter, enzyme), findings of functional imaging techniques, effects of depletion (or supplementation) of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, data of challenge probe investigations directed to testing central serotonergic functions, alterations in the peripheral serotonin measures (platelet), and the changes in the CSF 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid content indicate such serotonergic involvement. Furthermore, results of animal experiments on behaviour change (aggressive, dominant or submissive, appetite, alcohol preference) attributed to serotonin status modification and the clinically evidenced therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological interventions, based on the modulation and perturbation of the serotonergic system (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), in treating the 'sinful' behaviour forms and analogous pathological states reaching the severity of psychiatric disorders

  3. [Serotonin dysfunctions in the background of the seven deadly sins].

    PubMed

    Janka, Zoltán

    2003-11-20

    The symbolic characters of the Seven Deadly Sins can be traced from time to time in the cultural history of human mankind, being directly specified in certain artistic products. Such are, among others, the painting entitled "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Lost Things" by Hieronymus Bosch and the poems Divina Commedia and The Foerie Queene by Dante Alighieri and Edmund Spenser, respectively. However, there are several paragraphs referring to these behaviours of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Bible and in the dramas of William Shakespeare. The objective of the present review is to propose that dysfunctions in the central serotonergic system might be involved in the neurobiology of these 'sinful' behaviour patterns. Evidences indicate that behaviour traits such as Accidia (Sloth), Luxuria (Lust, Lechery), Superbia (Pride), Ira (Wrath, Anger), Invidia (Envy), Avaritia (Greed, Avarice), and Gula (Gluttony) can relate to the functional alterations of serotonin in the brain. Results of biochemical and molecular genetic (polymorphism) studies on the human serotonergic system (receptor, transporter, enzyme), findings of functional imaging techniques, effects of depletion (or supplementation) of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, data of challenge probe investigations directed to testing central serotonergic functions, alterations in the peripheral serotonin measures (platelet), and the changes in the CSF 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid content indicate such serotonergic involvement. Furthermore, results of animal experiments on behaviour change (aggressive, dominant or submissive, appetite, alcohol preference) attributed to serotonin status modification and the clinically evidenced therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological interventions, based on the modulation and perturbation of the serotonergic system (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), in treating the 'sinful' behaviour forms and analogous pathological states reaching the severity of psychiatric disorders

  4. Shoulder injuries in overhead athletes. The "dead arm" revisited.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S S; Morgan, C D; Kibler, W B

    2000-01-01

    The following statements summarize this article: Three distinct categories of Type 2 SLAP lesions exist: (1) anterior, (2) posterior, and (3) combined anteroposterior. Posterior Type 2 SLAP lesions have distinct clinical and anatomic features that distinguish them from anterior Type 2 SLAP lesions. Posterior and combined Type 2 SLAP lesions can be disabling to overhead-throwing athletes because of posterosuperior instability and anteroinferior pseudolaxity. The Jobe relocation test is positive with posterosuperior pain in patients with posterior or combined anterior-posterior Type 2 SLAP lesions and is negative in patients with anterior Type 2 SLAP lesions. Rotator cuff tears are frequently associated with posterior or combined anterior-posterior SLAP lesions, are lesion-location specific, and typically begin from inside the joint as undersurface tears. Repair of posterior SLAP lesions can return overhead-throwing athletes to full overhead athletic functioning. The peel-back mechanism is a likely cause of posterior Type 2 SLAP lesions. To securely repair the posterosuperior labrum to resist torsional peel-back, sulure anchors must be placed posterior to the biceps at the corner of the glenoid. The repair must be protected against external rotation past 0 degree for 3 weeks to avoid undue premature torsional stresses on the repair from the peel-back mechanism. A tight posteroinferior capsule predisposes to Type 2 SLAP lesions in overhead athletes. Shoulders at risk for the dead arm syndrome have a marked loss of internal rotation caused by contracture of the posteroinferior capsule such that less than a 180 degrees arc of rotation is achieved with the arm abducted 90 degrees (the 180 degrees rule). Type 2 SLAP lesions that cause the dead arm syndrome in overhead-throwing athletes are most likely acceleration injuries that occur in late cocking rather than deceleration injuries in follow-through. Rehabilitation of athletes with the dead arm syndrome must include the

  5. Incidental Diagnosis of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K. D.; Sabin, N. D.; Cheuk, D.; McNall-Knapp, R. Y.; Shurtleff, S. A.; Gajjar, A.; Broniscer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) have a short onset, rapidly progressive neurologic decline before diagnosis. Therefore, incidental diagnosis of such an aggressive cancer is counterintuitive, yet our experience shows DIPG may occur as part of a spectrum of incidentally diagnosed pediatric brain cancers. Although children with incidentally diagnosed DIPG may experience a longer survival, it remains a potentially deadly cancer despite treatment with radiotherapy. Histologic confirmation is warranted when feasible in such patients to confirm diagnosis. Moreover, recent advances in genome-wide analyses may suggest incidentally diagnosed DIPGs are biologically distinct from the majority of these cancers. PMID:25598012

  6. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines. PMID:25160964

  7. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - 1000 year record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    An area of oxygen-depleted bottom- and subsurfacewater (hypoxia = dissolved oxygen Since systematic measurement of the extent of the dead zone was begun in 1985, the overall pattern indicates that the area of the dead zone is increasing. Several studies have concluded that the expansion of the Louisiana shelf dead zone is related to increased nutrients (primarily nitrogen, but possibly also phosphorous) in the Mississippi River drainage basin and is responsible for the degradation of Gulf of Mexico marine habitats. The goal of this research is to augment information on the recent expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia and to investigate the temporal and geographic extent of the lowoxygen bottom-water conditions prior to 1985 in sediment cores collected from the Louisiana shelf. We use a specific low-oxygen faunal proxy termed the PEB index based on the cumulative percentage of three foraminifers (= % Protononion atlanticum, + % Epistominella vitrea, + % Buliminella morgani) that has been shown statistically to represent the modern seasonal Louisiana hypoxia zone. Our hypothesis is that the increased relative abundance of PEB species in dated sediment cores accurately tracks past seasonal low-oxygen conditions on the Louisiana shelf.

  8. DEAD ZONE IN THE POLAR-CAP ACCELERATOR OF PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Alexander Y.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-01-10

    We study plasma flows above pulsar polar caps using time-dependent simulations of plasma particles in the self-consistent electric field. The flow behavior is controlled by the dimensionless parameter {alpha} = j/c{rho}{sub GJ}, where j is the electric current density and {rho}{sub GJ} is the Goldreich-Julian charge density. The region of the polar cap where 0 < {alpha} < 1 is a {sup d}ead zone{sup -}in this zone, particle acceleration is inefficient and pair creation is not expected even for young, rapidly rotating pulsars. Pulsars with polar caps near the rotation axis are predicted to have a hollow-cone structure of radio emission, as the dead zone occupies the central part of the polar cap. Our results apply to charge-separated flows of electrons (j < 0) or ions (j > 0). In the latter case, we consider the possibility of a mixed flow consisting of different ion species, and observe the development of two-stream instability. The dead zone at the polar cap is essential for the development of an outer gap near the null surface {rho}{sub GJ} = 0.

  9. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines.

  10. Reduction of dead times and dead zones in the self-quenching streamer mode at high pressures and high quencher concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmer, R.D.; Mulera, T.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schnurnacher, G.

    1985-02-01

    The large saturated pulses referred to as ''self-quenching streamer'' (SQS) provide a convenient and inexpensive method of radiation detection. Our previous work has revealed a strong dependence of the dead time, and of the length of the dead zone along the anode, on the pressure of the gas filling and on the concentration of the quenching component of this filling. These measurements have been extended to higher pressures and higher quencher concentrations with the object of achieving the smallest dead times and dead zones while still retaining the large amplitudes and fast rise times characteristic of the SQS mode of operation.

  11. 5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the southern Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Y.; Le Béon, M.; Al-Qaryouti, M.

    2015-07-01

    The 1000-km-long left-lateral Dead Sea fault is a major tectonic structure of the oriental Mediterranean basin, bounding the Arabian Plate to the west. The fault is located in a region with an exceptionally long and rich historical record, allowing to document historical seismicity catalogues with unprecedented level of details. However, if the earthquake time series is well documented, location and lateral extent of past earthquakes remain often difficult to establish, if only based on historical testimonies. We excavated a palaeoseismic trench in a site located in a kilometre-size extensional jog, south of the Dead Sea, in the Wadi Araba. Based on the stratigraphy exposed in the trench, we present evidence for nine earthquakes that produced surface ruptures during a time period spanning 5000 yr. Abundance of datable material allows us to tie the five most recent events to historical earthquakes with little ambiguities, and to constrain the possible location of these historical earthquakes. The events identified at our site are the 1458 C.E., 1212 C.E., 1068 C.E., one event during the 8th century crisis, and the 363 C.E. earthquake. Four other events are also identified, which correlation with historical events remains more speculative. The magnitude of earthquakes is difficult to assess based on evidence at one site only. The deformation observed in the excavation, however, allows discriminating between two classes of events that produced vertical deformation with one order of amplitude difference, suggesting that we could distinguish earthquakes that started/stopped at our site from earthquakes that potentially ruptured most of the Wadi Araba fault. The time distribution of earthquakes during the past 5000 yr is uneven. The early period shows little activity with return interval of ˜500 yr or longer. It is followed by a ˜1500-yr-long period with more frequent events, about every 200 yr. Then, for the past ˜550 yr, the fault has switched back to a quieter mode

  12. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refer to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor systems covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of "very large scale integration" (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performance. So, sophisticated signal processing operations have been developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays on the same focal plane avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduce inside the sensor some of the basic function of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogenity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the processing techniques for only the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation threshold.

  13. Machine learning techniques for fault isolation and sensor placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, James R.; Fisher, Douglas H.

    1993-01-01

    Fault isolation and sensor placement are vital for monitoring and diagnosis. A sensor conveys information about a system's state that guides troubleshooting if problems arise. We are using machine learning methods to uncover behavioral patterns over snapshots of system simulations that will aid fault isolation and sensor placement, with an eye towards minimality, fault coverage, and noise tolerance.

  14. Comparative Growth and Development of Spiders Reared on Live and Dead Prey

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific. PMID:24386248

  15. Comparative growth and development of spiders reared on live and dead prey.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific.

  16. Freshening of the Dead Sea during the Last Glacial Revealed By Porewater Composition in ICDP Dead Sea Deep-Drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, B.; Sivan, O.; Yechieli, Y.; Levy, E. J.; Antler, G.; Gavrieli, I.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution of the brine lakes that filled the Dead Sea basin has been extensively studied on the sedimentary exposures and drill cores on the Sea marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea. These geological sections documented the history of the epilimnion (upper brine) of the hypersaline lake during its high stands periods. The cores drilled during 2011 by ICDP in the deep basin of the Dead Sea at water depth of 300 m provided the first opportunity to study the history of the deepest part of the hypolimnion (deep brine) by measuring the chemical and isotopic composition of pore-fluids. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) sodium (Na+) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the pore brines revealed a substantial decrease in salinity of the hypolimnion during the high stand of the last glacial Lake Lisan (the last glacial predecessor of the modern Dead Sea), particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP). Diffusion-deposition model indicated that Cl- concentration of the deep hypolimnetic brine decreased gradually to less than 2/3 of its present value. The δ18O at the same time increased to maximum of ~7‰ (3‰ higher than today). Beforehand, during the interglacial and later during the post-glacial and the Holocene the Cl- concentrations and δ18O values were similar to those of the modern Dead Sea. The slow dilution of the deep Ca-chloride brine was caused probably by continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine, across the epilimnion/hypolimnion interface (EHI). The increase in δ18O during the salinity decrease of Lake Lisan was a result of evaporative fractionation of the less saline epilimnetic brine. The post-glacial δ18O decrease while salinity increased is attributed to the "reversed" δ18O fractionation during evaporation of very high salinity brine. Increase in the Na/Cl ratio due to dissolution of halite without reaching halite saturation was also observed during the freshening period.

  17. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  18. Space Radar Image of Jerusalem and the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. This region is of major cultural and historical importance to millions of Muslims, Jews and Christians who consider it the Holy Land. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. The area around Jerusalem has a history of more than 2,000 years of settlement and scientists are hoping to use these data to unveil more about this region's past. The Jordan River Valley is part of an active fault and rift system that extends from southern Turkey and connects with the east African rift zone. This fault system has produced major earthquakes throughout history and some scientists theorize that an earthquake may have caused the fall of Jericho's walls. The Dead Sea basin is formed by active earthquake faulting and contains the lowest place on the Earth's surface at about 400 meters (1,300 feet) below sea level. It was in caves along the northern shore of the Dead Sea that the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947. The blue and green areas are generally regions of undeveloped hills and the dark green areas are the smooth lowlands of the Jordan River valley. This image is 73 kilometers by 45 kilometers (45 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 35.4 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; green is L-band, horizontally

  19. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  20. Four thousand years of seismicity along the Dead Sea Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Menahem, Ari

    1991-11-01

    A study of major earthquake occurrence along the Dead Sea transform (35.5°-36.5° E; 27.2°-37.5° N) during the past four millenia has been attempted. Geological, archaeological, biblical, historical, and seismological evidence were integrated in an effort to quantify the space-time distribution of seismicity in the said province. The overall earthquake activity in the conterminous Near East indicates a stable pattern and appeared to have been stationary over the examined time window. About 110 earthquakes in the magnitude range 6.7 ≤ ML ≤ 8.3 affected the area during the past 2500 years. Of these, 42 originated along the Dead Sea fault system itself, while 68 were imported from the Helenic-Cyprian arcs and the Anatolian-Elburz-Zagros fault systems. These events were responsible for the repeated destruction of many cultural centers. In the Dead Sea region proper, the major seismic activity since 2100 B.C.E. (Before Christian Era), has been confined to the vicinity of its eastern shore with extremal seismicity at its southern tip near the prehistorical site of Bab-a-Dara'a (31° 15'N, 35° 32'E). This may constitute the first solid evidence that the Biblical "cities of the Plain" (Sodom, Gommorah, etc.) were located there. Recent studies of earthquake deformations in the Lisan deposits near Bab-a-Dara'a, agree with our findings. At the present time, a magnitude 6¾ earthquake is pending at the northern edge of the Levant rift, with its average recurrence interval (83 years) exceeded by one standard deviation (32 years).

  1. The Necessity of Salt Precipitation for the Dead Sea Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, Y.; Lensky, N.; Lyahovsky, V.; Gertman, I.; Gavrieli, I.

    2006-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal lake with a composition that differs significantly from regular seawater. During the winter the DS is well mixed but in the spring a thermocline develops and the lake becomes stratified. Evaporation, mainly during summer leads to the development of a destabilizing halocline together with a stabilizing thermocline. Thus, the upper mixed layer is warmer due to heating and more saline due to evaporation than the lower layer. In the autumn, when the upper layer cools sufficiently, the lake overturns and becomes mixed again. To model this behavior one has to take into account the unique features of the Dead Sea. These features include the need for a special equation of state, determination of water activity and its impact on the evaporation rate, water inflow, including rejected brine (end brine) from the Dead Sea works and salt precipitation from the DS water body. The modeling of the water activity and salt precipitation requires a multicomponent (rather than usual salinity-based) model which enables determination of the degrees of saturation for specific salts and the calculation of the corresponding amount of precipitated salt required to maintain saturation. This precipitated salt accumulates on the bottom of the lake thus making the water deficit greater than surmised from observed water level drop. In the present study we modified the 1-D Princeton Oceanographic Model (POM) incorporating a new equation of state. The model correctly reproduces the measured temperature and salinity profiles, sea level drop and seasonal stratification and overturn of the DS. Our results show that the timing of the overturn is determined by the interplay between the temperature and the salinity of the mixed upper layer. The greater amount of salt in the water in the case of no salt precipitation results in premature overturn. Thus, salt precipitation and its impact on the mixed layer salinity were found to be of utmost importance.

  2. Seasonal variations of halite saturation in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirota, Ido; Arnon, Ali; Lensky, Nadav

    2016-04-01

    Thermohaline stratification in hypersaline lakes expected having influence upon the brine's degree of saturation, due to the dependency of halite solubility on temperature and salinity. Spatio-temporal variations of halite degree of saturation is unknown, thus, a systematic field study is requires in order to quantify super and under-saturation of the brine. The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal lake, experiencing a continuous level drop since the mid-20th century. Transition to monomictic conditions at the beginning of the 1980's caused supersaturation of the brine and initiated precipitation of halite. Evaporation from the brine surface results in an upper warmer-saltier layer (epilimnion), separated from the lower colder-less salty layer (hypolimnion) by a 20-30m deep thermocline. However, linkage between limnologic seasonal cycle and halite degree of saturation is unclear. Direct evidence of brine density and temperature, halite crystallization rates and photography of Dead Sea floor reflect limnological conditions and halite crystallization pattern, and were therefore used in this study. Here we show simultaneous existence of opposite evaporitic environments, governed by depth, in the Dead Sea. During summer, the epilimnion is under-saturated with respect to halite, and halite dissolution dominates, while the hypolimnion is super-saturated with respect to halite, thus, precipitation dominates. During winter continuous halite precipitation is evident along the water column. Our results show that non-uniform vertical halite precipitation can occur in a compositional homogeneous water body, controlled by the limnologic conditions. These findings can be used for interpretation of depositional environment of halite sequences.

  3. Parental consent and the use of dead children's bodies.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, T M

    2001-12-01

    It has recently become known that, in Liverpool and elsewhere, parts of children's bodies were taken postmortem and used for research without the parents being told. But should parental consent be sought before using children's corpses for medical purposes? This paper presents the view that parental consent is overrated. Arguments are rejected for consent from dead children's interests, property rights, family autonomy, and religious freedom. The only direct reason to get parental consent is to avoid distressing the parents, which carries implications for the consent process, secret harvesting of body parts, and the weight to be given to parental feelings.

  4. Acoustical dead zones and the spatial aggregation of whale strandings.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Bala; Poje, Andrew C; Veit, Richard R; Nganguia, Herve

    2006-02-21

    Cetacean strandings display a marked geographical clustering. We propose a simple, two-dimensional ray-dynamics model of cetacean echolocation to examine the role played by coastline topography in influencing the location and clustering of stranding sites. We find that a number of coastlines known to attract cetacean strandings produce acoustical "Dead Zones" where echolocation signals are severely distorted by purely geometric effects. Using available cetacean stranding data bases from four disparate areas, we show that the geographical clusters in the observations correlate strongly with the regions of distorted echolocation signals as predicted by the model.

  5. The microbiology and biogeochemistry of the Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, A

    1975-06-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline water body. Its total dissolved salts content is on the average 322.6 gm/liter. The dominant cation is Mg (40.7 gm/liter), followed by Na (39.2 gm/liter), Ca (17 gm/liter) and K (7 gm/liter). The major anion is Cl (212 gm/liter), followed by Br (5 gm/liter); SO4 and HCO3, are very minor. The lake contains a limited variety of microorganisms and no higher organisms. The number of recorded species is very low, but the total biomass is reasonably high (about 10(5) bacteria/ml and 10(4) algal cells/ml). The indigenous flora is comprised mainly of obligate halophylic bacteria, such as the pink, pleomorphicHalobacterium sp., aSarcina-like coccus, and the facultative halophilic green alga,Dunaliella. Sulfate reducers can be isolated from bottom sediments. Recently a unique obligate magnesiophile bacteria was isolated from Dead Sea sediment. Several of the Dead Sea organisms possess unusual properties. TheHalobacterium sp. has extremely high intercellular K(+) concentration (up to 4.8M) and extraordinary specificity for K(+) over Na. TheDunaliella has very high intracellular concentration of glycerol (up to 2.1M). The microorganisms exert marked influence on some biogeochemical processes occurring in the lake, such as the control of the sulfur cycle and the formation and diagenesis of organic matter in the sediments. The Dead Sea is an excellent example of the development of two different mechanisms for adjusting to a hostile environment. The algae adjust to the high salinity by developing a mechanism for the exclusion of salts from the intracellular fluid and using glycerol for osmotic regulation. On the other hand, the bacteria adapt to the environment by adjusting their internal inorganic ionic strength, but not composition, to that of the medium. The problem of population dynamics and limiting factors for algal and bacterial productivity are discussed in view of the total absence of zooplankton and other consumers other than bacteria.

  6. Ecological functions of tetrodotoxin in a deadly polyclad flatworm

    PubMed Central

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Paul, Valerie J.

    2006-01-01

    The deadly neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) is found in a variety of animal phyla and, because of its toxicity, is most often assumed to deter predation. On the tropical Pacific island of Guam, we found an undescribed flatworm (planocerid sp. 1) that contains high levels of TTX and its analogs. Through ecological experiments, we show that TTXs do not protect these flatworms from some predators but instead are used to capture mobile prey. TTX is known to have multiple ecological functions, which has probably led to its widespread presence among prokaryotes and at least 10 metazoan phyla. PMID:16492790

  7. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  8. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  9. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  10. Smart Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  11. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Su; Ju, Hojin; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-11-06

    In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT)-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE) with respect to walking distance is achieved.

  12. Method for detection of a few pathogenic bacteria and determination of live versus dead cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Shin; Chen, I.-Hsuan; Du, Songtao; Liu, Yuzhe; Wikle, Howard C.; Suh, Sang-Jin; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a method for detection of a few pathogenic bacteria and determination of live versus dead cells. The method combines wireless phage-coated magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors and a surface-scanning dectector, enabling real-time monitoring of the growth of specific bacteria in a nutrient broth. The ME biosensor used in this investigation is composed of a strip-shaped ME resonator upon which an engineered bacteriophage is coated to capture a pathogen of interest. E2 phage with high binding affinity for Salmonella Typhimurium was used as a model study. The specificity of E2 phage has been reported to be 1 in 105 background bacteria. The phage-coated ME biosensors were first exposed to a low-concentration Salmonella suspension to capture roughly 300 cells on the sensor surface. When the growth of Salmonella in the broth occurs, the mass of the biosensor increases, which results in a decrease in the biosensor's resonant frequency. Monitoring of this mass- induced resonant frequency change allows for real-time detection of the presence of Salmonella. Detection of a few bacteria is also possible by growing them to a sufficient number. The surface-scanning detector was used to measure resonant frequency changes of 25 biosensors sequentially in an automated manner as a function of time. This methodology offers direct, real-time detection, quantification, and viability determination of specific bacteria. The rate of the sensor's resonant frequency change was found to be largely dependent on the number of initially bound cells and the efficiency of cell growth.

  13. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Su; Ju, Hojin; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT)-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE) with respect to walking distance is achieved. PMID:26561814

  14. A multidisciplinary glider survey of an open ocean dead-zone eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Schütte, Florian; Pietri, Alice; Krahmann, Gerd; Fiedler, Björn; Löscher, Carolin; Grundle, Damian; Hauss, Helena; Körtzinger, Arne; Testor, Pierre; Viera, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    The physical (temperature, salinity) and biogeochemical (oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidity) structure of an anticyclonic modewater eddy, hosting an open ocean dead zone, is investigated using observational data sampled in high temporal and spatial resolution with autonomous gliders in March and April 2014. The core of the eddy is identified in the glider data as a volume of fresher (on isopycnals) water in the depth range from the mixed layer base (about 70m) to about 200m depth. The width is about 80km. The core aligns well with the 40 μmolkg-1 oxygen contour. From two surveys about 1 month apart, changes in the minimal oxygen concentrations (below 5μmolkg-1) are observed that indicate that small scale processes are in operation. Several scales of coherent variability of physical and biogeochemical variable are identified - from a few meters to the mesoscale. One of the gliders carried an autonomous Nitrate (N) sensor and the data is used to analyse the possible nitrogen pathways within the eddy. Also the highest N is accompanied by lowest oxygen concentrations, the AOU:N ratio reveals a preferred oxygen cycling per N.

  15. A multidisciplinary glider survey of an open ocean dead-zone eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Schütte, Florian; Pietri, Alice; Krahmann, Gerd; Fiedler, Björn; Löscher, Carolin; Grundle, Damian; Hauss, Helena; Körtzinger, Arne; Testor, Pierre; Viera, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    The physical (temperature, salinity) and biogeochemical (oxygen, nitrate, chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidity) structure of an anticyclonic modewater eddy, hosting an open ocean dead zone, is investigated using observational data sampled in high temporal and spatial resolution with autonomous gliders in March and April 2014. The core of the eddy is identified in the glider data as a volume of fresher (on isopycnals) water in the depth range from the mixed layer base (about 70m) to about 200m depth. The width is about 80km. The core aligns well with the 40 μmolkg‑1 oxygen contour. From two surveys about 1 month apart, changes in the minimal oxygen concentrations (below 5μmolkg‑1) are observed that indicate that small scale processes are in operation. Several scales of coherent variability of physical and biogeochemical variable are identified - from a few meters to the mesoscale. One of the gliders carried an autonomous Nitrate (N) sensor and the data is used to analyse the possible nitrogen pathways within the eddy. Also the highest N is accompanied by lowest oxygen concentrations, the AOU:N ratio reveals a preferred oxygen cycling per N.

  16. Magnetic field estimation in measurement dead domain for dry calibration of electromagnetic flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Shen, H. M.; Lee, K. M.; Fu, X.

    2012-08-01

    Advances in computing technology enable dry calibration of large-diameter electromagnetic (EM) flowmeters at low cost, which has been recognized as an effective alternative to traditional flow rigs. Dry calibration requiring no actual liquid in the measuring pipe utilizes the magnetic field distribution reconstructed from measured boundary conditions to determine the sensitivity of the EM flowmeter. However, because sensors have finite sizes, and the fact that inner linings of the measuring pipe deform due to mechanical stresses, a measurement dead domain (MDD) exists between the measured boundary surface and the pipe wall. As the MDD is often close to the magnetic exciting unit, neglecting it results in significant errors in dry calibration. This paper offers a practical method combining iterative optimization and reconstruction to estimate the magnetic field in the MDD from the field data on the measured boundary surface. The method has been validated on an off-the-shelf industrial EM flowmeter by comparing the estimated field in the MDD with experimental measurements. It has been demonstrated that accurately accounting for the immeasurable field in the MDD eliminates more than two-thirds of the dry calibration errors. The estimation method illustrated here can also be extended to measure other physical fields which obey similar governing equations.

  17. Early Jurassic black shales: Global anoxia or regional "Dead Zones"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J.; Wignall, P.

    2012-12-01

    The so-called "Schwarzer Jura" or "Black Jurassic" in Germany is informally used to designate a series of organic-rich sediments that roughly span the Early Jurassic (201.6 - 175.6 Myr), and which culminate in the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Based on organic and inorganic geochemical as well as (micro)palaeontological data from several recently drilled cores, black shales deposited directly following the end-Triassic extinction (201.6 Ma) during the Hettangian are extremely similar to Toarcian black shales. Both events are characterized by laminated black shales that contain high amounts of the biomarker isorenieratane, a fossilized pigment derived from green sulphur bacteria. Furthermore, the two intervals show similar changes in phytoplankton assemblages from chromophyte (red) to chlorophyte (green) algae. Combined, the evidence suggests that photic zone euxinia developed repeatedly during the Early Jurassic, making wide swaths of shelf area inhospitable to benthic life. In the oceans today such areas are called "Dead Zones" and they are increasing in number and extent due to the combined effects of man-made eutrophication and global warming. During the Early Jurassic, regional anoxic events developed in response to flood basalt volcanism, which triggered global warming, increased run-off, and changes in ocean circulation. The patchiness of Early Jurassic anoxia allows comparisons to be made with present-day "Dead Zones", while at the same time ocean de-oxygenation in the past may serve to predict future perturbations in the Earth system.

  18. The forgotten tragedy of unidentified dead in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Tidball Binz, M; Penados, L; Prieto, J; Finegan, O; Grandi, M

    2015-05-01

    The need to identify the dead - an issue of paramount importance for the forensic sciences - and its importance for humanitarian, administrative, judicial and other purposes are universal values enshrined by domestic and international law. However, for hundreds of men, women and children, migrants, who die every year in their attempt to cross the Mediterranean Sea to reach Europe this fundamental right remains unfulfilled. In order to address and bring solutions to this tragedy the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out an assessment in 2012 and 2013 across European Mediterranean countries affected by irregular immigration across the sea (Italy, Greece, Malta, Portugal, France, Spain). An international meeting in 2013 among Southern European countries led to recommendations which should serve as a road-map for action. They are already guiding activities of the ICRC and other participant institutions. The Council of Europe, which endorsed the recommendations, has since stepped up its efforts to prevent and resolve the humanitarian consequences of migration, including the unidentified dead. Among other things it has called on its Member States to "set up a proper system of data collection of the mortal remains of people who lose their lives in the Mediterranean and make it swiftly accessible to relatives". PMID:25770023

  19. The dead zones: oxygen-starved coastal waters.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    2000-01-01

    After the great Mississippi River flood of 1993, the hypoxic (or low-oxygen) "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico more than doubled its size, reaching an all-time high of over 7,700 square miles in July of 1999. Scientists attribute the Gulf of Mexico dead zone largely to nutrient runoff from agriculture in the Mississippi River basin. During the warm months, these nutrients fuel eutrophication, or high organic production, causing large algal blooms. When the algae decay, the result is hypoxia. Reports of such hypoxic events around the world have been increasing since the mid 1960s. Eutrophication and hypoxia have resulted in mortality of bottom-dwelling life in dozens of marine ecosystems and have stressed fisheries worldwide. Some algal blooms can alter the function of coastal ecosystems or, potentially, threaten human health. Anthropogenic nutrient loading from sources such as agriculture, fossil fuel emissions, and climate events is believed to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certain algal blooms. PMID:10706539

  20. Management of the dead in Tacloban City after Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; De Guzman, Alethea; Sy, Luis; Zapanta, Ma Justina; Avelino, Ferchito; Feliciano, Joselito; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The post-disaster management of the dead involves a series of steps including on-site identification, transfer, storage and examination of bodies and delivery to families for burial. Two weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, a team from the Department of Health (DOH) was tasked with identifying the dead in Tacloban City. Methods A suitable site for the collection of bodies was identified and an algorithm and standard data collection form developed. The retrieval of bodies was coordinated with the Bureau of Fire Protection personnel. Upon receipt of a body, two team members conducted a systematic external examination. Findings were documented, photos were taken and each body was assigned a unique number. Results The DOH team examined 128 bodies. Of these, the majority (86%) were complete bodies; 95% were decomposed and two were skeletonized. Two thirds (66%) were adults, sex was identifiable for 92%, and the male to female ratio was 1:1.4. The majority of adults were females. Only 11% were presumptively identified from documents in clothing; 89% remained unidentified. Conclusion From the limited setting of this study, we describe the process of rapid body processing post-Haiyan. We prioritized rapid processing over more technically complicated means of identification, including DNA testing. Our protocol showed a dignified and efficient way of identifying corpses. As local and regional laboratory capacity increases in the Philippines, the collection of DNA specimens may become part of the identification algorithm. PMID:26767135

  1. Tracheal dead space influences regional ventilation measurement in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Delaunois, L.; Boileau, R.; Martin, R.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The lung volume at which airway closure begins during expiration (closing volume, CV) can be measured (1) with a radioactive bolus inspired at residual volume (RV) and (2) with the single-breath N2 elimination test. In previous studies in dogs, we observed that N2 CV was systematically larger than 133Xe bolus CV (Xe CV) (N2 CV %vital capacity (VC) = 35 +/- 2.3 (SE) vs. Xe CV %VC = 24 +/- 2.2, P less than 0.01). Because the regional RV in the dog is evenly distributed throughout the lung and all airways closed at RV, N2 CV is related to the regional distribution of the tracheal N2; differences between N2 and Xe CV could then be related to the size of the inhaled dead space. Simultaneous measurements of Xe and N2 CV were performed at various sites of Xe bolus injection while the regional distribution of the bolus was measured. Injections at the level of the carina increased Xe CV to a value (30 +/- 1.4%VC) near simultaneous N2 CV (32 +/- 1.5%VC) and increased the unevenness of regional distribution of the Xe bolus. The difference between N2 and Xe CV is then the result of the size of the inspired tracheal dead space. Moreover, comparisons between different values of Xe CV require injections of the boluses at the same distance from the carina.

  2. Dead zones in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Barkhouse, D Aaron R; Kramer, Illan J; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H

    2010-09-13

    In order to fabricate photovoltaic (PV) cells incorporating light-trapping electrodes, flexible foil substrates, or more than one junction, illumination through the top-contact (i.e.: non-substrate) side of a photovoltaic device is desirable. We investigate the relative collection efficiency for illumination through the top vs. bottom of PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) PV devices. The external quantum efficiency spectra of FTO/TiO₂/PbS CQD/ITO PV devices with various PbS layer thicknesses were measured for illumination through either the top (ITO) or bottom (FTO) contacts. By comparing the relative shapes and intensities of these spectra with those calculated from an estimation of the carrier generation profile and the internal quantum efficiency as a function of distance from the TiO₂ interface in the devices, a substantial dead zone, where carrier extraction is dramatically reduced, is identified near the ITO top contact. The implications for device design, and possible means of avoiding the formation of such a dead zone, are discussed.

  3. The dead zones: oxygen-starved coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    2000-03-01

    After the great Mississippi River flood of 1993, the hypoxic (or low-oxygen) "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico more than doubled its size, reaching an all-time high of over 7,700 square miles in July of 1999. Scientists attribute the Gulf of Mexico dead zone largely to nutrient runoff from agriculture in the Mississippi River basin. During the warm months, these nutrients fuel eutrophication, or high organic production, causing large algal blooms. When the algae decay, the result is hypoxia. Reports of such hypoxic events around the world have been increasing since the mid 1960s. Eutrophication and hypoxia have resulted in mortality of bottom-dwelling life in dozens of marine ecosystems and have stressed fisheries worldwide. Some algal blooms can alter the function of coastal ecosystems or, potentially, threaten human health. Anthropogenic nutrient loading from sources such as agriculture, fossil fuel emissions, and climate events is believed to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certain algal blooms.

  4. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  5. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda).

    PubMed

    Green, P A; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour 'telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  6. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. A.; Patek, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour ‘telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  7. Fungal life in the extremely hypersaline water of the Dead Sea: first records.

    PubMed Central

    Buchalo, A S; Nevo, E; Wasser, S P; Oren, A; Molitoris, H P

    1998-01-01

    The first report, to our knowledge, on the occurrence of filamentous fungi in the hypersaline (340 g salt l-1) Dead Sea is presented. Three species of filamentous fungi from surface water samples of the Dead Sea were isolated: Gymnascella marismortui (Ascomycota), which is described as a new species, Ulocladium chlamydosporum and Penicillium westlingii (Deuteromycota). G. marismortui and U. chlamydosporum grew on media containing up to 50% Dead Sea water. G. marismortui was found to be an obligate halophile growing optimally in the presence of 0.5-2 M NaCl or 10 30% (by volume) of Dead Sea water. Isolated cultures did not grow on agar media without salt, but grew on agar prepared with up to 50% Dead Sea water. This suggests that they may be adapted to life in the extremely stressful hypersaline Dead Sea. PMID:9721690

  8. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia.

  9. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia. PMID:26654335

  10. Density-surfactant-motivated removal of DNAPL trapped in dead-end fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, In Wook; Ji, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2003-05-01

    Three kinds of experiments were conducted to test existing methods and develop an effective methodology for the remediation of DNAPL trapped in vertical dead-end fractures. A water-flushing method failed to remove TCE from vertical dead-end fractures where no fluid flow occurs. A water-flushing experiment implies that existing remediation methods, utilizing water-based remedial fluid such as surfactant-enhanced method, have difficulty in removing DNAPL trapped from the vertical downward dead-end fractures, because of no water flow through dead-end fractures, capillary, and gravity forces. Fluid denser than TCE was injected into the fracture network, but did not displace TCE from the vertical dead-end fractures. Based on the analysis of the experiments, the increase in the density of the dense fluid and the addition of surfactant to the dense fluid were suggested, and this composite dense fluid with surfactant effectively removed TCE from the vertical dead-end fractures.

  11. Automotive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  12. The Effect of dead-timeless silicon strip readout at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    A. Affolder et al.

    2002-03-12

    The Run IIa CDF Silicon Upgrade has recently finished installation. The detector uses revision D of the SVX3 readout IC. This final revision incorporated new features in order to improve the potential of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes measurements of dead-timeless effects on silicon strip readout on the test bench. This paper also describes tests of the dynamic pedestal subtraction circuitry, which is shown to improve greatly the dead-timeless performance of the silicon systems.

  13. Biliary pancreatitis. Deadly threat to the elderly. Is it a real threat?

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Arshad Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Introduction Gallstone pancreatitis is a deadly disease and especially so in the elderly. This study highlights the incidence, pattern and management of acute biliary pancreatitis in the elderly patients to find out the outcome of management. Methods All patients of acute abdomen regardless of the age and gender of the patients were admitted in our unit at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences and different private hospitals in Hyderabad during 3 years commencing from June 2009 to June 2011. The data was collected on a proforma by the author as soon as the patients were received from the emergency. After admission the patients with the diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis on initial workup were inducted in this study. The variables studied included the incidence, severity and management outcome in patients 55 years and above compared to younger patients below 55 years. Results A total number of 650 patients regardless of gender with acute severe abdominal pain were brought to the emergency of which 131(20.15%) were diagnosed as acute biliary pancreatitis after initial work up. Out of the total patients diagnosed as acute pancreatitis, 63(48.09%) patients were <55 years of age and remaining 68(51.90%) patients were >55 years of age. The overall mortality in this study was 20.63 %( n=13) in elderly patients (> 55 years of age) in both the sexes despite all possible treatment measures. Conclusion Elderly people respond poorly to the acute insult to pancreatitis. PMID:25901131

  14. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-07-03

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.

  15. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  16. Dead zone characteristics of SQS and GM modes in Kr-, Ar- and Ne-Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nohtomi, A.; Sakae, T.; Matoba, M. ); Koori, N. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, dead zones of a gas counter are studied systematically for various gas mixtures at gas pressures equal to and lower than 1 atm. Evaluated values of the dead zone for the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode were 190-390 [mu]s [center dot] at 1 atm. Characteristics of the dead zone were explained by considering the effect of SQS ions. The critical gas pressure, at which the operation mode changes form the SQS mode to the GM mode, was determined for each gas mixture on the basis of the dead zone measurement. Operation mode diagrams of the counter were drawn according to those results.

  17. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  18. Wireless sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  19. Optimal Sensor Allocation for Fault Detection and Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Automatic fault diagnostic schemes rely on various types of sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, vibration, etc) to measure the system parameters. Efficacy of a diagnostic scheme is largely dependent on the amount and quality of information available from these sensors. The reliability of sensors, as well as the weight, volume, power, and cost constraints, often makes it impractical to monitor a large number of system parameters. An optimized sensor allocation that maximizes the fault diagnosibility, subject to specified weight, volume, power, and cost constraints is required. Use of optimal sensor allocation strategies during the design phase can ensure better diagnostics at a reduced cost for a system incorporating a high degree of built-in testing. In this paper, we propose an approach that employs multiple fault diagnosis (MFD) and optimization techniques for optimal sensor placement for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in complex systems. Keywords: sensor allocation, multiple fault diagnosis, Lagrangian relaxation, approximate belief revision, multidimensional knapsack problem.

  20. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma.

    PubMed

    Meoded Danon, Limor

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence.

  1. Dead time, pileup, and accurate gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Fleming, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    The accuracy of gamma-ray spectrometric measurements is ultimately limited by the precision of Poisson counting statistics. With careful attention to detail, all other sources of error in the ratio of activities of two sources of a radionuclide in small samples can be made insignificant, even when the statistical limit is well below one percent. An important source of error comes from the finite time required by the counting electronics to detect and process pulses. Dead-time losses (mostly in the analog-digital converter) are usually compensated very well by the pulse-height analyzer, but pileup losses (mostly in the amplifier) may not be. Errors of 10% or more may easily result. Several methods are available for detecting and correcting rate-related losses. These methods are sufficiently reliable and well understood that a decaying source can be measured with acceptably small errors even at count rates as high as tens of thousands per second.

  2. [Japanese ethos and organ transplantation from brain-dead donors].

    PubMed

    Akiba, Etsuko

    2010-12-01

    A trend observed since the 1980s in the Japanese academic scene is the overturning of Hippocratic ethics by American individualistic bioethics. However, the Japanese ethos is more sympathetic to personalistic bioethics rooted in Hippocratic ethics, which assumes the universal view of the 'interdependent self' clearly marked off from the 'independent self' specific to American culture. In Japan, organ transplantation from brain-dead donors is promoted despite the lack of consensus on whether brain death signifies death of the individual. From the viewpoint of personalistic bioethics, this situation is problematic because it violates the dictum primum non nocere of the Hippocratic Oath. We should therefore first establish consensus on brain death and then promote a 'culture of donation' based on human dignity.

  3. Use of lactose against the deadly biological toxin ricin.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    Developing a technology for detecting and decontaminating biological toxins is needed. Ricin from Ricinus communis is a highly poisonous toxin; it was formerly used for an assassination in London and in postal attacks in the United States. Ricin is readily available from castor beans and could be used as a biological agent. We propose using glycotechnology against the illegal use of ricin. Lactose (a natural ligand of this toxin) was incorporated into polyacrylamide-based glycopolymers at variable sugar densities (18-100%) and evaluated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and the real agent, ricin. Glycopolymers (18-65% lactose densities) effectively interfered with the toxin-lactoside adhesion event (>99% efficiency within 20 min). This supported the notion of using the mammary sugar lactose against a deadly biological toxin.

  4. Dead-time effects in pulse-counting Digicon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbets, Dennis C.; Garner, Harry W.

    1986-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's High Resolution Spectrograph employs two pulse-counting Digicon detectors to record UV spectra. At higher measured count rates, the intervals between photon arrivals become comparable to the response time of the electronics, so that not every pulse will be counted; this 'paired pulse' effect causes departures from linearity and must be corrected for during raw data reduction. Attention is given to two analytic equations that quantify the dead-time losses. The less attenuated spectra are noted to be severely distorted by these losses; a comparison with the undistorted low count rate data allows a detailed analysis to be made of the pulse-counting characteristics over five decades of input event rates. The present equations and calibration methods should be applicable to all kinds of multichannel pulse-counting detectors.

  5. Hendra and Nipah viruses: why are they so deadly?

    PubMed

    Marsh, Glenn A; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-06-01

    Henipavirus, including Hendra and Nipah viruses, is a group of emerging bat-borne paramyxoviruses which were responsible for severe disease outbreaks in humans, horses and pigs. The mortality rate of human infection varies between 50 and 100%, making them one of the most deadly viruses known to infect humans. Its use of highly conserved cell surface molecules (ephrin) as entry receptors and its highly effective replication and fusion strategies are believed to be important characteristics responsible for its high pathogenicity. Henipavirus also encodes multiple accessory proteins which play a key role in evasion of host innate immune responses. Our recent study on the mechanism of IFN antagonism by henipaviruses indicated that a better understanding of the virus-host interaction provides great potential to develop new therapeutic strategies against these viruses.

  6. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  7. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes.

  8. DNAPL invasion into a partially saturated dead-end fracture

    SciTech Connect

    gwsu@lbl.gov

    2004-06-17

    The critical height for DNAPL entry into a partially watersaturated, dead-end fracture is derived and compared to laboratoryobservations. Experiments conducted in an analog, parallel-plate fracturedemonstrate that DNAPL accumulates above the water until the height ofthe DNAPL overcomes the sum of the capillary forces at the DNAPL-airinterface and at the DNAPL-water interface. These experiments also showthat DNAPL preferentially enters the water at locations where DNAPL haspreviously entered, and the entry heights for these subsequent entriesare lower than the heights measured for the initial invasion. The wettingcontact angle at the DNAPL-water interface becomes larger at thelocations where the DNAPL has already entered the water because ofresidual DNAPL on the fracture walls, which results in lowering thecritical entry height at those locations. The experiments alsodemonstrate that a DNAPL lens can remain nearly immobile above the waterfor a period of time before eventually redistributing itself and enteringthe water.

  9. Metagenome of a versatile chemolithoautotroph from expanding oceanic dead zones.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David A; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles G; Song, Young C; Wright, Jody J; Tringe, Susannah G; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-10-23

    Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated oxygen minimum zone microbe (SUP05) related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur oxidation, and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water-column redox states. Our analysis provides a genomic foundation for understanding the ecological and biogeochemical role of pelagic SUP05 in oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and its potential sensitivity to environmental changes. PMID:19900896

  10. Life in the end-Permian dead zone.

    PubMed

    Looy, C V; Twitchett, R J; Dilcher, D L; Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert, J H; Visscher, H

    2001-07-01

    The fossil record of land plants is an obvious source of information on the dynamics of mass extinctions in the geological past. In conjunction with the end-Permian ecological crisis, approximately 250 million years ago, palynological data from East Greenland reveal some unanticipated patterns. We document the significant time lag between terrestrial ecosystem collapse and selective extinction among characteristic Late Permian plants. Furthermore, ecological crisis resulted in an initial increase in plant diversity, instead of a decrease. Paradoxically, these floral patterns correspond to a "dead zone" in the end-Permian faunal record, characterized by a paucity of marine invertebrate megafossils. The time-delayed, end-Permian plant extinctions resemble modeled "extinction debt" responses of multispecies metapopulations to progressive habitat destruction. PMID:11427710

  11. Use of lactose against the deadly biological toxin ricin.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    Developing a technology for detecting and decontaminating biological toxins is needed. Ricin from Ricinus communis is a highly poisonous toxin; it was formerly used for an assassination in London and in postal attacks in the United States. Ricin is readily available from castor beans and could be used as a biological agent. We propose using glycotechnology against the illegal use of ricin. Lactose (a natural ligand of this toxin) was incorporated into polyacrylamide-based glycopolymers at variable sugar densities (18-100%) and evaluated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and the real agent, ricin. Glycopolymers (18-65% lactose densities) effectively interfered with the toxin-lactoside adhesion event (>99% efficiency within 20 min). This supported the notion of using the mammary sugar lactose against a deadly biological toxin. PMID:20369893

  12. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (<2 μmol kg-1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg-1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  13. Nanoparticles as biochemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Faddah, Layla M

    2010-01-01

    There is little doubt that nanoparticles offer real and new opportunities in many fields, such as biomedicine and materials science. Such particles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including cells and organelles, potentially leading to new approaches in nanomedicine. Sensors for small molecules of biochemical interest are of critical importance. This review is an attempt to trace the use of nanomaterials in biochemical sensor design. The possibility of using nanoparticles functionalized with antibodies as markers for proteins will be elucidated. Moreover, capabilities and applications for nanoparticles based on gold, silver, magnetic, and semiconductor materials (quantum dots), used in optical (absorbance, luminescence, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical, and mass-sensitive sensors will be highlighted. The unique ability of nanosensors to improve the analysis of biochemical fluids is discussed either through considering the use of nanoparticles for in vitro molecular diagnosis, or in the biological/biochemical analysis for in vivo interaction with the human body. PMID:24198472

  14. Continuous cold atom inertial sensor with 1 nrad.s-1 rotation stability(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Remi; Dutta, Indranil; Savoie, Denis; Fang, Bess; Guarrido Alzar, Carlos; Venon, Bertrand; Landragin, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    We report the first operation of a cold atom inertial sensor without dead time. Dead times in conventional cold atom interferometers originate from the preparation of a cold atom source prior to its injection in the interferometer and where information on inertial signals is lost. We use a sequence where we simultaneously prepare a cold atom source and operate a light pulse atom interferometer to circumvent the dead time limitation. Therefore the sensor continuously captures all the dynamics with respect to an inertial frame. We show that the continuous operation does not degrade the sensitivity and stability of the atom interferometer, by demonstrating a rotation sensitivity level of less than 1 nrad/s after 10 000 s of integration time. Such a sensitivity level improves previous results by more than an order of magnitude and opens applications of cold atom gyroscopes in inertial navigation and geophysics.

  15. 77 FR 36329 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dead Sea Scrolls & The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dead Sea Scrolls & The Bible Ancient Artifacts-- Timeless Treasures'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Dead Sea...

  16. Live-timer method of automatic dead-time correction for precision counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porges, K. G.; Rudnick, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic correction for dead time losses in nuclear counting experiments is implemented by a simple live timer arrangement in which each counting interval is extended for compensation for the dead time during that interval. this method eliminates repetitious manual calculations, source of error, and dependence upon paralysis shifts.

  17. Wanted dead or alive: scavenging versus predation by three insect predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many generalist insect predators may engage in facultative scavenging. If an apparent predator frequently consumes dead prey instead of live prey then the biological control services provided by that predator may be overestimated. The use of unique protein markers on live and dead prey of the same s...

  18. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  19. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of non-deadly physical force when making... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  20. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  1. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  2. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling,...

  3. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling,...

  4. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  5. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  6. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  7. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  8. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  9. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority,...

  10. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests.

  11. Brainstem Encoding of Aided Speech in Hearing Aid Users with Cochlear Dead Region(s)

    PubMed Central

    Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan; Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Galhom, Dalia Helal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Neural encoding of speech begins with the analysis of the signal as a whole broken down into its sinusoidal components in the cochlea, which has to be conserved up to the higher auditory centers. Some of these components target the dead regions of the cochlea causing little or no excitation. Measuring aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response elicited by speech stimuli with different spectral maxima can give insight into the brainstem encoding of aided speech with spectral maxima at these dead regions. Objective  This research aims to study the impact of dead regions of the cochlea on speech processing at the brainstem level after a long period of hearing aid use. Methods  This study comprised 30 ears without dead regions and 46 ears with dead regions at low, mid, or high frequencies. For all ears, we measured the aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response using speech stimuli of low, mid, and high spectral maxima. Results  Aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was producible in all subjects. Responses evoked by stimuli with spectral maxima at dead regions had longer latencies and smaller amplitudes when compared with the control group or the responses of other stimuli. Conclusion  The presence of cochlear dead regions affects brainstem encoding of speech with spectral maxima perpendicular to these regions. Brainstem neuroplasticity and the extrinsic redundancy of speech can minimize the impact of dead regions in chronic hearing aid users. PMID:27413404

  12. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  13. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of non-deadly physical force when... ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.105 Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right...

  14. Examining the Impact of External Influences on Police Use of Deadly Force over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Used interrupted time-series analysis (ARIMA) to study the impact of legislation and judicial intervention on the use of deadly force by police officers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Findings generally suggest that dynamic changes in the internal working environment can outweigh the influence of external mechanisms on deadly force use. Findings…

  15. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. PMID:26314011

  16. Exploring the Interface Between Religion and Contact with the Dead Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between religion and post death contact among older Mexican Americans. Four major themes emerged from 52 in-depth interviews that were conducted with Older Mexican Americans residing in Texas. First, many older study participants told us they had contact with the dead, but others indicated this was not possible. Second, the form in which contact with the dead was made varied greatly. Some older Mexican Americans reported they had visual contact with the dead, while others said they only made contact with the dead through dreams. Third, although some older Mexican American study participants believed that it was in the best interests of the dead to contact the living, others felt the dead should instead be in Heaven with God. Fourth, the participants in our study reported that having contact with the dead provides a number of important social and psychological benefits. In the process of discussing these themes, an emphasis is placed on how beliefs and experiences with the dead interface with religion. In addition, we also explore how post death contact may be associated with health and well-being in late life. PMID:21399735

  17. Exploring the Interface Between Religion and Contact with the Dead Among Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between religion and post death contact among older Mexican Americans. Four major themes emerged from 52 in-depth interviews that were conducted with Older Mexican Americans residing in Texas. First, many older study participants told us they had contact with the dead, but others indicated this was not possible. Second, the form in which contact with the dead was made varied greatly. Some older Mexican Americans reported they had visual contact with the dead, while others said they only made contact with the dead through dreams. Third, although some older Mexican American study participants believed that it was in the best interests of the dead to contact the living, others felt the dead should instead be in Heaven with God. Fourth, the participants in our study reported that having contact with the dead provides a number of important social and psychological benefits. In the process of discussing these themes, an emphasis is placed on how beliefs and experiences with the dead interface with religion. In addition, we also explore how post death contact may be associated with health and well-being in late life. PMID:21399735

  18. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  19. Robust model reference adaptive output feedback tracking for uncertain linear systems with actuator fault based on reinforced dead-zone modification.

    PubMed

    Bagherpoor, H M; Salmasi, Farzad R

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, robust model reference adaptive tracking controllers are considered for Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) linear systems containing modeling uncertainties, unknown additive disturbances and actuator fault. Two new lemmas are proposed for both SISO and MIMO, under which dead-zone modification rule is improved such that the tracking error for any reference signal tends to zero in such systems. In the conventional approach, adaption of the controller parameters is ceased inside the dead-zone region which results tracking error, while preserving the system stability. In the proposed scheme, control signal is reinforced with an additive term based on tracking error inside the dead-zone which results in full reference tracking. In addition, no Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) unit is needed in the proposed approach. Closed loop system stability and zero tracking error are proved by considering a suitable Lyapunov functions candidate. It is shown that the proposed control approach can assure that all the signals of the close loop system are bounded in faulty conditions. Finally, validity and performance of the new schemes have been illustrated through numerical simulations of SISO and MIMO systems in the presence of actuator faults, modeling uncertainty and output disturbance.

  20. Dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus.

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, M.; Kramer, L.; Stone, W.; Hagiwara, Y.; Schmit, K.

    2001-01-01

    As part of West Nile (WN) virus surveillance in New York State in 2000, 71,332 ill or dead birds were reported; 17,571 (24.6%) of these were American Crows. Of 3,976 dead birds tested, 1,263 (31.8%) were positive for WN virus. Viral activity was first confirmed in 60 of the state's 62 counties with WN virus-positive dead birds. Pathologic findings compatible with WN virus were seen in 1,576 birds (39.6% of those tested), of which 832 (52.8%) were positive for WN virus. Dead crow reports preceded confirmation of viral activity by several months, and WN virus-positive birds were found >3 months before the onset of human cases. Dead bird surveillance appears to be valuable for early detection of WN virus and for guiding public education and mosquito control efforts. PMID:11585524

  1. Seismic structure of the Arava Fault, Dead Sea Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maercklin, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The Dead Sea Transform (DST) is a prominent shear zone in the Middle East. It separates the Arabian plate from the Sinai microplate and stretches from the Red Sea rift in the south via the Dead Sea to the Taurus-Zagros collision zone in the north. Formed in the Miocene 17 Ma ago and related to the breakup of the Afro-Arabian continent, the DST accommodates the left-lateral movement between the two plates. The study area is located in the Arava Valley between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, centered across the Arava Fault (AF), which constitutes the major branch of the transform in this region. A set of seismic experiments comprising controlled sources, linear profiles across the fault, and specifically designed receiver arrays reveals the subsurface structure in the vicinity of the AF and of the fault zone itself down to about 3-4 km depth. A tomographically determined seismic P-velocity model shows a pronounced velocity contrast near the fault with lower velocities on the western side than east of it. Additionally, S-waves from local earthquakes provide an average P-to-S velocity ratio in the study area, and there are indications for a variations across the fault. High-resolution tomographic velocity sections and seismic reflection profiles confirm the surface trace of the AF, and observed features correlate well with fault-related geological observations. Coincident electrical resistivity sections from magnetotelluric measurements across the AF show a conductive layer west of the fault, resistive regions east of it, and a marked contrast near the trace of the AF, which seems to act as an impermeable barrier for fluid flow. The correlation of seismic velocities and electrical resistivities lead to a characterisation of subsurface lithologies from their physical properties. Whereas the western side of the fault is characterised by a layered structure, the eastern side is rather uniform. The vertical boundary between the western and the eastern units seems to be

  2. Analysis of the November 1999 Dead Sea Calibration Shots

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A J; Myers, S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W

    2000-07-21

    In November 1999 three chemical explosions were conducted in the Dead Sea for the purposes of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These shots were organized and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII). Large chemical explosions are the most valuable form of ground truth as the location, depth and origin time are very well known. We focus on the two largest shots (M{sub w} {ge} 3.6) and performed several types of analysis of the regional recordings and travel times of these shots. These data provide valuable new information about the region and offer an opportunity to test monitoring strategies. A crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases: Pn, Pg and Sg. This effort utilized a grid search method to find suitable models of the structure. Results indicate that the crust is relatively thin (32 km) with lower than average crustal velocities (mean V{sub P} = 6.1-6.2 km/s). We located each shot treating the other shot as a calibration explosion. Locations were computed using both station static corrections and kriged correction surfaces. Results show that the locations with static corrections can be better or worse than the locations without corrections. However, the locations with kriged correction surfaces are consistently better than those without corrections or with static corrections because kriging properly accounts for residual statistics. Measures of the S-wave coda for regional events provide a stable estimate of event size (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) and the event source spectrum. S-wave coda envelope amplitudes were calibrated to moments estimated from long-period waveform modeling. We measured moment and body-wave magnitudes and source spectra for many events in the region. The Dead Sea shots show spectral peaking associated with shallow events. Finally, analysis of regional broadband recordings from the Saudi

  3. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  4. The DEAD-Box Protein Dhh1p Couples mRNA Decay and Translation by Monitoring Codon Optimality.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Martin, Sophie; Alhusaini, Najwa; Green, Rachel; Coller, Jeff

    2016-09-22

    A major determinant of mRNA half-life is the codon-dependent rate of translational elongation. How the processes of translational elongation and mRNA decay communicate is unclear. Here, we establish that the DEAD-box protein Dhh1p is a sensor of codon optimality that targets an mRNA for decay. First, we find mRNAs whose translation elongation rate is slowed by inclusion of non-optimal codons are specifically degraded in a Dhh1p-dependent manner. Biochemical experiments show Dhh1p is preferentially associated with mRNAs with suboptimal codon choice. We find these effects on mRNA decay are sensitive to the number of slow-moving ribosomes on an mRNA. Moreover, we find Dhh1p overexpression leads to the accumulation of ribosomes specifically on mRNAs (and even codons) of low codon optimality. Lastly, Dhh1p physically interacts with ribosomes in vivo. Together, these data argue that Dhh1p is a sensor for ribosome speed, targeting an mRNA for repression and subsequent decay. PMID:27641505

  5. Global effects of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DeaD (CsdA) on gene expression over a broad range of temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Pannuri, Archana; Cortés-Selva, Diana; Zere, Tesfalem R.; Ahmer, Brian M.; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary In Escherichia coli, activity of the global regulatory RNA binding protein CsrA is antagonized by two noncoding sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester it away from its lower affinity mRNA targets. Transcription of csrB/C requires the BarA-UvrY two component signal transduction system, which responds to short chain carboxylates. We show that two DEAD-box RNA helicases, DeaD and SrmB, activate csrB/C expression by different pathways. DeaD facilitates uvrY translation by counteracting the inhibitory effect of long distance basepairing between the uvrY mRNA leader and coding region, while SrmB does not affect UvrY or UvrY-phosphate levels. Contrary to the prevailing notion that these helicases act primarily at low temperatures, DeaD and SrmB activated csrB expression over a wide temperature range. High-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) revealed in vivo interactions of DeaD with 39 mRNAs, including those of uvrY and 9 other regulatory genes. Studies on the expression of several of the identified genes revealed regulatory effects of DeaD in all cases and diverse temperature response patterns. Our findings uncover an expanded regulatory role for DeaD, which is mediated through novel mRNA targets, important global regulators and under physiological conditions that were considered to be incompatible with its function. PMID:24708042

  6. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  7. Gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  8. Microcantilever Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Hans Peter; Gerber, Christoph

    Microfabricated cantilevers have been used in atomic force microscopy for the topography imaging of non-conductive surfaces for more than 20 years. Cantilever beams without tips have proved their applicability in recent years as miniaturized, ultrasensitive, and fast-responding sensors for applications in chemistry, physics, biochemistry, and medicine. Microcantilever sensors respond by bending due to the absorption of molecules. A shift in resonance frequency also occurs. They can be operated in different environments such as gaseous environment, liquids, or vacuum. In gas, microcantilever sensors can be operated as an artificial nose, whereby the bending pattern of a microfabricated array of eight polymer-coated silicon cantilevers is characteristic of the different vapors from solvents, flavors, and beverages. When operated in a liquid, microcantilever sensors are able to detect biochemical reactions. Each cantilever is functionalized with a specific biochemical probe receptor, sensitive for detection of the corresponding target molecule. Applications lie in the fields of label- and amplification-free detection of DNA hybridization, the detection of proteins as well as antigen-antibody reactions, and the detection of larger entities, such as bacteria and fungi.

  9. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  10. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  11. Nanomechanical properties of dead or alive single-patterned bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Aline; Cau, Jean-Christophe; Vieu, Christophe; Dague, Etienne

    2009-05-19

    The main goal of this paper is to probe mechanical properties of living and dead bacteria via atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation experimentations. Nevertheless, the prerequisite for bioAFM study is the adhesion of the biological sample on a surface. Although AFM has now been used in microbiology for 20 years, the immobilization of micro-organisms is still challenging. Immobilizing a single cell, without the need for chemical fixation has therefore constituted our second purpose. Highly ordered arrays of single living bacteria were generated over the millimeter scale by selective adsorption of bacteria onto micrometric chemical patterns. The chemically engineered template surfaces were prepared with a microcontact printing process, and different functionalizations of the patterns by incubation were investigated. Thanks to this original immobilization strategy, the Young moduli of the same cell were measured using force spectroscopy before and after heating (45 degrees C, 20 min). The cells with a damaged membrane (after heating) present a Young modulus twice as high as that of healthy bacteria.

  12. Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?

    PubMed Central

    English, V; Sommerville, A

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant. PMID:12796433

  13. Simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The use of dead, dried aquatic plants, for water removal of metals derived from industrial activities as a simple biosorbent material has been increasing in the last years. The mechanism of simultaneous metal removal (Cd2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) by 3 macrophytes biomass (Spirodela intermedia, Lemna minor and Pistia stratiotes) was investigated. L. minor biomass presented the highest mean removal percentage and P. stratiotes the lowest for all metals tested. Pb2+ and Cd2+ were more efficiently removed by the three of them. The simultaneous metal sorption data were analysed according to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Data fitted the Langmuir model only for Ni and Cd, but Freundlich isotherm for all metals tested, as it was expected. The K(F) values showed that Pb was the metal more efficiently removed from water solution. The adsorption process for the three species studied followed first order kinetics. The mechanism involved in biosorption resulted ion exchange between monovalent metals as counter ions present in the macrophytes biomass and heavy metal ions and protons taken up from water. No significant differences were observed in the metal exchange amounts while using multi-metal or individual metal solutions.

  14. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused.

  15. MODELING MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Hirose, Shigenobu

    2011-12-01

    Turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) crucially affects the evolution of solid bodies in protoplanetary disks. On the other hand, small dust particles stabilize MRI by capturing ionized gas particles needed for the coupling of the gas and magnetic fields. To provide an empirical basis for modeling the coevolution of dust and MRI, we perform three-dimensional, ohmic-resistive MHD simulations of a vertically stratified shearing box with an MRI-inactive 'dead zone' of various sizes and with a net vertical magnetic flux of various strengths. We find that the vertical structure of turbulence is well characterized by the vertical magnetic flux and three critical heights derived from the linear analysis of MRI in a stratified disk. In particular, the turbulent structure depends on the resistivity profile only through the critical heights and is insensitive to the details of the resistivity profile. We discover scaling relations between the amplitudes of various turbulent quantities (velocity dispersion, density fluctuation, vertical diffusion coefficient, and outflow mass flux) and vertically integrated accretion stresses. We also obtain empirical formulae for the integrated accretion stresses as a function of the vertical magnetic flux and the critical heights. These empirical relations allow us to predict the vertical turbulent structure of a protoplanetary disk for a given strength of the magnetic flux and a given resistivity profile.

  16. Dead zones enhance key fisheries species by providing predation refuge.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H

    2008-10-01

    Natural stress gradients can reduce predation intensity and increase prey abundances. Whether the harsh conditions of anthropogenic habitat degradation can similarly reduce predation intensity and structure community dynamics remains largely unexplored. Oxygen depletion in coastal waters (hypoxia) is a form of degradation that has recently emerged as one of the greatest threats to coastal ecosystems worldwide due to increased rates of eutrophication and climate change. I conducted field experiments and surveys to test whether relaxed predation could explain the paradoxically high abundance of clams that have sustained a fishery in a degraded estuary with chronic hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia reduced predation on all experimental species but enhanced the long-term survivorship of only sufficiently hypoxia-tolerant prey due to periodic extreme conditions. As a consequence, only the harvested quahog clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) thrived in hypoxic areas that were otherwise rendered dead zones with depauperate diversity and low abundances of other species. This suggests that enhanced populations of some key species may be part of a predictable nonlinear community response that sustains ecosystem services and masks overall downward trends of habitat degradation.

  17. Rheology of Dead Sea shampoo containing the antidandruff climbazole.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, B; Mohameed, H A

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the effect of the antidandruff climbazole on the rheology of hair shampoo containing Dead Sea (DS) salt was investigated. The presence of either DS salt or the climbazole led to increase in the shampoo viscosity. An optimum concentration was found where the viscosity of shampoo was maximum. In the absence of DS salt, the viscosity of hair shampoo increased with increasing the climbazole concentration to reach a maximum value at 1.0 wt%. Further addition of climbazole decreased the viscosity of shampoo. Adjusting the pH of the shampoo at 5.5 and 5.0 shifted the optimum climbazole concentration (corresponds to maximum viscosity) to 0.8 wt% and led to increase in the viscosity of shampoo. On the other hand, the addition of climbazole to the shampoo containing DS salt resulted in a decrease in shampoo viscosity. This decrease of shampoo viscosity became more pronounced with increasing the climbazole and/or DS salt concentrations. By controlling the pH of shampoo, an optimum formula of shampoo comprising both climbazole and DS salt and having maximum viscosity was obtained.

  18. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gabbrielli, Mario; Gualtieri, Giacomo; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one's self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury. PMID:27747123

  19. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kenjiro; Arie, Hiroaki; Wang, Wei; Kaneko, Yuto; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Schmitz, Alexander; Sugano, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES) radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled. PMID:26828492

  1. Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Farandos, Nicholas M; Yetisen, Ali K; Monteiro, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher R; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-04-22

    Contact lenses as a minimally invasive platform for diagnostics and drug delivery have emerged in recent years. Contact lens sensors have been developed for analyzing the glucose composition of tears as a surrogate for blood glucose monitoring and for the diagnosis of glaucoma by measuring intraocular pressure. However, the eye offers a wider diagnostic potential as a sensing site and therefore contact lens sensors have the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases and conditions. With advances in polymer synthesis, electronics and micro/nanofabrication, contact lens sensors can be produced to quantify the concentrations of many biomolecules in ocular fluids. Non- or minimally invasive contact lens sensors can be used directly in a clinical or point-of-care setting to monitor a disease state continuously. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in contact lens sensor fabrication, their detection, wireless powering, and readout mechanisms, and integration with mobile devices and smartphones. High-volume manufacturing considerations of contact lenses are also covered and a case study of an intraocular pressure contact lens sensor is provided as an example of a successful product. This Review further analyzes the contact lens market and the FDA regulatory requirements for commercialization of contact lens sensors.

  2. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  3. Do tests for cochlear dead regions provide important information for fitting hearing aids? (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Van

    2004-04-01

    For listeners with cochlear hearing loss, cochlear damage may include ``dead regions'' with no functioning inner hair cells and/or associated neurons. Recent studies indicate that amplifying frequencies more than 1.7 times the edge frequency (1.7Fe) of a high-frequency dead region is unlikely to improve (and may reduce) speech scores [Vickers et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1164-1175 (2001); Baer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1133-1144 (2002)]. These results were taken as evidence that tests to identify dead regions could improve hearing aid fitting. In the current study, practicing audiologists examined audiograms of listeners diagnosed as having high-frequency dead regions. The audiologists were given no specific information regarding dead regions for any individual, and were asked to base amplification decisions entirely on the audiograms. Most audiologists did not recommend amplification of frequencies with hearing losses exceeding 90 dB HL. Reexamination of speech results reported by Vickers et al. and Baer et al. indicated that limiting amplification based on audiograms alone (90-dB rule) or on specific testing for dead regions (1.7Fe rule) produced similar performance. Thus, testing for dead regions may not provide important information for hearing aid fitting that is not already available in the audiogram.

  4. Analysis of dead zone sources in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kyoung-Ho; Choi, Woo-Seok; Chong, Kil-To

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the dead zone is among the intensive studies in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope. In a dead zone, a gyroscope cannot detect any rotation and produces a zero bias. In this study, an analysis of dead zone sources is performed in simulation and experiments. In general, the problem is mainly due to electrical cross coupling and phase modulation drift. Electrical cross coupling is caused by interference between modulation voltage and the photodetector. The cross-coupled signal produces spurious gyro bias and leads to a dead zone if it is larger than the input rate. Phase modulation drift as another dead zone source is due to the electrode contamination, the piezoelectric effect of the LiNbO3 substrate, or to organic fouling. This modulation drift lasts for a short or long period of time like a lead-lag filter response and produces gyro bias error, noise spikes, or dead zone. For a more detailed analysis, the cross-coupling effect and modulation phase drift are modeled as a filter and are simulated in both the open-loop and closed-loop modes. The sources of dead zone are more clearly analyzed in the simulation and experimental results. PMID:26835637

  5. Effect of Detector Dead Time on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection Communication Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1988-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in the Geiger mode can provide a significantly improved single-photon detect ion sensitivity over conventional photodiodes. However, the quenching circuit required to remove the excess charge carriers after each photon event can introduce an undesirable dead time into the detection process. The effect of this detector dead time on the performance of a binary pulse-position-modulted (PPM) channel is studied by analyzing the error probability. It is shown that, when back- ground noise is negligible, the performance of the detector with dead time is similar to that o f a quantum-limited receiver. For systems with increasing background intensities, the error rate of the receiver starts to degrade rapidly with increasing dead time. The power penalty due to detector dead time is also evaluated and shown to depend critically on background intensity as well as dead time. Given the expected background strength in an optical channel, therefore, a constraint must be placed on the bandwidth of the receiver to limit the amount of power penalty due to detector dead time.

  6. Analysis of dead zone sources in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kyoung-Ho; Choi, Woo-Seok; Chong, Kil-To

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the dead zone is among the intensive studies in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope. In a dead zone, a gyroscope cannot detect any rotation and produces a zero bias. In this study, an analysis of dead zone sources is performed in simulation and experiments. In general, the problem is mainly due to electrical cross coupling and phase modulation drift. Electrical cross coupling is caused by interference between modulation voltage and the photodetector. The cross-coupled signal produces spurious gyro bias and leads to a dead zone if it is larger than the input rate. Phase modulation drift as another dead zone source is due to the electrode contamination, the piezoelectric effect of the LiNbO3 substrate, or to organic fouling. This modulation drift lasts for a short or long period of time like a lead-lag filter response and produces gyro bias error, noise spikes, or dead zone. For a more detailed analysis, the cross-coupling effect and modulation phase drift are modeled as a filter and are simulated in both the open-loop and closed-loop modes. The sources of dead zone are more clearly analyzed in the simulation and experimental results.

  7. Dead time effects in turbulence spectra measured by burst-mode LDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velte, Clara; Buchhave, Preben; George, William

    2014-11-01

    Dead time effects in laser Doppler measurements have not so far been considered a major problem. We show how dead time occurs in burst-mode laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) when using a so-called burst-mode LDA processor and describe their effects on the measured power spectra. We show how dead time effects may be caused by more than one seed particle being present in the measurement volume at the same time and explain analytically how dead time causes a reduction in the power in the spectrum at low frequencies and an oscillation in the spectrum at the high frequency end. We also present a realistic model for the data sampled from a processor with dead time and use this model to generate turbulence velocity data in a computer. Finally we compare the spectrum computed from realistic values of dead time and sample rate in the computer generated data and compare this spectrum to a measured spectrum in a free turbulent jet with similar parameters. The excellent agreement between the features of these spectra show that our model and explanation of the dead time effect is a valid one.

  8. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pH<5 and are the product of evaporation of Dead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  9. Effect of detector dead time on the performance of optical direct-detection communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1988-05-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in the Geiger mode can provide a significantly improved single-photon detection sensitivity over conventional photodiodes. However, the quenching circuit required to remove the excess charge carriers after each photon event can introduce an undesirable dead time into the detection process. The effect of this detector dead time on the performance of a binary pulse-position-modulated (PPM) channel is studied by analyzing the error probability. It is shown that, when background noise is negligible, the performance of the detector with dead time is similar to that of a quantum-limited receiver. For systems with increasing background intensities, the error rate of the receiver starts to degrade rapidly with increasing dead time. The power penalty due to detector dead time is also evaluated and shown to depend critically on badkground intensity as well as dead time. Given the expected background strength in an optical channel, therefore, a constraint must be placed on the bandwidth of the receiver to limit the amount of power penalty due to detector dead time.

  10. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  11. THE QUANTITY AND TURNOVER OF DEAD WOOD IN PERMANENT FOREST PLOTS IN SIX LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dead wood can be an important component of the carbon pool in many forests, but few measurements have been made of this pool in tropical forests. To fill this gap, we determined the quantity of dead wood (downed and standing dead) in 25 long-term (up to 30 yr) permanent forest pl...

  12. [Postmortem diagnosis of tropical malaria].

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schröter, A; Bratzke, H; Brade, V

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen days after returning from a four week holiday in Kenya a 35-year-old man consulted his doctor complaining of feeling unwell. The doctor diagnosed influenza and gave him a sickness certificate for three days. Because the patient did not reappear at his workplace a search was made and he was found dead in his flat seven days after seeing his doctor. A medicolegal autopsy was performed two days after the estimated time of death. There was marked swelling of liver and spleen together with jaundice and "dirty grey" colouration of the viscera. Samples of heart blood and spleen puncture material were taken. Giemsa stained preparations (ordinary and thick blood smears) revealed numerous objects 1.2 to 1.5 microns in size with indistinct reddish blue staining, some of them arranged in rosettes reminiscent of schizonts. A few of them contained pigment. In material from the spleen there were masses of blackish-brown pigment. The malaria immunofluorescence test performed on serum gave a weakly positive titre of 1:40. The findings were considered enough to support a diagnosis of fulminant falciparum malaria, and this was confirmed by histological changes in various organs, notably the typical capillary blockages in the brain. Because of the popularity of long-haul tourism, cases of imported malaria are increasingly frequent and, in view of the insidiously progressive course of the disease, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis. In cases of unexplained death, if there is any suspicion of malaria, blood should always be taken for appropriate investigations, in addition to blocks for histological examination. PMID:7821199

  13. Inheriting discontinued bonds: trauma-descendant relations with the genocide dead.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the scholarship on continuing bonds with the dead and the critique of pathologizing paradigms in trauma theory, little is known of the engagement between trauma descendants and relatives who perished prior to their birth. A sample of 55 Holocaust descendants was recruited in Israel to participate in semistructured ethnographic interviews. Descendants reported on the normalized presence of and engagement with the dead and the restoration of previously "discontinued" bonds. Findings were consistent with the scholarship on the therapeutic role of continuing bonds and with meta-analyses normalizing descendant psychosocial legacies. Jewish-Israeli paradigms of memory facilitated therapeutic bonds with the dead.

  14. Pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  15. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  16. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  17. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  18. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  19. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  20. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  1. Sinkhole formation and subsidence along the Dead Sea coast, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Yoseph; Abelson, Meir; Baer, Gideon

    2016-05-01

    More than 4,000 sinkholes have formed since the 1980s within a 60-km-long and 1-km-wide strip along the western coast of the Dead Sea (DS) in Israel. Their formation rate accelerated in recent years to >400 sinkholes per year. They cluster mostly in specific sites up to 1,000 m long and 200 m wide, which align parallel to the general direction of the fault systems associated with the DS Rift. The abrupt appearance of the sinkholes reflects changes to the groundwater regime around the shrinking DS. The eastward retreat of the shoreline and the lake-level drop (1 m/year in recent years) cause an eastward and downward migration of the fresh/saline groundwater interface. Consequently, a subsurface salt layer, which was previously enveloped by saline groundwater, is gradually being invaded and submerged by relatively fresh groundwater, and cavities form due to the rapid dissolution of the salt. Collapse of the overlying sediments into these cavities results in sinkholes at the surface. An association between sinkhole sites and land subsidence is revealed by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. On a broad scale (hundreds of meters), subsidence occurs due to compaction of fine-grained sediments as groundwater levels decline along the retreating DS shoreline. At smaller scales (tens of meters), subsidence appears above subsurface cavities in association with the sinkholes, serving in many cases as sinkhole precursors, a few weeks to more than a year before their actual appearance at the surface. This paper overviews the processes of sinkhole formation and their relation to land subsidence.

  2. Planetesimal Formation in the Dead Zone of Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuening; Stone, J. M.

    2010-10-01

    Planetesimals are building blocks of both terrestrial and giant planets, yet their formation remains a mystery. The main difficulty comes from the meter-size barrier: meter-sized bodies suffer from rapid radial drift towards the central star due to the gas drag. Recently, it has been found that the inclusion of back-reaction from solids to gas leads to a powerful drag instability: the streaming instability (SI). SI generates turbulence and is able to concentrate centimeter to meter sized bodies into dense clumps, triggering gravitational collapse to form planetesimals directly, bypassing the meter barrier. We conduct local 2D and 3D hybrid simulations of particles and gas in the midplane of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) using the Athena code. Particles and gas are coupled aerodynamically, characterized by the dimensionless stopping time κ=Ωts. Magnetorotational turbulence is neglected as appropriate for the dead zone of PPDs. Self-gravity is ignored since we focus on the precursor of planetesimal formation: particle clumping. We have systematically explored the parameter space relevant for planetesimal formation, including: 1) A wide distribution of particle sizes (κ) 2) The height-integrated solid to gas mass ratio (Z); and 3) The strength of the disk radial pressure gradient (Π). The saturated state of our simulations is characterized by particle settling balanced by turbulent diffusion due to the SI, and the particle drift velocities are well described by a multi-species NSH equilibrium, which generalizes the original Nakagawa-Sekiya-Hayashi solution to include multiple particle sizes. We find that favorable conditions for planetesimal formation via SI include: large particles (κ>0.01), large solid abundance (Z>0.01), and small pressure gradient (Π<0.05). Moreover, there exists two positive feedback loops with respect to the enrichment of local disk solid abundance and grain growth. These results suggest that planetesimal formation may be less difficult than

  3. The Btu tax is dead, long live the Btu tax

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, L.A.

    1993-07-15

    The energy industry is powerful. That is the only explanation for its ability to jettison a cornerstone of the Clinton Administration's proposed deficit reduction package, the Btu tax plan, expected to raise about $71.5 billion over a five-year period. Clinton had proposed a broad-based energy tax of 25.7 cents per million Btus, and a surcharge of 34.2 cents on petroleum products, to be phased in over three years starting July 1, 1994. House Democrats went along, agreeing to impose a tax of 26.8 cents per million Btus, along with the 34.2-cent petroleum surcharge, both effective July 1, 1994. But something happened on the way to the Senate. Their version of the deficit reduction package contains no broad-based energy tax. It does, however, include a 4.3 cents/gallon fuel tax. Clinton had backed down, and House Democrats were left feeling abandoned and angry. What happened has as much to do with politics-particularly the fourth branch of government, lobbyists-as with a President who wants to try to please everyone. It turns out that almost every lawmaker or lobbyist who sought an exemption from the Btu tax, in areas as diverse as farming or ship and jet fuel used in international commercial transportation, managed to get it without giving up much in return. In the end, the Btu tax was so riddled with exemptions that its effectiveness as a revenue-raiser was in doubt. Meanwhile, it turns out that the Btu tax is not dead. According to Budget Director Leon Panetta, the Administration has not given up on the Btu tax and will fight for it when the reconciliation bill goes to a joint House-Senate conference.

  4. Intelligent fault isolation and diagnosis for communication satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallo, Donald P.; Durkin, John; Petrik, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is a prototype diagnosis expert system to provide the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System with autonomous diagnosis capability. The system, the Fault Isolation and Diagnosis EXpert (FIDEX) system, is a frame-based system that uses hierarchical structures to represent such items as the satellite's subsystems, components, sensors, and fault states. This overall frame architecture integrates the hierarchical structures into a lattice that provides a flexible representation scheme and facilitates system maintenance. FIDEX uses an inexact reasoning technique based on the incrementally acquired evidence approach developed by Shortliffe. The system is designed with a primitive learning ability through which it maintains a record of past diagnosis studies.

  5. Fault self-diagnosis designing method of the automotive electronic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yangyan; Yang, Zhigang; Fu, Xiaolin

    2005-12-01

    The fault self-diagnosis system is an important component of an the automotive electronic control system. Designers of automotive electronic control systems urgently require or need a complete understanding of the self-diagnosis designing method of the control system in order to apply it in practice. Aiming at this exigent need, self-diagnosis methods of designing sensors, electronic control unit (ECU), and actuators, which are the three main parts of automotive electronic control systems, are discussed in this paper. According to the fault types and characteristics of commonly used sensors, self-diagnosis designing methods of the sensors are discussed. Then fault diagnosis techniques of sensors utilizing signal detection and analytical redundancy are analysed and summarized respectively, from the viewpoint of the self-diagnosis designing method. Also, problems about failure self-diagnosis of ECU are analyzed here. For different fault types of an ECU, setting up a circuit monitoring method and a self-detection method of the hardware circuit are adopted respectively. Using these two methods mentioned above, a real-time and on-line technique of failure self-diagnosis is presented. Furthermore, the failure self-diagnosis design method of ECU are summarized. Finally, common faults of actuators are analyzed and the general design method of the failure self-diagnosis system is presented. It is suggested that self-diagnosis design methods relative to the failure of automotive electronic control systems can offer a useful approach to designers of control systems.

  6. BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, “NO VISION OF THE MORROW’S STRIFE,” ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, “NO VISION OF THE MORROW’S STRIFE,” SECTION 4. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Hot Springs National Cemetery, Virginia Medical Center 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  7. Near drowning in the dead sea. Electrolyte imbalances and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Yagil, Y; Stalnikowicz, R; Michaeli, J; Mogle, P

    1985-01-01

    Unusual serum electrolyte abnormalities developed in eight patients who nearly drowned (ND) in the Dead Sea. Elevations in serum calcium and magnesium levels in particular required specific therapeutic intervention. The Dead Sea has a uniquely high concentration of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The unusual serum electrolyte elevation that was observed in the ND victims in the Dead Sea apparently reflected the large solute load to which they were exposed. Four patients died subsequent to ND. Near drowning in the Dead Sea therefore represents a clinical entity that is associated with a high fatality rate and in which unrecognized major electrolyte abnormalities, in addition to the known respiratory complications, may influence the outcome.

  8. Dead cell and side leakage correction for a lead-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Zu-Hao; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Basegmez du Pree, Suzan; Zhang, Shao-Wen; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Min; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is one of the key detectors for dark matter searches. It measures the energies of electrons, positrons and photons and seperates them from hadrons. Currently, there are 5 dead cells in the ECAL, which affect the reconstructed energy of 4.2% of total events in the ECAL acceptance. When an electromagnetic shower axis is close to the ECAL border, due to the side leakage, the reconstructed energy is affected as well. In this paper, methods for dead cells and side leakage corrections for the ECAL energy reconstruction are presented. For events with the shower axis crossing dead cells, applying dead cell correction improves the difference in the reconstructed energy from 12% to 1%, while for events near the ECAL border, with side leakage correction it is improved from 4% to 1%. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China(11220101004)

  9. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  10. Experimentally estimated dead space for GaAs and InP based planar Gunn diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel Maricar, Mohamed; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G.; Cumming, D.; Oxley, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method has been used to estimate the dead space of planar Gunn diodes which were fabricated using GaAs and InP based materials, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the dead space was approximately 0.23 μm and the saturation domain velocity 0.96 × 105 m s-1 for an Al0.23Ga0.77As based device, while for an In0.53Ga0.47As based device, the dead space was approximately 0.21 μm and the saturation domain velocity 1.93 × 105 m s-1. Further, the results suggest that the saturation domain velocity is reduced or there is an increase in the dead-space due to local field distortions when the active channel length of the planar Gunn diode is less than 1 micron.

  11. Restoring life to the dead zone: Addressing gulf hypoxia, a national problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico, the so-called 'dead zone' lacking enough oxygen to support most marine life, is one of the largest environmental issues of the decade. Practical solutions, based on sound science, are needed.

  12. Adsorptive removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by dead fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Asma, Dilek; Kahraman, Sibel; Cing, Seval; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2006-01-01

    Dead fungal biomass prepared from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Funalia trogii was tested for their efficiency in removal of textile dyes. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, amount of dead biomass and agitation rate on dye removal have been determined. Removal of all dyes required a very short time (60 min). Experimental results show that, P. chrysosporium was more effective than F. trogii . An increase in the amount of dead biomass positively affected of the dye removal. The removal efficiency of different amount of biomass was in order 1 g > 0.5 g > 0.2 g > 0.1 g. The highest removal was obtained at 150-200 rpm. Slightly lower removing activities were found at lower agitation rates. This study showed that it was possible to remove textile dyes by dead biomass of P. chrysosporium .

  13. Restoring Life to the Dead Zone: Addressing Gulf Hypoxia, a National Problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico, the so-called 'dead zone' lacking enough oxygen to support most marine life, is one of the largest environmental issues of the decade. Practical solutions, based on sound science, are needed.

  14. Multiple systems for spatial learning: dead reckoning and beacon homing in rats.

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, Sara J; Sutton, Jennifer E

    2005-04-01

    Rats homed with food in a large lighted arena. Without visual cues, they used dead reckoning. When a beacon indicated the home, rats could also use the beacon. Homing did not differ in 2 groups of rats, 1 provided with the beacon and 1 without it; tests without the beacon gave no evidence that beacon learning overshadowed dead reckoning (Experiment 1). When the beacon was at the home for 1 group and in random locations for another, there was again no evidence of cue competition (Experiment 2). Dead reckoning experience did not block acquisition of beacon homing (Experiment 3). Beacon learning and dead reckoning do not compete for predictive value but acquire information in parallel and are used hierarchically.

  15. Dead wood relative to slope severity in mesic loess bluff hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    To aid in identification of land within Vicksburg National Military Park that was subjected to forest restoration during the 1930s, I evaluated the hypothesized relationships between maximum live tree diameter or dead wood (standing and down) and severity of slope. Disproportionate mortality among early-successional, pioneer tree species suggested maturation of pioneer upland hardwood forests. As such, input and decomposition of dead wood have likely approached equilibrium. Thus, I did not detect a useful predictive relationship between dead wood (standing or down) or maximum diameter of live trees and severity of slope. Lack of relationships between slope and large diameter trees or volume of dead wood resulted in an inability to evaluate former land use based on these parameters.

  16. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, D; Oliveira dos Santos, C; Wagelaar, M; de Kleuver, M; Koene, M G J; Roest, H I J; Sinha, B; Tomaso, H; Bierman, W F W; Stienstra, Y

    2015-12-01

    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  17. Examining the impact of external influences on police use of deadly force over time.

    PubMed

    White, Michael D

    2003-02-01

    Prior deadly force research has sought to identify appropriate mechanisms that can effectively control police officers' decisions to use deadly force. However, the relative impact of external discretion control policies on police shooting behavior remains largely unknown. Using data from Philadelphia for a period of more than two decades, this article employs interrupted time-series analysis (ARIMA) to examine the impact of legislation and judicial intervention on use of deadly force by Philadelphia police officers. The article also considers the impact of larger, community-level characteristics on levels of deadly force. Findings produced modest support for the potential effect of external discretion control policies and community-level factors on police shooting behavior but generally suggest that dynamic changes in the internal working environment can outweigh the influence of the external mechanisms. PMID:12568060

  18. Estimation of dead space fraction can be simplified in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema responsible for a significant impairment of gas exchange. The pulmonary dead space increase, which is due primarily to an alteration in pulmonary blood flow distribution, is largely responsible for carbon dioxide retention. Previous studies, computing the pulmonary dead space by measuring the expired carbon dioxide and the Enghoff equation, found that the dead space fraction was significantly higher in the non-survivors; it was even an independent risk of death. The computation of the dead space not by measuring the expired carbon dioxide but by applying a rearranged alveolar gas equation that takes into account only the weight, age, height, and temperature of the patient could lead to widespread clinical diffusion of this measurement at the bedside. PMID:20840798

  19. Comparison of Three Different Types of Wrist Pulse Signals by Their Physical Meanings and Diagnosis Performance.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Peng; Zhang, David

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has been focused on computational pulse diagnosis where sensors are developed to acquire pulse signals, and machine learning techniques are exploited to analyze health conditions based on the acquired pulse signals. By far, a number of sensors have been employed for pulse signal acquisition, which can be grouped into three major categories, i.e., pressure, photoelectric, and ultrasonic sensors. To guide the sensor selection for computational pulse diagnosis, in this paper, we analyze the physical meanings and sensitivities of signals acquired by these three types of sensors. The dependence and complementarity of the different sensors are discussed from both the perspective of cardiovascular fluid dynamics and comparative experiments by evaluating disease classification performance. Experimental results indicate that each sensor is more appropriate for the diagnosis of some specific disease that the changes of physiological factors can be effectively reflected by the sensor, e.g., ultrasonic sensor for diabetes and pressure sensor for arteriosclerosis, and improved diagnosis performance can be obtained by combining three types of signals.

  20. People Who Have Committed a Certain Sin Ought to Be Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2006-01-01

    People who have committed a certain sin ought to be dead; I am a person who has committed that sin; therefore, I ought to be dead. Thus is the logic of a suicidal mind. Lester, Szaz, and others argue the "sinner" should always be allowed to kill him/herself. Shneidman, Leenaars and others do not agree. Once one knows the suicidal mind, it is easy…

  1. Dispelling disaster myths about dead bodies and disease: the role of scientific evidence and the media.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver; de Ville de Goyet, Claude

    2005-07-01

    For decades, after nearly every natural disaster, fear of disease has encouraged communities, local authorities, and governments to rapidly dispose of the bodies of the victims without first identifying them. In May 2004 this journal published the first-ever review article to comprehensively assess the scientific evidence on the infectious disease risks of dead bodies following natural disasters, along with an editorial commenting on the persistence of myths concerning the dangers allegedly posed by dead bodies. This paper assesses the impact that the review article and the editorial have had on the way that health risks from dead bodies have been reported by the media over the following year, especially focusing on the South Asian tsunami disaster of December 2004. While some media outlets have reported erroneous information, hundreds of other news stories have accurately reported that dead bodies pose no public health risk, and have explained the priority for properly identifying the deceased. Nevertheless, publication of scientific evidence alone is insufficient to bring about public health action. International agencies need to continue their work on producing standards, guidelines, and practical guidance on managing dead bodies. There needs to be a community-centered approach to informing communities about the management of the dead following disasters and the rights of individuals to be treated respectfully after death. Nongovernmental organizations should be encouraged to provide expertise and technical support in identifying and burying large numbers of dead. There also needs to be ongoing assessment of the technical processes involved in the recovery, identification, and disposal of dead bodies, as well as the effectiveness of disaster preparedness plans and communication with the affected population. PMID:16105324

  2. Model-Based Method for Sensor Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).

  3. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. 12 figs.

  4. Immunity-based diagnosis for a motherboard.

    PubMed

    Shida, Haruki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2011-01-01

    We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal behavior of components on the motherboard. PMID:22163857

  5. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, Lars J.; Keller, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis.

  6. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  7. Dead time effects in non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communications.

    PubMed

    Drost, Robert J; Sadler, Brian M; Chen, Gang

    2015-06-15

    By exploiting unique properties of the atmospheric propagation of radiation in the deep-ultraviolet band (200-300 nm), ultraviolet communications (UVC) offers the novel possibility of establishing non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical links. UVC systems often employ photon-counting receivers, which may exhibit nonideal behavior owing to dead time, a period of time after the detection of a photon during which such a receiver is unable to detect subsequently impinging photons. In this paper, we extend a NLOS UVC channel model to account for dead time and then use this extended model to study the effects of dead time in representative system scenarios. Experimentally collected channel-sounding data is then used for model validation and real-world illustration of these effects. Finally, we investigate the effect of dead time on communication performance. The results demonstrate that dead time can have a significant impact in practical communication scenarios and suggest the usefulness of the proposed modeling framework in developing receiver designs that compensate for dead time effects.

  8. Deciphering dead-end docking of large dense core vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sandra; Dembla, Ekta; Halimani, Mahantappa; Matti, Ulf; Rettig, Jens; Becherer, Ute

    2013-10-23

    Large dense core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis in chromaffin cells follows a well characterized process consisting of docking, priming, and fusion. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) studies suggest that some LDCVs, although being able to dock, are resistant to calcium-triggered release. This phenomenon termed dead-end docking has not been investigated until now. We characterized dead-end vesicles using a combination of membrane capacitance measurement and visualization of LDCVs with TIRFM. Stimulation of bovine chromaffin cells for 5 min with 6 μm free intracellular Ca2+ induced strong secretion and a large reduction of the LDCV density at the plasma membrane. Approximately 15% of the LDCVs were visible at the plasma membrane throughout experiments, indicating they were permanently docked dead-end vesicles. Overexpression of Munc18-2 or SNAP-25 reduced the fraction of dead-end vesicles. Conversely, expressing open-syntaxin increased the fraction of dead-end vesicles. These results indicate the existence of the unproductive target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor acceptor complex composed of 2:1 syntaxin-SNAP-25 in vivo. More importantly, they define a novel function for this acceptor complex in mediating dead-end docking.

  9. Identifying critical factors influencing the disposal of dead pigs by farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Wang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers may have a direct impact on pork safety, public health, and the ecological environment in China. Drawing on the existing literature, this study analyzed and summarized the main factors that could affect the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by conducting a survey of 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the disposal of dead pigs in China and provide useful regulatory strategies for the government. The interrelationships among dimensions and factors that affect the disposal of dead pigs by farmers were analyzed, and critical factors were identified by a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making method, which is a combination of decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and analytic network process (ANP). Our results demonstrated that production characteristics were the most important dimensions and that costs and profits, scale of farming, pattern of farming, knowledge of relevant laws and regulations, and knowledge of pig disease and prevention were the five most critical factors affecting the disposal of dead pigs by farmers in China at this stage. The significance of this study lies in further discussing some management policies for the Chinese government regarding strengthen regulation of disposing dead pigs.

  10. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2006-03-28

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  11. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2005-05-17

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  12. Influenza sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2003-09-30

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  13. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  14. Are Women Over-Represented in Dead-End Jobs? A Swedish Study Using Empirically Derived Measures of Dead-End Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihagen, Erik; Ohls, Marita

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that women experience fewer career opportunities than men do mainly because they are over-represented in "Dead-end Jobs" (DEJs). Using Swedish panel data covering 1.1 million employees with the same employer in 1999 and 2003, measures of DEJ are empirically derived from analyses of wage mobility. The results indicate that women…

  15. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  16. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  17. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  18. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere.

  19. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  20. Resilient Sensor Networks with Spatiotemporal Interpolation of Missing Sensors: An Example of Space Weather Forecasting by Multiple Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to construct a resilient sensor network model with an example of space weather forecasting. The proposed model is based on a dynamic relational network. Space weather forecasting is vital for a satellite operation because an operational team needs to make a decision for providing its satellite service. The proposed model is resilient to failures of sensors or missing data due to the satellite operation. In the proposed model, the missing data of a sensor is interpolated by other sensors associated. This paper demonstrates two examples of space weather forecasting that involves the missing observations in some test cases. In these examples, the sensor network for space weather forecasting continues a diagnosis by replacing faulted sensors with virtual ones. The demonstrations showed that the proposed model is resilient against sensor failures due to suspension of hardware failures or technical reasons. PMID:27092508