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Sample records for death linking sister

  1. Overlap microtubules link sister k-fibres and balance the forces on bi-oriented kinetochores

    PubMed Central

    Kajtez, Janko; Solomatina, Anastasia; Novak, Maja; Polak, Bruno; Vukušić, Kruno; Rüdiger, Jonas; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Milas, Ana; Šumanovac Šestak, Ivana; Risteski, Patrik; Tavano, Federica; Klemm, Anna H.; Roscioli, Emanuele; Welburn, Julie; Cimini, Daniela; Glunčić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Tolić, Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    During metaphase, forces on kinetochores are exerted by k-fibres, bundles of microtubules that end at the kinetochore. Interestingly, non-kinetochore microtubules have been observed between sister kinetochores, but their function is unknown. Here we show by laser-cutting of a k-fibre in HeLa and PtK1 cells that a bundle of non-kinetochore microtubules, which we term ‘bridging fibre', bridges sister k-fibres and balances the interkinetochore tension. We found PRC1 and EB3 in the bridging fibre, suggesting that it consists of antiparallel dynamic microtubules. By using a theoretical model that includes a bridging fibre, we show that the forces at the pole and at the kinetochore depend on the bridging fibre thickness. Moreover, our theory and experiments show larger relaxation of the interkinetochore distance for cuts closer to kinetochores. We conclude that the bridging fibre, by linking sister k-fibres, withstands the tension between sister kinetochores and enables the spindle to obtain a curved shape. PMID:26728792

  2. Links between sisters' sexual and dating victimization: the roles of neighborhood crime and parental controls.

    PubMed

    East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Adams, Joyce A; Hokoda, Audrey; Maier, Ashley

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the extent to which a sister's prior sexual and dating victimization is a risk factor for young women being similarly victimized and the possible factors underlying a co-occurrence. The sample involved 122 young adult Latina or African American sister pairs (244 women; ages 16-25) who resided in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Results indicated that women whose sisters had been victimized had increased risk of victimization even after controlling for neighborhood crime, parental controls, age and race-ethnicity (odds ratios were 4.0 for unwanted touching, 6.2 for a forced sex act, and 16.7 for dating violence). In high-crime neighborhoods, the presence of two adult parent figures in the home was associated with women's reduced likelihood of unwanted touching, and mothers' high monitoring during adolescence was associated with women's lower risk of dating aggression. Survival analysis results showed that the risk period of a second sister being victimized lasts between 7 and 10 years after a first sister's victimization. The prevention implications of study findings are discussed.

  3. Hip Fracture's Link to Early Death May Last Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163802.html Hip Fracture's Link to Early Death May Last Years People ... HealthDay News) -- Older people who suffer a hip fracture face a much higher risk of death soon ...

  4. Metazoan Scc4 Homologs Link Sister Chromatid Cohesion to Cell and Axon Migration Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Seitan, Vlad C; Banks, Peter; Laval, Steve; Majid, Nazia A; Dorsett, Dale; Rana, Amer; Smith, Jim; Bateman, Alex; Krpic, Sanja; Hostert, Arnd; Rollins, Robert A; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Benard, Claire Y; Hekimi, Siegfried; Newbury, Sarah F

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Scc2 binds Scc4 to form an essential complex that loads cohesin onto chromosomes. The prevalence of Scc2 orthologs in eukaryotes emphasizes a conserved role in regulating sister chromatid cohesion, but homologs of Scc4 have not hitherto been identified outside certain fungi. Some metazoan orthologs of Scc2 were initially identified as developmental gene regulators, such as Drosophila Nipped-B, a regulator of cut and Ultrabithorax, and delangin, a protein mutant in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We show that delangin and Nipped-B bind previously unstudied human and fly orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans MAU-2, a non-axis-specific guidance factor for migrating cells and axons. PSI-BLAST shows that Scc4 is evolutionarily related to metazoan MAU-2 sequences, with the greatest homology evident in a short N-terminal domain, and protein–protein interaction studies map the site of interaction between delangin and human MAU-2 to the N-terminal regions of both proteins. Short interfering RNA knockdown of human MAU-2 in HeLa cells resulted in precocious sister chromatid separation and in impaired loading of cohesin onto chromatin, indicating that it is functionally related to Scc4, and RNAi analyses show that MAU-2 regulates chromosome segregation in C. elegans embryos. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knock down Xenopus tropicalis delangin or MAU-2 in early embryos produced similar patterns of retarded growth and developmental defects. Our data show that sister chromatid cohesion in metazoans involves the formation of a complex similar to the Scc2-Scc4 interaction in the budding yeast. The very high degree of sequence conservation between Scc4 homologs in complex metazoans is consistent with increased selection pressure to conserve additional essential functions, such as regulation of cell and axon migration during development. PMID:16802858

  5. Both cross-links and monoadducts induced in DNA by psoralens can lead to sister chromatid exchange formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes, F. Facultad de Biologia, Sevilla ); Morgan, W.F.; Varcarcel, E.R.; Cleaver, J.E.; Wolff, S. )

    1991-09-01

    The relative importance of DNA-DNA cross-links and bulky monoadducts in sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation was investigated in three human fibroblast cell lines with different repair capabilities. These cell lines included normal cells, which can repair both classes of lesion; xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells, which cannot repair either psoralen-induced cross-links or monoadducts; and an XP revertant that repairs only cross-links and not monoadducts. SCEs were induced by two psoralen derivatives. After activation with long-wave ultraviolet light, HMT produces cross-links and monoadducts in DNA, whereas 5-MIP produces only monoadducts. In normal human cells both psoralens induced SCEs, but if cells were allowed to repair for 18 h before bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) was added for SCE analysis, the SCE frequency was significantly reduced. XP cells showed an SCE frequency that remained high regardless of whether SCEs were analyzed immediately after psoralen exposure of 18 h later. In the XP revertant that repairs only cross-links, both psoralens induced a high yield of SCEs when BrdUrd was added immediately after psoralen treatment. These observations indicate that both cross-links and monoadducts are lesions in DNA that can lead to SCE formation.

  6. Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths:

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163145.html Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths: FDA Even ingesting ... have died from exposure to a skin cancer cream prescribed for people, according to the U.S. Food ...

  7. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-03-09

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc(-) system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc(-) inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death.

  8. Food Stamp Use Linked to Raised Early Death Risk in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Food Stamp Use Linked to Raised Early Death Risk in Study Highlights need to improve health ... food stamps have a higher risk of premature death than people who aren't eligible for them, ...

  9. [What is the link between the sister of the "Titanic" and the history of medicine in Palestine?].

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Zalman

    2006-06-01

    On 21st November 1916, the Royal Navy Hospital ship 'Britannic' (the sister ship of the 'Titanic') was torpedoed near the island of Kea in the Aegean Sea. Captain Dr. John Cropper, aged 52, was one of 30 people who drowned of the 1100 on board. Dr. Cropper was born in 1864, at Guisborough, England. He obtained his medical degree from Cambridge University in 1891. After his marriage to Anne Ellen Walker in 1895, the Church Missionary Society sent him on a medical mission to Palestine. Dr. Cropper stayed in Palestine for about 10 years working in Acre, Nablus, Ramallah and Jerusalem. He published his experiences in 35 articles and letters in English medical periodicals, more than anyone else did in Palestine at that time. In those publications, he described various operations that he carried out and observations on infectious diseases, most of which were the first descriptions from that remote and unhealthy country. His prominent research was in the field of malaria - the most common and important disease in Palestine during that period. It was less than two years after Grassi's discovery of the role of Anopheles mosquitoes as the vector of human malaria that Dr. Cropper carried out surveys of larval and adult mosquitoes in correlation with malarial distribution in Palestine. Dr. Cropper was the first who routinely examined slides microscopically in Palestine and correctly diagnosed the type of malaria. Dr. Cropper was also the first in Palestine to suggest antimalarial measures aimed directly at the mosquito vector and paid attention to ecological aspects such as breeding places and the daily behavior of adult mosquitoes. Dr. Cropper noted the common antimalarial measurements of that time, such as covering of wells, planting of Eucalyptus trees to drain swamps and the routine use of quinine as a preventive medicine, but he wrote that those measures were not effective under the local conditions. He suggested that the only effective measures must be aimed against the

  10. Ectrodactyly in sisters and half sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, M H; Wood, S K

    1987-01-01

    An extended family is described in which four sisters and half sisters presented with ectrodactyly. Two of the sisters had associated agenesis of the tibiae. The paper describes the malformations and discusses the management and possible genetic inheritance involved. An autosomal recessive gene seems likely to be the mode of inheritance. Images PMID:3585937

  11. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths linked with trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Da Broi, Ugo; Colatutto, Antonio; Sala, Pierguido; Desinan, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Sudden deaths attributed to sniffing trichloroethylene are caused by the abuse of this solvent which produces pleasant inebriating effects with rapid dissipation. In the event of repeated cycles of inhalation, a dangerous and uncontrolled systemic accumulation of trichloroethylene may occur, followed by central nervous system depression, coma and lethal cardiorespiratory arrest. Sometimes death occurs outside the hospital environment, without medical intervention or witnesses and without specific necroscopic signs. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths associated with trichloroethylene demand careful analysis of the death scene and related circumstances, a detailed understanding of the deceased's medical history and background of substance abuse and an accurate evaluation of all autopsy and laboratory data, with close cooperation between the judiciary, coroners and toxicologists.

  12. Goddard Welcomes SISTER

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., hosted a weeklong summer institute, SISTER, for the purpose of increasing the awareness of and providing opportunities for middle school girls to ...

  13. Embryonic Death Is Linked to Maternal Identity in the Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Anthony R.; Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Reina, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Leatherback turtles have an average global hatching success rate of ∼50%, lower than other marine turtle species. Embryonic death has been linked to environmental factors such as precipitation and temperature, although, there is still a lot of variability that remains to be explained. We examined how nesting season, the time of nesting each season, the relative position of each clutch laid by each female each season, maternal identity and associated factors such as reproductive experience of the female (new nester versus remigrant) and period of egg retention between clutches (interclutch interval) affected hatching success and stage of embryonic death in failed eggs of leatherback turtles nesting at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. Data were collected during five nesting seasons from 2004/05 to 2008/09. Mean hatching success was 50.4%. Nesting season significantly influenced hatching success in addition to early and late stage embryonic death. Neither clutch position nor nesting time during the season had a significant affect on hatching success or the stage of embryonic death. Some leatherback females consistently produced nests with higher hatching success rates than others. Remigrant females arrived earlier to nest, produced more clutches and had higher rates of hatching success than new nesters. Reproductive experience did not affect stage of death or the duration of the interclutch interval. The length of interclutch interval had a significant affect on the proportion of eggs that failed in each clutch and the developmental stage they died at. Intrinsic factors such as maternal identity are playing a role in affecting embryonic death in the leatherback turtle. PMID:21695086

  14. THREE SISTERS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Norman S.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon indicated little promise for the occcurrence of metallic mineral resources. Block pumice suitable for commercial uses occurs at an undeveloped claim at Rock Mesa in the wilderness, but numerous other sources occur outside the wilderness closer to markets. A broad area centered around South Sister volcano is among the most favorable targets for geothermal resources in the Oregon Cascade Range, based on the very young age and large volume of silicic volcanic rocks that occur in this area. Deep exploration holes could be drilled in areas outside the wilderness south of South Sister to provide data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes in the southern part of the area most likely to contain geothermal resources.

  15. Cause of death and potentially avoidable deaths in Australian adults with intellectual disability using retrospective linked data

    PubMed Central

    Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Xu, Han; Howlett, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate mortality and its causes in adults over the age of 20 years with intellectual disability (ID). Design, setting and participants Retrospective population-based standardised mortality of the ID and Comparison cohorts. The ID cohort comprised 42 204 individuals who registered for disability services with ID as a primary or secondary diagnosis from 2005 to 2011 in New South Wales (NSW). The Comparison cohort was obtained from published deaths in NSW from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from 2005 to 2011. Main outcome measures We measured and compared Age Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR), Comparative Mortality Figure (CMF), years of productive life lost (YPLL) and proportion of deaths with potentially avoidable causes in an ID cohort with an NSW general population cohort. Results There were 19 362 adults in the ID cohort which experienced 732 (4%) deaths at a median age of 54 years. Age Standardised Mortality Rates increased with age for both cohorts. Overall comparative mortality figure was 1.3, but was substantially higher for the 20–44 (4.0) and 45–64 (2.3) age groups. YPLL was 137/1000 people in the ID cohort and 49 in the comparison cohort. Cause of death in ID cohort was dominated by respiratory, circulatory, neoplasm and nervous system. After recoding deaths previously attributed to the aetiology of the disability, 38% of deaths in the ID cohort and 17% in the comparison cohort were potentially avoidable. Conclusions Adults with ID experience premature mortality and over-representation of potentially avoidable deaths. A national system of reporting of deaths in adults with ID is required. Inclusion in health policy and services development and in health promotion programmes is urgently required to address premature deaths and health inequalities for adults with ID. PMID:28179413

  16. The link between death anxiety and post-traumatic symptomatology during terror: Direct links and possible moderators.

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Shani; Zaken, Adi; David, Udi Y; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-11-30

    The current wave of terrorism which is taking place in Israel is characterized by increased arbitrary attacks by individual terrorists, acting independently, with reduced ability to anticipate when and where the next attack will take place. This situation creates an atmosphere of fear and insecurity in the lives of many citizens. Accordingly, the current study aims to establish a connection between death anxiety and PTSD symptom severity, as well as to examine whether major personality characteristics may moderate this connection. Using an online survey, 429 adult participants were recruited, and filled out death anxiety and PTSD symptomatology scales, as well as a short version of the Big Five personality scale. Findings revealed that death anxiety was a significant predictor of posttraumatic symptom severity, as were personality characteristics. Moreover, two personality traits, emotional stability and conscientiousness, moderated the association between death anxiety and PTSD symptomatology. The importance of death anxiety as a factor which is associated with PTSD symptomatology is discussed.

  17. Pituitary cretinism in two sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, H; Watanabe, N; Ootsuka, M; Kajiwara, M; Gohya, N

    1980-01-01

    Two sisters with cretinism are reported. Each showed low levels of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In the elder sister, serum TSH did not increase after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. We conclude that cretinism in these 2 sisters was due to TSH deficiency. This is the second report of 'familial' pituitary cretinism (TSH-deficient congenital hypothyroidism). PMID:7436542

  18. A possible link between life and death of a xeric tree in desert.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Qing; McDowell, Nate G; Li, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the interactions between drought and tree ontogeny or size remains an essential research priority because size-specific mortality patterns have large impacts on ecosystem structure and function, determine forest carbon storage capacity, and are sensitive to climatic change. Here we investigate a xerophytic tree species (Haloxylon ammodendron (C.A. Mey.)) with which the changes in biomass allocation with tree size may play an important role in size-specific mortality patterns. Size-related changes in biomass allocation, root distribution, plant water status, gas exchange, hydraulic architecture and non-structural carbohydrate reserves of this xerophytic tree species were investigated to assess their potential role in the observed U-shaped mortality pattern. We found that excessively negative water potentials (<-4.7MPa, beyond the P50leaf of -4.1MPa) during prolonged drought in young trees lead to hydraulic failure; while the imbalance of photoassimilate allocation between leaf and root system in larger trees, accompanied with declining C reserves (<2% dry matter across four tissues), might have led to carbon starvation. The drought-resistance strategy of this species is preferential biomass allocation to the roots to improve water capture. In young trees, the drought-resistance strategy is not well developed, and hydraulic failure appears to be the dominant driver of mortality during drought. With old trees, excess root growth at the expense of leaf area may lead to carbon starvation during prolonged drought. Our results suggest that the drought-resistance strategy of this xeric tree is closely linked to its life and death: well-developed drought-resistance strategy means life, while underdeveloped or overdeveloped drought-resistance strategy means death.

  19. Links between deterministic and stochastic approaches for invasion in growth-fragmentation-death models.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Fabien; Champagnat, Nicolas; Fritsch, Coralie

    2016-12-01

    We present two approaches to study invasion in growth-fragmentation-death models. The first one is based on a stochastic individual based model, which is a piecewise deterministic branching process with a continuum of types, and the second one is based on an integro-differential model. The invasion of the population is described by the survival probability for the former model and by an eigenproblem for the latter one. We study these two notions of invasion fitness, giving different characterizations of the growth of the population, and we make links between these two complementary points of view. In particular we prove that the two approaches lead to the same criterion of possible invasion. Based on Krein-Rutman theory, we also give a proof of the existence of a solution to the eigenproblem, which satisfies the conditions needed for our study of the stochastic model, hence providing a set of assumptions under which both approaches can be carried out. Finally, we motivate our work in the context of adaptive dynamics in a chemostat model.

  20. Linking families and facilities for care at birth: What works to avert intrapartum-related deaths?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Lawn, Joy E.; Cousens, Simon; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Osrin, David; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Wall, Steven N.; Nandakumar, Allyala K.; Syed, Uzma; Darmstadt, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delays in receiving effective care during labor and at birth may be fatal for the mother and fetus, contributing to 2 million annual intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths each year. Objective We present a systematic review of strategies to link families and facilities, including community mobilization, financial incentives, emergency referral and transport systems, prenatal risk screening, and maternity waiting homes. Results There is moderate quality evidence that community mobilization with high levels of community engagement can increase institutional births and significantly reduce perinatal and early neonatal mortality. Meta-analysis showed a doubling of skilled birth attendance and a 35% reduction in early neonatal mortality. However, no data are available on intrapartum-specific outcomes. Evidence is limited, but promising, that financial incentive schemes and community referral/transport systems may increase rates of skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care utilization; however, impact on mortality is unknown. Current evidence for maternity waiting homes and risk screening is low quality. Conclusions Empowering communities is an important strategy to reduce the large burden of intrapartum complications. Innovations are needed to bring the poor closer to obstetric care, such as financial incentives and cell phone technology. New questions need to be asked of “old” strategies such as risk screening and maternity waiting homes. The effect of all of these strategies on maternal and perinatal mortality, particularly intrapartum-related outcomes, requires further evaluation. PMID:19815201

  1. Chromosome segregation: Samurai separation of Siamese sisters.

    PubMed

    Glotzer, M

    1999-07-15

    How do cells ensure that sister chromatids are precisely partitioned in mitosis? New studies on budding yeast have revealed that sister chromatid separation at anaphase requires endoproteolytic cleavage of a protein that maintains the association between sister chromatids.

  2. Where are Sedna's Sisters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2005-05-01

    Simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud from the Kuiper Belt typically are presented as an animated scatter diagram. Here the orbit of each object appears as a point of perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a. (eg. Levison, Morbidelli, & Dones 2004). These plots show a conspicuous void, bounded by the inequalities: q < a, q > 50 AU, and a < 5000-10000 AU. Brown (2005) calls this void the ``Bermuda Triangle". The only present occupant is Sedna (q=76 AU, a=501 AU). Brown, Trujillo, & Rabinowitz , the discovers of Sedna, have challenged others to explain how Sedna got inside the triangle and to predict where similar objects might be found. Sedna could not have simply formed in its current orbit by the accumulation of smaller objects (Stern 2005). Several authors have suggested that a passing star scattered Sedna into the triangle shortly after the birth of the solar system. Here I offer an alternative which uses the very strong galactic tidal forces of the Sinusoidal potential (Bartlett 2001, 2004). In this potential, the numerator of Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(ko r) where ko = 2 π / lambdao and the 'wavelength' λ o is 425 pc. The 20 radial oscillations between the sun and the center of the Galaxy give tidal forces that are 120 times as big as generally expected. I will show how this tidal force, acting over the lifetime of the solar system, could move the perihelion of Sedna from about 40 to 76 AU. Sedna's sisters are likely to have still larger q & a and to have perihelia in two specific quadrants of the ecliptic plane.

  3. Linking definitions, mechanisms, and modeling of drought-induced tree death.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Berry, Joseph A; Field, Christopher B

    2012-12-01

    Tree death from drought and heat stress is a critical and uncertain component in forest ecosystem responses to a changing climate. Recent research has illuminated how tree mortality is a complex cascade of changes involving interconnected plant systems over multiple timescales. Explicit consideration of the definitions, dynamics, and temporal and biological scales of tree mortality research can guide experimental and modeling approaches. In this review, we draw on the medical literature concerning human death to propose a water resource-based approach to tree mortality that considers the tree as a complex organism with a distinct growth strategy. This approach provides insight into mortality mechanisms at the tree and landscape scales and presents promising avenues into modeling tree death from drought and temperature stress.

  4. [Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Mancia, Joel Rolim

    2005-01-01

    This study presents an historical analysis on the links between the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XlXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the concepts of altruism, valorization of an adequate environment for the care of patients, and the division of work in nursing. The study shows the influence of Charity Sisters on Florence Nightingale.

  5. Strange attractors: DAMPs and autophagy link tumor cell death and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W; Zhang, Q; Yan, Z; Chen, R; Zeh III, H J; Kang, R; Lotze, M T; Tang, D

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to ‘apoptotic' cell death is one of the major hallmarks of cancer, contributing to tumor development and therapeutic resistance. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules released or exposed by dead, dying, injured, or stressed non-apoptotic cells, with multiple roles in inflammation and immunity. Release of DAMPs not only contributes to tumor growth and progression but also mediates skewing of antitumor immunity during so-called immunogenic tumor cell death (ICD). Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated homeostatic degradation process in which cells digest their own effete organelles and macromolecules to meet bioenergetic needs and enable protein synthesis. For tumor cells, autophagy is a double-edged sword. Autophagy, in balance with apoptosis, can function as a tumor suppressor; autophagy deficiency, associated with alterations in apoptosis, initiates tumorigenesis in many settings. In contrast, autophagy-related stress tolerance generally promotes cell survival, which enables tumor growth and promotes therapeutic resistance. Most anticancer therapies promote DAMP release and enhance autophagy. Autophagy not only regulates DAMP release and degradation, but also is triggered and regulated by DAMPs. This interplay between autophagy and DAMPs, serving as ‘strange attractors' in the dynamic system that emerges in cancer, regulates the effectiveness of antitumor treatment. This interplay also shapes the immune response to dying cells upon ICD, culling the least fit tumor cells and promoting survival of others. Thus, DAMPs and autophagy are suitable emergent targets for cancer therapy, considering their more nuanced role in tumor progression. PMID:24336086

  6. Investigations into the Mechanisms of Cell Death: The Common Link between Anticancer Nanotherapeutics and Nanotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shalini

    Nanotoxicology and anticancer nanotherapeutics are essentially two sides of the same coin. The nanotoxicology discipline deals with the nanoparticle (NP)-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death in healthy cells, whereas anticancer agents delivered via nano-based approaches aim to induce cell death in abnormally proliferating cancer cells. The objectives of the studies presented herein were two-fold; to (a) systematically study the physico-chemical properties and cell death mechanisms of model NPs and (b) utilize the knowledge gained from cell death-nanotoxicity studies in developing a potentially novel anticancer nanotherapeutic agent. For the first objective, the effect of a distinguishing characteristic, i.e., surface carbon coating on the matched pairs of carbon-coated and non-coated copper and nickel NPs (Cu, C-Cu, Ni and C-Ni) on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity in A549 alveolar epithelial cells were evaluated. The effect of carbon coating on particle size, zeta potential, oxidation state, cellular uptake, release of soluble metal and concentration dependent toxicity of Cu and Ni NPs was systematically evaluated. A significant effect of carbon coating was observed on the physico-chemical properties, interaction with cellular membranes, and overall toxicity of the NPs. C-Cu NPs, compared to Cu NPs, showed four-fold lower release of soluble copper, ten-fold higher cellular uptake and protection against surface oxidation. In toxicity assays, C-Cu NPs induced higher mitochondrial damage than Cu NPs whereas Cu NPs were associated with a significant damage to plasma membrane integrity. Nickel and carbon coated nickel NPs were less toxic compared to Cu and C-Cu NPs. Thus, by studying the effect of carbon coating, correlations between physico-chemical properties and toxicity of NPs were established. The second objective was focused on utilizing nano-based approaches for the intracellular delivery of an anticancer agent, Cytochrome c (Cyt c), to

  7. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein – A Critical Death Resistance Regulator and Therapeutic Target for Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obexer, Petra; Ausserlechner, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis regulation are one main cause of cancer development and may result from overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). IAPs are cell death regulators that, among other functions, bind caspases, and interfere with apoptotic signaling via death receptors or intrinsic cell death pathways. All IAPs share one to three common structures, the so called baculovirus-IAP-repeat (BIR)-domains that allow them to bind caspases and other proteins. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent and best-defined anti-apoptotic IAP family member that directly neutralizes caspase-9 via its BIR3 domain and the effector caspases-3 and -7 via its BIR2 domain. A natural inhibitor of XIAP is SMAC/Diablo, which is released from mitochondria in apoptotic cells and displaces bound caspases from the BIR2/BIR3 domains of XIAP thereby reactivating cell death execution. The central apoptosis-inhibitory function of XIAP and its overexpression in many different types of advanced cancers have led to significant efforts to identify therapeutics that neutralize its anti-apoptotic effect. Most of these drugs are chemical derivatives of the N-terminal part of SMAC/Diablo. These “SMAC-mimetics” either specifically induce apoptosis in cancer cells or act as drug-sensitizers. Several “SMAC-mimetics” are currently tested by the pharmaceutical industry in Phase I and Phase II trials. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in understanding the function of IAPs in normal and malignant cells and focus on approaches to specifically neutralize XIAP in cancer cells. PMID:25120954

  8. Two Sisters with Rett Syndrome. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenggeli, Charles A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Clinical histories and physical findings are presented for 2 sisters with Rett syndrome. The older sister, age 25, was typically affected, whereas the younger sister, 22 years old, was affected with a seizure disorder showing an unusually early onset. The paper discusses hypotheses in genetic causation of Rett syndrome. (JDD)

  9. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  10. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor"…

  11. Constructing and enacting kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: a multi-family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Van Parys, Hanna; Provoost, Veerle; Zeiler, Kristin; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-12-05

    Although intra-familial egg donation has been practiced for more than 15 years in several countries, little is known about family relationships in this family type. Framed within the new kinship studies, this article focuses on the experiential dimension of kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: how is kinship 'unpacked' and 'reconstructed' in this specific family constellation? Qualitative data analysis of interviews with receiving parents, their donating sisters and the donor children revealed six themes: (1) being connected as an extended family; (2) disambiguating motherhood; (3) giving and receiving as structuring processes; (4) acknowledging and managing the 'special' link between donor and child; (5) making sense of the union between father and donor; and (6) kinship constructions being challenged. This study showed the complex and continuous balancing of meanings related to the mother-child dyad, the donor-child dyad and the donor-father dyad. What stood out was the complexity of, on the one hand cherishing the genetic link with the child allowed by the sisters' egg donation, while, on the other, managing the meanings related to this link, by, for instance, acknowledging, downsizing, symbolising, and differentiating it from the mother-child bond. (A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be accessed at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_979cmCmR9rLrKuD7z0ycA).

  12. Cardiac arrhythmia and death of teenager linked to rare genetic disorder diagnosed at autopsy.

    PubMed

    Quick, Jennifer Sue; Dobersen, Michael

    2014-06-01

    A 17-year-old male adolescent sustained cardiac arrest after participating in a wrestling match, where he was thrown down. He had no pulse, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately initiated along with application of an automatic external defibrillator. Upon arrival of emergency medical services, an electrocardiogram showed the patient to be in ventricular tachycardia, torsades, and ventricular fibrillation. The patient was ultimately transported to the hospital and, with ACLS protocol being performed, was resuscitated to a junctional rhythm with bradycardia and borderline prolonged QT. His hospital stay was characterized by refractory cardiac failure, and 2 days after the incident, a decision was made to remove him from life support. At autopsy, there were no external or internal injuries that could be considered a contributing cause of death. On external examination, observations were made about the decedent's facial features including his nose, eyes, ears, fingers, and toes. A careful review of the decedent's medical history was initiated to reveal birth defects including syndactyly of the third and fourth digit of the upper extremity as well as complete lack of dental enamel. A tentative diagnosis of oculodentodigital dysplasia was made and confirmed by genetic testing of heart muscle taken from the decedent. This case report examines the rare association of oculodentodigital dysplasia with cardiac arrhythmia as well as places emphasis on the features of the disorder that can aid in its diagnosis.

  13. IRAKM-Mincle axis links cell death to inflammation: Pathophysiological implications for chronic alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Yu, Minjia; Zhao, Junjie; Martin, Bradley N; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; McMullen, Megan R; Wang, Emily; Fox, Paul L; Yamasaki, Sho; Nagy, Laura E; Li, Xiaoxia

    2016-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in hepatic macrophages and injury to hepatocytes are major contributors to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. However, the mechanisms by which TLR-dependent inflammatory responses and alcohol-induced hepatocellular damage coordinately lead to alcoholic liver disease are not completely understood. In this study, we found that mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAKM), a proximal TLR pathway molecule typically associated with inhibition of TLR signaling, were actually protected from chronic ethanol-induced liver injury. In bone marrow-derived macrophages challenged with low concentrations of LPS, which reflect the relevant pathophysiological levels of LPS in both alcoholic patients and ethanol-fed mice, the IRAKM Myddosome was preferentially formed. Further, the IRAKM Myddosome mediated the up-regulation of Mincle, a sensor for cell death. Mincle-deficient mice were also protected from ethanol-induced liver injury. The endogenous Mincle ligand spliceosome-associated protein 130 (SAP130) is a danger signal released by damaged cells; culture of hepatocytes with ethanol increased the release of SAP130. Ex vivo studies in bone marrow-derived macrophages suggested that SAP130 and LPS synergistically activated inflammatory responses, including inflammasome activation.

  14. Programmed cell death genes are linked to elevated creatine kinase levels in unhealthy male nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangkyu; Simon, Eric; Myers, Leann; Hamm, L. Lee; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Declining health in the oldest-old takes an energy toll for simple maintenance of body functions. The underlying mechanisms, however, differ in males and females. In females, the declines are explained by loss of muscle mass, but this is not the case in males in whom they are associated with increased levels of circulating creatine kinase. This relationship raises the possibility that muscle damage rather than muscle loss is the cause of the increased energy demands of unhealthy aging in males. We have now examined factors that contribute to the increase in creatine kinase. Much of it (60%) can be explained by a history of cardiac problems and lower kidney function, while being mitigated by moderate physical activity, reinforcing the notion that tissue damage is a likely source. In a search for genetic risk factors associated with elevated creatine kinase, the Ku70 gene XRCC6 and the ceramide synthase gene LASS1 were investigated because of their roles in telomere length and longevity and healthy aging, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these two genes were independently associated with creatine kinase levels. The XRCC6 variant was epistatic to one of the LASS1 variants but not to the other. These gene variants have potential regulatory activity. Ku70 is an inhibitor of the pro-apoptotic Bax, while the product of Lass1, ceramide, operates in both caspase-dependent and independent pathways of programmed cell death, providing a potential cellular mechanism for the effects of these genes on tissue damage and circulating creatine kinase. PMID:26913518

  15. Novel Insights into the Molecular Events Linking to Cell Death Induced by Tetracycline in the Amitochondriate Protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Yang; Ku, Fu-Man; Cheng, Wei-Hung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Huang, Po-Jung; Chu, Lichieh Julie; Cheng, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Yi-Kai; Wu, Hsueh-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis colonizes the human urogenital tract and causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease. Currently, 5-nitroimidazoles are the only recommended drugs for treating trichomoniasis. However, increased resistance of the parasite to 5-nitroimidazoles has emerged as a highly problematic public health issue. Hence, it is essential to identify alternative chemotherapeutic agents against refractory trichomoniasis. Tetracycline (TET) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against several protozoan parasites, but the mode of action of TET in parasites remains poorly understood. The in vitro effect of TET on the growth of T. vaginalis was examined, and the mode of cell death was verified by various apoptosis-related assays. Next-generation sequencing-based RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to elucidate the transcriptome of T. vaginalis in response to TET. We show that TET has a cytotoxic effect on both metronidazole (MTZ)-sensitive and -resistant T. vaginalis isolates, inducing some features resembling apoptosis. RNA-seq data reveal that TET significantly alters the transcriptome via activation of specific pathways, such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and carbohydrate metabolism. Functional analyses demonstrate that TET disrupts the hydrogenosomal membrane potential and antioxidant system, which concomitantly elicits a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, suggesting that the hydrogenosomal function is impaired and triggers cell death. Collectively, we provide in vitro evidence that TET is a potential alternative therapeutic choice for treating MTZ-resistant T. vaginalis. The in-depth transcriptomic signatures in T. vaginalis upon TET treatment presented here will shed light on the signaling pathways linking to cell death in amitochondriate organisms. PMID:26303799

  16. Novel insights into the molecular events linking to cell death induced by tetracycline in the amitochondriate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Yang; Ku, Fu-Man; Cheng, Wei-Hung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Huang, Po-Jung; Chu, Lichieh Julie; Cheng, Chih-Chieh; Fang, Yi-Kai; Wu, Hsueh-Hsia; Tang, Petrus

    2015-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis colonizes the human urogenital tract and causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease. Currently, 5-nitroimidazoles are the only recommended drugs for treating trichomoniasis. However, increased resistance of the parasite to 5-nitroimidazoles has emerged as a highly problematic public health issue. Hence, it is essential to identify alternative chemotherapeutic agents against refractory trichomoniasis. Tetracycline (TET) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against several protozoan parasites, but the mode of action of TET in parasites remains poorly understood. The in vitro effect of TET on the growth of T. vaginalis was examined, and the mode of cell death was verified by various apoptosis-related assays. Next-generation sequencing-based RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to elucidate the transcriptome of T. vaginalis in response to TET. We show that TET has a cytotoxic effect on both metronidazole (MTZ)-sensitive and -resistant T. vaginalis isolates, inducing some features resembling apoptosis. RNA-seq data reveal that TET significantly alters the transcriptome via activation of specific pathways, such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and carbohydrate metabolism. Functional analyses demonstrate that TET disrupts the hydrogenosomal membrane potential and antioxidant system, which concomitantly elicits a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, suggesting that the hydrogenosomal function is impaired and triggers cell death. Collectively, we provide in vitro evidence that TET is a potential alternative therapeutic choice for treating MTZ-resistant T. vaginalis. The in-depth transcriptomic signatures in T. vaginalis upon TET treatment presented here will shed light on the signaling pathways linking to cell death in amitochondriate organisms.

  17. Nonzero-temperature entanglement negativity of quantum spin models: Area law, linked cluster expansions, and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Nicholas E; Devakul, Trithep; Hastings, Matthew B; Singh, Rajiv R P

    2016-02-01

    We show that the bipartite logarithmic entanglement negativity (EN) of quantum spin models obeys an area law at all nonzero temperatures. We develop numerical linked cluster (NLC) expansions for the "area-law" logarithmic entanglement negativity as a function of temperature and other parameters. For one-dimensional models the results of NLC are compared with exact diagonalization on finite systems and are found to agree very well. The NLC results are also obtained for two dimensional XXZ and transverse field Ising models. In all cases, we find a sudden onset (or sudden death) of negativity at a finite temperature above which the negativity is zero. We use perturbation theory to develop a physical picture for this sudden onset (or sudden death). The onset of EN or its magnitude are insensitive to classical finite-temperature phase transitions, supporting the argument for absence of any role of quantum mechanics at such transitions. On approach to a quantum critical point at T=0, negativity shows critical scaling in size and temperature.

  18. Nonzero-temperature entanglement negativity of quantum spin models: Area law, linked cluster expansions, and sudden death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Nicholas E.; Devakul, Trithep; Hastings, Matthew B.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.

    2016-02-01

    We show that the bipartite logarithmic entanglement negativity (EN) of quantum spin models obeys an area law at all nonzero temperatures. We develop numerical linked cluster (NLC) expansions for the "area-law" logarithmic entanglement negativity as a function of temperature and other parameters. For one-dimensional models the results of NLC are compared with exact diagonalization on finite systems and are found to agree very well. The NLC results are also obtained for two dimensional X X Z and transverse field Ising models. In all cases, we find a sudden onset (or sudden death) of negativity at a finite temperature above which the negativity is zero. We use perturbation theory to develop a physical picture for this sudden onset (or sudden death). The onset of EN or its magnitude are insensitive to classical finite-temperature phase transitions, supporting the argument for absence of any role of quantum mechanics at such transitions. On approach to a quantum critical point at T =0 , negativity shows critical scaling in size and temperature.

  19. EarthLabs Meet Sister Corita Kent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartini, E.; Ellins, K. K.; Cavitte, M. G.; Thirumalai, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Lynds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs project provides a framework to enhance high school students' climate literacy and awareness of climate change. The project provides climate science curriculum and teacher professional development, followed by research on students' learning as teachers implement EarthLabs climate modules in the classroom. The professional development targets high school teachers whose professional growth is structured around exposure to current climate science research, data observation collection and analysis. During summer workshops in Texas and Mississippi, teachers work through the laboratories, experiments, and hand-on activities developed for their students. In summer 2013, three graduate students from the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics with expertise in climate science participated in two weeklong workshops. The graduate students partnered with exemplary teacher leaders to provide scientific content and lead the EarthLabs learning activities. As an experiment, we integrated a visit to the Blanton Museum and an associated activity in order to motivate participants to think creatively, as well as analytically, about science. This exercise was inspired by the work and educational philosophy of Sister Corita Kent. During the visit to the Blanton Museum, we steered participants towards specific works of art pre-selected to emphasize aspects of the climate of Texas and to draw participants' attention to ways in which artists convey different concepts. For example, artists use of color, lines, and symbols conjure emotional responses to imagery in the viewer. The second part of the exercise asked participants to choose a climate message and to convey this through a collage. We encouraged participants to combine their experience at the museum with examples of Sister Corita Kent's artwork. We gave them simple guidelines for the project based on techniques and teaching of Sister Corita Kent. Evaluation results reveal that participants enjoyed the

  20. Holocentric plant meiosis: first sisters, then homologues.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Stefan; Schubert, Veit; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a crucial process of sexual reproduction by forming haploid gametes from diploid precursor cells. It involves 2 subsequent divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) after one initial round of DNA replication. Homologous monocentric chromosomes are separated during the first and sister chromatids during the second meiotic division. The faithful segregation of monocentric chromosomes is realized by mono-orientation of fused sister kinetochores at metaphase I and by bi-orientation of sister kinetochores at metaphase II. Conventionally this depends on a 2-step loss of cohesion, along chromosome arms during meiosis I and at sister centromeres during meiosis II.

  1. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  2. Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) increases cell death of human osteosarcoma cells and binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, Hakan; Lindholm, Dan

    2008-02-08

    Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) is a recently identified gene expressed in mouse and human tissues particularly during embryonic development. Nulp1 belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that are important in development. The precise function of Nulp1 in cells is however not known. We observed that overexpression of Nulp1 induces a large increase in cell death of human osteosarcoma Saos2 cells with DNA fragmentation. In mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells Nulp1 affected cell proliferation and sensitized cells towards death induced by staurosporine. Staining using a novel antibody localized Nulp1 mainly to the cell nucleus and to some extent to the cytoplasm. Nulp1 binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and this interaction was increased during cell death. These results indicate that Nulp1 plays a role in cell death control and may influence tumor growth.

  3. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  4. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  5. Substance P/Neurokinin 1 and Trigeminal System: A Possible Link to the Pathogenesis in Sudden Perinatal Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Mehboob, Riffat

    2017-01-01

    Sudden demise of a healthy fetus or a neonate is a very tragic episode in the life of parents. These deaths have been a mystery since ages but still remain unexplained. This review proposes the involvement of trigeminal nerve, neurotransmitter substance P (SP), and its receptor neurokinin 1 (NK-1R) in regulation of cardiorespiratory control in fetuses and newborns. Anomalies and immaturity of neuroregulatory systems such as trigeminal system in medulla oblongata of brainstem may provide a possible mechanism of sudden perinatal deaths. Vulnerable infants are born with respiratory center immaturity which in combination with any stressor such as cold, hypoxia, and smoking may lead to cessation of breathing and ventilatory response. SP/NK-1R may be involved in regulating the ventilatory control in neonates while it is decreased in fetal and adult life in humans, and any alterations from these may lead to irreversible sleep apnea and fatal breathing, ultimately sudden death. This review summarizes the studies performed to highlight the expression of SP or NK-1R in sudden perinatal deaths and proposes the involvement of trigeminal ganglion along with its nerve and SP/NK-1R expression alteration as one of the possible pathophysiological underlying mechanism. However, further studies are required to explore the role of SP, NK-1R, and trigeminal system in the pathogenesis of sudden infant deaths, sudden intrauterine deaths, stillbirths, and sudden deaths later in human life. PMID:28348544

  6. All in the Family: The Sister Study

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues All in the Family: The Sister Study Past Issues / ... that may ultimately eliminate this dreaded disease. We all know that breast cancer does not discriminate. Whether ...

  7. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  8. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  9. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    PubMed

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce.

  10. Perceptions of "Big Sisters" and Their "Little Sisters" Regarding Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Alice; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the relationships between six Little Sisters (mentees) and their Big Sisters (mentors) to develop an understanding of the perceptions of high-risk adolescent female mentees and their mentors regarding their mentoring relationships. Participants were purposefully selected--those actively involved in a formal…

  11. Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Jagu, Benoît; Charpentier, Flavien; Toumaniantz, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behavior has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction, or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis, and the degradation of ion channel a-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking. The aim of this review is to inventory, through the description of few representative examples, the role of these different biogenic mechanisms in arrhythmogenesis, HF and SCD in order to help the researcher to identify all the processes that could lead to arrhythmias. Identification of novel targets for drug intervention should result from further understanding of these fundamental mechanisms. PMID:24065925

  12. Ageism and risk-taking in young adults: evidence for a link between death anxiety and ageism.

    PubMed

    Popham, Lauren E; Kennison, Shelia M; Bradley, Kristopher I

    2011-09-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between ageism and risk-taking in young adults. They hypothesized that young adults may attempt to distance themselves from their future older selves and from an awareness of their mortality by seeking out experiences that make them feel strong, energetic, and invulnerable (i.e., experiences involving risk-taking). We report a study whose results confirmed the hypothesis. Our study involved 408 undergraduates (226 women, 182 men) who completed the Centers for Disease Control's 2007 State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Survey and measures of 2 distinct aspects of ageism: (a) ageist attitudes and (b) ageist behaviors. Both ageist attitudes and behaviors correlated positively with risk-taking (i.e., sexual behavior, alcohol use, cigarette use, and drug use). The results are consistent with terror management theory's view of ageism as a buffer against death anxiety.

  13. Subcortical laminar heterotopia in two sisters and their mother: MRI, clinical findings and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, P H; Snoeck, I; Meiners, L C; des Portes, V; Chelly, J; Pinard, J M; Ippel, P F; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Peters, A C

    1999-06-01

    MR imaging, clinical data and underlying pathogenesis of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), also known as band heterotopia, in two sisters and their mother are presented. On MR imaging a different degree of SCLH was found in all three affected family-members. The inversion recovery sequence was considered most useful in the demonstration of the heterotopic band of gray matter and the assessment of cortical thickness. The younger sister presented with epileptic seizures at the age of five months and a delayed achievement of developmental milestones. The older sister of seven years had epileptic seizures since the age of one year, and developmental delay. Their mother has only had one seizure-like episode at the age of 39. Her psychomotor development had been normal. Investigation of DNA samples of the three female family-members revealed a mutation in the X-linked doublecortin gene. Within families with band heterotopia, this gene has also been related to male family members with lissencephaly.

  14. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model English</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Isbaner, Sebastian; Heermann, Dieter</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific <span class="hlt">link</span> concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crocodile&pg=3&id=EJ537653','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crocodile&pg=3&id=EJ537653"><span>Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Monahan, Kathleen</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult <span class="hlt">sisters</span> (five abused <span class="hlt">sister</span> dyads, and five abused and nonabused <span class="hlt">sister</span> dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED358935.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED358935.pdf"><span>Differences in Two <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Acquisition of First Verbs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braunwald, Susan R.</p> <p></p> <p>This study examined prior qualitative differences in the process of the emergence of verb use in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> when they were each 12 to 24 months of age (the older <span class="hlt">sister</span> is 2 years and 9 months older than the younger <span class="hlt">sister</span>). Daily diaries on both children were kept by the mother, who noted emergent structure and vocabulary. Systematic Analysis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED390346.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED390346.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of St. Joseph College Consortium: Mission and Image.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Kathryn</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>As part of a process of discerning the future direction and mission of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Joseph College Consortium (SSJCC), a year-long study of 11 institutions founded and run by the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Joseph was undertaken. <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Joseph (SSJ) is a Roman Catholic women's religious congregation founded in 1836 which operates a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2543085','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2543085"><span>Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Inactivation Unveils a <span class="hlt">Link</span> between Tumor Cell Metabolism and Hypoxia-Induced Cell <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Favaro, Elena; Nardo, Giorgia; Persano, Luca; Masiero, Massimo; Moserle, Lidia; Zamarchi, Rita; Rossi, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Sattler, Ulrike; Mann, Thomas; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Amadori, Alberto; Indraccolo, Stefano</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Hypoxia and the acquisition of a glycolytic phenotype are intrinsic features of the tumor microenvironment. The hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway is activated under hypoxic conditions and orchestrates a complex transcriptional program that enhances cell survival. Although the consequences of HIF-1α inactivation in cancer cells have been widely investigated, only a few studies have addressed the role of HIF-1α in the survival of cancer cells endowed with different glycolytic capacities. In this study, we investigated this aspect in ovarian cancer cells. Hypoxia-induced toxicity was increased in highly glycolytic cells compared with poorly glycolytic cells; it was also associated with a sharp decrease in intracellular ATP levels and was prevented by glucose supplementation. Stable HIF-1α silencing enhanced hypoxia-induced cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in vitro due to a lack of cell cycle arrest. Tumors bearing attenuated HIF-1α levels had similar growth rates and vascularization as did controls, but tumors showed higher proliferation levels and increased necrosis. Moreover, tumors formed by HIF-1α deficient cells had higher levels of lactate and lower ATP concentrations than controls as shown by metabolic imaging. The findings that such metabolic properties can affect the survival of cancer cells under hypoxic conditions and that these properties contribute to the determination of the consequences of HIF-1α inactivation could have important implications on the understanding of the effects of anti-angiogenic and HIF-1α-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:18772337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16618062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16618062"><span>Suicide pact among three young <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altindag, Abdurrahman; Yanik, Medaim</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A suicide pact is an agreement between two or more people to kill themselves. They represent 0.6-4.0% of all suicides, the vast majority being double suicides. We present a triple suicide pact involving three young <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Atypical features of this case include the number of participants, their young ages, and their good health conditions. Similarities to previously reported cases include participants having family disturbances, histories of depression and borderline personality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11201933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11201933"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> foretold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biderman, A; Herman, J</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We briefly trace the history of a belief in the possibility that a person in apparent good health may accurately predict his or her own demise. The phenomenon is referred to as <span class="hlt">death</span> foretold and we present presumed examples of it from the Bible, world literature, medical writings and newspaper reports without pretending to completeness. In two widely quoted scientific papers, <span class="hlt">death</span> foretold is subsumed under the wider heading of decease due to psychic stress. We speculate on a possible <span class="hlt">link</span> between the two, taking into consideration the fact that most people who prophesy their end are of an advanced age.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760166"><span>Association of maternal medical conditions and unfavorable birth outcomes: findings from the 1996-2003 Mississippi <span class="hlt">linked</span> birth and <span class="hlt">death</span> data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Cox, Reagan G; Graham, Juanita; Johnson, Dick</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>This study aimed to identify factors contributing to high rates of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and infant mortality in Mississippi while considering both traditional risk factors and maternal medical conditions. The retrospective cohort study used 1996-2003 Mississippi <span class="hlt">linked</span> birth and infant <span class="hlt">death</span> files. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate association between maternal medical conditions and unfavorable birth outcomes. Along with traditional risk factors, hypertension was significantly associated with PTB and LBW. Women with hypertension were about 2.2 and 3.2 times as likely to have PTB and LBW, respectively. Hydramnios/oligohydramnios increased 1.8-4.4 folds of risk for PTB, LBW and infant <span class="hlt">death</span> and was significantly associated with the unfavorable birth outcomes. Non-Hispanic black women were about 1.5-2.0 times as likely to have an unfavorable birth outcome compared to non-Hispanic white women. Maternal education and prenatal care effect appeared to be modified by maternal race. Certain maternal medical conditions may be contributing to PTB, LBW and infant mortality rates identifying preconception and prenatal healthcare as possible strategies for reducing unfavorable outcomes. Results suggest that different risk profiles for unfavorable outcomes may exist according to maternal race highlighting the need to consider racial groups separately when further exploring the sociodemographic and/or health-related factors that contribute to unfavorable birth outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343486','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343486"><span>Management of E. coli <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in response to genotoxic stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vickridge, Elise; Planchenault, Charlene; Cockram, Charlotte; Junceda, Isabel Garcia; Espéli, Olivier</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosomal rearrangements associated with pathological disorders. In bacteria, several different DNA lesions are repaired by homologous recombination, a process that involves <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid pairing. Previous work in Escherichia coli has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid interactions (SCIs) mediated by topological <span class="hlt">links</span> termed precatenanes, are controlled by topoisomerase IV. In the present work, we demonstrate that during the repair of mitomycin C-induced lesions, topological <span class="hlt">links</span> are rapidly substituted by an SOS-induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion process involving the RecN protein. The loss of SCIs and viability defects observed in the absence of RecN were compensated by alterations in topoisomerase IV, suggesting that the main role of RecN during DNA repair is to promote contacts between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. RecN also modulates whole chromosome organization and RecA dynamics suggesting that SCIs significantly contribute to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). PMID:28262707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461834','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461834"><span>Genes involved in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation and segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biggins, S; Bhalla, N; Chang, A; Smith, D L; Murray, A W</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Accurate chromosome segregation requires the precise coordination of events during the cell cycle. Replicated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are held together while they are properly attached to and aligned by the mitotic spindle at metaphase. At anaphase, the <span class="hlt">links</span> between <span class="hlt">sisters</span> must be promptly dissolved to allow the mitotic spindle to rapidly separate them to opposite poles. To isolate genes involved in chromosome behavior during mitosis, we microscopically screened a temperature-sensitive collection of budding yeast mutants that contain a GFP-marked chromosome. Nine LOC (loss of cohesion) complementation groups that do not segregate <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids at anaphase were identified. We cloned the corresponding genes and performed secondary tests to determine their function in chromosome behavior. We determined that three LOC genes, PDS1, ESP1, and YCS4, are required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation and three other LOC genes, CSE4, IPL1, and SMT3, are required for chromosome segregation. We isolated alleles of two genes involved in splicing, PRP16 and PRP19, which impair alpha-tubulin synthesis thus preventing spindle assembly, as well as an allele of CDC7 that is defective in DNA replication. We also report an initial characterization of phenotypes associated with the SMT3/SUMO gene and the isolation of WSS1, a high-copy smt3 suppressor. PMID:11606525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2743075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2743075"><span>Catholic Nursing <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wall, Barbra Mann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were <span class="hlt">linked</span> to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few <span class="hlt">sister</span> nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254378"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with clinical diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: Is the condition in the family autosomal recessive?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondoh, T.; Hayashi, K.; Matsumoto, T.</p> <p>1995-10-09</p> <p>We report two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in a family representing manifestations of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-<span class="hlt">linked</span> immunodeficiency disorder. An elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> had suffered from recurrent infections, small thrombocytopenic petechiae, purpura, and eczema for 7 years. The younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> had the same manifestations as the elder <span class="hlt">sister`s</span> for a 2-year period, and died of intracranial bleeding at age 2 years. All the laboratory data of the two patients were compatible with WAS, although they were females. Sialophorin analysis with the selective radioactive labeling method of this protein revealed that in the elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> a 115-KD band that should be specific for sialophorin was reduced in quantity, and instead an additional 135-KD fragment was present as a main band. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the sialophorin gene and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the PCR product demonstrated that there were no detectable size-change nor electrophoretic mobility change in the DNA from both patients. The results indicated that their sialophorin gene structure might be normal. Studies on the mother-daughter transmission of X chromosome using a pERT84-MaeIII polymorphic marker mapped at Xp21 and HPRT gene polymorphism at Xq26 suggested that each <span class="hlt">sister</span> had inherited a different X chromosome from the mother. Two explanations are plausible for the occurrence of the WAS in our patients: the WAS in the patients is attributable to an autosomal gene mutation which may regulate the sialophorin gene expression through the WAS gene, or, alternatively, the condition in this family is an autosomal recessive disorder separated etiologically from the X-<span class="hlt">linked</span> WAS. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/neonatal-death.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/neonatal-death.aspx"><span>Neonatal <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal <span class="hlt">death</span> Neonatal <span class="hlt">death</span> E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s <span class="hlt">death</span>. What is neonatal <span class="hlt">death</span>? Neonatal <span class="hlt">death</span> is when a baby dies in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732112','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732112"><span>Is the <span class="hlt">link</span> between alcohol and cardiovascular <span class="hlt">death</span> among young Russian men attributable to misclassification of acute alcohol intoxication? Evidence from the city of Izhevsk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shkolnikov, V; McKee, M; Chervyakov, V; Kyrianov, N</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Background: Research on the aetiology of sudden cardiac <span class="hlt">death</span> among young men in Russia strongly suggests an association with binge drinking. However, the possibility remains that such <span class="hlt">deaths</span> are misclassified as being attributable to cardiovascular disease when they are really caused by acute alcohol poisoning. Objective: To describe postmortem levels of blood alcohol in Russian men dying from various causes and so determine whether <span class="hlt">deaths</span> from alcohol poisoning are being misclassified as cardiovascular <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Setting: Ishevsk, capital of the Udmurt Republic, situated in the Ural region of the Russian Federation. Methods: The study was part of a larger one on adult mortality. The study sample was 309 <span class="hlt">deaths</span> among men aged 20–55 dying between August 1998 and March 1999 from other than neoplasms, infectious diseases or unspecified causes and on whom necropsy records could be obtained. Information on cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> was extracted from <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates and data on postmortem blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from forensic records. Blood alcohol concentrations were adjusted where necessary to allow for delay in necropsy. Results: Medium or greater levels of intoxication occurred in a quarter of those recorded as dying from cardiovascular disease but in over half of those dying from external causes. BAC levels consistent with at least strong intoxication were seen in 13.5% of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> from cardiovascular disease and 27.1% from external causes. No cardiovascular <span class="hlt">deaths</span> had BAC at levels usually thought to be fatal while this level was seen in 26% of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> from accidental poisoning. Conclusion: Evidence of recent consumption of alcohol is common among Russian men dying under the age of 55, with severe intoxication common where <span class="hlt">death</span> is from external causes. However, the high <span class="hlt">death</span> rates from cardiovascular disease in Russia cannot be explained by misclassification of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> attributable to acute alcohol poisoning. This study thus resolves one of the outstanding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157418"><span>One <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Eung Suk; Kim, Ungsoo S</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>We report a case of one <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia. One <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother complained visual disturbance. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> was 10 years 11 months old, and brother was 8 years 4 months old. Full ophthalmic examinations were performed, including slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure, keratometry, anterior chamber depth, axial length, fundus examination and the cycloplegic refraction. The cycloplegic refractive power was -15.50 dpt cyl.+4.50 dpt Ax 85 degrees (right eye), -1.00 dpt cyl.+0.50 dpt Ax 90 degrees (left eye) in the <span class="hlt">sister</span>; -1.75 dpt cyl.+2.25 dpt Ax 90 degrees (right eye), -9.50 dpt cyl.+4.00 dpt Ax 80 degrees (left eye) in the brother. The co-occurrence of severe myopic anisometropia in a <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother is extremely rare. The present case suggests that severe myopic anisometropia may be related by genetic inheritance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21D0073D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21D0073D"><span>Carbon associated nitrate (CAN) in the Ediacaran Johnnie Formation, <span class="hlt">Death</span> Valley, California and <span class="hlt">links</span> to the Shuram negative carbon isotope excursion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilles, Z. Y. G.; Prokopenko, M. G.; Bergmann, K.; Loyd, S. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Gaines, R. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Nitrogen, a major nutrient of marine primary production whose many redox states are <span class="hlt">linked</span> through biological processes to O2, may afford better understanding of changes in post-Great Oxidation Event (GOE) environmental redox conditions. Using a novel approach to quantify nitrate content in carbonates, we identified a trend of CAN increase in the late-Proterozoic, including several distinct peaks within a carbonate succession of the Sonora province, Mexico, deposited ~630-500 Ma. The goal of the current study was to investigate CAN variability in the context of the global "Shuram" event, a large negative δ13C excursion expressed in Rainstorm member carbonates of the Johnnie Formation in <span class="hlt">Death</span> Valley, CA. The lower Rainstorm Member "Johnnie Oolite", a time-transgressive, regionally extensive, shallow dolomitic oolite, was sampled. CAN concentrations ranged from 7.31 to 127.36 nmol/g, with higher values measured toward the base of the bed. This trend held at each sampled locality, along with a tendency towards decreasing CAN with larger magnitude negative δ13C excursions. Modern analog ooids formed in low-latitude marine environments lack CAN, consistent with their formation in low-nitrate waters of the euphotic zone characteristic of the modern ocean nitrogen cycling. In contrast, maximum values within the Johnnie oolite exceed by a factor of five to seven CAN measured in carbonates deposited below the main nitracline in the modern ocean, implying high nitrate content within shallow depositional environments. Johnnie oolite data, broadly consistent with the Sonora sequence findings, may indicate large perturbations in the Ediacaran nitrogen cycle immediately preceding the negative δ13C excursion. The implication of these findings for possible changes in the Ediacaran nitrogen, oxygen and carbon biogeochemical cycling will be further discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6639024','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6639024"><span>Breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Canellos, G.; Neitlich, H.W.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> had breast cancer at four years and 11 years after diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease. The affected breast tissues had received several hundred rads of scatter radiation during treatment of the lymphoma. Family history revealed breast cancer in a third <span class="hlt">sister</span> and five other women in the paternal line. Cytogenetic and HLA studies showed no markers of susceptibility to neoplasia. Development of second primary neoplasms of the breast in the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> may have resulted from interactions between genetic factors and carcinogenic effects of radiation exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158281"><span>A non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> act: recombination template choice during meiosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humphryes, Neil; Hochwagen, Andreas</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>Meiotic recombination has two key functions: the faithful assortment of chromosomes into gametes and the creation of genetic diversity. Both processes require that meiotic recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes, rather than <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Accordingly, a host of regulatory factors are activated during meiosis to distinguish <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from homologs, suppress recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids and promote the chromatids of the homologous chromosome as the preferred recombination partners. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of meiotic recombination template choice, focusing primarily on developments in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the regulation is currently best understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999055"><span>Horsetails are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to all other monilophytes and Marattiales are <span class="hlt">sister</span> to leptosporangiate ferns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knie, Nils; Fischer, Simon; Grewe, Felix; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The "Monilophyte" clade comprising ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns receives unequivocal support from molecular data as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to seed plants. However, the branching order of its earliest emerging lineages, the Equisetales (horsetails), the Marattiales, the Ophioglossales/Psilotales and the large group of leptosporangiate ferns has remained dubious. We investigated the mitochondrial nad2 and rpl2 genes as two new, intron-containing loci for a wide sampling of taxa. We found that both group II introns - nad2i542g2 and rpl2i846g2 - are universally present among monilophytes. Both introns have orthologues in seed plants where nad2i542g2 has evolved into a trans-arrangement. In contrast and despite substantial size extensions to more than 5kb in Psilotum, nad2i542g2 remains cis-arranged in the monilophytes. For phylogenetic analyses, we filled taxonomic gaps in previously investigated mitochondrial (atp1, nad5) and chloroplast (atpA, atpB, matK, rbcL, rps4) loci and created a 9-gene matrix that also included the new mitochondrial nad2 and rpl2 loci. We extended the taxon sampling with two taxa each for all land plant outgroups (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, lycophytes and seed plants) to minimize the risk of phylogenetic artefacts. We ultimately obtained a well-supported molecular phylogeny placing Marattiales as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to leptosporangiate ferns and horsetails as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to all remaining monilophytes. In addition, an indel in an exon of the here introduced rpl2 locus independently supports the placement of horsetails. We conclude that under dense taxon sampling, phylogenetic information from a prudent choice of loci is currently superior to character-rich phylogenomic approaches at low taxon sampling. As here shown the selective choice of loci and taxa enabled us to resolve the long-enigmatic diversifications of the earliest monilophyte lineages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Recombination&pg=3&id=EJ384605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Recombination&pg=3&id=EJ384605"><span>How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchanges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dye, Frank J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Outlines procedures for demonstrating and preparing a permanent slide of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges and recombination events between the two chromatids of a single chromosome. Provides the name of an additional resource for making preparations of exchanges. (RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1013031','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1013031"><span>Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum in Two <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shapira, Yehuda; Cohen, Tirza</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> are described. They are offspring of Arabic parents who are both first and second cousins, through both sets of grandparents; additionally the father's parents are first cousins. The diagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum in the propositae was made by the characteristic picture on the pneumoencephalogram. The clinical symptoms in the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> varied considerably. The older <span class="hlt">sister</span> had shown delayed psychomotor development in infancy, mild mental retardation, and developed seizures at 7 years of age of both the grand mal and akinetic types. Her physical and neurological examination did not show any abnormalities. The EEG was severely abnormal with slow wave activity over the posterior parts of the brain and focal spiking. The younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> presented at 6 months of age with failure to thrive, generalized hypotonia, but without seizures. Her EEG was within normal limits. This anomaly was probably transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene. The clinical and genetic aspects of this syndrome are discussed. Images PMID:4204338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25213378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25213378"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarangapani, Krishna K; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; Alves, Flavia de Lima; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adèle L; Asbury, Charles L</p> <p>2014-10-10</p> <p>Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid comigration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. We used laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to study native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid comigration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0639.photos.196598p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/mi0639.photos.196598p/"><span>38. 8 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>38. 8 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal conveyor, blast stoves, "A" furnace, stoves, "B" furnace, stoves, "C" furnace, bottle cars. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/or0493.photos.200307p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/or0493.photos.200307p/"><span>UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS <span class="hlt">SISTERED</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS <span class="hlt">SISTERED</span> TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550483"><span>Developing skills in clinical leadership for ward <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fenton, Katherine; Phillips, Natasha</p> <p></p> <p>The Francis report has called for a strengthening of the ward <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s role. It recommends that <span class="hlt">sisters</span> should operate in a supervisory capacity and should not be office bound. Effective ward leadership has been recognised as being vital to high-quality patient care and experience, resource management and interprofessional working. However, there is evidence that ward <span class="hlt">sisters</span> are ill equipped to lead effectively and lack confidence in their ability to do so. University College London Hospitals Foundation Trust has recognised that the job has become almost impossible in increasingly large and complex organisations. Ward <span class="hlt">sisters</span> spend less than 40% of their time on clinical leadership and the trust is undertaking a number of initiatives to support them in this role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910232"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> resembling Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aravena, Teresa; Passalacqua, Cristóbal; Pizarro, Oscar; Aracena, Mariana</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS), was describe initially by Gorlin et al. [Gorlin et al. (1960)] in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with craniosynostosis, hypertrichosis, hypoplastic labia majora, dental defects, eye anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, and normal intelligence. Two other sporadic instances have been documented. Here, we report on two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with a condition with some similarities to GCMS as well as some differences, which could represent either previously unreported variability in GCMS, or it may represent a novel disorder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825568','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4825568"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid decatenation: bridging the gaps in our knowledge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Broderick, Ronan; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Faithful chromosome segregation is critical in preventing genome loss or damage during cell division. Failure to properly disentangle catenated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids can lead to the formation of bulky or ultrafine anaphase bridges, and ultimately genome instability. In this review we present an overview of the current state of knowledge of how <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid decatenation is carried out, with particular focus on the role of TOP2A and TOPBP1 in this process. PMID:26266709</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27454585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27454585"><span>Similar <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Arrangement in Mono- and Holocentric Plant Chromosomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schubert, Veit; Zelkowski, Mateusz; Klemme, Sonja; Houben, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Due to the X-shape formation at somatic metaphase, the arrangement of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids is obvious in monocentric chromosomes. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of holocentric chromosomes cannot be distinguished even at mitotic metaphase. To clarify their organization, we differentially labelled the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of holocentric Luzula and monocentric rye chromosomes by incorporating the base analogue EdU during replication. Using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and 3D rendering, we found that holocentric <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids attach to each other at their contact surfaces similar to those of monocentrics in prometaphase. We found that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are distributed homogeneously along the whole holocentric chromosomes of Luzula, and that their occurrence is increased compared to monocentric rye chromosomes. The SCE frequency of supernumerary B chromosomes, present additionally to the essential A chromosome complement of rye, does not differ from that of A chromosomes. Based on these results, models of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid arrangement in mono- and holocentric plant chromosomes are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5360625','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5360625"><span>A brother and <span class="hlt">sister</span> with breast cancer, BRCA2 mutations and bilateral supernumerary nipples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coad, Ryan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We describe a 54-year-old man with breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation who was also found to have bilateral supernumerary nipples. His <span class="hlt">sister</span>, also with a BRCA2 mutation, was diagnosed with breast cancer in her late forties; she also had bilateral supernumerary nipples. We address the significance of breast cancer arising in breast tissue underlying supernumerary nipples; the known association between supernumerary nipples and genitourinary malignancies/malformations and the possible <span class="hlt">link</span> between BRCA2 and supernumerary nipple development. We believe that this is the first described case of the latter. We then outline an approach to further management for supernumerary nipple cases. PMID:28361071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263285','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263285"><span>Bacteriological study of periodontal lesions in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with juvenile periodontitis and their mother.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okuda, K; Naito, Y; Ohta, K; Fukumoto, Y; Kimura, Y; Ishikawa, I; Kinoshita, S; Takazoe, I</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A total of five bacteriological samples from the periodontal pockets of two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with localized juvenile periodontitis and their mother with advanced periodontitis was studied. Gram-negative anaerobic rods were predominant in the samples. Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides loescheii were the most predominant species. The antigenicity and bacteriocinogenicity of these isolates were quite similar. Serum immunoglobulin G antibody levels of the subjects to gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria were measured by using the micro-enzyme-<span class="hlt">linked</span> immunosorbent assay. The levels of antibodies to saccharolytic black-pigmented Bacteroides species were significantly higher than the levels in healthy young females. Images PMID:6429040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/0437/pdf/of1999-0437.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/0437/pdf/of1999-0437.pdf"><span>Volcano hazards in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> region, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scott, William E.; Iverson, R.M.; Schilling, S.P.; Fisher, B.J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> is one of three potentially active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. Two types of volcanoes exist in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> region and each poses distinct hazards to people and property. South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, Middle <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, and Broken Top, major composite volcanoes clustered near the center of the region, have erupted repeatedly over tens of thousands of years and may erupt explosively in the future. In contrast, mafic volcanoes, which range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North <span class="hlt">Sister</span> and Belknap Crater, are typically short-lived (weeks to centuries) and erupt less explosively than do composite volcanoes. Hundreds of mafic volcanoes scattered through the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> region are part of a much longer zone along the High Cascades of Oregon in which birth of new mafic volcanoes is possible. This report describes the types of hazardous events that can occur in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> region and the accompanying volcano-hazard-zonation map outlines areas that could be at risk from such events. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21826413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21826413"><span>The template choice decision in meiosis: is the <span class="hlt">sister</span> important?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pradillo, Mónica; Santos, Juan L</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial to ensure their proper segregation during meiosis. This is achieved by regulating the choice of recombination template. In mitotic cells, double-strand break repair with the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid appears to be preferred, whereas interhomolog recombination is favoured during meiosis. However, in the last year, several studies in yeast have shown the importance of the meiotic recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Although this thinking seems to be new, evidences for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange during meiosis were obtained more than 50 years ago in non-model organisms. In this mini-review, we comment briefly on the most recent advances in this hot topic and also describe observations which suggest the existence of inter-<span class="hlt">sister</span> repair during meiotic recombination. For instance, the behaviour of mammalian XY bivalents and that of trivalents in heterozygotes for chromosomal rearrangements are cited as examples. The "rediscovering" of the requirement for the <span class="hlt">sister</span> template, although it seems to occur at a low frequency, will probably prompt further investigations in organisms other than yeast to understand the complexity of the partner choice during meiosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19634503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19634503"><span>Voodoo <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lester, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Scholarly writing on voodoo <span class="hlt">death</span> is reviewed. Criticisms that voodoo <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in indigenous societies have never been well documented are refuted with cases medically documented in developed nations. The work of Cannon and Richter on sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> in animals is reviewed and dismissed as irrelevant for understanding voodoo <span class="hlt">death</span>. The role of starvation and dehydration is discussed, and it is suggested that the given-up/giving-up hypothesis best fits the phenomenon of voodoo <span class="hlt">death</span>. Hypotheses for future research are suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574717"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid segregation in meiosis II: deprotection through phosphorylation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wassmann, Katja</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed--deprotected--for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27618205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27618205"><span>little <span class="hlt">sister</span>: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Berry, Misty</p> <p>2016-09-12</p> <p>little <span class="hlt">sister</span>: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play is at once a memory-scape and a mytho-biography set to poetry, movement, and mixed media. A performance poem spanning from the Antebellum South to present-moment Chicago, it tells the story of a nomadic spirit named little-she who shape-shifts through the memories and imaginings of her <span class="hlt">sister</span>, the narrator. Through the characters little-she and the narrator, the solo-performance explores embodied ways to rupture and relieve the impact of macro forms of violence in the micro realm of the everyday. To this end, little <span class="hlt">sister</span> witnesses and disrupts the legacy of violence in the lives of queer Black women through a trans-temporal navigation of everyday encounters within familial, small groups and intimate partner spaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22229665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22229665"><span>Parallel phylogeographic structure in ecologically similar sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, Michael N</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Present-day phylogeographic patterns have been shaped by the dual histories of lineages and places, producing a diversity of relationships that may challenge discovery of general rules. For example, the predicted positive correlation between dispersal ability and gene flow has been supported inconsistently, suggesting unaccounted complexity in theory or the comparative framework. Here, I extend the sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span>-species approach, in which variance between lineages and places is minimized, to <span class="hlt">sister</span> clades and test a fundamental assumption of comparative genetic studies of dispersal: that taxa which evolved at the same time and in the same place will, if they have similar life histories and ecologies, have essentially the same phylogeographic structure. Phylogenetic analyses of 197 Stigmatopora pipefishes using two nuclear (creatine kinase intron 6, α-tropomyosin) and two mitochondrial (16S, noncoding region) loci revealed largely synchronous parallel diversification of <span class="hlt">sister</span> clades that are codistributed from Western Australia to New Zealand, supporting the null hypothesis. Only one comparison, however, yielded a sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span>-species pair (the two stem species), so I also explored the potential for extant species sharing a substantial proportion of their evolutionary histories in sympatry to substitute for <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxon comparisons. In eastern Australia, where strong environmental structure is lacking, phylogeographic differences between species that have been codistributed for ~85% of their evolutionary histories were consistent with tendencies favoured by their modest life-history differences, that is the larger, rarer species had lower genetic diversity. In contrast, in New Zealand, two species codistributed for ~70% of their evolutionary histories were both structured similarly by a strong biogeographic filter despite differences in life history. Rigorously quantifying the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on phylogeographic structure may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19218843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19218843"><span>Catholic <span class="hlt">sister</span> nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940-1972.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wall, Barbra Mann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the activities of religious <span class="hlt">sister</span> nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557736"><span>The Essene's <span class="hlt">sister</span> sect in Egypt: another medical site?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moss, G A</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The Essenes were, allegedly, the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and were settled by the Dead Sea. An ancient source locates their <span class="hlt">sister</span> sect, The 'Therapeutae', as being by the shores of Lake Mareotis in Egypt. No scholar has previously sought to locate where exactly on Lake Mareotis they were settled. Using clues from Essene sites around the Dead Sea, an attempt is made to suggest a specific location for the Therapeutae. Since there are signs of medical activity at many of the Essene sites, a site with medical association is also sought for the location of the Essene's <span class="hlt">sister</span> sect in Egypt. A suitable site is found at Canopus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9780920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9780920"><span>Japanese <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with Pfeiffer syndrome and achondroplasia: a mutation analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagase, T; Nagase, M; Hirose, S; Ohmori, K</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The authors report the rare existence of a family that includes an older <span class="hlt">sister</span> with Pfeiffer syndrome and a younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> with achondroplasia. Gene analysis of these patients showed a T341P mutation in the FGFR2 gene in the patient with Pfeiffer syndrome, and a G380R mutation in the FGFR3 gene in the patient with achondroplasia. Both mutations have been reported previously. Their parents had no mutation in either locus. This result suggests the possibility that there may be predisposing factors for different FGFR mutations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120695"><span>Separase Is Required for Homolog and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Centromeres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Spatially controlled release of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crib+AND+death&id=EJ322555','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crib+AND+death&id=EJ322555"><span>Cot <span class="hlt">Deaths</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tyrrell, Shelagh</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Addresses the tragedy of crib <span class="hlt">deaths</span>, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant <span class="hlt">Death</span> Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relationships&pg=5&id=EJ1069817','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relationships&pg=5&id=EJ1069817"><span>Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> with Severe Disabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span> with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102820"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid separation: falling apart at the seams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen-Fix, O</p> <p>2000-11-16</p> <p>Cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids must be dissolved at the time of chromosome segregation. Recent studies reveal that the principles of cohesion dissolution in mitosis and meiosis are the same, but that there are important differences that stem from the distinct natures of these two processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=freud&id=EJ827914','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=freud&id=EJ827914"><span>Freud on Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: A Neglected Topic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sherwin-White, Susan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol7-sec177-210.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol7/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol7-sec177-210.pdf"><span>46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for <span class="hlt">sister</span> vessels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... at the Marine Safety Center or in the files of the cognizant OCMI; (2) The owner of the plans... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans for <span class="hlt">sister</span> vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol4-sec116-210.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol4-sec116-210.pdf"><span>46 CFR 116.210 - Plans for <span class="hlt">sister</span> vessels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... vessel, provided: (1) Approved plans for the original vessel are on file at the Marine Safety Center or.... (b) If approved plans for original vessel are not on file at the Marine Safety Center (MSC) or with... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans for <span class="hlt">sister</span> vessels. 116.210 Section...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol7/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol7-sec177-210.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol7/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol7-sec177-210.pdf"><span>46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for <span class="hlt">sister</span> vessels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... at the Marine Safety Center or in the files of the cognizant OCMI; (2) The owner of the plans... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plans for <span class="hlt">sister</span> vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5193219','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5193219"><span>Analysis of meiotic <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in Caenorhabditis elegans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Severson, Aaron F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In sexually reproducing organisms, the formation of healthy gametes (sperm and eggs) requires the proper establishment and release of meiotic <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion (SCC). SCC tethers replicated <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from their formation in premeiotic S phase until the stepwise removal of cohesion in anaphase of meiosis I and II allows the separation of homologs and then <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Defects in the establishment or release of meiotic cohesion cause chromosome segregation errors that lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes and inviable embryos. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for studies of meiotic <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion due to its genetic tractability and the excellent cytological properties of the hermaphrodite gonad. Moreover, mutants defective in the establishment or maintenance of meiotic SCC nevertheless produce abundant gametes, allowing analysis of the pattern of chromosome segregation. Here I will describe two approaches for analysis of meiotic cohesion in C. elegans. The first approach relies on cytology to detect and quantify defects in SCC. The second approach relies on PCR and restriction digests to identify embryos that inherited an incorrect complement of chromosomes due to aberrant meiotic chromosome segregation. Both approaches are sensitive enough to identify rare errors and precise enough to reveal distinctive phenotypes resulting from mutations that perturb meiotic SCC in different ways. The robust, quantitative nature of these assays should strengthen phenotypic comparisons of different meiotic mutants and enhance the reproducibility of data generated by different investigators. PMID:27797074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352243"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid resolution: a cohesin releasing network and beyond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shintomi, Keishi; Hirano, Tatsuya</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>When chromosomes start to assemble in mitotic prophase, duplicated chromatids are not discernible within each chromosome. As condensation proceeds, they gradually show up, culminating in two rod-shaped structures apposed along their entire length within a metaphase chromosome. This process, known as <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid resolution, is thought to be a prerequisite for rapid and synchronous separation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids in anaphase. From a mechanistic point of view, the resolution process can be dissected into three distinct steps: (1) release of cohesin from chromosome arms; (2) formation of chromatid axes mediated by condensins; and (3) untanglement of inter-<span class="hlt">sister</span> catenation catalyzed by topoisomerase II (topo II). In this review article, we summarize recent progress in our understanding the molecular mechanisms of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid resolution with a major focus on its first step, cohesin release. An emerging idea is that this seemingly simple step is regulated by an intricate network of positive and negative factors, including cohesin-binding proteins and mitotic kinases. Interestingly, some key factors responsible for cohesin release in early mitosis also play important roles in controlling cohesin functions during interphase. Finally, we discuss how the step of cohesin release might mechanistically be coordinated with the actions of condensins and topo II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24240146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24240146"><span>Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, differentiation, and lysis are closely <span class="hlt">linked</span> to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Angel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3858829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3858829"><span>Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: Programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, differentiation, and lysis are closely <span class="hlt">linked</span> to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors. PMID:24240146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424142','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424142"><span>Paternal smoking and germ cell <span class="hlt">death</span>: A mechanistic <span class="hlt">link</span> to the effects of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis and possible long-term sequelae in offspring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esakky, Prabagaran; Moley, Kelle H</p> <p>2016-11-05</p> <p>Paternal exposure to constituents of cigarette smoke (CS) is reportedly associated with infertility, birth defects and childhood cancers even though the mechanism behind this relationship is still unclear. Chronic cigarette smoking by men leads to poor sperm quality and quantity mainly through oxidative stress and also direct assault by CS metabolites. Among several carcinogenic and teratogenic components of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) display a preeminent role in accelerating germ cell <span class="hlt">death</span> via the cytoplasmic transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that is present across all stages of spermatogenesis. Activation of AHR by growth factors though benefits normal cellular functions, its mediation by CSC in a spermatocyte cell line [Gc2(spd)ts] adversely affects the expression of a battery of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and cell cycle progress. Besides, the CSC-mediated cross talk either between AHR and NRF2 or AHR-NRF2 and MAPKs pathways inhibits normal proliferation of the spermatogenic GC-2spd(ts) cells in vitro and cell <span class="hlt">death</span> of spermatocytes in vivo. Pharmacological inactivation of CSC-induced AHR but not its genetic manipulation seems preventing DNA and cell membrane damage in Gc2(spd)ts. Data from recent reports suggest that the cigarette smoke affects both the genomic and epigenomic components of the sperm and attributes any associated changes to developmental defects in the offspring. Thus, the studies discussed here in this review shed light on possible mechanistic factors that could probably be responsible for the paternally mediated birth defects in the offspring following exposure to the toxic constituents of cigarette smoke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314204.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314204.pdf"><span>Early Childhood Injury <span class="hlt">Deaths</span> in Washington State.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Starzyk, Patricia M.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses data on the <span class="hlt">deaths</span> of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State <span class="hlt">death</span> certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and identify hazardous situations. Second, <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates were <span class="hlt">linked</span> to birth certificates of children born in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634863"><span>Iatrogenic and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in 2 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> without mutation in the prion protein gene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frontzek, Karl; Moos, Rita; Schaper, Elke; Jann, Lukas; Herfs, Gregor; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Aguzzi, Adriano; Budka, Herbert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Human genetic prion diseases have invariably been <span class="hlt">linked</span> to alterations of the prion protein (PrP) gene PRNP. Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> died from probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Switzerland within 14 y. At autopsy, both patients had typical spongiform change in their brains accompanied by punctuate deposits of PrP. Biochemical analyses demonstrated proteinase K-resistant PrP. Sequencing of PRNP showed 2 wild-type alleles in both siblings. Retrospectively, clinical data revealed a history of dural transplantation in the initially deceased <span class="hlt">sister</span>, compatible with a diagnosis of iatrogenic CJD. Clinical and familial histories provided no evidence for potential horizontal transmission. This observation of 2 siblings suffering from CJD without mutations in the PRNP gene suggests potential involvement of non-PRNP genes in prion disease etiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19893489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19893489"><span>Tipin/Tim1/And1 protein complex promotes Pol alpha chromatin binding and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Errico, Alessia; Cosentino, Claudia; Rivera, Teresa; Losada, Ana; Schwob, Etienne; Hunt, Tim; Costanzo, Vincenzo</p> <p>2009-12-02</p> <p>The Tipin/Tim1 complex plays an important role in the S-phase checkpoint and replication fork stability. However, the biochemical function of this complex is poorly understood. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract we show that Tipin is required for DNA replication in the presence of limiting amount of replication origins. Under these conditions the DNA replication defect correlates with decreased levels of DNA Polalpha on chromatin. We identified And1, a Polalpha chromatin-loading factor, as new Tipin-binding partner. We found that both Tipin and And1 promote stable binding of Polalpha to chromatin and that this is required for DNA replication under unchallenged conditions. Strikingly, extracts lacking Tipin and And1 also show reduced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids cohesion. These data indicate that Tipin/Tim1/And1 form a complex that <span class="hlt">links</span> stabilization of replication fork and establishment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-04/pdf/2010-33090.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-04/pdf/2010-33090.pdf"><span>76 FR 315 - <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-04</p> <p>... comments-pacificnorthwest-deschutes-<span class="hlt">sisters</span>@fs.fed.us . Please put ``Popper Vegetation Management Project... effects will take place. The Popper Vegetation Management Project decision and the reasons for the... Forest Service <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960080','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960080"><span>Sibling Conversations about Dating and Sexuality: <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> as Confidants, Sources of Support, and Mentors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Killoren, Sarah E.; Roach, Andrea L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Using an observational methodology to examine sibling communication, <span class="hlt">sisters</span> (N = 28 dyads) were videotaped discussing their ideas about dating and sexuality. Social provision theory was used as a framework for the examination of roles enacted by <span class="hlt">sisters</span> during these conversations. Inductive thematic analytic procedures were conducted and three roles were identified: <span class="hlt">sisters</span> as confidants, sources of support, and mentors. Older and younger <span class="hlt">sisters</span> both served as confidants and sources of support for one another, whereas, older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were more likely to be mentors for their younger <span class="hlt">sisters</span> than vice versa. Findings indicate the potential importance of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the formation of adolescent girls’ ideas about romantic relationships and sexuality, sibling communication as a socialization mechanism of sisters’ similarities in romantic experiences and sexual behaviors/attitudes, and the inclusion of older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in prevention intervention programs focused on reducing adolescent sexual risk behaviors and promoting healthy romantic relationships and sexuality development. PMID:24659843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3186/data/pdf/sim3186_pamphlet.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3186/data/pdf/sim3186_pamphlet.pdf"><span>Geologic map of Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, Middle <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North <span class="hlt">Sister</span> (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle <span class="hlt">Sister</span> (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22peer+pressure%22&pg=5&id=EJ906857','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22peer+pressure%22&pg=5&id=EJ906857"><span>Testing of the "Healthy 'Little' Lives Project": A Training Program for Big <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mentors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Michelle R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Big Brothers/Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> is a national program aimed at providing mentors for disadvantaged children. This study tested whether Big <span class="hlt">Sister</span> mentors could be trained to increase communication with their Little <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> about sexual health issues. The study tested an intervention based on social cognitive theory in which a sexual health communication…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1763618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1763618"><span>Umbilical metastasis (<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Joseph's nodule) from carcinoma of the vagina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bakri, Y N; Subhi, J; Hashim, E; Senoussi, M</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A case is reported of a squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina with metastasis to the umbilicus (<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule). Systemic cisplatinum chemotherapy resulted in partial response, however, the "nodule" was a sign of poor prognosis and indicative of short-term survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of umbilical metastasis from a primary carcinoma of the vagina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12808731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12808731"><span>Paternity testing in case of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and <span class="hlt">sister</span>. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12287625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12287625"><span>Southall Black <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>. Hannana Siddiqui speaks to Rasna Warah.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warah, R</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Southall Black <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, an organization for Asian and Afro-Caribbean women in Great Britain, was established in 1979 at the height of anti-racist protests to address the otherwise neglected issue of women's oppression. The group has campaigned against discriminatory immigration laws, illegal virginity tests at Heathrow airport, domestic violence, and other issues of particular concern to British Asian women. Women who migrate to England for an arranged marriage must remain with their husband at least 1 year or face deportation and denial of any public assistance, placing them at risk of unreported domestic violence. Southall Black <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> has attempted to raise the public consciousness about domestic violence as a criminal issue and garner support for Asian women who leave abusive husbands. However, no support has been forthcoming from the anti-racist movement, which fears that publicity on domestic violence will create a racist backlash against Asian men. More support has been available for the group's campaign to protect battered women who kill their husbands by removing from the law on provocation the need for an immediate response. Another campaign has involved protests against "bounty hunters" hired by Asian families to return girls who have escaped from arranged marriages in their home country or sexual abuse within their family. Southall Black <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> attributes many of the problems faced by its clients to a rise in religious fundamentalism and Muslim attempts to reverse the gains of the feminist movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14968331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14968331"><span>[The umbilical metastasis. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph and her time].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trebing, D; Göring, H-D</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Although Baluff in 1854 and Nelaton in 1860 had already described umbilical metastases, the best known description of the metastasis of carcinomas to this site as "trouser button navel" was published in 1928 by William James Mayo (1861-1939), son of William Worrall Mayo (1815-1911), the founder of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, This phenomenon is supposed to have been pointed out to Mayo by his long-serving head surgical nurse <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph (1856-1939). The English surgeon Hamilton Bailey, in his famous textbook "Physical Signs in Clinical Surgery" in 1949, coined the term "<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Joseph's nodule" for an umbilical metastasis. The expression has become widely accepted and used. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph, daughter of Irish immigrants, belonged to the 3rd order of the Holy Francis, was distinguished for her skills, intelligence and devotion to nursing which was also her calling. She worked for many decades at the world-famous Mayo Clinic and taught generations of young nurses. In recent years, the original surgical building at Saint Mary's Hospital has been named "Joseph Building" in her memory. Among the numerous eponyms occurring in the dermatology and the medicine, the association with the name of a nurse represents beyond doubt a special feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3352408','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3352408"><span>Genomic <span class="hlt">sister</span>-disorders of neurodevelopment: an evolutionary approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle; Dorus, Steve</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Genomic <span class="hlt">sister</span>-disorders are defined here as diseases mediated by duplications versus deletions of the same region. Such disorders can provide unique information concerning the genomic underpinnings of human neurodevelopment because effects of diametric variation in gene copy number on cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can be inferred. We describe evidence from the literature on deletions versus duplications for the regions underlying the best-known human neurogenetic <span class="hlt">sister</span>-disorders, including Williams syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, and Smith–Magenis syndrome, as well as the X-chromosomal conditions Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. These data suggest that diametric copy-number alterations can, like diametric alterations to imprinted genes, generate contrasting phenotypes associated with autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions. Genomically based perturbations to the development of the human social brain are thus apparently mediated to a notable degree by effects of variation in gene copy number. We also conducted the first analyses of positive selection for genes in the regions affected by these disorders. We found evidence consistent with adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes, or selective sweeps, for three of the four sets of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-syndromes analyzed. These studies of selection facilitate identification of candidate genes for the phenotypes observed and lend a novel evolutionary dimension to the analysis of human cognitive architecture and neurogenetic disorders. PMID:25567849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253761"><span>Broad phylogenomic sampling and the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage of land plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Timme, Ruth E; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Delwiche, Charles F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum") as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1) the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2) the use of these data in determining the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28126277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28126277"><span>Weight of evidence evaluation of a network of adverse outcome pathways <span class="hlt">linking</span> activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in honey bees to colony <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Wu-Smart, Judy; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Sappington, Keith; Garber, Kristina V; Housenger, Justin; Ankley, Gerald T</p> <p>2017-04-15</p> <p>Ongoing honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony losses are of significant international concern because of the essential role these insects play in pollinating crops. Both chemical and non-chemical stressors have been implicated as possible contributors to colony failure; however, the potential role(s) of commonly-used neonicotinoid insecticides has emerged as particularly concerning. Neonicotinoids act on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system to eliminate pest insects. However, mounting evidence indicates that neonicotinoids also may adversely affect beneficial pollinators, such as the honey bee, via impairments on learning and memory, and ultimately foraging success. The specific mechanisms <span class="hlt">linking</span> activation of the nAChR to adverse effects on learning and memory are uncertain. Additionally, clear connections between observed impacts on individual bees and colony level effects are lacking. The objective of this review was to develop adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as a means to evaluate the biological plausibility and empirical evidence supporting (or refuting) the linkage between activation of the physiological target site, the nAChR, and colony level consequences. Potential for exposure was not a consideration in AOP development and therefore this effort should not be considered a risk assessment. Nonetheless, development of the AOPs described herein has led to the identification of research gaps which, for example, may be of high priority in understanding how perturbation of pathways involved in neurotransmission can adversely affect normal colony functions, causing colony instability and subsequent bee population failure. A putative AOP network was developed, laying the foundation for further insights as to the role of combined chemical and non-chemical stressors in impacting bee populations. Insights gained from the AOP network assembly, which more realistically represents multi-stressor impacts on honey bee colonies, are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27785361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27785361"><span>Invariant <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frank, Steven A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter <span class="hlt">death</span>'s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter <span class="hlt">death</span>'s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of <span class="hlt">death</span>'s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend <span class="hlt">death</span>'s scaling of time. Variability in <span class="hlt">death</span> rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23681657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23681657"><span>Nonrandom <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation of sex chromosomes in Drosophila male germline stem cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamashita, Yukiko M</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatids are the product of DNA replication, which is assumed to be a very precise process. Therefore, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids should be exact copies of each other. However, reports have indicated that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are segregated nonrandomly during cell division, suggesting that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are not the same, although their DNA sequences are the same. Researchers have speculated that stem cells may retain template strands to avoid replication-induced mutations. An alternative proposal is that cells may segregate distinct epigenetic information carried on <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Recently, we found that Drosophila male germline stem cells segregate <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of X and Y chromosomes with a strong bias. We discuss this finding in relation to existing models for nonrandom <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm"><span>FastStats: Leading Causes of <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health Births Birth Defects or ... 2013 Related <span class="hlt">Links</span> Mortality data <span class="hlt">Linked</span> birth and infant <span class="hlt">death</span> data Get Email Updates To receive email ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23781109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23781109"><span>FtsK actively segregates <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes in Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stouf, Mathieu; Meile, Jean-Christophe; Cornet, François</p> <p>2013-07-02</p> <p>Bacteria use the replication origin-to-terminus polarity of their circular chromosomes to control DNA transactions during the cell cycle. Segregation starts by active migration of the region of origin followed by progressive movement of the rest of the chromosomes. The last steps of segregation have been studied extensively in the case of dimeric <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes and when chromosome organization is impaired by mutations. In these special cases, the divisome-associated DNA translocase FtsK is required. FtsK pumps chromosomes toward the dif chromosome dimer resolution site using polarity of the FtsK-orienting polar sequence (KOPS) DNA motifs. Assays based on monitoring dif recombination have suggested that FtsK acts only in these special cases and does not act on monomeric chromosomes. Using a two-color system to visualize pairs of chromosome loci in living cells, we show that the spatial resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci is accurately ordered from the point of origin to the dif site. Furthermore, ordered segregation in a region ∼200 kb long surrounding dif depended on the oriented translocation activity of FtsK but not on the formation of dimers or their resolution. FtsK-mediated segregation required the MatP protein, which delays segregation of the dif-surrounding region until cell division. We conclude that FtsK segregates the terminus region of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes whether they are monomeric or dimeric and does so in an accurate and ordered manner. Our data are consistent with a model in which FtsK acts to release the MatP-mediated cohesion and/or interaction with the division apparatus of the terminus region in a KOPS-oriented manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746374"><span>Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed “gallbladder agenesis.” Moreover, her older identical twin <span class="hlt">sister</span> had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality. PMID:26925274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925274"><span>Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed "gallbladder agenesis." Moreover, her older identical twin <span class="hlt">sister</span> had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4314877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4314877"><span>District nursing <span class="hlt">sister</span> attached to hospital surgical department.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hockey, L</p> <p>1970-04-18</p> <p>An experiment of attaching a district nursing <span class="hlt">sister</span> to the surgical department of a general hospital was designed to show the use of the district nursing service for the after-care of patients discharged from hospital after surgical treatment. In a 15-week period about 590 bed days were saved, and only six out of 126 patients discharged early had to be readmitted. Most of the patients and the general practitioners who replied to questionaries about the scheme were in favour of it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2758051','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2758051"><span>Catholic <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940–1972</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wall, Barbra Mann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the activities of religious <span class="hlt">sister</span> nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters’ work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South. PMID:19218843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20966869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20966869"><span>The <span class="hlt">death</span> of Florence Nightingale: BJN 100 years ago.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castledine, Sir George</p> <p></p> <p>This August marks the centenary of the <span class="hlt">death</span> of Florence Nightingale, who died at 2 o'clock on Saturday 13 August 1910 at her home, 10 South Street, Park Lane, London. The following are some snippets which appeared in the BJN of the 20 and 27 August 1910. It was not until the announcement of her <span class="hlt">death</span> in the morning papers of Monday 15 August that the country heard about Nightingale's <span class="hlt">death</span>. In her last hours she was attended by Sir Thomas Barlow and two nurses from the Nursing <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Institution, Devonshire Square, founded by Mrs Elizabeth Fry in 1840.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5478172','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5478172"><span>Chromosome breakage and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange analysis in computer operators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Butler, M.G.; Yost, J.; Jenkins, B.B.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Chromosome breakage analysis with Mitomycin C (MMC) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) were obtained on 10 computer operators with computer exposure for a minimum of 3 hours per day for 4 years and 10 control subjects matched for age and personal lifestyle. No difference was found between the two groups in the total number of chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cells grown at 48 and/or 96 hours in Mitomycin C (20 or 50 ng/ml-final concentration). The average number of SCE per cell in approximately 30 cells from each person was 6.4 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- standard deviation) for the computer operators and 9.2 +/- 1.6 for the controls. This difference was significant (p < .001). The replicative index was significantly higher (p < .01) in computer operators than in control subjects. The number of SCE appeared not to be influenced by the years of computer exposure. Additional studies with larger sample sizes will be needed to identify if significant differences exist in cell kinetics and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in individuals employed as computer operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659383"><span>Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Mimicry: The Strange Case of Two <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report on two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyo-graphic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases. Citation: Pizza F; Vandi S; Poli F; Moghadam KK; Fran-ceschini C; Bellucci C; Cipolli C; Ingravallo F; Natalini G; Mignot E; Plazzi G. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):611-612. PMID:23772196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA444254','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA444254"><span><span class="hlt">Linking</span> <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion to Apoptosis and Aneuploidy in the Development of Breast Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>through F) using i unlabeled (nonisotopic) Rad2s ,,16.4ý Fad~l Rad2l monoclonal antibody. Jurkat cells were in wheat germ extract was S Clevd Rd21...Storm imager. (C) Cleavage of in vitro translated (6D & 64 kDa) I. ae ,0,i. unlabeled (nonisotopic) hRad21 in wheat germ extracts by FPLC fractions 13-20...fractions 16 and 17. We confirmed these findings using fractions 13-20 to cleave Rad2l employing in vitro translated unlabelled hRad21 in wheat germ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA444255','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA444255"><span><span class="hlt">Linking</span> <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion to Apoptosis and Aneuploidy in the Development of Breast Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Bunz, S. Loanger, M. R. Speicher, J.-M. 39. Waizenegger, 1. C., S. Ilauf, A. Meinke , and J.-M. Peters. 201)0. Two distinct Peters, K. W. Kinzler, B...Derivation ofhtiman 40. Waizenegger IC, Hasif S, Meinke A, Peters 3Mv. Tsvo distinct pathwvays remoive tumo cels tt itr wihoutwidsprad enaic nstbiliv</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898580"><span>Pediatric familial neuromyelitis optica in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with long term follow-up.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chuquilin, Miguel; Mullaguri, Naresh; Weinshenker, Brian</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Neuromyelitis optica causes bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis. Although usually sporadic, 3% of cases of neuromyelitis optica are familial. The interval over which attacks continue and the long term prognosis for pediatric-onset neuromyelitis optica are not well defined. We describe two patients with pediatric familial neuromyelitis optica with the longest clinical follow-up of a pediatric case reported in the literature to our knowledge. One woman developed blindness with bilateral eye involvement within a few weeks at age 3. This was followed by transverse myelitis with paraparesis at age 19 leading to diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. Her serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibody was later found to be positive. She continued with sporadic myelitis-related relapses but remained ambulant until age 40 when she had a more severe relapse. There was evidence of longitudinal extensive T2 hyperintensity in the thoracic spinal cord. Her <span class="hlt">sister</span> also developed blindness at age 3.5 followed by myelitis 1year later with multiple relapses of gait impairment until her <span class="hlt">death</span> from pneumonia at age 21. These patients represent the rare occurrence of neuromyelitis optica in children within the same family and show that this disease can have prolonged periods of remission but a continued tendency to relapse, supporting the need for lifelong immunosuppression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468237','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468237"><span>Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26109979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23342908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23342908"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange in Polish White improved goats (Capra hircus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The study was aimed at evaluating the frequency of spontaneous <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in Polish White Improved goats (Capra hircus). The mean number of SCEs/cell was 2.73 +/- 1.84. The effect of sex and age on SCE incidence was also investigated. No statistically significant differences in the number of SCEs/cell were observed between the males and females. On the other hand, age was found to significantly influence SCE frequency. A lower SCE frequency was observed in younger goats. A positive correlation between chromosome length and SCE number was identified. The longer the chromosome, the more exchanges occurred. The highest number of SCEs was observed in the interstitial region, the lowest in the distal area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10224329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10224329"><span>Increased levels of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in military aircraft pilots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, M J; Carothers, A; Castelo Branco, N; Dias, A; Boavida, M G</p> <p>1999-04-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were scored in lymphocytes of nine high-performance pilots of alphajet aircrafts and of ten control individuals from the same air base. Statistical analysis of the mean SCE count per cell in the total number of cells analyzed as well as in those having 12 or more SCEs (high-frequency cells, HFCs) revealed a significant difference between pilots and controls, after adjusting for the effect of smoking. Analysis of the cell cycle kinetic data (replication and mitotic indices) revealed no significant differences either between pilots and controls or between smokers and nonsmokers. Previously, we reported an increase in the SCE levels in workers of the aeronautical industry exposed to noise and whole-body vibration. The present results corroborate those findings and indicate that noise and whole-body vibration may cause genotoxic effects in man.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26109979"><span>Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6378885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6378885"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange, DNA repair, and single-gene mutation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carrano, A.V.; Thompson, L.H.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) has been studied in cultured mammalian cells with regard to the nature of the inducing lesion, mutation induction, and factors that modify the observed frequency following mutagen exposure, SCEs can be induced by a wide spectrum of DNA lesions and, for nine agents examined, the frequency of induced SCE is linearly related to induced single-gene mutation. Further, a deficiency in DNA repair may alter the expression of both SCE and mutation in a qualitatively similar manner. The frequency of SCE induced by mitomycin-C is suppressed in heterochromatic relative to euchromatin and, in nondividing lymphocytes, the lesions leading to the formation of SCEs may persist for several months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28006922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28006922"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule as initial pancreatic cancer manifestation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vallejo Bernad, Cristina; Casamayor Franco, María Carmen; Hakim Alonso, Sofía</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We report the case of an 85-year-old female patient who presented with umbilical pain associated with an indurated growth, the whole being apparently consistent with incarcerated umbilical hernia, which prompted an urgent surgical procedure for its removal. The pathology study revealed dermal infiltration by a malignancy. Gland tumor cells expressed an immunohistochemical profile initially consistent with a pancreatic origin. In view of these findings a CT scan was performed, which revealed a pancreatic tail tumor as well as multiple hepatic metastasis. Skin metastasis is a rare sign usually reflecting a carcinoma of unknown origin. Umbilical skin metastasis, called <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph´s nodule, reflect an intra-abdominal tumor, being pancreatic cancer strange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JWMSE...6c..20H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JWMSE...6c..20H"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182378"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wijdicks, Eelco F M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The diagnosis of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain <span class="hlt">death</span> legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22930868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22930868"><span>[The <span class="hlt">death</span> of Ignatius Loyola].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huguier, Michel; Lacaine, Francois</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A recent examination of a bilioportal fistula led us to suspect a <span class="hlt">link</span> between this case and the <span class="hlt">death</span> of Ignatius of Loyola. Realdo Colombo, professor of anatomy, eviscerated Ignatius prior to his embalming In his book De re anatomica, published in 1559, he wrote that he extracted stones from the portal vein of the venerable Ignatius. Before his <span class="hlt">death</span>, Ignatius suffered from epigastric pain and fever (Monumenta historica societatis Jesu). Colombo latin text is difficult to interpret and the data are meager. Other possible causes of Ignatius' <span class="hlt">death</span> include gastroduodenal ulcer, tuberculosis and hyperparathyroidism, but despite of rarity bilioportal fistula is the best guess.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-224.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-224.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-223.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-223.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) A parent, <span class="hlt">sister</span>, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-223.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-223.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) A parent, <span class="hlt">sister</span>, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-222.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-222.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span> if all of the following requirements are met:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-223.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-223.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) A parent, <span class="hlt">sister</span>, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-225.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-225.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-222.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-222.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span> if all of the following requirements are met:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-225.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-225.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-222.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-222.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span> if all of the following requirements are met:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-225.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-225.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-224.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol3-sec725-224.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-224.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-224.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-215.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-215.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-223.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-223.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) A parent, <span class="hlt">sister</span>, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-224.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-224.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-225.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-225.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-222.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-222.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span> if all of the following requirements are met:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-223.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol4-sec725-223.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) A parent, <span class="hlt">sister</span>, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-225.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol4-sec725-225.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-224.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol4-sec725-224.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-222.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol3-sec725-222.pdf"><span>20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span> if all of the following requirements are met:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-215.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-215.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. (a) parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span> is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postpartum&pg=7&id=EJ860713','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postpartum&pg=7&id=EJ860713"><span>Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage <span class="hlt">sister</span> has recently given…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11063630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11063630"><span>The role of brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the gender development of preschool children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rust, J; Golombok, S; Hines, M; Johnston, K; Golding, J</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The study examined whether the sex of older siblings influences the gender role development of younger brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of age 3 years. Data on the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a measure of gender role behavior that discriminates within as well as between the sexes, were obtained in a general population study for 527 girls and 582 boys with an older <span class="hlt">sister</span>, 500 girls and 561 boys with an older brother, and 1665 singleton girls and 1707 singleton boys. It was found that boys with older brothers and girls with older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were more sex-typed than same-sex singletons who, in turn, were more sex-typed than children with other-sex siblings. Having an older brother was associated with more masculine and less feminine behavior in both boys and girls, whereas boys with older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were more feminine but not less masculine and girls with older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were less masculine but not more feminine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24452025"><span>The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y</p> <p>2014-03-07</p> <p>A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 <span class="hlt">sister</span> species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> was significantly greater than that of <span class="hlt">sister-non-sister</span> congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wheeler&pg=7&id=ED419047','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wheeler&pg=7&id=ED419047"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Helping <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wright, Madeleine E.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21188869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21188869"><span>[Accompany <span class="hlt">death</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salvador Borrell, Montserrat</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume <span class="hlt">death</span> as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the <span class="hlt">Death</span> (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18477654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18477654"><span>Further characterization of the genotoxicity of formaldehyde in vitro by the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange test and co-cultivation experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neuss, Simone; Speit, Günter</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to further characterize the genotoxic action of formaldehyde (FA) on cultured mammalian cells. FA induced SCE in V79 Chinese hamster cells and A549 human lung cells in a concentration-related manner. Addition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for the differentiation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids to visualize SCE 4 h after the FA treatment led to a clearly reduced induction of SCE in agreement with the repair kinetics of FA-induced DNA-protein cross-<span class="hlt">links</span>. When A549 cells were treated with FA for 1 h and then co-cultivated with V79 cells in the presence of BrdUrd, a clear induction of SCE was measured in V79 cells. When the same experiment was performed including washing and change of medium after the FA treatment, no induction of SCE was measured in V79 cells. These results indicate that reactive FA remains in the cell culture medium for a longer time period despite the high reactivity of FA with macromolecules. However, FA that has entered a cell is not released and does not damage other cells. Possible implications for the mutagenicity of FA in vivo will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3771506','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3771506"><span>Chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) to study <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Falconer, Ester; Chavez, Elizabeth; Henderson, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Previously, assays for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation patterns relied on incorporation of BrdU and indirect methods to infer segregation patterns after two cell divisions. Here we describe a method to differentially label <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of murine cells and directly assay <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation patterns following one cell division in vitro and in vivo by adaptation of the well-established CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization) technique. 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into newly-formed DNA strands, followed by photolysis and exonuclease digestion to create single-stranded <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids containing parental template DNA only. Such single-stranded <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are differentially labeled using unidirectional probes to major satellite sequences coupled to fluorescent markers. Differentially-labeled <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids in post-mitotic cells are visualized using fluorescence microscopy and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation patterns can be directly assayed after one cell division. This procedure requires four days for in vivo mouse tissues, and two days for in vitro cultured cells. PMID:20595964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23315384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23315384"><span>Chloroplast phylogenomics indicates that Ginkgo biloba is <span class="hlt">sister</span> to cycads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo-cycad <span class="hlt">sister</span>-group hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2567467','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2567467"><span>Newly discovered <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage sheds light on early ant evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rabeling, Christian; Brown, Jeremy M.; Verhaagh, Manfred</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Ants are the world's most conspicuous and important eusocial insects and their diversity, abundance, and extreme behavioral specializations make them a model system for several disciplines within the biological sciences. Here, we report the discovery of a new ant that appears to represent the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage to all extant ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The phylogenetic position of this cryptic predator from the soils of the Amazon rainforest was inferred from several nuclear genes, sequenced from a single leg. Martialis heureka (gen. et sp. nov.) also constitutes the sole representative of a new, morphologically distinct subfamily of ants, the Martialinae (subfam. nov.). Our analyses have reduced the likelihood of long-branch attraction artifacts that have troubled previous phylogenetic studies of early-diverging ants and therefore solidify the emerging view that the most basal extant ant lineages are cryptic, hypogaeic foragers. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic evidence we suggest that these specialized subterranean predators are the sole surviving representatives of a highly divergent lineage that arose near the dawn of ant diversification and have persisted in ecologically stable environments like tropical soils over great spans of time. PMID:18794530</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12111968C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12111968C"><span>Mars' atmosphere: The <span class="hlt">sister</span> planet, our statistical twin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Wilbur; Lovejoy, Shaun; Muller, Jan-Peter</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Satellite-based Martian reanalyses have allowed unprecedented comparisons between our atmosphere and that of our <span class="hlt">sister</span> planet, underlining various similarities and differences in their respective dynamics. Yet by focusing on large scale structures and deterministic mechanisms they have improved our understanding of the dynamics only over fairly narrow ranges of (near) planetary scales. However, the Reynolds numbers of the flows on both planets are larger than 1011 and dissipation only occurs at centimetric (Mars) or millimetric scales (Earth) so that over most of their scale ranges, the dynamics are fully turbulent. In this paper, we therefore examine the high-level, statistical, turbulent laws for the temperature, horizontal wind, and surface pressure, finding that Earth and Mars have virtually identical statistical exponents so that their statistics are very similar over wide ranges. Therefore, it would seem that with the exception of certain aspects of the largest scales (such as the role of dust in atmospheric heating on Mars, or of water in its various phases on Earth), that the nonlinear dynamics are very similar. We argue that this is a prediction of the classical laws of turbulence when extended to planetary scales and that it supports our use of turbulent laws on both planetary atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20203608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20203608"><span>Ecologically distinct dinosaurian <span class="hlt">sister</span> group shows early diversification of Ornithodira.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nesbitt, Sterling J; Sidor, Christian A; Irmis, Randall B; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A</p> <p>2010-03-04</p> <p>The early evolutionary history of Ornithodira (avian-line archosaurs) has hitherto been documented by incomplete (Lagerpeton) or unusually specialized forms (pterosaurs and Silesaurus). Recently, a variety of Silesaurus-like taxa have been reported from the Triassic period of both Gondwana and Laurasia, but their relationships to each other and to dinosaurs remain a subject of debate. Here we report on a new avian-line archosaur from the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) of Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis places Asilisaurus kongwe gen. et sp. nov. as an avian-line archosaur and a member of the Silesauridae, which is here considered the <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxon to Dinosauria. Silesaurids were diverse and had a wide distribution by the Late Triassic, with a novel ornithodiran bauplan including leaf-shaped teeth, a beak-like lower jaw, long, gracile limbs, and a quadrupedal stance. Our analysis suggests that the dentition and diet of silesaurids, ornithischians and sauropodomorphs evolved independently from a plesiomorphic carnivorous form. As the oldest avian-line archosaur, Asilisaurus demonstrates the antiquity of both Ornithodira and the dinosaurian lineage. The initial diversification of Archosauria, previously documented by crocodilian-line archosaurs in the Anisian, can now be shown to include a contemporaneous avian-line radiation. The unparalleled taxonomic diversity of the Manda archosaur assemblage indicates that archosaur diversification was well underway by the Middle Triassic or earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632674','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632674"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the same dress: Heliconius cryptic species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Sister</span> species divergence and reproductive isolation commonly results from ecological adaptation. In mimetic Heliconius butterflies, shifts in colour pattern contribute to pre- and post-mating reproductive isolation and are commonly correlated with speciation. Closely related mimetic species are therefore not expected, as they should lack several important sources of reproductive isolation. Results Here we present phenotypic, behavioral and genetic evidence for the coexistence of two sympatric 'cryptic' species near Florencia in the eastern Andes of Colombia that share the same orange rayed colour pattern. These represent H. melpomene malleti and a novel taxon in the H. cydno group, here designated as novel race of Heliconius timareta, Heliconius timareta florencia. No-choice mating experiments show that these sympatric forms have strong assortative mating (≈96%) despite great similarity in colour pattern, implying enhanced divergence in pheromonal signals. Conclusion We hypothesize that these species might have resulted from recent convergence in colour pattern, perhaps facilitated by hybrid introgression of wing pattern genes. PMID:19040737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26903600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26903600"><span>Sororin actively maintains <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ladurner, Rene; Kreidl, Emanuel; Ivanov, Miroslav P; Ekker, Heinz; Idarraga-Amado, Maria Helena; Busslinger, Georg A; Wutz, Gordana; Cisneros, David A; Peters, Jan-Michael</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3906944','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3906944"><span>The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 <span class="hlt">sister</span> species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under ‘budding’ speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> was significantly greater than that of sister–non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5063037','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5063037"><span>Invariant <span class="hlt">death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frank, Steven A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in <span class="hlt">death</span> rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes. PMID:27785361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691261','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691261"><span>Wild female baboons bias their social behaviour towards paternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Kerri; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Adult female cercopithecines have long been known to bias their social behaviour towards close maternal kin. However, much less is understood about the behaviour of paternal kin, especially in wild populations. Here, we show that wild adult female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards their adult paternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their behaviour towards adult maternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Females appear to rely heavily on social familiarity as a means of biasing their behaviour towards paternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span>, but may use phenotype matching as well. PMID:12641905</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719678"><span>Mechanism of RAD51-dependent DNA interstrand cross-<span class="hlt">link</span> repair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, David T; Räschle, Markus; Joukov, Vladimir; Walter, Johannes C</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>DNA interstrand cross-<span class="hlt">links</span> (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions whose repair in S phase of eukaryotic cells is incompletely understood. In Xenopus egg extracts, ICL repair is initiated when two replication forks converge on the lesion. Dual incisions then create a DNA double-strand break (DSB) in one <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid, whereas lesion bypass restores the other <span class="hlt">sister</span>. We report that the broken <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid is repaired via RAD51-dependent strand invasion into the regenerated <span class="hlt">sister</span>. Recombination acts downstream of FANCI-FANCD2, yet RAD51 binds ICL-stalled replication forks independently of FANCI-FANCD2 and before DSB formation. Our results elucidate the functional <span class="hlt">link</span> between the Fanconi anemia pathway and the recombination machinery during ICL repair. In addition, they demonstrate the complete repair of a DSB via homologous recombination in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839724"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">death</span>: the Asian perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain <span class="hlt">death</span>, most countries with past colonial <span class="hlt">links</span> to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain <span class="hlt">death</span>. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain <span class="hlt">death</span>. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CONTROL+AND+IRA&pg=4&id=ED346375','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CONTROL+AND+IRA&pg=4&id=ED346375"><span>Encountering <span class="hlt">Death</span>: Structured Activities for <span class="hlt">Death</span> Awareness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Welch, Ira David; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on <span class="hlt">death</span> and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering <span class="hlt">Death</span> in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of <span class="hlt">death</span> and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering <span class="hlt">Death</span> in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9726016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9726016"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange data and Gram-Charlier series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowman, K O; Eddings, W; Kastenbaum, M A; Shenton, L R</p> <p>1998-07-17</p> <p>Bowman et al. [K.O. Bowman, M.A. Kastenbaum, L.R. Shenton, Fitting multi-parameter distributions to SCE data, Mutat. Res., 358 (1996) 15-24.] showed how discrete Pearson and discrete Johnson translation-system distributions may be fitted to <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) data presented by Bender et al. [M.A. Bender, R.J. Pearston, R.C. Leonard, B.E. Pyatt, P.C. Gooch, On the distribution of spontaneous SCE in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Mutat. Res., 281 (1992) 227-232.]. When their performances were measured by the chi-squared test of goodness of fit, these distributions proved to be only moderately better alternatives to the poorly fitting Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial distributions. In this paper, we extend our search for better characterizations of the SCE data by calling upon the Gram-Charlier type B approximation of the negative binomial distribution. We introduce an innovative extension of methods described in a little-known paper by Aitken and Gonin [A.C. Aitken, H.T. Gonin, On fourfold sampling with and without replacement, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, 55 (1934) 114-125.], and show how this leads to fits of the SCE data that, in general, are within acceptable levels of probability. Moreover, we show how a theorem by Cramér [H. Cramér, Mathematical Methods of Statistics, Princeton Univ. Press, 1946.], relating to the scale factor m2/m'1 and its asymptotic distribution, may be used to discriminate between smokers and nonsmokers of the same gender.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682810','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4682810"><span>Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Sayaka; Brents, Colleen A.; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself. PMID:26657140</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.P31D..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.P31D..02M"><span>On <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, Where Art Thou? The Galilean Satellites After Galileo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKinnon, W. B.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A rich picture has emerged of the four Galileans in the last decade, but for each moon fundamental questions naturally remain unanswered. I will attempt to review a selection of these whose broader application to planetary and satellite science may prove important. Io's volcanic hyperactivity is well known, and offers clues to Io's tidally heated interior state, but the same effusions obscure much of what happens in the interior. The magmas are hot, but how hot? What is the spatial pattern of tidal heating and how is magma transported? Are models based on upwelling of the Earth's upper mantle sufficient, or must more exotic models, such as porous flow through a non-convecting solid matrix, be invoked? What about the canonical (at least at one time) magma ocean? Are Io's spectacular mountains mere "window dressing" or vital clues to otherwise perplexing interior processes? Moving to the exterior moon, Callisto, the central scientific question for this body is how it acquired its ocean yet managed not to be deeply melted (differentiated)? Ganymede (an honorary <span class="hlt">sister</span>) is ostensibly deeply differentiated, but the existence (if not persistence) of a strong magnetic dynamo within its iron core is a profound puzzle. At the surface, the relative roles of ice-water volcanism and tectonic resurfacing in creating the grooved and "smooth" terrains that cover 2/3 of the solar system's largest satellite remain debated. The stakes for understanding ice resurfacing elsewhere (Europa, Enceladus) are great. And it is Europa that commands our greatest attention. A decade of research has reached a level of maturity: while researchers may disagree on shell thickness, the consensus is that the ocean exists. With a massive body of liquid water, multiple energy sources proposed, and different paths to provide C and other biogenic elements, the central question is Europa's potential for life. There is no greater question.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286188"><span>Endovascular Repair of Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysms in Two <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> with SMAD3 Mutation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nevidomskyte, Daiva; Shalhub, Sherene; Aldea, Gabriel S; Byers, Peter H; Schwarze, Ulrike; Murray, Mitzi L; Starnes, Benjamin</p> <p>2017-03-07</p> <p>True aneurysms of the internal mammary artery are rare and have been described in association with vasculitis or connective tissue disorders. Herein we describe two cases of familial internal mammary artery aneurysms in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with SMAD3 mutation. The older <span class="hlt">sister</span> presented at the age of 54 with an incidental diagnosis of a multilobed right internal mammary artery aneurysm (IMA) and the younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> presented several years earlier with a ruptured left IMA aneurysm at the age of 49. Both <span class="hlt">sisters</span> had Debakey type I aortic dissections prior to the IMA aneurysm presentation. To our knowledge this is the first time IMA aneurysms has been described in siblings with SMAD3 mutation. In our experience endovascular repair is a feasible and safe treatment option. An assessment of the entire arterial tree is recommended in patients diagnosed with SMAD3 mutations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838561"><span>Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most <span class="hlt">sisters</span> showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3212099','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3212099"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Circles as a Culturally Relevant Intervention for Anxious African American Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert; Murray, Marsheena; Payne, Margaret Ralston; Thomas, Anisha; Salley, Bernadette B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Research on anxiety treatment with African American women reveals a need to develop interventions that address factors relevant to their lives. Such factors include feelings of isolation, multiple roles undertaken by Black women, and faith. A recurrent theme across treatment studies is the importance of having support from other Black women. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> circles are support groups that build upon existing friendships, fictive kin networks, and the sense of community found among African Americans females. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> circles appear to offer many of the components Black women desire in an anxiety intervention. In this article, we explore <span class="hlt">sister</span> circles as an intervention for anxious African American women. Culturally-infused aspects from our <span class="hlt">sister</span> circle work with middle-class African American women are presented. Further research is needed. PMID:22081747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15288052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15288052"><span>A molecular test of alternative hypotheses of tetraodontiform (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes) <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationships using data from the RAG1 gene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holcroft, Nancy I</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Two primary competing hypotheses regarding the identity of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of the order Tetraodontiformes exist. The first hypothesis holds that some or all acanthuroid fishes represent the <span class="hlt">sister</span> of Tetraodontiformes. The second, proposed in 1984 by Rosen, holds that the order Zeiformes is <span class="hlt">sister</span> to Tetraodontiformes and that the family Caproidae is <span class="hlt">sister</span> to this Zeiformes + Tetraodontiformes clade. These two hypotheses were tested using data from the single-copy nuclear gene RAG1. Representatives of most major orders of acanthomorph fishes were included to provide an appropriate context in which to place Tetraodontiformes and its hypothesized <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups. The results of an unweighted parsimony analysis indicate that Zeiformes is not the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of Tetraodontiformes. In addition, Caproidae appears unrelated to Zeiformes. A monophyletic Tetraodontiformes was recovered as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of the clade Ephippidae + Drepanidae and was more distantly related to the included zeiform and caproid representatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128680"><span>DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross <span class="hlt">links</span> (alkaline filter elution assay), <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23865477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23865477"><span>Ecological divergence and speciation between lemur (Eulemur) <span class="hlt">sister</span> species in Madagascar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blair, M E; Sterling, E J; Dusch, M; Raxworthy, C J; Pearson, R G</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Understanding ecological niche evolution over evolutionary timescales is crucial to elucidating the biogeographic history of organisms. Here, we used, for the first time, climate-based ecological niche models (ENMs) to test hypotheses about ecological divergence and speciation processes between <span class="hlt">sister</span> species pairs of lemurs (genus Eulemur) in Madagascar. We produced ENMs for eight species, all of which had significant validation support. Among the four <span class="hlt">sister</span> species pairs, we found nonequivalent niches between <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, varying degrees of niche overlap in ecological and geographic space, and support for multiple divergence processes. Specifically, three <span class="hlt">sister</span>-pair comparisons supported the null model that niches are no more divergent than the available background region. These findings are consistent with an allopatric speciation model, and for two <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairs (E. collaris-E. cinereiceps and E. rufus-E. rufifrons), a riverine barrier has been previously proposed for driving allopatric speciation. However, for the fourth <span class="hlt">sister</span> pair E. flavifrons-E. macaco, we found support for significant niche divergence, and consistent with their parapatric distribution on an ecotone and the lack of obvious geographic barriers, these findings most strongly support a parapatric model of speciation. These analyses thus suggest that various speciation processes have led to diversification among closely related Eulemur species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621703"><span>Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to all other animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span>" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span>, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span> and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span> hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=death+AND+rates&pg=5&id=EJ233744','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=death+AND+rates&pg=5&id=EJ233744"><span>Aging and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pinder, Margaret M.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The elderly <span class="hlt">death</span> rate is somewhat higher than the <span class="hlt">death</span> rate in general. Numbers of schools with gerontological curricula and frequency of <span class="hlt">death</span> education courses are positively related to elderly <span class="hlt">death</span> rates. The contention that elderly <span class="hlt">deaths</span> have less social impact is not supported. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=433916','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=433916"><span>A Manyfold Increase in <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchanges in Bloom's Syndrome Lymphocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chaganti, R. S. K.; Schonberg, S.; German, James</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Dividing cells from persons with Bloom's syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder of growth, exhibit increased numbers of chromatid breaks and rearrangements. A highly characteristic feature of the chromosome instability in this syndrome is the tendency for exchanges to occur between chromatids of homologous chromosomes at homologous sites. In the present experiments, a cytogenetic technique by which the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of a metaphase chromosome are stained differentially has been used to demonstrate a striking and possibly specific, but hitherto unrecognized, increase in the frequency with which <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids also exchange segments. The cells were grown in bromodeoxyuridine and stained with 33258 Hoechst and Giemsa. Whereas phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes from normal controls had a mean of 6.9 <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges per metaphase (range 1-14), those from persons with Bloom's syndrome had a mean of 89.0 (range 45-162). Normal frequencies of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges were found in cells heterozygous for the Bloom's syndrome gene, and also in cells either homozygous or heterozygous for the genes of the Louis-Bar (ataxia telangiectasia) syndrome and Fanconi's anemia, two other rare disorders characterized by chromosome instability. In a differentially stained chromatid interchange configuration discovered during the study, it was possible to determine the new distribution of both <span class="hlt">sister</span> and non-<span class="hlt">sister</span>-but-homologous chromatids that had resulted from numerous exchanges. By following shifts in the pattern of staining from chromatid to chromatid, visual evidence was obtained that the quadriradial configurations long recognized as characteristic of Bloom's syndrome represent exchanges between homologous chromosomes, apparently at homologous points. We postulate that the increase in the frequency of exchanges between nonsister-but-homologous chromatids and those between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids in Bloom's syndrome represents aspects of one and the same</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23054426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23054426"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span>: 'nothing' gives insight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ettema, Eric J</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own <span class="hlt">death--death</span> means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. <span class="hlt">Death</span> then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, <span class="hlt">death</span> has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which <span class="hlt">death</span> is both acknowledged and denied: <span class="hlt">death</span> is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of <span class="hlt">death</span> can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of <span class="hlt">death</span> as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to <span class="hlt">death</span> on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of <span class="hlt">death</span>. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of <span class="hlt">death</span> can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001566.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001566.htm"><span>Sudden infant <span class="hlt">death</span> syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Crib <span class="hlt">death</span>; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS <span class="hlt">deaths</span> occur in the winter. The following may increase ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3691390','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3691390"><span>The <span class="hlt">link</span> in <span class="hlt">Linking</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "<span class="hlt">linking</span>" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23840106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23840106"><span>The <span class="hlt">link</span> in <span class="hlt">Linking</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "<span class="hlt">linking</span>" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10535053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10535053"><span>[Unobserved <span class="hlt">death</span> of an infant: cot <span class="hlt">death</span>?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Wouwe, J P; Dandachli, T H; Huber, J</p> <p>1999-10-02</p> <p>Three children, two girls aged 8 and 12 months and one boy aged 7 weeks, were found dead unexpectedly. Autopsy revealed pneumonia in two children, following which the diagnosis of 'natural, explained <span class="hlt">death</span>' was made; one child showed no abnormalities and the diagnosis read 'natural, unexplained <span class="hlt">death</span>' (cot <span class="hlt">death</span>). Autopsy may currently only be performed with parental permission or, in case of doubt about unnatural cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>, by order of the public prosecutor. The authors propose routine performance of a protocolled autopsy by GP, pediatrician, pathologist and medical examiner in order to avoid subsequent and possibly incorrect doubt about the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27996933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27996933"><span>Using Literal Text From the <span class="hlt">Death</span> Certificate to Enhance Mortality Statistics: Characterizing Drug Involvement in <span class="hlt">Deaths</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trinidad, James P; Warner, Margaret; Bastian, Brigham A; Minino, Arialdi M; Hedegaard, Holly</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Objectives-This report describes the development and use of a method for analyzing the literal text from <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates to enhance national mortality statistics on drug-involved <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Drug-involved <span class="hlt">deaths</span> include drug overdose <span class="hlt">deaths</span> as well as other <span class="hlt">deaths</span> where, according to <span class="hlt">death</span> certificate literal text, drugs were associated with or contributed to the <span class="hlt">death</span>. Methods-The method uses final National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files <span class="hlt">linked</span> to electronic files containing literal text information from <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates. Software programs were designed to search the literal text from three fields of the <span class="hlt">death</span> certificate (the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> from Part I, significant conditions contributing to the <span class="hlt">death</span> from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred from Box 43) to identify drug mentions as well as contextual information. The list of drug search terms was developed from existing drug classification systems as well as from manual review of the literal text. Literal text surrounding the identified drug search terms was analyzed to ascertain the context. Drugs mentioned in the <span class="hlt">death</span> certificate literal text were assumed to be involved in the <span class="hlt">death</span> unless contextual information suggested otherwise (e.g., "METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION"). The literal text analysis method was assessed by comparing the results from application of the method with results based on ICD-10 codes, and by conducting a manual review of a sample of records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194324"><span>Identifying possible <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera: a combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Dictyoptera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Eggleton, Paul</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Termites (Isoptera) offer an alternative model for the development of eusociality which is not dependent on a high degree of relatedness as found between <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in hymenopterans (bees, wasps, ants). Recent phylogenetic studies have established that termites belong within the cockroaches as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to the subsocial Cryptocercidae. Cryptocercidae shares several important traits with termites, thus we need to understand the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to determine how these traits evolved. However, placement of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is still uncertain. We used both molecular (12S, 16S, COII, 18S, 28S, H3) and morphological characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of Dictyoptera. We included all previously suggested <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera as well as taxa which might represent additional major cockroach lineages. We used Bayes factors to test different <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups for Cryptocercidae+Isoptera and assessed character support for the consensus tree based on morphological characters and COII amino acid data. We used the molecular data and fossil calibration to estimate divergence times. We found the most likely <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to be Tryonicidae, Anaplecta or Tryonicidae+Anaplecta. Anaplecta has never previously been suggested as <span class="hlt">sister</span> group or even close to Cryptocercidae+Isoptera, but was formerly placed in Blaberoidea as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to the remaining taxa. Topological tests firmly supported our new placement of Anaplecta. We discuss the morphological characters (e.g. retractable genitalic hook) that have contributed to the previous placement of Anaplecta in Blaberoidea as well as the factors that might have contributed to a parallel development of genitalic features in Anaplecta and Blaberoidea. Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is placed in a clade with Tryonicidae, Anaplecta and possibly Lamproblattidae. Based on this, we suggest that wood-feeding, and the resultant need to conserve nitrogen, may have been an important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1221/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1221/"><span>Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Region, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, Middle <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North <span class="hlt">Sister</span> and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224182','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224182"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Unbound Is Required for Meiotic Centromeric Cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E.; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B.; McKee, Bruce D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called <span class="hlt">sisters</span> unbound (sunn), which is required for stable <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. PMID:25194162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033573','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033573"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> cohesion and structural axis components mediate homolog bias of meiotic recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Keun P.; Weiner, Beth M.; Zhang, Liangran; Jordan, Amy; Dekker, Job; Kleckner, Nancy</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY Meiotic recombination occurs between one chromatid of each maternal and paternal homolog (homolog bias) versus between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids (<span class="hlt">sister</span> bias). Physical DNA analysis reveals that meiotic cohesin/axis component Rec8 promotes <span class="hlt">sister</span> bias, likely via its cohesion activity. Two meiosis-specific axis components, Red1/Mek1kinase, counteract this effect. With this precondition satisfied, other molecules directly specify homolog bias per se. Rec8 also acts positively to maintain homolog bias during crossover recombination. These observations point to sequential release of double-strand break ends from association with their <span class="hlt">sister</span>. Red1 and Rec8 are found to play distinct roles for <span class="hlt">sister</span> cohesion, DSB formation and recombination progression kinetics. Also, the two components are enriched in spatially distinct domains of axial structure that develop prior to DSB formation. We propose that Red1 and Rec8 domains provide functionally complementary environments whereby inputs evolved from DSB repair and late-stage chromosome morphogenesis are integrated to give the complete meiotic chromosomal program. PMID:21145459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/478890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/478890"><span>Neuropsychological profiles of three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> homozygous for the fragile X premutation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mazzocco, M.M.M.; Holden, J.J.A.</p> <p>1996-08-09</p> <p>Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult <span class="hlt">sisters</span> are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each <span class="hlt">sister</span> inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span>` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these <span class="hlt">sisters</span> are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4687580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4687580"><span>Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to all other animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to the remaining animals (the “Ctenophora-sister” hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span>, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span> and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span> hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data. PMID:26621703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194162"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> unbound is required for meiotic centromeric cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B; McKee, Bruce D</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called <span class="hlt">sisters</span> unbound (sunn), which is required for stable <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&id=EJ1012746','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&id=EJ1012746"><span><span class="hlt">Deaths</span> among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Down Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miodrag, Nancy; Silverberg, Sophie E.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: Although life expectancies in Down syndrome (DS) have doubled over the past 3-4 decades, there continue to be many early <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Yet, most research focuses on infant mortality or later adult <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Materials and Methods: In this US study, hospital discharge and <span class="hlt">death</span> records from the state of Tennessee were <span class="hlt">linked</span> to examine 2046…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1403683','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1403683"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates for mesothelioma surveillance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davis, L K; Martin, T R; Kligler, B</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Data from the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates were <span class="hlt">linked</span> for mesothelioma cases reported to the registry from 1982 through 1987 to determine the extent to which the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> information that is given on the <span class="hlt">death</span> certificate is useful in identifying mesothelioma cases for disease surveillance. Only 12 percent of all persons reported with mesothelioma who had died were detected using underlying cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> codes for cancers of the peritoneum and pleura, which are commonly used to identify mesothelioma cases. The rate increased to 83 percent when <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates were reviewed manually for any mention of mesothelioma. Surveillance using only the coded cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> data currently available will result in a large underascertainment of mesothelioma cases. PMID:1641448</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955849"><span>Unzipped and loaded: the role of DNA helicases and RFC clamp-loading complexes in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2005-06-20</p> <p>It is well known that the products of chromosome replication are paired to ensure that the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> segregate away from each other during mitosis. A key issue is how cells pair <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids but preclude the catastrophic pairing of nonsister chromatids. The identification of both replication factor C and DNA helicases as critical for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid pairing has brought new insights into this fundamental process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NW.....92..586B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NW.....92..586B"><span>Osteological evidence for <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourdon, Estelle</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9730567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9730567"><span>A case of IgA nephropathy in three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with thin basement membrane disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshida, K; Suzuki, J; Suzuki, S; Kume, K; Suzuki, H; Hujiki, T</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>IgA nephropathy associated with thin basement membrane disease is reported in a 9-year-old female. The diagnosis of IgA nephropathy was made by means of an immunofluorescence investigation, which showed generalized diffuse mesangial deposits. Thin basement membrane disease was identified by electron-microscopic investigations, which disclosed thinning of the basement membrane of several capillary loops and prominence of the lamina densa. Her father, elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> and younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> were also found to have hematuria and her <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were diagnosed as having thin basement membrane disease by renal biopsy. Patients with IgA nephropathy have focal thinning of the glomerular basement membrane, but we consider that urinalysis of the family needs to be done for the diagnosis of familial thin basement membrane disease, when diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane is detected in such patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16240103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16240103"><span>Osteological evidence for <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bourdon, Estelle</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28318975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28318975"><span>A Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Group to All Other Animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simion, Paul; Philippe, Hervé; Baurain, Denis; Jager, Muriel; Richter, Daniel J; Di Franco, Arnaud; Roure, Béatrice; Satoh, Nori; Quéinnec, Éric; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lapébie, Pascal; Corre, Erwan; Delsuc, Frédéric; King, Nicole; Wörheide, Gert; Manuel, Michaël</p> <p>2017-04-03</p> <p>Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to all other animals ("Porifera-<span class="hlt">sister</span>" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to all other animals (including sponges). The "Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span>" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved once along the metazoan stem lineage and were then lost in sponges and placozoans or evolved at least twice independently in Ctenophora and in Cnidaria + Bilateria. Here, we report on our reconstruction of deep metazoan relationships using a 1,719-gene dataset with dense taxonomic sampling of non-bilaterian animals that was assembled using a semi-automated procedure, designed to reduce known error sources. Our dataset outperforms previous metazoan gene superalignments in terms of data quality and quantity. Analyses with a best-fitting site-heterogeneous evolutionary model provide strong statistical support for placing sponges as the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-group to all other metazoans, with ctenophores emerging as the second-earliest branching animal lineage. Only those methodological settings that exacerbated long-branch attraction artifacts yielded Ctenophora-<span class="hlt">sister</span>. These results show that methodological issues must be carefully addressed to tackle difficult phylogenetic questions and pave the road to a better understanding of how fundamental features of animal body plans have emerged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.506..249L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.506..249L"><span>RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant <span class="hlt">sisters</span> during DNA break repair</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms. Although many reactions that occur during homologous recombination are known, it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy, we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether homologous recombination can occur efficiently between distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci that have segregated to opposite halves of an E. coli cell. We show that a site-specific DSB in one <span class="hlt">sister</span> can be repaired efficiently using distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> homology. After RecBCD processing of the DSB, RecA is recruited to the cut locus, where it nucleates into a bundle that contains many more RecA molecules than can associate with the two single-stranded DNA regions that form at the DSB. Mature bundles extend along the long axis of the cell, in the space between the bulk nucleoid and the inner membrane. Bundle formation is followed by pairing, in which the two ends of the cut locus relocate at the periphery of the nucleoid and together move rapidly towards the homology of the uncut <span class="hlt">sister</span>. After <span class="hlt">sister</span> locus pairing, RecA bundles disassemble and proteins that act late in homologous recombination are recruited to give viable recombinants 1-2-generation-time equivalents after formation of the initial DSB. Mutated RecA proteins that do not form bundles are defective in <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairing and in DSB-induced repair. This work reveals an unanticipated role of RecA bundles in channelling the movement of the DNA DSB ends, thereby facilitating the long-range homology search that occurs before the strand invasion and transfer reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..469..767S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..469..767S"><span><span class="hlt">Link</span> direction for <span class="hlt">link</span> prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Almost all previous studies on <span class="hlt">link</span> prediction have focused on using the properties of the network to predict the existence of <span class="hlt">links</span> between pairs of nodes. Unfortunately, previous methods rarely consider the role of <span class="hlt">link</span> direction for <span class="hlt">link</span> prediction. In fact, many real-world complex networks are directed and ignoring the <span class="hlt">link</span> direction will mean overlooking important information. In this study, we propose a phase-dynamic algorithm of the directed network nodes to analyse the role of <span class="hlt">link</span> directions and demonstrate that the bi-directional <span class="hlt">links</span> and the one-directional <span class="hlt">links</span> have different roles in <span class="hlt">link</span> prediction and network structure formation. From this, we propose new directional prediction methods and use six real networks to test our algorithms. In real networks, we find that compared to a pair of nodes which are connected by a one-directional <span class="hlt">link</span>, a pair of nodes which are connected by a bi-directional <span class="hlt">link</span> always have higher probabilities to connect to the common neighbours with only bi-directional <span class="hlt">links</span> (or conversely by one-directional <span class="hlt">links</span>). We suggest that, in the real networks, the bi-directional <span class="hlt">links</span> will generally be more informative for <span class="hlt">link</span> prediction and network structure formation. In addition, we propose a new directional randomized algorithm to demonstrate that the direction of the <span class="hlt">links</span> plays a significant role in <span class="hlt">link</span> prediction and network structure formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24227449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24227449"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">Death</span> Determination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spinello, Irene M</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In the United States, each year 1% to 2% of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> are brain <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Considerable variation in the practice of determining brain <span class="hlt">death</span> still remains, despite the publication of practice parameters in 1995 and an evidence-based guideline update in 2010. This review is intended to give bedside clinicians an overview of definition, the causes and pitfalls of misdiagnosing brain <span class="hlt">death</span>, and a focus on the specifics of the brain <span class="hlt">death</span> determination process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25046285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25046285"><span>Whither brain <span class="hlt">death</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernat, James L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain <span class="hlt">death</span>: the familiar term for human <span class="hlt">death</span> determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human <span class="hlt">death</span> but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain <span class="hlt">death</span> are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain <span class="hlt">death</span> is equivalent to human <span class="hlt">death</span>. Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=turner+AND+syndrome&pg=2&id=EJ579567','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=turner+AND+syndrome&pg=2&id=EJ579567"><span>Social Functioning among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+treatments&id=EJ1011495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+treatments&id=EJ1011495"><span>Brother-<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531"><span>Meanings of Sisterhood and Developmental Disability: Narratives from White Nondisabled <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McGraw, Lori A.; Walker, Alexis J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Integrating thought from critical feminist and disability theorists via a strategic social constructionist perspective, the authors analyzed 10 in-depth qualitative interviews to begin to understand the dialogue between (a) how nondisabled <span class="hlt">sisters</span> understand themselves and their siblings with developmental disabilities and (b) wider systems of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+5&pg=5&id=EJ927867','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+5&pg=5&id=EJ927867"><span>Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> School-Based Mentoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254474"><span>New insights on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage of percomorph fishes with an anchored hybrid enrichment dataset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dornburg, Alex; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Brooks, Willa; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Eytan, Ron I; Moore, Jon A; Wainwright, Peter C; Lemmon, Alan; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Near, Thomas J</p> <p>2017-02-27</p> <p>Percomorph fishes represent over 17,100 species, including several model organisms and species of economic importance. Despite continuous advances in the resolution of the percomorph Tree of Life, resolution of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage to Percomorpha remains inconsistent but restricted to a small number of candidate lineages. Here we use an anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) dataset of 132 loci with over 99,000 base pairs to identify the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage of percomorph fishes. Initial analyses of this dataset failed to recover a strongly supported <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to Percomorpha, however, scrutiny of the AHE dataset revealed a bias towards high GC content at fast-evolving codon partitions (GC bias). By combining several existing approaches aimed at mitigating the impacts of convergence in GC bias, including RY coding and analyses of amino acids, we consistently recovered a strongly supported clade comprised of Holocentridae (squirrelfishes), Berycidae (Alfonsinos), Melamphaidae (bigscale fishes), Cetomimidae (flabby whalefishes), and Rondeletiidae (redmouth whalefishes) as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage to Percomorpha. Additionally, implementing phylogenetic informativeness (PI) based metrics as a filtration method yielded this same topology, suggesting PI based approaches will preferentially filter these fast-evolving regions and act in a manner consistent with other phylogenetic approaches aimed at mitigating GC bias. Our results provide a new perspective on a key issue for studies investigating the evolutionary history of more than one quarter of all living species of vertebrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beans&pg=4&id=EJ797780','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beans&pg=4&id=EJ797780"><span>Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Lessons of Traditional Story Honored in Assessment and Accreditation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chenault, Venida S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> story is shared across many tribes. It explains the practice of planting corn, beans, and squash together. The corn stalks provide support for the bean vines; the beans provide nitrogen for the corn; and the squash prevents weed growth between the mounds. Such stories explain not only the science of agricultural methods in tribal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chess&pg=3&id=EJ939604','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chess&pg=3&id=EJ939604"><span>Does High-Level Intellectual Performance Depend on Practice Alone? Debunking the Polgar <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howard, Robert W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The famous Polgar <span class="hlt">sisters</span> started chess very young, undertook extensive study, and two became grandmasters. This case often is cited as decisive evidence that practice alone is key in development of expertise, that innate talent is unimportant or non-existent, and that almost anyone can become a grandmaster. But on close examination these claims…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404313.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404313.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools: An Experience in Culture Vision for Preservice Teachers and Elementary Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Black, Sharon J.; Cutler, Beverly R.</p> <p></p> <p>The School of Education at Brigham Young University (BYU) in Utah developed a <span class="hlt">sister</span> school program with teachers and children in Cuauhtemoc and Dublan (Mexico) to increase the culture vision of preservice teachers while simultaneously allowing elementary school children to develop culture awareness by participating in a cross-cultural learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+space&pg=7&id=EJ830840','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+space&pg=7&id=EJ830840"><span>Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: A Source of Support for Children in School?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hadfield, Lucy; Edwards, Rosalind; Mauthner, Melanie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Whilst UK schools move towards U.S "big brother" style mentoring systems for children, are actual brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> becoming an invisible source of support to deal with bullying in everyday life? This paper reports on research with children aged 7-13 about their experiences and understandings of their relationships with their brothers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pierce&pg=6&id=EJ605384','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pierce&pg=6&id=EJ605384"><span>Prejudice and Educational Choice: 75th Anniversary of Pierce v. Society of <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mizia, Robert Louis</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Recounts the landmark case of Pierce v. Society of <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>. Reminds readers that parental choice of an appropriate education for their children is a constitutional right and liberty under law and must be sustained. Asserts that true choice will occur only when consensus on public funding issues of school choice (including private and Catholic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764575','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764575"><span>Super-resolution kinetochore tracking reveals the mechanisms of human <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore directional switching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burroughs, Nigel J; Harry, Edward F; McAinsh, Andrew D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The congression of chromosomes to the spindle equator involves the directed motility of bi-orientated <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> kinetochores bind bundles of dynamic microtubules and are physically connected through centromeric chromatin. A crucial question is to understand how <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores are coordinated to generate motility and directional switches. Here, we combine super-resolution tracking of kinetochores with automated switching-point detection to analyse <span class="hlt">sister</span> switching dynamics over thousands of events. We discover that switching is initiated by both the leading (microtubules depolymerising) or trailing (microtubules polymerising) kinetochore. Surprisingly, trail-driven switching generates an overstretch of the chromatin that relaxes over the following half-period. This rules out the involvement of a tension sensor, the central premise of the long-standing tension-model. Instead, our data support a model in which clocks set the intrinsic-switching time of the two kinetochore-attached microtubule fibres, with the centromeric spring tension operating as a feedback to slow or accelerate the clocks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09500.001 PMID:26460545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bebes&id=EJ604478','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bebes&id=EJ604478"><span>"Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>": A Novel Way to Teach Human Resources Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bumpus, Minnette</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The novel "Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>" by Bebe Moore Campbell was used in a management course to explore human resource management issues, concepts, and theories. The course included prereading and postreading surveys, lecture, book review, and examination. Most of the students (92%) felt the novel was an appropriate way to meet course…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=258716','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=258716"><span>A <span class="hlt">sister</span> group metabolomic contrast delineates the biochemical regulation underlying desiccation tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Understanding how plant cells tolerate dehydration is a vital prerequisite for developing strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation tolerant grass Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation sensitive S. pyramidalis were used to form a <span class="hlt">sister</span>-group contrast to reveal adaptive metabo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marquez&pg=6&id=EJ903417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marquez&pg=6&id=EJ903417"><span>Transitioning from Doctoral Study to the Academy: Theorizing "Trenzas" of Identity for Latina <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Scholars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Espino, Michelle M.; Munoz, Susana M.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article focuses on multiple truths pertaining to doctoral education as expressed by three Latina doctoral recipients. These scholars successfully navigated various educational processes with the support of one another, their families, faculty, and their chosen discipline. The authors, as <span class="hlt">sister</span> scholars, retell their educational journeys…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902535"><span>Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora <span class="hlt">sister</span> to all other animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whelan, Nathan V; Kocot, Kevin M; Moroz, Leonid L; Halanych, Kenneth M</p> <p>2015-05-05</p> <p>Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora <span class="hlt">sister</span> to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. To date, phylogenetic support for either ctenophores or sponges as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to other animals has been limited and inconsistent among studies. Lack of agreement among phylogenomic analyses using different data and methods obscures how complex traits, such as epithelia, neurons, and muscles evolved. A consensus view of animal evolution will not be accepted until datasets and methods converge on a single hypothesis of early metazoan relationships and putative sources of systematic error (e.g., long-branch attraction, compositional bias, poor model choice) are assessed. Here, we investigate possible causes of systematic error by expanding taxon sampling with eight novel transcriptomes, strictly enforcing orthology inference criteria, and progressively examining potential causes of systematic error while using both maximum-likelihood with robust data partitioning and Bayesian inference with a site-heterogeneous model. We identified ribosomal protein genes as possessing a conflicting signal compared with other genes, which caused some past studies to infer ctenophores and cnidarians as <span class="hlt">sister</span>. Importantly, biases resulting from elevated compositional heterogeneity or elevated substitution rates are ruled out. Placement of ctenophores as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to all other animals, and sponge monophyly, are strongly supported under multiple analyses, herein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order+AND+personality&pg=4&id=EJ484723','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order+AND+personality&pg=4&id=EJ484723"><span>Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, and Nonclinical Controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3955356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3955356"><span>Spotlights on our <span class="hlt">sister</span> journals: ChemistryOpen 1/2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>On these pages, we feature a selection of the excellent work that has recently been published in our <span class="hlt">sister</span> journals. If you are reading these pages on a computer, click on any of the items to read the full article. Otherwise please see the DOIs for easy online access through Wiley Online Library. PMID:24688888</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+shapes&pg=5&id=EJ997719','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+shapes&pg=5&id=EJ997719"><span>A Tale of Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Language Ideologies, Identities, and Negotiations in a Bilingual, Transnational Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>King, Kendall A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This longitudinal case study investigated how linguistic identity was constructed, constrained, and performed by three <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, aged 1, 12, and 17, within one bilingual, transnational Ecuadorian-U.S. family. Data were collected over 14 months through weekly home visits that included participant observation, informal interviews, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED452094.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED452094.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science: Using Sports as a Vehicle for Science Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Green, Tina Sloan; Livingston, Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a project for upper elementary and middle school minority girl students called the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Sport Science (SISS). The SISS program addresses the needs of urban girls in gaining access to equal education in science and mathematics by using athletics as a vehicle for learning. The program provides a non-competitive and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+games+AND+memory&pg=3&id=ED266892','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+games+AND+memory&pg=3&id=ED266892"><span>Walking with Grandfather and Great Wolf and Little Mouse <span class="hlt">Sister</span>. Teacher's Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).</p> <p></p> <p>Written for use with videotaped versions of the stories "Walking with Grandfather" and "Great Wolf and Little Mouse <span class="hlt">Sister</span>," this guide presents 20 lessons that teachers can adapt for students of various ages and use in integrated units or other curriculum approaches. The introductory material describes the use and philosophy of the video stories,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual is entitled to benefits if: (a) Such individual: (1) Is the parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual is entitled to benefits if: (a) Such individual: (1) Is the parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women%27s+AND+Movement&pg=6&id=EJ1078896','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women%27s+AND+Movement&pg=6&id=EJ1078896"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raftery, Deirdre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+philosophy&pg=4&id=EJ1003992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+philosophy&pg=4&id=EJ1003992"><span>Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Konecni, Vladimir J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "<span class="hlt">sister</span>" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+System&pg=4&id=EJ1048143','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+System&pg=4&id=EJ1048143"><span>They Came with a Purpose: Educational Journeys of Nineteenth-Century Irish Dominican <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collins, Jenny</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Irish Catholic teaching <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were major actors in the development of education systems in New World countries such as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Immigrants themselves, they faced a number of key challenges as they sought to adapt Old World cultural and educational ideas to the education of the immigrant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teenage+AND+pregnancy&pg=5&id=EJ965819','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teenage+AND+pregnancy&pg=5&id=EJ965819"><span>Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Children: Its Costs and Benefits for Youths' Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Reyes, Barbara T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how time spent caring for a teenage <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s child and experiences in providing care related to youths' young adult outcomes. Latino and African American youths (N = 108) were studied during middle and late adolescence. Results indicated that youths who provided many hours of child care were more stressed and had lower school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED440885.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED440885.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science Program: Building Girls' Interest and Achievement in Science and Mathematics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, to create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27801743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27801743"><span>99mTc-DMSA Uptake in a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's Nodule From Ovarian Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naddaf, Sleiman; Azzumeea, Fahad; Fahad Alzayed, Mohammed</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A 50-year-old woman with ovarian cancer underwent Tc-DMSA scan to evaluate the functional status of the right hydronephrotic kidney. The images incidentally revealed a well-defined focus of mild radiotracer uptake at the midanterior abdominal wall, which correlated with a metastatic <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule seen on CT performed a week earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol17-sec79-65.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol17-sec79-65.pdf"><span>40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...) assay detects the ability of a chemical to enhance the exchange of DNA between two <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of... ligation of at least two DNA helices. (c) Test method—(1) Principle of the test method. (i) Groups of... is considered not to induce rearrangements of DNA segments in this system. (iii) Both biological...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-sec79-65.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-sec79-65.pdf"><span>40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...) assay detects the ability of a chemical to enhance the exchange of DNA between two <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids of... ligation of at least two DNA helices. (c) Test method—(1) Principle of the test method. (i) Groups of... is considered not to induce rearrangements of DNA segments in this system. (iii) Both biological...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=blacksmith&pg=2&id=ED220845','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=blacksmith&pg=2&id=ED220845"><span>Forging <span class="hlt">Links</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewig, John Warren</p> <p></p> <p>Blacksmiths and their craft have changed with the times, and as times change for teachers, they too should be forgers of <span class="hlt">links</span>. Teacher-to-teacher <span class="hlt">links</span> should extend beyond the faculty lounge to support systems and active groups of individuals concerned about each other. Another personal <span class="hlt">link</span> can be made by developing a grade level, system-wide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16080001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16080001"><span>Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B <span class="hlt">sister</span> (ABS) protein.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaufmann, Kerstin; Anfang, Nicole; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Recently, close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes, termed B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, have been identified in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In contrast to the B genes themselves, B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes are exclusively expressed in female reproductive organs, especially in the envelopes or integuments surrounding the ovules. This suggests an important ancient function in ovule or seed development for B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, which has been conserved for about 300 million years. However, investigation of the first loss-of-function mutant for a B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) gene (ABS/TT16 from Arabidopsis) revealed only a weak phenotype affecting endothelium formation. Here, we present an analysis of two additional mutant alleles, which corroborates this weak phenotype. Transgenic plants that ectopically express ABS show changes in the growth and identity of floral organs, suggesting that ABS can interact with floral homeotic proteins. Yeast-two-hybrid and three-hybrid analyses indicated that ABS can form dimers with SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2). These data suggest that the formation of multimeric transcription factor complexes might be a general phenomenon among MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins in angiosperms. Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays. Fusion proteins tagged with CFP (Cyan Fluorescent Protein) and YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that ABS is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a structurally deviant, but closely related, paralogue of ABS in the Arabidopsis genome. Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1325454','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1325454"><span>Experimental Test Plan for PWR <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Rods in the High Burnup Spent Fuel Data Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Rose; Scaglione, John M; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Hanson, Brady; Billone, Dr. Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The High Burnup Spent Fuel Data project pulled 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods (9 from the project assemblies and 16 from similar HBU assemblies) for characterization. The 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods are all high burnup and cover the range of modern domestic cladding alloys. The 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in early 2016 for detailed non-destructive and destructive examination. Examinations are intended to provide baseline data on the initial physical state of the cladding and fuel prior to the loading, drying, and long-term dry storage process. Further examinations are focused on determining the effects of temperatures encountered during and following drying. Similar tests will be performed on rods taken from the project assemblies at the end of their long-term storage in a TN-32 dry storage cask (the cask rods ) to identify any significant changes in the fuel rods that may have occurred during the dry storage period. Additionally, some of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods will be used for separate effects testing to expand the applicability of the project data to the fleet, and to address some of the data-related gaps associated with extended storage and subsequent transportation of high burnup fuel. A draft test plan is being developed that describes the experimental work to be conducted on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods. This paper summarizes the draft test plan and necessary coordination activities for the multi-year experimental program to supply data relevant to the assessment of the safety of long-term storage followed by transportation of high burnup spent fuel.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Alvarado&pg=7&id=EJ457020','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Alvarado&pg=7&id=EJ457020"><span>Are <span class="hlt">Death</span> Anxiety and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Depression Distinct Entities?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Administered <span class="hlt">Death</span> Anxiety Scale and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "<span class="hlt">death</span> anxiety" having highest factor loadings with <span class="hlt">Death</span> Anxiety Scale, "<span class="hlt">death</span> depression" having highest factor loadings with <span class="hlt">Death</span> Depression Scale, "<span class="hlt">death</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076237.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076237.pdf"><span>Children's Experience with <span class="hlt">Death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zeligs, Rose</p> <p></p> <p>Children's concepts of <span class="hlt">death</span> grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and <span class="hlt">death</span> are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that <span class="hlt">death</span> is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> and what…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896763"><span>MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of Arthropoda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell, Lahcen I; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J; Telford, Maximilian J; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide</p> <p>2011-09-20</p> <p>Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to <span class="hlt">link</span> Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to the arthropods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tecto..28.5015K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tecto..28.5015K"><span>Thermal evolution of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> shear zone, southern New Zealand; Formation of the Great South Basin and onset of Pacific-Antarctic spreading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy J.; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The separation of Zealandia from West Antarctica was the final stage in the Cretaceous breakup of the Gondwana Pacific margin. Continental extension resulting in formation of the Great South Basin and thinning of the Campbell Plateau leading to development of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge was partially accommodated along the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> shear zone. This east-northeast striking brittle-ductile structure exposed along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand, is a greenschist facies extensional shear zone that separates a hanging wall of chloritic, brecciated granites, and undeformed conglomerate from a footwall of mylonitic Carboniferous and Early Cretaceous granites. This complex structure exhibits bivergent kinematics and can be subdivided into a northern and southern segment. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology indicates that cooling of the shear zone footwall began at ˜94 Ma with accelerated cooling over the interval ˜89-82 Ma. Structural and thermochronological data indicate a spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">link</span> between the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> shear zone, initial sedimentation within the offshore Great South Basin, extension of the Campbell Plateau, and initiation of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3179045"><span>MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of Arthropoda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Campbell, Lahcen I.; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pisani, Davide</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a <span class="hlt">sister</span> group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations—comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning—we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to <span class="hlt">link</span> Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to the arthropods. PMID:21896763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&id=EJ927986','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&id=EJ927986"><span>Evidence That Thinking about <span class="hlt">Death</span> Relates to Time-Estimation Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martens, Andy; Schmeichel, Brandon J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Time and <span class="hlt">death</span> are <span class="hlt">linked</span>--the passing of time brings us closer to <span class="hlt">death</span>. Terror management theory proposes that awareness of <span class="hlt">death</span> represents a potent problem that motivates a variety of psychological defenses (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1997). We tested the hypothesis that thinking about <span class="hlt">death</span> motivates elongated perceptions of brief…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25642921"><span>Infant <span class="hlt">death</span> scene investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The sudden unexpected <span class="hlt">death</span> of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's <span class="hlt">death</span>, a thorough and accurate <span class="hlt">death</span> scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant <span class="hlt">death</span> scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct <span class="hlt">death</span> scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child <span class="hlt">death</span> review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in <span class="hlt">death</span> scene investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4307833','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4307833"><span>Effect of Cause-of-<span class="hlt">Death</span> Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of <span class="hlt">Death</span> Reported, Inpatient Hospital <span class="hlt">Deaths</span>, New York City, 2008–2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Accurate cause-of-<span class="hlt">death</span> reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-<span class="hlt">death</span> reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates citing heart disease as cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were <span class="hlt">linked</span> with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and calculated the proportion of discordant <span class="hlt">deaths</span>, that is, <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient <span class="hlt">deaths</span> reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P < .001), driven by a decrease in discordance at intervention hospitals (20.2% in 2008 to 8.9% in 2010; P < .001). At intervention hospitals, reporting of sepsis increased from 3.7% of inpatient <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in 2008 to 20.6% in 2010 (P < .001). Conclusion Overreporting of heart disease as cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> declined at intervention hospitals, driving a citywide decline, and sepsis reporting practices changed in accordance with health department training. Researchers should consider the effect of overreporting and data-quality changes when analyzing New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strength+AND+materials&pg=4&id=EJ972941','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strength+AND+materials&pg=4&id=EJ972941"><span>Addiction to near <span class="hlt">Death</span> in Adolescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaw, Janet</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near <span class="hlt">death</span>," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A <span class="hlt">link</span> is made between the patient's retreat from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3429432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3429432"><span>The First Record of a Trans-Oceanic <span class="hlt">Sister</span>-Group Relationship between Obligate Vertebrate Troglobites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes), and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km) are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic <span class="hlt">sister</span>-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance. PMID:22937155</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1592785','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1592785"><span>Bloom Helicase and DNA Topoisomerase IIIα Are Involved in the Dissolution of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seki, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Seki, Takahiko; Kato, Genta; Tada, Shusuke; Takahashi, Yuriko; Yoshimura, Akari; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Aoki, Ayako; Otsuki, Makoto; Habermann, Felix A.; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yutaka; Enomoto, Takemi</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal disorder characterized by predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. The gene product whose mutation leads to BS is the RecQ family helicase BLM, which forms a complex with DNA topoisomerase IIIα (Top3α). However, the physiological relevance of the interaction between BLM and Top3α within the cell remains unclear. We show here that Top3α depletion causes accumulation of cells in G2 phase, enlargement of nuclei, and chromosome gaps and breaks that occur at the same position in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. The transition from metaphase to anaphase is also inhibited. All of these phenomena except cell lethality are suppressed by BLM gene disruption. Taken together with the biochemical properties of BLM and Top3α, these data indicate that BLM and Top3α execute the dissolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. PMID:16880537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937155"><span>The first record of a trans-oceanic <span class="hlt">sister</span>-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes), and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km) are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic <span class="hlt">sister</span>-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7510022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7510022"><span>Lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges in individuals treated with metronidazole.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elizondo, G; Montero, R; Herrera, J E; Hong, E; Ostrosky-Wegman, P</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Metronidazole, an effective agent for the treatment of protozoan infections, is frequently used in developing countries. However, the employment of this drug has been questioned in view of its mutagenicity in bacteria and carcinogenicity in mice. A genotoxic study was carried out in which cellular proliferation kinetics and the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges were determined in human peripheral blood lymphocytes from 12 individuals treated with therapeutic doses of metronidazole. No effect was observed on mitotic index with the treatment, although a significant increase was found in three individuals after treatment. No increase of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges was detected. The rate of lymphocyte proliferation kinetics showed an increase after the metronidazole treatment in all patients, indicating a possible immunostimulatory action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919691"><span>Self-healing photo-neuropathy and cervical spinal arthrosis in four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with brachioradial pruritus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wallengren, Joanna</p> <p>2009-11-17</p> <p>The cause of brachioradial pruritus (a localized itching on the arms or shoulders) is controversial. The role of sun and cervical spine disease has been discussed. This is a report on four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> suffering from brachioradial pruritus recurring every summer. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span> spent much time outdoors and exposed themselves extensively to the sun. They also had occupations requiring heavy lifting. Cervical radiographs indicated arthrosis. The density of sensory nerve fibers in the skin biopsies from the itchy skin of the arms, visualized by antibodies against a pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, was reduced compared with biopsies from the same skin region during the symptom-free period in the winter. This data exemplifies that brachioradial pruritus is a self healing photoneuropathy occurring in middle aged adults predisposed by cervical arthrosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789710','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789710"><span>Self-healing photo-neuropathy and cervical spinal arthrosis in four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with brachioradial pruritus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The cause of brachioradial pruritus (a localized itching on the arms or shoulders) is controversial. The role of sun and cervical spine disease has been discussed. This is a report on four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> suffering from brachioradial pruritus recurring every summer. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span> spent much time outdoors and exposed themselves extensively to the sun. They also had occupations requiring heavy lifting. Cervical radiographs indicated arthrosis. The density of sensory nerve fibers in the skin biopsies from the itchy skin of the arms, visualized by antibodies against a pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, was reduced compared with biopsies from the same skin region during the symptom-free period in the winter. This data exemplifies that brachioradial pruritus is a self healing photoneuropathy occurring in middle aged adults predisposed by cervical arthrosis. PMID:19919691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6052504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6052504"><span>Frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes of male pesticide applicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rupa, D.S. ); Reddy, P.P. ); Sreemannarayana, K. ); Reddi, O.S. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>In the present study 61 male pesticide applicators who worked in cotton fields and regularly sprayed pesticides such as DDT, BHC, endosulfan, malathion, methyl parathion, phosphamidon, dimethoate, monocrotophos, quinalphos fenvelrate, and cypermethrin were analyzed for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges, mitotic index, and cell cycle kinetics in peripheral lymphocytes. Subjects who handled pesticides were non-smokers and teetotalers and the data were compared with the matched control group. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was significantly higher among the pesticide applicators at all the durations of exposure when compared to controls. Subjects exposed to pesticides also showed cell cycle delay and decrease in mitotic index when compared to the control group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15379060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15379060"><span>[The diagnosis of <span class="hlt">death</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Echeverría, Carlos; Goic, Alejandro; Lavados, Manuel; Quintana, Carlos; Rojas, Alberto; Serani, Alejandro; Vacarezza, Ricardo</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper undertakes an analysis of the scientific criteria used in the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">death</span> and underscores the importance of intellectual rigor in the definition of medical concepts, particularly regarding such a critical issue as the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Under the cardiorespiratory criterion, <span class="hlt">death</span> is defined as "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", and the tests used to confirm this criterion (negative life-signs) are sensitive and specific. In this case, cadaverous phenomena appear immediately following the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">death</span>. On the other hand, doubts have arisen concerning the theoretical and the inner consistency of the criterion of brain <span class="hlt">death</span>, since it does not satisfy the definition of "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", nor the requirement of "total and irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem". There is evidence to the effect that the tests used to confirm this criterion are not specific enough. It is clear that brain <span class="hlt">death</span> marks the beginning of a process that eventually ends in <span class="hlt">death</span>, though <span class="hlt">death</span> does not occur at that moment. From an ethical point of view, the conflict arises between the need to provide an unequivocal diagnosis of <span class="hlt">death</span> and the possibility of saving a life through organ transplantation. The sensitive issue of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> calls for a more thorough and in-depth discussion among physicians and the community at large.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2101963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2101963"><span>Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. I: Gender-related behavior and attitudes in female patients and <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dittmann, R W; Kappes, M H; Kappes, M E; Börger, D; Stegner, H; Willig, R H; Wallis, H</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Thirty-five female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were compared to a group of 16 healthy <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in regard to gender-related behavioral patterns, present attitudes, and plans for the future. A semi-structured interview with the subjects, ages 11 to 41 yr, and their mothers concentrated on four to five age stages. Results of retrospective data from single items as well as from several related composite scales ("interests and behavior," "appearance," "overall scores") revealed significant group differences: Both in mother-assessment and self-assessment, CAH patients showed a "more masculine" orientation than their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, but this was far from consistent across all age stages, especially for single items. Unexpectedly, the gender-behavior differences between CAH patients and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> did not hold for certain items and scales of "social behavior" (e.g., assertiveness, dominance, acceptance in peer groups) and, in contrast to some of the existing literature, also not for "high-energy expenditure." With regard to expectations for the future, CAH patients had less of a "wish to have their own children" and a higher preference for "having a career versus staying at home." Age, socioeconomic status, intelligence, and presence or absence of a <span class="hlt">sister</span> as possibly intervening psychosocial/demographic factors could not explain the group differences in behavior. Degree of genital masculinization (Prader stages) or "onset and quality" of therapy as measures of pre- and postnatal androgenization, respectively, could also not account for the degree of the "more masculine" orientation in the CAH group. Nevertheless, the overall results are compatible with earlier findings on the masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on behavior in humans and point to a time period after sexual differentiation of the genitalia and before birth as the most likely one for the effects of prenatal hormones on behavioral masculinization in humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1647488','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1647488"><span>Alaninuria, Associated with Microcephaly, Dwarfism, Enamel Hypoplasia, and Diabetes Mellitus in Two <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stimmler, L.; Jensen, N.; Toseland, P.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, both microcephalic at birth and of low birthweight, are described. They are both severely mentally retarded and dwarfed, and have developed diabetes mellitus. Their teeth show enamel hypoplasia. Excessive quantities of alanine were found in their urine, which was associated with high levels of alanine pyruvate and lactate in the blood. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3aFIG. 3b PMID:5477682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA157372','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA157372"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange in Marine Polychaetes to Black Rock Harbor Sediment. Laboratory Documentation Phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Continue on reverse eide if necomeay and Identify by block number) Marine pollution --Genetic effects (LC) Polychaeta (LC) Dredged material (WES) Biological...necessary end Identify by block number) Marine pollution --Genetic effects (LC) Polychaeta (LC) Dredged material (WES) Biological assay (LC) <span class="hlt">Sister</span>...populations of marine organisms. 2. The importance of genetic effects in marine pollution studies has been recognized only recently. The International Council</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162982"><span>A historical overview of bromo-substituted DNA and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid differentiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mezzanotte, Roberto; Nieddu, Mariella</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has been widely used to make <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid differentiation (SCD) evident in metaphase chromosomes of cells grown for two cycles in BrdU and, thus, containing varying amounts of the thymidine analogue. A direct consequence was the possibility of making <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) evident without using autoradiographic procedures. The latter phenomenon was first discovered in 1953, and its frequency is considered a reliable marker of pathological cell situations, as well as an indicator of mutagenic compounds. Several experimental procedures were found which produced SCD, such as the use of fluorochromes like 33258 Hoechst or acridine orange, whose observation under fluorescence microscopy was directly recorded by photos or stained with Giemsa to make chromosome preparations permanent. Other treatments followed by Giemsa staining required the use of saline hot solutions, acid solutions, nuclease attack and specific monoclonal antibodies. Basically two molecular mechanisms were invoked to explain the different affinity of Giemsa stain for differential BrdU-substituted chromatid DNA. The first implied debromination of chromatid DNA, whose occurrence would be greater in chromatids containing an amount of BrdU greater than that present in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. The second mechanism, although not denying the importance of DNA debromination, postulated that chromatin structural organization, in terms of DNA-protein and/or protein-protein DNA interaction, is responsible for SCD production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755749','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755749"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> kinetochore splitting and precocious disintegration of bivalents could explain the maternal age effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zielinska, Agata P; Holubcova, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and Down’s syndrome. Aneuploid eggs result from chromosome segregation errors when an egg develops from a progenitor cell, called an oocyte. The mechanisms that lead to an increase in aneuploidy with advanced maternal age are largely unclear. Here, we show that many <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores in human oocytes are separated and do not behave as a single functional unit during the first meiotic division. Having separated <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores allowed bivalents to rotate by 90 degrees on the spindle and increased the risk of merotelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Advanced maternal age led to an increase in <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore separation, rotated bivalents and merotelic attachments. Chromosome arm cohesion was weakened, and the fraction of bivalents that precociously dissociated into univalents was increased. Together, our data reveal multiple age-related changes in chromosome architecture that could explain why oocyte aneuploidy increases with advanced maternal age. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11389.001 PMID:26670547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257310"><span>Functional genomics identifies a requirement of pre-mRNA splicing factors for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sundaramoorthy, Sriramkumar; Vázquez-Novelle, María Dolores; Lekomtsev, Sergey; Howell, Michael; Petronczki, Mark</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation during cell division. Using functional genomic screening, we identify a set of 26 pre-mRNA splicing factors that are required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in human cells. Loss of spliceosome subunits increases the dissociation rate of cohesin from chromatin and abrogates cohesion after DNA replication, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe. Depletion of splicing factors causes defective processing of the pre-mRNA encoding sororin, a factor required for the stable association of cohesin with chromatin, and an associated reduction of sororin protein level. Expression of an intronless version of sororin and depletion of the cohesin release protein WAPL suppress the cohesion defect in cells lacking splicing factors. We propose that spliceosome components contribute to <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and mitotic chromosome segregation through splicing of sororin pre-mRNA. Our results highlight the loss of cohesion as an early cellular consequence of compromised splicing. This may have clinical implications because SF3B1, a splicing factor that we identify to be essential for cohesion, is recurrently mutated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3843825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3843825"><span>Female rhesus macaques discriminate unfamiliar paternal <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in playback experiments: support for acoustic phenotype matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Widespread evidence exists that when relatives live together, kinship plays a central role in shaping the evolution of social behaviour. Previous studies showed that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) recognize familiar maternal kin using vocal cues. Recognizing paternal kin might, however, be more difficult as rhesus females mate promiscuously during the possible conception period, most probably concealing paternity. Behavioural observations indicate that semi free-ranging female rhesus macaques prefer to associate with their paternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span> in comparison to unrelated females within the same group, particularly when born within the same age cohort. However, the cues and mechanism/s used in paternal kin discrimination remain under debate. Here, we investigated whether female rhesus macaques use the acoustic modality to discriminate between paternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span> and non-kin, and tested familiarity and phenotype matching as the underlying mechanisms. We found that test females responded more often to calls of paternal half-<span class="hlt">sisters</span> compared with calls of unrelated females, and that this discrimination ability was independent of the level of familiarity between callers and test females, which provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence for acoustic phenotype matching. Our study strengthens the evidence that female rhesus macaques can recognize their paternal kin, and that vocalizations are used as a cue. PMID:24225452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3564271','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3564271"><span>Alternative Cell <span class="hlt">Death</span> Pathways and Cell Metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fulda, Simone</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those <span class="hlt">linked</span> to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:23401689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589284"><span>TRPM7, the cytoskeleton and neuronal <span class="hlt">death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Asrar, Suhail; Aarts, Michelle</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and <span class="hlt">death</span> in the world. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms associated with neuronal <span class="hlt">death</span> during this detrimental process has been of significant interest in the field of research. One principle component vital to the maintenance of cellular integrity is the cytoskeleton. Studies suggest that abnormalities at the level of this fundamental structure are directly <span class="hlt">linked</span> to adverse effects on cellular well-being, including cell <span class="hlt">death</span>. In recent years, evidence has also emerged regarding an imperative role for the transient receptor potential (TRP) family member TRPM7 in the mediation of excitotoxic-independent neuronal demise. In this review, we will elaborate on the current knowledge and unique properties associated with the functioning of this structure. In addition, we will deliberate the involvement of distinct mechanistic pathways during TRPM7-dependent cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, including modifications at the level of the cytoskeleton. PMID:23247582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27741611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27741611"><span>A good <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-26</p> <p>Definitions of a good <span class="hlt">death</span> often include being at home. Dying at home may be optimal for the patient but could place a significant burden on families and leave them with traumatic memories. <span class="hlt">Death</span> in hospital should not mean that it is a 'bad <span class="hlt">death</span>'. How someone dies is more important than where they die and nurses should be taught to provide good end of life care in all settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622924"><span>[The extraordinary <span class="hlt">death</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plattner, Thomas; Zollinger, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The examination of a deceased person is an important duty for physicians. It comprises the certification of <span class="hlt">death</span>, the certification of the identity of the deceased, a thorough examination of the body, an estimation of the moment of <span class="hlt">death</span> and ends with the decision, if <span class="hlt">death</span> was caused by a certain or possible violent cause in which case it must be reported to the authorities. Problems and pitfalls are discussed on the basis of practical case presentations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24965436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24965436"><span>Understanding <span class="hlt">death</span> in custody: a case for a comprehensive definition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz, Géraldine; Wangmo, Tenzin; Mutzenberg, Patrick; Sinclair, Jessica; Elger, Bernice Simone</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Prisoners sometimes die in prison, either due to natural illness, violence, suicide, or a result of imprisonment. The purpose of this study is to understand <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in custody using qualitative methodology and to argue for a comprehensive definition of <span class="hlt">death</span> in custody that acknowledges <span class="hlt">deaths</span> related to the prison environment. Interviews were conducted with 33 experts, who primarily work as lawyers or forensic doctors with national and/or international organisations. Responses were coded and analysed qualitatively. Defining <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in custody according to the place of <span class="hlt">death</span> was deemed problematic. Experts favoured a dynamic approach emphasising the <span class="hlt">link</span> between the detention environment and occurrence of <span class="hlt">death</span> rather than the actual place of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Causes of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and different patterns of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> were discussed, indicating that many of these <span class="hlt">deaths</span> are preventable. Lack of an internationally recognised standard definition of <span class="hlt">death</span> in custody is a major concern. Key aspects such as place, time, and causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> as well as relation to the prison environment should be debated and incorporated into the definition. Systematic identification of violence within prison institutions is critical and efforts are needed to prevent unnecessary <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in prison and to protect vulnerable prisoners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thanatology&pg=2&id=ED200878','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thanatology&pg=2&id=ED200878"><span>The Effects of <span class="hlt">Death</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David</p> <p></p> <p>Although fear of <span class="hlt">death</span> is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of <span class="hlt">death</span> and the fear of <span class="hlt">death</span> have only occurred for the last few decades. <span class="hlt">Death</span> education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of <span class="hlt">death</span> education on <span class="hlt">death</span> anxiety by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-07/pdf/2012-27237.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-07/pdf/2012-27237.pdf"><span>77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-07</p> <p>... risk factors for the development of breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of women who have... relevant genes and/or exposures, further enhancing the ability to detect gene-environment...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122964"><span>Cyclin A2 is required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation, but not separase control, in mouse oocyte meiosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Touati, Sandra A; Cladière, Damien; Lister, Lisa M; Leontiou, Ioanna; Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Rattani, Ahmed; Böttger, Franziska; Stemmann, Olaf; Nasmyth, Kim; Herbert, Mary; Wassmann, Katja</p> <p>2012-11-29</p> <p>In meiosis, two specialized cell divisions allow the separation of paired chromosomes first, then of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Separase removes the cohesin complex holding <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together in a stepwise manner from chromosome arms in meiosis I, then from the centromere region in meiosis II. Using mouse oocytes, our study reveals that cyclin A2 promotes entry into meiosis, as well as an additional unexpected role; namely, its requirement for separase-dependent <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation in meiosis II. Untimely cyclin A2-associated kinase activity in meiosis I leads to precocious <span class="hlt">sister</span> separation, whereas inhibition of cyclin A2 in meiosis II prevents it. Accordingly, endogenous cyclin A is localized to kinetochores throughout meiosis II, but not in anaphase I. Additionally, we found that cyclin B1, but not cyclin A2, inhibits separase in meiosis I. These findings indicate that separase-dependent cohesin removal is differentially regulated by cyclin B1 and A2 in mammalian meiosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2145130','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2145130"><span>The Treatment of PVCs and Prevention of Sudden Cardiac <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nattel, Stanley</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) have traditionally been suppressed using antiarrhythmic drugs. Recent studies have failed to show that reducing the number of PVCs can prevent sudden <span class="hlt">death</span>; moreover, treatment with some antiarrhythmic agents can increase the risk. There is a close <span class="hlt">link</span> between the severity of ischemic heart disease and sudden <span class="hlt">death</span>. PMID:21234088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ124667.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ124667.pdf"><span>Community <span class="hlt">Links</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nelson, Mary</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has <span class="hlt">linked</span> the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010dmak.book..355D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010dmak.book..355D"><span><span class="hlt">Link</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donoho, Steve</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Link</span> analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and <span class="hlt">links</span>. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1470669','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1470669"><span>Chl1p, a DNA helicase-like protein in budding yeast, functions in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>From the time of DNA replication until anaphase onset, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids remain tightly paired along their length. Ctf7p/Eco1p is essential to establish <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid pairing during S-phase and associates with DNA replication components. DNA helicases precede the DNA replication fork and thus will first encounter chromatin sites destined for cohesion. In this study, I provide the first evidence that a DNA helicase is required for proper <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion. Characterizations of chl1 mutant cells reveal that CHL1 interacts genetically with both CTF7/ECO1 and CTF18/CHL12, two genes that function in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion. Consistent with genetic interactions, Chl1p physically associates with Ctf7p/Eco1p both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, a functional assay reveals that Chl1p is critical for <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion. Within the budding yeast genome, Chl1p exhibits the highest degree of sequence similarity to human CHL1 isoforms and BACH1. Previous studies revealed that human CHLR1 exhibits DNA helicase-like activities and that BACH1 is a helicase-like protein that associates with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 to maintain genome integrity. Our findings document a novel role for Chl1p in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion and provide new insights into the possible mechanisms through which DNA helicases may contribute to cancer progression when mutated. PMID:15020404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/373873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/373873"><span>Programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span> plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thanatology&id=EJ692045','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thanatology&id=EJ692045"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Writ Large</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kastenbaum, Robert</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale <span class="hlt">death</span> and <span class="hlt">death</span> that occurs through complex and multi-domain…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1295660','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1295660"><span>Near-<span class="hlt">death</span> experiences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blackmore, S J</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Reactions to claims of near-<span class="hlt">death</span> experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after <span class="hlt">death</span>, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fulton%2c+AND+Robert&id=EJ161921','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fulton%2c+AND+Robert&id=EJ161921"><span>The Sociology of <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fulton, Robert</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>When we start to look at the issues associated with dying and <span class="hlt">death</span>, we must do so in terms of the broadest parameters imaginable. Presented at the Conference on <span class="hlt">Death</span> and Dying: Education, Counseling, and Care, December 1-3, 1976, Orlando, Florida. (Author)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kubler+AND+ross&pg=4&id=EJ049415','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kubler+AND+ross&pg=4&id=EJ049415"><span>Facing Up to <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ross, Elizabeth Kubler</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Doctor urges that Americans accept <span class="hlt">death</span> as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' <span class="hlt">deaths</span>, are also discussed. (PD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&pg=6&id=EJ923799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&pg=6&id=EJ923799"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Acceptance through Ritual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reeves, Nancy C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using <span class="hlt">death</span>-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "<span class="hlt">death</span>-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&pg=6&id=EJ936886','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&pg=6&id=EJ936886"><span>Conflicting Thoughts about <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harris, Paul L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Most research on children's conception of <span class="hlt">death</span> has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that <span class="hlt">death</span> marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+life&pg=7&id=EJ942048','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+life&pg=7&id=EJ942048"><span>Education for <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Puolimatka, Tapio; Solasaari, Ulla</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Death</span> is an unavoidable fact of human life, which cannot be totally ignored in education. Children reflect on <span class="hlt">death</span> and raise questions that deserve serious answers. If an educator completely evades the issue, children will seek other conversation partners. It is possible to find arguments both from secular and religious sources, which alleviate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1337592','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1337592"><span>Physician-assisted <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Physician-assisted <span class="hlt">death</span> includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted <span class="hlt">death</span>. PMID:7632208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=syria&pg=4&id=EJ729503','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=syria&pg=4&id=EJ729503"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Obsession in Palestinians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The authors explored <span class="hlt">death</span> obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The <span class="hlt">Death</span> Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1439384','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1439384"><span>Mozart's illnesses and <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davies, P J</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with <span class="hlt">death</span> from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his <span class="hlt">death</span>. PMID:6352940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ152542.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ152542.pdf"><span>The Psychology of <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fields, B. Celestine</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards <span class="hlt">death</span> and dying. It is concluded that blacks see <span class="hlt">death</span> as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4188144','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4188144"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">Death</span> and Islam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>How one defines <span class="hlt">death</span> may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain <span class="hlt">death</span> is accepted as true <span class="hlt">death</span> among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> has been acknowledged as representing true <span class="hlt">death</span> by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts <span class="hlt">death</span> by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mystery+AND+fiction&pg=5&id=ED168024','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mystery+AND+fiction&pg=5&id=ED168024"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span>, Children, and Books.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carr, Robin L.</p> <p></p> <p>The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of <span class="hlt">death</span> and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward <span class="hlt">death</span> that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1375910','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1375910"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> in Denmark.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evans, M</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of <span class="hlt">death</span>, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and <span class="hlt">death</span> with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for <span class="hlt">death</span> is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and <span class="hlt">death</span> which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it. PMID:2287015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596678','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596678"><span>Manifestations of X-<span class="hlt">linked</span> congenital stationary night blindness in three daughters of an affected male: Demonstration of homozygosity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bech-Hansen, N.T. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Pearce, W.G. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>X-<span class="hlt">linked</span> congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is a hereditary retinal disorder in which clinical features in affected males usually include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. Electroretinography demonstrates a marked reduction in b-wave amplitude. In the study of a large Mennonite family with CSNB1, three of five <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in one sibship were found to have manifestations of CSNB1. All the sons of these three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were affected. Each of the two nonmanifesting <span class="hlt">sisters</span> had at least one unaffected son. Analysis of Xp markers in the region Xp21.1-Xp11.22 showed that the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> who were unaffected had inherited the same maternal X chromosome (i.e., M2). Two of the daughters who manifested with CSNB had inherited the other maternal X chromosome (M1). The third manifesting <span class="hlt">sister</span> inherited a recombinant X chromosome with a crossover between TIMP and DXS255, which suggests that the CSNB1 locus lies proximal to TIMP. One of the affected daughters' sons had inherited the maternal M1 X chromosome, a finding consistent with that chromosome carrying a mutant CSNB gene; the other affected sons inherited the grandfather's X chromosome (i.e., P). Molecular analysis of DNA from three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with manifestations of CSNB is consistent with their being homozygous at the CSNB1 locus and with their mother being a carrier of CSNB1. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA081424','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA081424"><span>Life and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Decision Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-12-01</p> <p>LIFE SMOKING: CANCER, EMPHYSEMA, SHORTENED LIFE BATHING: FALLING, ELECTROCUTION CONTRACEPTION: <span class="hlt">DEATH</span> , ILLNESS PREGNANCY: <span class="hlt">DEATH</span> , ILLNESS ABORTION ...economic effect is the one with the highest probability of causing my <span class="hlt">death</span> . -13- EXPECTED NET SYSTEM DESIGN BENEFIT TO ME <span class="hlt">DEATH</span> <span class="hlt">DEATH</span> (r A(excluding <span class="hlt">death</span> ...0-AO81 424 STANFORD UNIV CALIF DEPT OF ENGtNEERING-ECONOM!C SYSTEMS F/6 12/1 LIFE ANDI <span class="hlt">DEATH</span> DECISION ANALYSIS.CU) DEC 79 R A HOWARD N0OOIN-79-C-0036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4302726','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4302726"><span>A Sibling <span class="hlt">Death</span> in the Family: Common and Consequential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fletcher, Jason; Mailick, Marsha; Song, Jieun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although a large literature analyzes the determinants of child mortality and suggests policy and medical interventions aimed at its reduction, there is little existing analysis illuminating the consequences of child mortality for other family members. In particular, there is little evidence exploring the consequences of experiencing the <span class="hlt">death</span> of a sibling on one’s own development and transition to adulthood. This article examines the prevalence and consequences of experiencing a sibling <span class="hlt">death</span> during one’s childhood using two U.S. data sets. We show that even in a rich developed country, these experiences are quite common, affecting between 5 % and 8 % of the children with one or more siblings in our two data sets. We then show that these experiences are associated with important reductions in years of schooling as well as a broad range of adult socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings also suggest that <span class="hlt">sisters</span> are far more affected than brothers and that the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> is an important factor in sibling effects. Overall, our findings point to important previously unexamined consequences of child mortality, adding to the societal costs associated with childhood mortality as well as suggesting additional benefits from policy and medical innovations aimed at curbing both such <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and subsequent effects on family members. PMID:23073753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157989"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> is not <span class="hlt">death</span>: a critique of the concept, criterion, and tests of brain <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joffe, Ari R</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper suggests that there are insurmountable problems for brain <span class="hlt">death</span> as a criterion of <span class="hlt">death</span>. The following are argued: (1) brain <span class="hlt">death</span> does not meet an accepted concept of <span class="hlt">death</span>, and is not the loss of integration of the organism as a whole; (2) brain <span class="hlt">death</span> does not meet the criterion of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> itself; brain <span class="hlt">death</span> is not the irreversible loss of all critical functions of the entire brain; and (3) brain <span class="hlt">death</span> may, however rarely, be reversible. I conclude that brain <span class="hlt">death</span>, while a devastating neurological state with a dismal prognosis, is not <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14969198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14969198"><span>[<span class="hlt">Death</span> experience. Antidote against fear to <span class="hlt">death</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fericgla, Josep M</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Fortunately, anthropology has brought to our modern society a higher interest for mankind's cultural dimension and the values which each people employ in order to make sense out of the changes which occur during our lives. It is this cultural dimension which permits men to develop our innate capacities and to become humans. However, in order to achieve this, we need experiences which are codified and interpreted by a values system which each individual has made his/her own. Some of these experiences take place inside cultural mores constructed expressly so that they are useful for one's lifestyle; these are known as rites. A rite, therefore, is an experience which leaves an impression, which implies social and biographical changes, which provides meaning to human beings' universal interests. Nonetheless, since rites usually are organized by diverse religions, it is convenient, as we enter the 21st Century, to speak about Experiences which Activate Structures as means to approach, to come to grasp with, some of the great causes of anxiety in humans: <span class="hlt">death</span> and insanity. These Experiences which Activate Structures allow us to subjectively experiment, to conquer our fears and to be more conscious of our here and our now. Workshops on the Living Integration of One's Own <span class="hlt">Death</span> are included in this context as an appropriate forum through which to approach <span class="hlt">death</span> with knowledge and serenity, inducing changes in our own lifestyle as well and helping us to overcome situations of existential blockage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2279660','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2279660"><span>Unusual sudden <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Warren, J. V.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In contrast to usual sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> seen in the course of coronary artery disease, individuals dying suddenly from other causes form a complex array of situations. In some the causes are readily identifiable. No simple pattern is available to identify the potential candidate, but on review of the many causes some moves by the physician may be helpful. For example, a more complete physical evaluation of young individuals participating in competitive athletics is in order. This is particularly true if the athlete reports an episode of unexplained syncope. This may well be the warning of a propensity towards sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> under physical and emotional stress. Knowledge of the specific problems in underwater swimming and diving, in high altitude exposure and in various circumstances such as certain weight reduction diets and industrial exposures may lead to control of some types of unusual sudden <span class="hlt">death</span>. Clearly, more studies are needed to give answers in so called crib <span class="hlt">death</span>. As the incidence of usual sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> falls, these unusual forms of sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> will represent a more important fraction of sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> in general. PMID:6537674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775908','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4775908"><span>Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group. PMID:26787157</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26787157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26787157"><span>Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir Reis; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254004"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange analysis to monitor genotoxic chemicals. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis for toxicological studies. SCE analysis are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing ionizing radiation, chromium compounds, styrene, paint thinner, mercury, cigarette smoke, coal dust, fuel oil, insecticides, ethylene oxide, diesel exhaust, and polychlorinated biphenyls are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/58452','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/58452"><span>Geologic map of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness, Deschutes, Lane, and Linn counties, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Taylor, E.M.; MacLeod, N.S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Walker, G.W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of a geologic survey of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness, Deschutes and Willamette National Forests, Deschutes, Lane and Linn Counties, Oregon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395177"><span>Shigella strains are not clones of Escherichia coli but <span class="hlt">sister</span> species in the genus Escherichia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261041"><span>Resurrection of the genus Staphisagria J. Hill, <span class="hlt">sister</span> to all the other Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jabbour, Florian; Renner, Susanne S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Molecular sequence data show that the three species oDelphinium subg. Staphisagria (J. Hill) Peterm. form the <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to Aconitum L., Aconitella SpachConsolida (DC.) S.F. Gray, and all remaining species of Delphinium L. To account for this finding we resurrect Staphisagria J. Hill (1756). Names in Staphisagria are available for two of the species. We here make the required new combination for the third species, Staphisagria picta (Willd.) F. Jabbour, provide a key to the species, and illustrate one of them. PMID:22287922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401907"><span>Dark three-<span class="hlt">sister</span> rogue waves in normally dispersive optical fibers with random birefringence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Shihua; Soto-Crespo, Jose M; Grelu, Philippe</p> <p>2014-11-03</p> <p>We investigate dark rogue wave dynamics in normally dispersive birefringent optical fibers, based on the exact rational solutions of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Analytical solutions are derived up to the second order via a nonrecursive Darboux transformation method. Vector dark "three-<span class="hlt">sister</span>" rogue waves as well as their existence conditions are demonstrated. The robustness against small perturbations is numerically confirmed in spite of the onset of modulational instability, offering the possibility to observe such extreme events in normal optical fibers with random birefringence, or in other Manakov-type vector nonlinear media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16737839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16737839"><span>Three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with very-late-onset major depression and parkinsonism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sechi, GianPietro; Antonio Cocco, Giovanni; Errigo, Alessandra; Deiana, Luca; Rosati, Giulio; Agnetti, Virgilio; Stephen Paulus, Kay; Mario Pes, Giovanni</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Familiar Parkinson's disease has an age of onset from the second to the sixth decade, whereas Wilson's disease (WD) usually presents in the first decade of life. We studied three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with a form of very-late-onset major depression and parkinsonism with probable linkage to ATP7B gene. Molecular studies demonstrated a nucleotide deletion at the 5'UTR region in a single allele of ATP7B gene. They did not have a family history of WD, or markers indicative for copper deposition in peripheral tissues. We suggest that single allele mutations of ATP7B gene may confer a susceptibility for late-onset major depression and parkinsonism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12516290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12516290"><span>[Partial lipodystrophy in two HLA identical <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with hypocomplementemia and nephropathy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peces, R</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Partial lipodystrophy is a rare disorder with both autosomal recessive and familial forms. The cutaneous findings, which are often subtle, consist of gradual loss of subcutaneous fat from the face and upper body. Low levels of C3 and the presence of C3NeF help to identify these patients. Associated systemic abnormalities include the development of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, insulin resistance and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. We report here two HLA identical <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with the typical features of partial lipodystrophy associated with recurrent infections, low levels of C3, and nephropathy. Our data suggest an autosomal recessive transmission. We discuss the genetic and molecular basis of this rare association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Black+AND+Death&pg=4&id=EJ221183','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Black+AND+Death&pg=4&id=EJ221183"><span>Children's <span class="hlt">Death</span> Concepts and Ethnicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Relationships between <span class="hlt">death</span> concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on <span class="hlt">death</span>. Most children defined <span class="hlt">death</span> as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of <span class="hlt">death</span>. In general, children's <span class="hlt">death</span> concepts were similar.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/someone-died.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/someone-died.html"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> and Grief</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... a <span class="hlt">death</span> or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capital+AND+punishment&pg=3&id=EJ354907','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capital+AND+punishment&pg=3&id=EJ354907"><span>Eighth Amendment & <span class="hlt">Death</span> Penalty.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the <span class="hlt">death</span> penalty for juveniles. (JDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hitler&pg=3&id=EJ517010','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hitler&pg=3&id=EJ517010"><span>Hitler's <span class="hlt">Death</span> Camps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wieser, Paul</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's <span class="hlt">death</span> camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2306254','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2306254"><span>Preparation for <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, J. F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Preparation for <span class="hlt">death</span> is a physical, psychosocial and spiritual process needing the active participation of both patient and physician. Physicians' denial of <span class="hlt">death</span> leads to unrelieved symptoms, inappropriate treatment, and poor communication in the care of the terminally ill. This paper discusses strategies to minimize the effect of denial describing a goal-setting approach to terminal care and the use of quality of life indices. Several principles are presented on how to tell bad news to patients. PMID:21289837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4784493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4784493"><span>Funerals against <span class="hlt">death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of <span class="hlt">death</span>, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive – the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation – and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of <span class="hlt">death</span>. While the eulogy’s accuracy is important, even more so – at least for some – is its authenticity, namely that the speaker has personal knowledge of the deceased. Whereas Davies analyses the power of professionally delivered ritual words against <span class="hlt">death</span>, our data reveals how admired is the courage exercised by non-professionals in speaking against <span class="hlt">death</span>, however faltering their words. Further, the very presence of a congregation whose members have known the deceased in diverse ways embodies a configurational eulogy, which we term relationships against <span class="hlt">death</span>. We thus argue that funerals symbolically conquer <span class="hlt">death</span> not only through words delivered by ritual specialists, but also through those who knew the deceased congregating and speaking. PMID:27019605</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2172757','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2172757"><span>Dictyostelium cell <span class="hlt">death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L.; Golstein, Pierre</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of “paddle” cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell <span class="hlt">death</span> process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent <span class="hlt">death</span> indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell <span class="hlt">death</span> pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells. PMID:12654899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2744427','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2744427"><span>Classification of cell <span class="hlt">death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Different types of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell <span class="hlt">Death</span> (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell <span class="hlt">death</span>-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463464"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> obsession in Palestinians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Arja, Nahida S; Abdalla, Taysir</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>The authors explored <span class="hlt">death</span> obsession level and correlates among a sample (N = 601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The <span class="hlt">Death</span> Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha reliability was .92, denoting high internal consistency. Among women, it yielded 1 factor, (General <span class="hlt">Death</span> Obsession), whereas among men it yielded 3 factors: <span class="hlt">Death</span> Rumination, <span class="hlt">Death</span> Dominance, and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Idea Repetition. Palestinian men and women attained significantly lower DOS mean scores than participants from 4 Arab countries: Egypt, Kuwait, Syria, and Lebanon in 7 out of 8 comparisons. However, Palestinian women had significantly higher DOS mean score than their Spanish, American and British counterparts, whereas Palestinian men had significantly higher mean DOS score than Spanish peers. The low DOS scores of Palestinians, in proportion to other Arab samples, may reflect their adaptation to strife and violence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26976095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26976095"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> criteria formulated for transplantation purposes: fact or myth?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pabisiak, Krzysztof</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Medical progress has moved the boundaries of life that were set many centuries ago. The development of medical techniques has allowed us to witness cases that were unknown prior to the introduction of reanimation procedures and mechanical ventilation. Towards the end of the 1950s, the term "irreversible coma" was coined, and has evolved into what is currently known as the "brain <span class="hlt">death</span>" concept. This latter concept, proposed in 1968, is very often referred to as the new definition of <span class="hlt">death</span>, even in medical circles. What, up until this time, used to be the classic definition of <span class="hlt">death</span>, namely cessation of circulation and respiration, should now be recognized as the classic criteria for <span class="hlt">death</span>. Indeed, the new criteria for recognizing <span class="hlt">death</span> has not resulted in changing the current criteria, but in complementing them. The first part of this paper presents brief descriptions of <span class="hlt">death</span> in the humanities over the centuries and the impact of progress in medicine on changes in how <span class="hlt">death</span> is defined today. The second part brings to light the complexity of creating the foundations of the neurological criteria for <span class="hlt">death</span>. The integration of concepts from two complementary medical fields - neurology and transplantology - is described. Although for some period of time they have been <span class="hlt">linked</span> together, they may grow independently in the future. The jargon phrase "brain <span class="hlt">death</span>" is nowadays recognized as synonym of <span class="hlt">death</span>, but in fact should be considered tantamount to declaring pronouncing a person's <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402064"><span>HCP-4, a CENP-C-like protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, is required for resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, L L; Roth, M B</p> <p>2001-06-11</p> <p>The centromere plays a critical role in the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In mammals, <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres are resolved from one another in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. During prophase, chromosomes condense with <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres oriented in a back to back configuration enabling only one chromatid to be captured by each half spindle. To study this process, we identified a centromere protein (CENP)-C-like protein, holocentric protein (HCP)-4, in Caenorhabditis elegans based on sequence identity, loss of function phenotype, and centromeric localization. HCP-4 is found in the cytoplasm during interphase, but is nuclear localized in mitosis, where it localizes specifically to the centromere. The localization of HCP-4 to the centromere is dependent on the centromeric histone HCP-3; in addition, HCP-3 and HCP-4 are both required for localization of a CENP-F-like protein, HCP-1, indicating an ordered assembly pathway. Loss of HCP-4 expression by RNA-mediated interference resulted in a failure to generate resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres on chromosomes, suggesting that HCP-4 is required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromere resolution. These chromosomes also failed to form a functional kinetochore. Thus, the CENP-C-like protein HCP-4 is essential for both resolution <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres and attachment to the mitotic spindle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24851802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24851802"><span>Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and healthy controls: a retrospective study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434280"><span>The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Touati, Sandra A; Berneau, Stéphane; Cladière, Damien; Hebras, Céline; Groeme, Rachel; McDougall, Alex; Wassmann, Katja</p> <p>2013-03-18</p> <p>Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs in meiosis I and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27422821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27422821"><span>Opposing Functions of the N-terminal Acetyltransferases Naa50 and NatA in <span class="hlt">Sister</span>-chromatid Cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rong, Ziye; Ouyang, Zhuqing; Magin, Robert S; Marmorstein, Ronen; Yu, Hongtao</p> <p>2016-09-02</p> <p>During the cell cycle, <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion tethers <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together from S phase to the metaphase-anaphase transition and ensures accurate segregation of chromatids into daughter cells. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent protein covalent modifications in eukaryotes and is mediated by a family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NAT). Naa50 (also called San) has previously been shown to play a role in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion in metazoans. The mechanism by which Naa50 contributes to cohesion is not understood however. Here, we show that depletion of Naa50 in HeLa cells weakens the interaction between cohesin and its positive regulator sororin and causes cohesion defects in S phase, consistent with a role of Naa50 in cohesion establishment. Strikingly, co-depletion of NatA, a heterodimeric NAT complex that physically interacts with Naa50, rescues the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion defects and the resulting mitotic arrest caused by Naa50 depletion, indicating that NatA and Naa50 play antagonistic roles in cohesion. Purified recombinant NatA and Naa50 do not affect each other's NAT activity in vitro Because NatA and Naa50 exhibit distinct substrate specificity, we propose that they modify different effectors and regulate <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion in opposing ways.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469872"><span>Different parasite faunas in sympatric populations of <span class="hlt">sister</span> hedgehog species in a secondary contact zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pfäffle, Miriam; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Hulva, Pavel; Petney, Trevor</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both <span class="hlt">sister</span> hedgehog species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112184"><span>Timeless Maintains Genomic Stability and Suppresses <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange during Unperturbed DNA Replication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urtishak, Karen A; Smith, Kevin D; Chanoux, Rebecca A; Greenberg, Roger A; Johnson, F Brad; Brown, Eric J</p> <p>2009-03-27</p> <p>Genome integrity is maintained during DNA replication by coordination of various replisome-regulated processes. Although it is known that Timeless (Tim) is a replisome component that participates in replication checkpoint responses to genotoxic stress, its importance for genome maintenance during normal DNA synthesis has not been reported. Here we demonstrate that Tim reduction leads to genomic instability during unperturbed DNA replication, culminating in increased chromatid breaks and translocations (triradials, quadriradials, and fusions). Tim deficiency led to increased H2AX phosphorylation and Rad51 and Rad52 foci formation selectively during DNA synthesis and caused a 3-4-fold increase in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange events stimulated by Tim reduction were largely mediated via a Brca2/Rad51-dependent mechanism and were additively increased by deletion of the Blm helicase. Therefore, Tim deficiency leads to an increased reliance on homologous recombination for proper continuation of DNA synthesis. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Tim in maintaining genome stability throughout normal DNA replication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023636"><span>Two young <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 showing different clinical progression of disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yiş, Uluç; Dirik, Eray; Kurul, Semra Hiz; Eken, Asli Gündoğdu; Başak, A Nazli</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-2 gene. Gain-of-toxic effects caused by expanded polyglutamine tracts are important for the disease pathogenesis and there is an inverse relationship between the number of CAG repeats and the age of onset and clinical severity. Previously, we reported an extended Turkish family with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 with several affected members in three generations. Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in this generation showed an earlier age of onset (5 and 7 years, respectively) than their father (30 years). In this paper, we present a further interesting finding regarding the disease onset and manifestation in the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Interestingly, the age of onset was delayed and the clinical severity of the disease was milder in the child who had more CAG repeats (84 vs. 70). This finding suggests that there are other factors contributing to the age of onset and clinical severity in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 other than the increased CAG repeat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757227"><span>Stress-induced Condensation of Bacterial Genomes Results in Re-pairing of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromosomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shechter, Nelia; Zaltzman, Liron; Weiner, Allon; Brumfeld, Vlad; Shimoni, Eyal; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Minsky, Abraham</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Genome condensation is increasingly recognized as a generic stress response in bacteria. To better understand the physiological implications of this response, we used fluorescent markers to locate specific sites on Escherichia coli chromosomes following exposure to cytotoxic stress. We find that stress-induced condensation proceeds through a nonrandom, zipper-like convergence of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes, which is proposed to rely on the recently demonstrated intrinsic ability of identical double-stranded DNA molecules to specifically identify each other. We further show that this convergence culminates in spatial proximity of homologous sites throughout chromosome arms. We suggest that the resulting apposition of homologous sites can explain how repair of double strand DNA breaks might occur in a mechanism that is independent of the widely accepted yet physiologically improbable genome-wide search for homologous templates. We claim that by inducing genome condensation and orderly convergence of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes, diverse stress conditions prime bacteria to effectively cope with severe DNA lesions such as double strand DNA breaks. PMID:23884460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640518"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to the enterobacteria microviruses (family Microviridae) identified in methane seep sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bryson, Samuel Joseph; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S; Orphan, Victoria J; Vega Thurber, Rebecca</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Methane seep microbial communities perform a key ecosystem service by consuming the greenhouse gas methane prior to its release into the hydrosphere, minimizing the impact of marine methane sources on our climate. Although previous studies have examined the ecology and biochemistry of these communities, none has examined viral assemblages associated with these habitats. We employed virus particle purification, genome amplification, pyrosequencing and gene/genome reconstruction and annotation on two metagenomic libraries, one prepared for ssDNA and the other for all DNA, to identify the viral community in a methane seep. Similarity analysis of these libraries (raw and assembled) revealed a community dominated by phages, with a significant proportion of similarities to the Microviridae family of ssDNA phages. We define these viruses as the Eel River Basin Microviridae (ERBM). Assembly and comparison of 21 ERBM closed circular genomes identified five as members of a novel <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to the Microvirus genus of Enterobacteria phages. Comparisons among other metagenomes and these Microviridae major-capsid sequences indicated that this clade of phages is currently unique to the Eel River Basin sediments. Given this ERBM clade's relationship to the Microviridae genus Microvirus, we define this <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade as the candidate genus Pequeñovirus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5025379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5025379"><span>Origins of dacite and rhyodacite of the South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> magmatic system, central high Cascades, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, J.D.; Parker, D.F. )</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>A gap from 66 to 72 weight percent silica (48--62 ppm Rb) separates dacite from rhyodacite of the South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> system. The authors results indicate that rhyodacite can not be produced by fractional crystallization from dacite. Variation among rhyodacite and associated rhyolite is, however, most likely the result of fractional crystallization, in agreement with previous studies. Dacite in the South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> system probably had multiple origins, as suggested by trace element plots for Y, Nb and Zr. Some dacite was produced by fractional crystallization from andesitic magmas, while others were largely the result of mixing between andesite and rhyodacite. Mafic enclaves occurring in dacite are compositional similar to Holocene basalt, and their mixing with dacitic magma may have triggered eruptions, but they are probably not directly related genetically to their host rocks. The rhyodacites are probably crustal melts. Previous workers have suggested high-level melting of hypabyssal silicic plutons or amphibolite sources for the rhyodacites. The authors suggest melting of granitic plutonic sources, similar to those exposed in the Klamath Mountains, for the origin of the rhyodacites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25366522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25366522"><span>Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: variable phenotypic expression in three affected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from Mexican ancestry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arteaga, María E; Hunziker, Walter; Teo, Audrey S M; Hillmer, Axel M; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal disease caused by mutations in genes for the tight junction transmembrane proteins Claudin-16 (CLDN16) and Claudin-19 (CLDN19). We present the first case report of a Mexican family with three affected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> carrying a p.Gly20Asp mutation in CLDN19 whose heterozygous mother showed evident hypercalciuria and normal low magnesemia without any other clinical, laboratory, and radiological symptoms of renal disease making of her an unsuitable donor. The affected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> showed variable phenotypic expression including age of first symptoms, renal urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and eye symptoms consisting in retinochoroiditis, strabismus, macular scars, bilateral anisocoria, and severe myopia and astigmatism. End stage renal disease due to renal failure needed kidney transplantation in the three of them. Interesting findings were a heterozygous mother with asymptomatic hypercalciuria warning on the need of carefully explore clinical, laboratory, kidney ultrasonograpy, and mutation status in first degree asymptomatic relatives to avoid inappropriate kidney donors; an evident variable phenotypic expression among patients; the identification of a mutation almost confined to Spanish cases and a 3.5 Mb block of genomic homozygosis strongly suggesting a common remote parental ancestor for the gene mutation reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4254975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4254975"><span>Different Parasite Faunas in Sympatric Populations of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Hedgehog Species in a Secondary Contact Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pfäffle, Miriam; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Hulva, Pavel; Petney, Trevor</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both <span class="hlt">sister</span> hedgehog species. PMID:25469872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987150"><span>Understanding the origins of UV-induced recombination through manipulation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Covo, Shay; Ma, Wenjian; Westmoreland, James W; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Resnick, Michael A</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet light (UV) can provoke genome instability, partly through its ability to induce homologous recombination (HR). However, the mechanism(s) of UV-induced recombination is poorly understood. Although double-strand breaks (DSBs) have been invoked, there is little evidence for their generation by UV. Alternatively, single-strand DNA lesions that stall replication forks could provoke recombination. Recent findings suggest efficient initiation of UV-induced recombination in G1 through processing of closely spaced single-strand lesions to DSBs. However, other scenarios are possible, since the recombination initiated in G1 can be completed in the following stages of the cell cycle. We developed a system that could address UV-induced recombination events that start and finish in G2 by manipulating the activity of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion complex. Here we show that <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion suppresses UV-induced recombination events that are initiated and resolved in G2. By comparing recombination frequencies and survival between UV and ionizing radiation, we conclude that a substantial portion of UV-induced recombination occurs through DSBs. This notion is supported by a direct physical observation of UV-induced DSBs that are dependent on nucleotide excision repair. However, a significant role of nonDSB intermediates in UV-induced recombination cannot be excluded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373565"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges are mediated by homologous recombination in vertebrate cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonoda, E; Sasaki, M S; Morrison, C; Yamaguchi-Iwai, Y; Takata, M; Takeda, S</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency is a commonly used index of chromosomal stability in response to environmental or genetic mutagens. However, the mechanism generating cytologically detectable SCEs and, therefore, their prognostic value for chromosomal stability in mitotic cells remain unclear. We examined the role of the highly conserved homologous recombination (HR) pathway in SCE by measuring SCE levels in HR-defective vertebrate cells. Spontaneous and mitomycin C-induced SCE levels were significantly reduced for chicken DT40 B cells lacking the key HR genes RAD51 and RAD54 but not for nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ)-defective KU70(-/-) cells. As measured by targeted integration efficiency, reconstitution of HR activity by expression of a human RAD51 transgene restored SCE levels to normal, confirming that HR is the mechanism responsible for SCE. Our findings show that HR uses the nascent <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid to repair potentially lethal DNA lesions accompanying replication, which might explain the lethality or tumorigenic potential associated with defects in HR or HR-associated proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642257"><span>[<span class="hlt">Deaths</span> in hotels].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There are no verified statistics about <span class="hlt">deaths</span> occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Among the <span class="hlt">deaths</span>, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23822156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23822156"><span>Applications of social network media in medicolegal <span class="hlt">death</span> investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hookano, Ryan; Knight, Laura D; Brunelli, Ronald A; Stoppacher, Robert</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>With the increased popularity of online social networking services (SNS) such as Facebook, <span class="hlt">Linked</span>In, Twitter, and Google+, we propose that a wealth of new resources is available for medicolegal <span class="hlt">death</span> investigation. Recognizing this potential, we identified cases in which social media had been useful in the past in our office and asked our investigative staff to consider using social media in current cases. These cases provided illustrative examples for this primer regarding how information from SNS was used in <span class="hlt">death</span> investigations in our office. Information gleaned from online social media aided in establishing preliminary identification of a decedent, locating next-of-kin, investigating the circumstances of <span class="hlt">death</span> as relevant to the manner of <span class="hlt">death</span>, corroborating eyewitness accounts, and providing information relevant to time of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Potential pitfalls were identified, such as shared accounts or online impostors. SNS proved useful to the medicolegal <span class="hlt">death</span> investigator and medical examiner, so long as their limitations were recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225848"><span>Novel HPS6 mutations identified by whole-exome sequencing in two Japanese <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with suspected ocular albinism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyamichi, Daisuke; Asahina, Miki; Nakajima, Junya; Sato, Miho; Hosono, Katsuhiro; Nomura, Takahito; Negishi, Takashi; Miyake, Noriko; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Naomichi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, platelet dysfunction and ceroid deposition. We report suspected ocular albinism in two Japanese <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, caused by mutations in the HPS6 (Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6) gene. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in HPS6 (c.1898delC: mother origin and c.2038C>T: father origin) in the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. To date, 10 associated mutations have been detected in HPS6. Although we detected no general manifestations, including platelet dysfunction, in the <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, even in long-term follow-up, we established a diagnosis of HPS type 6 based on the HPS6 mutations and absence of dense bodies in the platelets, indicating that WES can identify cases of HPS type 6. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HPS6 mutations in Japanese patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15814367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15814367"><span>Potentiality, irreversibility, and <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lizza, John P</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>There has been growing concern about whether individuals who satisfy neurological criteria for <span class="hlt">death</span> or who become non-heart-beating organ donors are really dead. This concern has focused on the issue of the potential for recovery that these individuals may still have and whether their conditions are irreversible. In this article I examine the concepts of potentiality and irreversibility that have been invoked in the discussions of the definition of <span class="hlt">death</span> and non-heart-beating organ donation. I initially focus on the recent challenge by D. Alan Shewmon to accepting any neurological criterion of <span class="hlt">death</span>. I argue that Shewmon relies on a problematic and unrealistic concept of potentiality, and that a better, more realistic concept of potentiality is consistent with accepting a neurological criterion for <span class="hlt">death</span>. I then turn to an analysis of how the concept of irreversibility has been used in discussion of non-heart-beating organ donation. Similarly, I argue that some participants in this discussion have invoked a problematic and unrealistic concept of irreversibility. I then propose an alternative, more realistic account of irreversibility that explains how "irreversibility" should be understood in the definition and criteria of <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19558940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19558940"><span>[Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> diagnosis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escudero, Dolores</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> has been recognized by the scientific community as the person's <span class="hlt">death</span>, and accepted in the legislation of different countries. Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> is defined as the irreversible ending of the functions of all the intracranial neurological structure in both the brain and brain stem. This clinical situation appears when intracranial pressure exceeds the patient's systolic blood pressure, leading to brain circulatory arrest. The most frequent are cerebral hemorrhage and cranioencephalic trauma. Clinical diagnostic must be done by doctors with expertise in neurocritical patient treatment. This diagnosis is based on a systematic, complete and extremely rigorous clinical examination that confirms a non-reactive coma, absence of brain stem reflex, and absence of spontaneous breathing. Instrumental tests may be obligatory in some cases, this depending on each country. Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials are the electrophysiological tests used. In patients treated with sedative drugs, cerebral blood flow evaluation tests, such as cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler or 99Tc-HMPAO scintigraphy, will be used. More than 92% of the transplants performed in Spain are performed with brain <span class="hlt">death</span> donor organs. Brain <span class="hlt">death</span> confirmation is a high responsibility act, with medical, ethical and legal significance since it requires removal of all artificial support, or organs extraction for transplant. Extensive knowledge on its diagnostic and correct decision making avoid unnecessary use of resources and improves management of organs for transplant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25839720"><span>Pediatric brain <span class="hlt">death</span> determination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mathur, Mudit; Ashwal, Stephen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Clinical guidelines for the determination of brain <span class="hlt">death</span> in children were first published in 1987. These guidelines were revised in 2011 under the auspices of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Child Neurology Society, and provide the minimum standards that must be satisfied before brain <span class="hlt">death</span> can be declared in infants and children. After achieving physiologic stability and exclusion of confounders, two examinations including apnea testing separated by an observation period (24 hours for term newborns up to 30 days of age, and 12 hours for infants and children from 31 days up to 18 years) are required to establish brain <span class="hlt">death</span>. Apnea testing should demonstrate a final arterial PaCO2 20 mm Hg above the baseline and ≥ 60 mm Hg with no respiratory effort during the testing period. Ancillary studies (electroencephalogram and radionuclide cerebral blood flow) are not required to establish brain <span class="hlt">death</span> and are not a substitute for the neurologic examination. The committee concluded that ancillary studies may be used (1) when components of the examination or apnea testing cannot be completed, (2) if uncertainty about components of the neurologic examination exists, (3) if a medication effect may be present, or (4) to reduce the interexamination observation period. When ancillary studies are used, a second clinical examination and apnea test should still be performed and components that can be completed must remain consistent with brain <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thanatology&pg=2&id=EJ191396','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thanatology&pg=2&id=EJ191396"><span>Perspectives on <span class="hlt">Death</span>: An Experiential Course on <span class="hlt">Death</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stefan, Edwin S.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on <span class="hlt">death</span> education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing <span class="hlt">death</span>, encourage discussion on the subject of <span class="hlt">death</span>, motivate students to change their attitudes about <span class="hlt">death</span>, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ231704.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ231704.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Threat and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Concerns in the College Student.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Thanatology students reported significantly lesser <span class="hlt">death</span> threat and significantly greater <span class="hlt">death</span> concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in <span class="hlt">death</span> threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in <span class="hlt">death</span> threat. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=virus+AND+life&pg=3&id=EJ480640','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=virus+AND+life&pg=3&id=EJ480640"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Depression and <span class="hlt">Death</span> Anxiety in HIV-Infected Males.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hintze, Julie; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Administered <span class="hlt">Death</span> Anxiety Scale, <span class="hlt">Death</span> Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Scale, and questionnaire assessing demographic and life-situation variables to 94 human immunodeficiency virus-infected gay men. Higher <span class="hlt">death</span> anxiety and <span class="hlt">death</span> depression were most highly correlated with state anxiety, trait anxiety,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27993934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27993934"><span>Cell cycle-regulated ubiquitination of tankyrase 1 by RNF8 and ABRO1/BRCC36 controls the timing of <span class="hlt">sister</span> telomere resolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tripathi, Ekta; Smith, Susan</p> <p>2017-02-15</p> <p>Timely resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in G2/M is essential for genome integrity. Resolution at telomeres requires the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase tankyrase 1, but the mechanism that times its action is unknown. Here, we show that tankyrase 1 activity at telomeres is controlled by a ubiquitination/deubiquitination cycle depending on opposing ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitinase activities. In late S/G2 phase, the DNA damage-responsive E3 ligase RNF8 conjugates K63-<span class="hlt">linked</span> ubiquitin chains to tankyrase 1, while in G1 phase such ubiquitin chains are removed by BRISC, an ABRO1/BRCC36-containing deubiquitinase complex. We show that K63-<span class="hlt">linked</span> ubiquitin chains accumulate on tankyrase 1 in late S/G2 to promote its stabilization, association with telomeres, and resolution of cohesion. Timing of this posttranslational modification coincides with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response that occurs on functional telomeres following replication in G2. Removal of ubiquitin chains is controlled by ABRO1/BRCC36 and occurs as cells exit mitosis and enter G1, ensuring that telomere cohesion is not resolved prematurely in S phase. Our studies suggest that a cell cycle-regulated posttranslational mechanism couples resolution of telomere cohesion with completion of telomere replication to ensure genome integrity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23883091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23883091"><span>Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: the <span class="hlt">death</span> of a genius.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hatzinger, Martin; Hatzinger, Jurgen; Sohn, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The early and unexpected <span class="hlt">death</span> of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Salzburg, 1756 - Vienna, 1791) was a mystery from the very first day and the subject of wildest speculations and adventurous assertions. Over the last 100 years, medical science has investigated the physical sufferings and the mysterious <span class="hlt">death</span> of Mozart with increasing intensity. The aim of this article was to recreate Mozart's pathography relying on the his correspondence with father Leopold and <span class="hlt">sister</span> Nannerl and on reports from his physicians and contemporaries. The rumour that Mozart was poisoned followed shortly after his <span class="hlt">death</span> on 5 December 1791, at the age of 35, and has survived to this day. The alleged culprits were his physician van Swieten, Mozart's freemasons lodge, and the Imperial Chapel Master Salieri. Mozart however died of chronic kidney disease and ultimately of uraemia. If kidney damage reaches a critical point, even a minimum additional stress can lead to its failure. This usually occurs in the fourth decade of life. Next time we listen to Mozart, we should remember that this apparently happy person was actually a precocious boy, ripped of his childhood, whose short life was an endless chain of complaints, fatigue, misery, concern, and malady.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8075771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8075771"><span>Cocaine-related <span class="hlt">deaths</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodriguez, A</p> <p>1994-07-15</p> <p>Cocaine availability has been increasing in Spain in the past few years. A review of all the toxicological analyses carried out at the Madrid Department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, with subjects who had died of drugs from 1990 to 1992, found 533 persons who had cocaine in their blood and/or tissues; 450 (84%) <span class="hlt">deaths</span> involved cocaine and heroin together whereas 83 (16%) <span class="hlt">deaths</span> involved cocaine with an absence of heroin. This paper reports the circumstances, cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations in the blood and other toxicological findings for the two major groups of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> where cocaine was found with an absence of heroin, i.e., possible overdose cases (35 cases) and traffic accidents (23 cases).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9061907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9061907"><span>Amphetamine derivative related <span class="hlt">deaths</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A</p> <p>1997-02-28</p> <p>Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of <span class="hlt">death</span>, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645674"><span>[Sexuality and <span class="hlt">death</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sapetti, Adrián</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and <span class="hlt">Death</span>, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of <span class="hlt">death</span>, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the <span class="hlt">death</span> arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26176278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26176278"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Dilemma and Organism Recovery in Ecotoxicology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashauer, Roman; O'Connor, Isabel; Hintermeister, Anita; Escher, Beate I</p> <p>2015-08-18</p> <p>Why do some individuals survive after exposure to chemicals while others die? Either, the tolerance threshold is distributed among the individuals in a population, and its exceedance leads to certain <span class="hlt">death</span>, or all individuals share the same threshold above which <span class="hlt">death</span> occurs stochastically. The previously published General Unified Threshold model of Survival (GUTS) established a mathematical relationship between the two assumptions. According to this model stochastic <span class="hlt">death</span> would result in systematically faster compensation and damage repair mechanisms than individual tolerance. Thus, we face a circular conclusion dilemma because inference about the <span class="hlt">death</span> mechanism is inherently <span class="hlt">linked</span> to the speed of damage recovery. We provide empirical evidence that the stochastic <span class="hlt">death</span> model consistently infers much faster toxicodynamic recovery than the individual tolerance model. Survival data can be explained by either, slower damage recovery and a wider individual tolerance distribution, or faster damage recovery paired with a narrow tolerance distribution. The toxicodynamic model parameters exhibited meaningful patterns in chemical space, which is why we suggest toxicodynamic model parameters as novel phenotypic anchors for in vitro to in vivo toxicity extrapolation. GUTS appears to be a promising refinement of traditional survival curve analysis and dose response models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448855"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human epidermal cells in culture treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave UV radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>West, M.R.; Johansen, M.; Faed, M.J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The effects of 8-methoxypsoralen with long-wave ultraviolet radiation on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human epidermal cells in culture was investigated. With a constant amount of radiation the number of exchanges increased in an approximately linear manner with increasing concentrations of 8-methoxypsoralen up to 0.3 micrograms/ml. Above this concentration there were fewer dividing cells and an apparent departure from linearity in the dose-response curve. These results show that 8-methoxypsoralen concentrations equivalent to those found in the serum of patients undergoing photochemotherapy, in conjunction with UVA radiation, cause striking increases in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human epidermal cells in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590742','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590742"><span>Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chan, Stephanie H.; Van Hee, Victor C.; Bergen, Silas; Szpiro, Adam A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; London, Stephanie J.; Marshall, Julian D.; Sandler, Dale P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Exposure to air pollution has been consistently associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but mechanisms remain uncertain. Associations with blood pressure (BP) may help to explain the cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Objective We examined the cross-sectional relationship between long-term (annual average) residential air pollution exposure and BP in the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences’ <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study, a large U.S. cohort study investigating risk factors for breast cancer and other outcomes. Methods This analysis included 43,629 women 35–76 years of age, enrolled 2003–2009, who had a <span class="hlt">sister</span> with breast cancer. Geographic information systems contributed to satellite-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) predictions at participant residences at study entry. Generalized additive models were used to examine the relationship between pollutants and measured BP at study entry, adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors and including thin plate splines for potential spatial confounding. Results A 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 1.4-mmHg higher systolic BP (95% CI: 0.6, 2.3; p < 0.001), 1.0-mmHg higher pulse pressure (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7; p = 0.001), 0.8-mmHg higher mean arterial pressure (95% CI: 0.2, 1.4; p = 0.01), and no significant association with diastolic BP. A 10-ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.4-mmHg (95% CI: 0.2, 0.6; p < 0.001) higher pulse pressure. Conclusions Long-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were associated with higher blood pressure. On a population scale, such air pollution–related increases in blood pressure could, in part, account for the increases in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality seen in prior studies. Citation Chan SH, Van Hee VC, Bergen S, Szpiro AA, DeRoo LA, London SJ, Marshall JD, Kaufman JD, Sandler DP. 2015. Long-term air pollution exposure and blood pressure in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study. Environ Health</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239355','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239355"><span>Byron on <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>of alienation from other men, but also kinship with identical elements of nature presented in the same sequence: air, earth , water . Add to those...question of the <span class="hlt">death</span> of the innocent is as important in Heaven and Earth as in Cain. As the waters rise at the end of the later drama, a mother...What is there in this milk of mine, that <span class="hlt">death</span> Should stir all heaven and earth up to destroy My boy, And roll the waters o’er his placid breath</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20503640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20503640"><span>[The <span class="hlt">death</span> of Cleopatra].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guillemain, Bernard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The image of a queen bitten by a snake is controversial and the facts, such as the swiftness of her <span class="hlt">death</span> and her servants, and scientific experiments are in favour of a deadly poisoning. The author reminds that in the ancient texts the snake had sacred virtues and it was a symbolic image to embellish the suicide of the one who was sentenced to <span class="hlt">death</span> by the Romans. Octaves set up the myth of a fatal bite which became an iconographic image for the cinema.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24294729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24294729"><span>[Near <span class="hlt">death</span> experiences].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rubia Vila, Francisco José</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Near <span class="hlt">Death</span> Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after <span class="hlt">death</span>. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649638"><span>Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The aim of our study was the induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular <span class="hlt">death</span>. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4589785','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4589785"><span>The lethal response to Cdk1 inhibition depends on <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid alignment errors generated by KIF4 and isoform 1 of PRC1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Voets, Erik; Marsman, Judith; Demmers, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Roderick; Wolthuis, Rob</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is absolutely essential for cell division. Complete ablation of Cdk1 precludes the entry of G2 phase cells into mitosis, and is early embryonic lethal in mice. Dampening Cdk1 activation, by reducing gene expression or upon treatment with cell-permeable Cdk1 inhibitors, is also detrimental for proliferating cells, but has been associated with defects in mitotic progression, and the formation of aneuploid daughter cells. Here, we used a large-scale RNAi screen to identify the human genes that critically determine the cellular toxicity of Cdk1 inhibition. We show that Cdk1 inhibition leads to fatal <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid alignment errors and mitotic arrest in the spindle checkpoint. These problems start early in mitosis and are alleviated by depletion of isoform 1 of PRC1 (PRC1-1), by gene ablation of its binding partner KIF4, or by abrogation of KIF4 motor activity. Our results show that, normally, Cdk1 activity must rise above the level required for mitotic entry. This prevents KIF4-dependent PRC1-1 translocation to astral microtubule tips and safeguards proper chromosome congression. We conclude that cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in response to Cdk1 inhibitors directly relates to chromosome alignment defects generated by insufficient repression of PRC1-1 and KIF4 during prometaphase. PMID:26423135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5001594','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5001594"><span>Bromodeoxyuridine does not contribute to <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange events in normal or Bloom syndrome cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Wietmarschen, Niek; Lansdorp, Peter M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are considered sensitive indicators of genome instability. Detection of SCEs typically requires cells to incorporate bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during two rounds of DNA synthesis. Previous studies have suggested that SCEs are induced by DNA replication over BrdU-substituted DNA and that BrdU incorporation alone could be responsible for the high number of SCE events observed in cells from patients with Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by marked genome instability and high SCE frequency. Here we show using Strand-seq, a single cell DNA template strand sequencing technique, that the presence of variable BrdU concentrations in the cell culture medium and in DNA template strands has no effect on SCE frequency in either normal or BS cells. We conclude that BrdU does not induce SCEs and that SCEs detected in either normal or BS cells reflect DNA repair events that occur spontaneously. PMID:27185886</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2289485','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2289485"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid separation in frog egg extracts requires DNA topoisomerase II activity during anaphase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We have produced metaphase spindles and induced them to enter anaphase in vitro. Sperm nuclei were added to frog egg extracts, allowed to replicate their DNA, and driven into metaphase by the addition of cytoplasm containing active maturation promoting factor (MPF) and cytostatic factor (CSF), an activity that stabilizes MPF. Addition of calcium induces the inactivation of MPF, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation and anaphase chromosome movement. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors prevent chromosome segregation at anaphase, demonstrating that the chromatids are catenated at metaphase and that decatenation occurs at the start of anaphase. Topoisomerase II activity towards exogenous substrates does not increase at the metaphase to anaphase transition, showing that chromosome separation at anaphase is not triggered by a bulk activation of topoisomerase II. PMID:1315785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059761"><span>Evolutionary interplay between <span class="hlt">sister</span> cytochrome P450 genes shapes plasticity in plant metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhenhua; Tavares, Raquel; Forsythe, Evan S.; André, François; Lugan, Raphaël; Jonasson, Gabriella; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Tohge, Takayuki; Beilstein, Mark A.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Expansion of the cytochrome P450 gene family is often proposed to have a critical role in the evolution of metabolic complexity, in particular in microorganisms, insects and plants. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this complexity are poorly understood. Here we describe the evolutionary history of a plant P450 retrogene, which emerged and underwent fixation in the common ancestor of Brassicales, before undergoing tandem duplication in the ancestor of Brassicaceae. Duplication leads first to gain of dual functions in one of the copies. Both <span class="hlt">sister</span> genes are retained through subsequent speciation but eventually return to a single copy in two of three diverging lineages. In the lineage in which both copies are maintained, the ancestral functions are split between paralogs and a novel function arises in the copy under relaxed selection. Our work illustrates how retrotransposition and gene duplication can favour the emergence of novel metabolic functions. PMID:27713409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1371839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1371839"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span>-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927847"><span>Absence of an ultrasound effect on in vitro lymphocyte <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brulfert, A.; Ciaravino, V.; Miller, M.W.; Carstensen, E.L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human lymphocytes cultured in vitro was not affected by a 30 min exposure to 2.25 MHz focused ultrasound beam (from a clinical diagnostic unit with a pulse repetition rate of 1000 Hz, a 1 ..mu.. sec burst duration, and a 2-200 W/cm/sup 2/ maximum intensity. A 30 sec exposure to CW 1 MHz 2 W/cm/sup 2/ (SP) ultrasound from an experimental device lysed 10-15% of the lymphocytes; there was no increase in SCEs in the survivors relative to unexposed controls. Treatment of lymphocytes with 0.033 ..mu..g/ml mitomycin-C, a known SCE inducer, increased the frequency of SCEs about 4 times above control levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621615"><span>Seed plant phylogeny: gnetophytes are derived conifers and a <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to Pinaceae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Xia, Junnan; Drouin, Guy</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>The phylogenetic position of gnetophytes has long been controversial. We sequenced parts of the genes coding for the largest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerase I, II, and III and combined these sequences with those of four chloroplast genes, two mitochondrial genes, and 18S rRNA genes to address this issue. Both maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of the sites not affected by high substitution levels strongly support a phylogeny where gymnosperms and angiosperms are monophyletic, where cycads are at the base of gymnosperm tree and are followed by ginkgos, and where gnetophytes are grouped within conifers as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group of pines. The evolution of several morphological and molecular characters of gnetophytes and conifers will therefore need to be reinterpreted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26643143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26643143"><span>PICH promotes <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid disjunction and co-operates with topoisomerase II in mitosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Christian F; Huttner, Diana; Bizard, Anna H; Hirano, Seiki; Li, Tian-Neng; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Liu, Ying; Nigg, Erich A; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Hickson, Ian D</p> <p>2015-12-08</p> <p>PICH is a SNF2 family DNA translocase that binds to ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. Numerous roles for PICH have been proposed from protein depletion experiments, but a consensus has failed to emerge. Here, we report that deletion of PICH in avian cells causes chromosome structural abnormalities, and hypersensitivity to an inhibitor of Topoisomerase II (Topo II), ICRF-193. ICRF-193-treated PICH(-/-) cells undergo <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid non-disjunction in anaphase, and frequently abort cytokinesis. PICH co-localizes with Topo IIα on UFBs and at the ribosomal DNA locus, and the timely resolution of both structures depends on the ATPase activity of PICH. Purified PICH protein strongly stimulates the catalytic activity of Topo II in vitro. Consistent with this, a human PICH(-/-) cell line exhibits chromosome instability and chromosome condensation and decatenation defects similar to those of ICRF-193-treated cells. We propose that PICH and Topo II cooperate to prevent chromosome missegregation events in mitosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980104','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980104"><span>Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to primates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mason, Victor C.; Li, Gang; Minx, Patrick; Schmitz, Jürgen; Churakov, Gennady; Doronina, Liliya; Melin, Amanda D.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Lim, Norman T-L.; Springer, Mark S.; Wilson, Richard K.; Warren, Wesley C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Colugos are among the most poorly studied mammals despite their centrality to resolving supraordinal primate relationships. Two described species of these gliding mammals are the sole living members of the order Dermoptera, distributed throughout Southeast Asia. We generated a draft genome sequence for a Sunda colugo and a Philippine colugo reference alignment, and used these to identify colugo-specific genetic changes that were enriched in sensory and musculoskeletal-related genes that likely underlie their nocturnal and gliding adaptations. Phylogenomic analysis and catalogs of rare genomic changes overwhelmingly support the contested hypothesis that colugos are the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to primates (Primatomorpha), to the exclusion of treeshrews. We captured ~140 kb of orthologous sequence data from colugo museum specimens sampled across their range and identified large genetic differences between many geographically isolated populations that may result in a >300% increase in the number of recognized colugo species. Our results identify conservation units to mitigate future losses of this enigmatic mammalian order. PMID:27532052</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393136"><span>Tumor promoter induces <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges: relevance to mechanisms of carcinogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kinsella, A R; Radman, M</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a powerful tumor promoter, is shown to induce <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs), whereas the nonpromoting derivative 4-O-methyl-TPA does not. Inhibitors of tumor promotion--antipain, leupeptin, and fluocinolone acetonide--inhibit formation of such TPA-induced SCEs. TPA is a unique agent in its induction of SCEs in the absence of DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, or significant toxicity. Because TPA is known to induce several gene functions, we speculate that it might also induce enzymes involved in genetic recombination. Thus, the irreversible step in tumor promotion might be the result of an aberrant mitotic segregation event leading to the expression of carcinogen/mutagen-induced recessive genetic or epigenetic chromosomal changes. Images PMID:282631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094759"><span>[Congenital insensitivity to pain: clinical and neurophysiological study in three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of a Moroccan family].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kissani, N; Krrati, H; Alarcon, G; Belaaidi, H; Ouazzani, R</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). This disorder is an autosomal recessive condition: since 1996, mutations attributed to this entity have been found in the neurotrophin tyrosine-kinase gene receptor on chromosome 1. The authors report 3 cases of congenital insensitivity to pain. In these 3 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of consanguineous parents, the clinical investigation showed total absence of pain and temperature sensations with preservation of all other sensory modalities, mental retardation, but in contrast to HSAN type IV, there was no anhidrosis. The neurophysiological investigation revealed an isolated axonal sensory polyneuropathy in the 3 patients. The clinical and neurophysiological investigations were normal in both parents and the brother. The physiopathology of this entity is discussed. We suggest a particular form of HSAN type IV with preservation of transpiration or a new entity of congenital insensitivity to pain, which should be analyzed genetically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072558"><span>Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vivona, Jeanine M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542671"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph nodule as the presenting sign of disseminated prostate carcinoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deb, Prabal; Rai, Radhey Shyam; Rai, Rahul; Gupta, Ekawali; Chander, Yogesh</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule is referred to as metastasis of visceral malignancy to the umbilicus. Most common primaries are in the gastrointestinal or genital tract, while other locations are rare. We recently encountered a 76-year-old male who was referred to the surgery clinic with an erythematous nodule in the umbilicus measuring 6 cm in diameter with complaints of painless profuse hematuria. History revealed severe obstructive voiding symptoms of 2-year duration, along with significant loss of weight and difficulty in walking. A detailed examination showed hard nodular hepatomegaly, along with grade IV prostatomegaly. Serum prostate-specific antigen was 3069 ng/ml. A pelvic radiograph displayed multiple osteolytic lesions, while ultrasonography showed multiple iso- and hypoechoic lesions in both lobes of the liver, suggestive of metastasis. Histopathology of a Tru-cut biopsy of the prostate confirmed an adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 9) with umbilical metastasis. The patient was on regular follow-up and died 3 months later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872193','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872193"><span>Chromosome Segregation in Budding Yeast: <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion and Related Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Studies on budding yeast have exposed the highly conserved mechanisms by which duplicated chromosomes are evenly distributed to daughter cells at the metaphase–anaphase transition. The establishment of proteinaceous bridges between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids, a function provided by a ring-shaped complex known as cohesin, is central to accurate segregation. It is the destruction of this cohesin that triggers the segregation of chromosomes following their proper attachment to microtubules. Since it is irreversible, this process must be tightly controlled and driven to completion. Furthermore, during meiosis, modifications must be put in place to allow the segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the first division for gamete formation. Here, I review the pioneering work from budding yeast that has led to a molecular understanding of the establishment and destruction of cohesion. PMID:24395824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=548138','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=548138"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Joseph's nodule in a liver transplant recipient: Case report and mini-review of literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panaro, Fabrizio; Andorno, Enzo; Di Domenico, Stefano; Morelli, Nicola; Bottino, Giuliano; Mondello, Rosalia; Miggino, Marco; Jarzembowski, Tomasz M; Ravazzoni, Ferruccio; Casaccia, Marco; Valente, Umberto</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background Umbilical metastasis is one of the main characteristic signs of extensive neoplastic disease and is universally referred to as <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule. Case presentation A 59-years-old Caucasian female underwent liver transplant for end stage liver disease due to hepatitis C with whole graft from cadaveric donor in 2003. After transplantation the patient developed multiple subcutaneous nodules in the umbilical region and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. The excision biopsy of the umbilical mass showed the features of a poorly differentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma. Computed tomographic scan and transvaginal ultrasonography were unable to demonstrate any primary lesion. Chemotherapy was start and the dosage of the immunosuppressive drugs was reduced. To date the patient is doing well and liver function is normal. Conclusions The umbilical metastasis can arise from many sites. In some cases, primary tumor may be not identified; nonetheless chemotherapy must be administrated based on patient's history, anatomical and histological findings. PMID:15651984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092791"><span>Sororin pre-mRNA splicing is required for proper <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watrin, Erwan; Demidova, Maria; Watrin, Tanguy; Hu, Zheng; Prigent, Claude</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion, which depends on cohesin, is essential for the faithful segregation of replicated chromosomes. Here, we report that splicing complex Prp19 is essential for cohesion in both G2 and mitosis, and consequently for the proper progression of the cell through mitosis. Inactivation of splicing factors SF3a120 and U2AF65 induces similar cohesion defects to Prp19 complex inactivation. Our data indicate that these splicing factors are all required for the accumulation of cohesion factor Sororin, by facilitating the proper splicing of its pre-mRNA. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of Sororin corrects defective cohesion caused by Prp19 complex inactivation. We propose that the Prp19 complex and the splicing machinery contribute to the establishment of cohesion by promoting Sororin accumulation during S phase, and are, therefore, essential to the maintenance of genome stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16697248"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in traffic policemen exposed to vehicular exhaust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sreedevi, Varre; Hemaprasad, Mundluru; Sandhyadevi, Gundimeda; Reddy, Penagaluru Pardhanandana</p> <p>2006-07-14</p> <p>In urban areas there is an explosive growth of population and the number of automobiles. The ever-increasing vehicular traffic density is posing continued threat to the ambient air quality. Traffic policemen as a group of workers are exposed occupationally to the pollutants from vehicular exhaust. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) as a biomarker of the pollutant's effect, were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 85 traffic policemen and 60 control subjects. There was a significant increase in the mean SCEs+/-S.D./cell in the exposed group (9.31+/-5.29) when compared to the controls (4.18+/-1.85). Thus the present study concludes that vehicular exhaust might induce cytogenetic damage in traffic police. Further, the more pronounced frequency of SCEs observed in the smoking traffic policemen than in the non-smoking group suggests the joint effect of smoking and vehicular exhaust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4592412','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4592412"><span>Overall and Central Adiposity and Breast Cancer Risk in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, Alexandra J.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sandler, Dale P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Greater body mass index (BMI), a measure of overall adiposity, is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of central adiposity, often measured by waist circumference, is less well understood especially among premenopausal women. We aimed to examine multiple measures of adiposity in relation to breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods 50,884 <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study cohort participants ages 35–74 were enrolled from 2003–2009. Inclusion criteria for the cohort included having a <span class="hlt">sister</span> previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Trained study personnel measured height, weight, waist and hip circumference during a home visit and study participants completed a detailed questionnaire. Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk associated with adiposity measurements, considering tumor subtype and menopausal status. Results In total, 2,009 breast cancers were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=5.4 years). Weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio were positively associated with overall breast cancer risk and HRs were greater among postmenopausal women, those with hormonally responsive tumors and non-current postmenopausal hormone users. In models that adjusted for BMI, waist circumference associations persisted among both postmenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01, 1.35; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.54) and premenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.91, 1.87). Conclusions Findings from this large, prospective study with examiner-measured body size indicate that waist circumference is independently and positively associated with both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:26193782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1365/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1365/report.pdf"><span>Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, and Mount Shasta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19262753','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19262753"><span>The Elg1-RFC clamp-loading complex performs a role in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maradeo, Marie E; Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that of the four Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes (defined by the associations of either Rfc1p, Ctf18p, Elg1p or Rad24p with Rfc2p-Rfc5p), only Ctf18-RFC functions in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. This model is based on findings that CTF18 deletion is lethal in combination with mutations in either CTF7(ECO1) or MCD1 <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion genes and that ctf18 mutant cells exhibit cohesion defects. Here, we report that Elg1-RFC not only participates in cohesion but performs a function that is distinct from that of Ctf18-RFC. The results show that deletion of ELG1 rescues both ctf7(eco1) mutant cell temperature sensitivity and cohesion defects. Moreover, over-expression of ELG1 enhances ctf7(eco1) mutant cell phenotypes. These findings suggest that the balance of Ctf7p(Eco1p) activity depends on both Ctf18-RFC and Elg1-RFC. We also report that ELG1 deletion produces cohesion defects and intensifies the conditional phenotype of mcd1 mutant cells, further supporting a role for Elg1-RFC in cohesion. Attesting to the specificity of these interactions, deletion of RAD24 neither suppressed nor exacerbated cohesion defects in either ctf7(eco1) or mcd1 mutant cells. While parallel analyses failed to uncover a similar role in cohesion for Rad24-RFC, it is well known that Rad24-RFC, Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC play key roles in DNA damage responses. We tested and found that Ctf7p(Eco1p) plays a significant role in Rad24-RFC-based DNA response pathways. In combination, these findings challenge current views and document new and distinct roles for RFC complexes in cohesion and for Ctf7p(Eco1p) in DNA repair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=immunology&pg=6&id=ED219367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=immunology&pg=6&id=ED219367"><span>Sudden Infant <span class="hlt">Death</span> Syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barnett, Henry L.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant <span class="hlt">Death</span> Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14605600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14605600"><span>[<span class="hlt">Death</span> of Napoleon Bonaparte].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camici, M</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Reassure&pg=5&id=ED138882','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Reassure&pg=5&id=ED138882"><span>Counseling and <span class="hlt">Death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barry, John R.</p> <p></p> <p>Increasingly, helpers are asked to counsel the dying and their relatives. The research and other literature are reviewed for information and ideas that might be helpful to a counselor; for example, research and speculation about fears of <span class="hlt">death</span> are examined. While an awareness of such information may reassure the counselor who tries to counsel in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capital+AND+punishment&pg=4&id=EJ409542','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Capital+AND+punishment&pg=4&id=EJ409542"><span>The <span class="hlt">Death</span> Penalty.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crockett, Mark</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the <span class="hlt">death</span> penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED289086.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED289086.pdf"><span>Lifespan Attitudes toward <span class="hlt">Death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert</p> <p></p> <p>To more fully understand how attitudes toward <span class="hlt">death</span> and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3805564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3805564"><span>Digital Language <span class="hlt">Death</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kornai, András</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language <span class="hlt">death</span>, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/someone-died.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/someone-died.html"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> and Grief</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... response to a <span class="hlt">death</span> or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show grief in several ways: Physical reactions: These might be things like changes in appetite or sleep, an upset stomach, tight chest, crying, tense muscles, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+death&pg=6&id=EJ487867','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+death&pg=6&id=EJ487867"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> of a Leader.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, Thomas E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>When Issaquah (Washington) superintendent, after battling a brain tumor, entered the hospital for the last time, school district had to develop a crisis plan to deal with the possible <span class="hlt">death</span> of the superintendent. A contingency planning team developed a telephone tree for school officials to keep in close contact with teachers and administrators.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..620.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..620."><span>Transatlantic <span class="hlt">link</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>(left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close <span class="hlt">links</span> between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+death+AND+attitudes&pg=5&id=EJ192104','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+death+AND+attitudes&pg=5&id=EJ192104"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Death</span> Education on Fear of <span class="hlt">Death</span> and Attitudes towards <span class="hlt">Death</span> and Life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leviton, Dan; Fretz, Bruce</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Students in a <span class="hlt">death</span> education course were compared with students of sex education and introductory psychology. After the <span class="hlt">death</span> education course, students viewed <span class="hlt">death</span> as more approachable, and wished to experience <span class="hlt">death</span> in a more interpersonal as compared to a technological context. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241184','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241184"><span>Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to the coconut</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationships. We used primers d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sponsorship&pg=3&id=ED523978','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sponsorship&pg=3&id=ED523978"><span>The Discernment Process of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Dominic regarding the Continued Sponsorship of Its Secondary Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tavis, Patricia</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the factors that a congregation of women religious, the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Dominic of Caldwell, New Jersey, must consider in order to continue its sponsored relationship and the extent of this sponsored relationship with its secondary educational ministries for the future. This descriptive and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513452.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513452.pdf"><span>Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and the Bigs and Littles They Represent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+data+AND+analysis&pg=5&id=ED503112','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+data+AND+analysis&pg=5&id=ED503112"><span>High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> School-Based Mentoring Impact Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herrera, Carla; Kauh, Tina J.; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; McMaken, Jennifer</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4244149','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4244149"><span>Using Ecological Niche Models and Niche Analyses to Understand Speciation Patterns: The Case of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Neotropical Orchid Bees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Silva, Daniel P.; Vilela, Bruno; De Marco, Paulo; Nemésio, André</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The role of past connections between the two major South American forested biomes on current species distribution has been recognized a long time ago. Climatic oscillations that further separated these biomes have promoted parapatric speciation, in which many species had their continuous distribution split, giving rise to different but related species (i.e., different potential distributions and realized niche features). The distribution of many <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees follow this pattern. Here, using ecological niche models and niche analyses, we (1) tested the role of ecological niche differentiation on the divergence between <span class="hlt">sister</span> orchid-bees (genera Eulaema and Eufriesea) from the Amazon and Atlantic forests, and (2) highlighted interesting areas for new surveys. Amazonian species occupied different realized niches than their Atlantic <span class="hlt">sister</span> species. Conversely, species of sympatric but distantly related Eulaema bees occupied similar realized niches. Amazonian species had a wide potential distribution in South America, whereas Atlantic Forest species were more limited to the eastern coast of the continent. Additionally, we identified several areas in need of future surveys. Our results show that the realized niche of Atlantic-Amazonian <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees, which have been previously treated as allopatric populations of three species, had limited niche overlap and similarity. These findings agree with their current taxonomy, which treats each of those populations as distinct valid species. PMID:25422941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14636799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14636799"><span>The development of <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ethnic+AND+food&pg=3&id=EJ825688','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ethnic+AND+food&pg=3&id=EJ825688"><span>Dietary Behaviors and Portion Sizes of Black Women Who Enrolled in "<span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk" and Variation by Demographic Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To describe the dietary behaviors of black women who enrolled in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk weight control study. Design: Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting: Boston, Massachusetts and surrounding areas. Participants: 461 black women completed the baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measures: Measured height…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927794"><span>LAB-1 targets PP1 and restricts Aurora B kinase upon entrance into meiosis to promote <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tzur, Yonatan B; Egydio de Carvalho, Carlos; Nadarajan, Saravanapriah; Van Bostelen, Ivo; Gu, Yanjie; Chu, Diana S; Cheeseman, Iain M; Colaiácovo, Monica P</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Successful execution of the meiotic program depends on the timely establishment and removal of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. LAB-1 has been proposed to act in the latter by preventing the premature removal of the meiosis-specific cohesin REC-8 at metaphase I in C. elegans, yet the mechanism and scope of LAB-1 function remained unknown. Here we identify an unexpected earlier role for LAB-1 in promoting the establishment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in prophase I. LAB-1 and REC-8 are both required for the chromosomal association of the cohesin complex subunit SMC-3. Depletion of lab-1 results in partial loss of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in rec-8 and coh-4 coh-3 mutants and further enhanced chromatid dissociation in worms where all three kleisins are mutated. Moreover, lab-1 depletion results in increased Aurora B kinase (AIR-2) signals in early prophase I nuclei, coupled with a parallel decrease in signals for the PP1 homolog, GSP-2. Finally, LAB-1 directly interacts with GSP-1 and GSP-2. We propose that LAB-1 targets the PP1 homologs to the chromatin at the onset of meiosis I, thereby antagonizing AIR-2 and cooperating with the cohesin complex to promote <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid association and normal progression of the meiotic program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25422941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25422941"><span>Using ecological niche models and niche analyses to understand speciation patterns: the case of <span class="hlt">sister</span> neotropical orchid bees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Daniel P; Vilela, Bruno; De Marco, Paulo; Nemésio, André</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The role of past connections between the two major South American forested biomes on current species distribution has been recognized a long time ago. Climatic oscillations that further separated these biomes have promoted parapatric speciation, in which many species had their continuous distribution split, giving rise to different but related species (i.e., different potential distributions and realized niche features). The distribution of many <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees follow this pattern. Here, using ecological niche models and niche analyses, we (1) tested the role of ecological niche differentiation on the divergence between <span class="hlt">sister</span> orchid-bees (genera Eulaema and Eufriesea) from the Amazon and Atlantic forests, and (2) highlighted interesting areas for new surveys. Amazonian species occupied different realized niches than their Atlantic <span class="hlt">sister</span> species. Conversely, species of sympatric but distantly related Eulaema bees occupied similar realized niches. Amazonian species had a wide potential distribution in South America, whereas Atlantic Forest species were more limited to the eastern coast of the continent. Additionally, we identified several areas in need of future surveys. Our results show that the realized niche of Atlantic-Amazonian <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees, which have been previously treated as allopatric populations of three species, had limited niche overlap and similarity. These findings agree with their current taxonomy, which treats each of those populations as distinct valid species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=donation&pg=6&id=EJ698372','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=donation&pg=6&id=EJ698372"><span>A Gift from the Heart: The Experiences of Women Whose Egg Donations Helped Their <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Become Mothers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Winter, Alanna; Daniluk, Judith C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>During in-depth interviews, 3 women whose egg donations resulted in the birth of a child or children for their <span class="hlt">sisters</span> discussed their donation motivations and decisions, the challenges of the donation procedure, and their postdonation feelings and experiences in the years since the birth of their nieces and nephews. The findings of this narrative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11754387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11754387"><span>No significant increase in chromosome aberrations and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes treated with spiramycin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rencüzoğullari, Eyyüp; Ila, Hasan Basri; Topaktaş, Mehmet; Kayraldiz, Ahmet; Budak, Songül; Arslan, Mehmet</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were investigated in human lymphocytes treated with spiramycin antibiotic (trade name, rovamycin). Spiramycin did not induce the CAs and SCEs, and also did not decrease the mitotic index (MI). However, spiramycin decreased the replication index (RI) only at 48 h treatment times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22sacred+heart%22&id=EJ772803','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22sacred+heart%22&id=EJ772803"><span>Scaling the Heights of Heaven: <span class="hlt">Sister</span> M. Rosalia Walsh and the Use of Story in "The Adaptive Way"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nolan, Lucinda A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The work of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> M. Rosalia Walsh and the Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart gave impetus to the reemergence of the use of story in catechetical materials designed and published in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century. Focused on catechetical needs of Catholic children who did not attend Catholic schools, The Mission…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905191','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905191"><span>Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">death</span> functions of p53</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The p53 tumor suppressor network plays a fundamental surveillance role in both homeostatic and adaptive cell biology. p53 is one of the most important barriers against malignant derailment of normal cells, orchestrating growth arrest, senescence, or cell <span class="hlt">death</span> by <span class="hlt">linking</span> many different pathways in response to genotoxic and non-genotoxic insults. p53 is the key broadband sensor for numerous cellular stresses such as DNA damage, hypoxia, oxidative stress, oncogenic signaling, and nucleolar stress. The crucial tumor suppressive and tissue homeostasis activity of p53 is its ability to activate cell <span class="hlt">death</span> via multiple different pathways. A well-characterized biochemical function of p53 in the regulation of apoptosis is its role as a potent transcriptional regulator. p53 activates a panel of proapoptotic genes from the mitochondrial apoptotic and <span class="hlt">death</span> receptor programs while repressing antiapoptotic Bcl2 family genes. In addition, over the last 10 y a growing body of evidence has also defined direct extranuclear non-transcriptional p53 activities within mitochondria-mediated cell <span class="hlt">death</span> pathways that are based on p53 protein accumulation in cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments and protein-protein interactions. To date, transcription-independent p53-mediated cell <span class="hlt">death</span> regulation has been described for apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Because mitochondrial dysregulation is central to the development of a number of pathologic processes such as cancer and neurodegenerative and age-related diseases, understanding the direct roles of p53 protein in mitochondria has high translational impact and could facilitate the development of novel drug targets to combat these diseases. In this review we will mainly focus on mechanisms of p53-mediated transcription-independent cell <span class="hlt">death</span> pathways at mitochondria. PMID:27308326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9464913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9464913"><span>Sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> of feedlot cattle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Sudden <span class="hlt">deaths</span> or the sudden <span class="hlt">death</span> syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these <span class="hlt">deaths</span> occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden <span class="hlt">deaths</span> are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. <span class="hlt">Death</span> is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden <span class="hlt">deaths</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258592"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> from Nitrous Oxide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and <span class="hlt">deaths</span>, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental <span class="hlt">deaths</span> related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14560541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14560541"><span>Cell <span class="hlt">death</span> and tendinopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuan, Jun; Wang, Min-Xia; Murrell, George A C</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Apoptosis and necrosis are presently recognized as the two major types of physiological and pathological cell <span class="hlt">death</span>. Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell deletion process that differs morphologically and biochemically from necrotic cell <span class="hlt">death</span>. Tendinopathy is defined as a tendon injury that originates from intrinsic and extrinsic etiological factors. Excessive apoptosis has recently been described in degenerative tendon. The increased number of apoptotic tendon cells in degenerative tendon tissue could affect the rate of collagen synthesis and repair. Impaired or dysfunctional protein synthesis may lead to weaker tendon tissue and eventually increase the risk for tendon rupture. Clearly, there are many details to insert into this pathway, but there is hope that if the fine details of the pathway can be fleshed out, then strategies may be able to be developed to break the cycle at one or more points and prevent or treat tendinopathy more effectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18171280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18171280"><span>Evidence for a heritable predisposition to <span class="hlt">death</span> due to influenza.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albright, Frederick S; Orlando, Patricia; Pavia, Andrew T; Jackson, George G; Cannon Albright, Lisa A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Animal model studies and human epidemiological studies have shown that some infectious diseases develop primarily in individuals with an inherited predisposition. A heritable contribution to the development of severe influenza virus infection (i.e., that which results in <span class="hlt">death</span>) has not previously been hypothesized or tested. Evidence for a heritable contribution to <span class="hlt">death</span> due to influenza was examined using a resource consisting of a genealogy of the Utah population <span class="hlt">linked</span> to <span class="hlt">death</span> certificates in Utah over a period of 100 years. The relative risks of <span class="hlt">death</span> due to influenza were estimated for the relatives of 4,855 individuals who died of influenza. Both close and distant relatives of individuals who died of influenza were shown to have a significantly increased risk of dying of influenza, consistent with a combination of shared exposure and genetic effects. These data provide strong support for a heritable contribution to predisposition to <span class="hlt">death</span> due to influenza.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7262664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7262664"><span>Atypical autoerotic <span class="hlt">deaths</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. )</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">death</span> are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27139707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27139707"><span>From <span class="hlt">Death</span> to <span class="hlt">Death</span> Certificate: What do the Dead say?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gill, James R</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This is an overview of medicolegal <span class="hlt">death</span> investigation and <span class="hlt">death</span> certification. Postmortem toxicological analysis, particularly for ethanol and drugs of abuse, plays a large role in the forensic investigation of natural and unnatural <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Postmortem drug concentrations must be interpreted in light of the autopsy findings and circumstances. Interpretations of drug and ethanol concentrations are important for <span class="hlt">death</span> certification, but they also may be important for other stakeholders such as police, attorneys, public health practitioners, and the next-of-kin.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15709218','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15709218"><span>Fear of <span class="hlt">death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Shortly before his <span class="hlt">death</span> in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with <span class="hlt">death</span>. Fearing <span class="hlt">death</span> is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586256"><span>[Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809 - 1847): the mystery of his early <span class="hlt">death</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmideler, S; Somburg, O; Steinberg, H; Splett, T</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Composer and director of music at Leipzig's Gewandhaus Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy died remarkably young, on 4 November 1847, at the age of 38. The cause of his early <span class="hlt">death</span> has been a mystery ever since. Three contemporary doctors diagnosed Nervenschlag ("nervous stroke"). Starting with a short outline of Mendelssohn's pathography, this paper includes and quotes for the first time all the contemporary accounts of his <span class="hlt">death</span>. After considering the older medical interpretations, the paper considers these reports from the point of view of present-day neurological and psychiatric expertise. It reveals that all the accounts had been filed by medical laymen, so their personal impressions had played a major role in their reports. However, it is indisputable that it was pathologic brain alterations that lead to Mendelssohn's <span class="hlt">death</span>. Weighing up and carefully considering the sources, the authors regard subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) as a likely cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>. There may even have been some kind of genetic predisposition, since what is reported in this paper regarding Mendelssohn's <span class="hlt">death</span> also applies to the very similar symptoms and circumstances surrounding his <span class="hlt">sister</span> Fanny's <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&id=EJ1005425','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&id=EJ1005425"><span>A <span class="hlt">Death</span> in the Family: <span class="hlt">Death</span> as a Zen Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the <span class="hlt">death</span> of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the <span class="hlt">death</span>. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the <span class="hlt">death</span>, how the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&pg=6&id=EJ821627','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Death&pg=6&id=EJ821627"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Sentences: A Content Analysis of Children's <span class="hlt">Death</span> Literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A multidimensional concept of <span class="hlt">death</span> must include biological, sociocultural, and emotional components. Children glean information about <span class="hlt">death</span> in many ways, one of which is through books. In this study, the authors compared the 3 dimensions of <span class="hlt">death</span>-related information (irreversibility, inevitability, nonfunctionality) in 24 young children's picture…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1631825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1631825"><span>[Crib <span class="hlt">death</span>, sleeping position and temperature].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haaland, K; Thoresen, M</p> <p>1992-04-30</p> <p>Sudden infant <span class="hlt">death</span> syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> in children over one week of age. Norway has the highest incidence in Scandinavia and the figure has increased during the last 20 years. There has been much discussion as to whether sleeping in the prone position rather than in the supine or lateral position may be a predisposing factor to cot <span class="hlt">death</span>. In all 14 studies in seven countries where the question has been investigated, there was a higher proportion of prone infants in the SIDS group than in the control group. Intervention studies have shown that reducing the proportion of infants sleeping prone was followed by a reduction in cot <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. There is also evidence that overheating is a risk factor for SIDS. In one British study it was found that infants who died of SIDS had more clothes on, and blankets covering them, and that both prone position and overheating were independently associated with SIDS. A possible mechanism is that overheating interferes with respiratory control. Although we do not completely understand the mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">links</span> between SIDS and the prone position, the epidemiological evidence and the evidence from intervention are now so strong that it is fully justified to advice against the general use of the prone sleeping position for babies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1376008','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1376008"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> in Denmark: a reply.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamb, D</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This reply to Martyn Evans's support for a cardiac-centered concept of <span class="hlt">death</span> attempts to meet some objections to the brainstem definition of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Evans's appeal to Wittgenstein's philosophy is also criticised. PMID:1870081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2627303','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2627303"><span>How should we measure maternal mortality in the developing world? A comparison of household <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and sibling history approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hill, Kenneth; El Arifeen, Shams; Koenig, Michael; Al-Sabir, Ahmed; Jamil, Kanta; Raggers, Han</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: A reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is one of six health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there is no consensus about how to measure MMR in the many countries that do not have complete registration of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and accurate ascertainment of cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>. In this study, we compared estimates of pregnancy-related <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and maternal mortality in a developing country from three different household survey measurement approaches: a module collecting information on <span class="hlt">deaths</span> of respondents' <span class="hlt">sisters</span>; collection of information about recent household <span class="hlt">deaths</span> with a time-of-<span class="hlt">death</span> definition of maternal <span class="hlt">deaths</span>; and a verbal autopsy instrument to identify maternal <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. METHODS: We used data from a very large nationally-representative household sample survey conducted in Bangladesh in 2001. A total of 104 323 households were selected for participation, and 99 202 households (95.1% of selected households, 98.8% of contacted households) were successfully interviewed. FINDINGS: The sisterhood and household <span class="hlt">death</span> approaches gave very similar estimates of all-cause and pregnancy-related mortality; verbal autopsy gave an estimate of maternal <span class="hlt">deaths</span> that was about 15% lower than the pregnancy-related <span class="hlt">deaths</span>. Even with a very large sample size, however, confidence intervals around mortality estimates were similar for all approaches and exceeded +/- 15%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that with improved training for survey data collectors, both the sisterhood and household <span class="hlt">deaths</span> methods are viable approaches for measuring pregnancy-related mortality. However, wide confidence intervals around the estimates indicate that routine sample surveys cannot provide the information needed to monitor progress towards the MDG target. Other approaches, such as inclusion of questions about household <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in population censuses, should be considered. PMID:16583075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24592875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24592875"><span>On social <span class="hlt">death</span>: ostracism and the accessibility of <span class="hlt">death</span> thoughts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social <span class="hlt">death</span> (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make <span class="hlt">death</span> more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of <span class="hlt">death</span>-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced <span class="hlt">death</span>-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of <span class="hlt">death</span>-related thoughts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED270785.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED270785.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span>: Realism in Children's Books.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Danielson, Kathy Everts</p> <p></p> <p>In the past, books for children treated <span class="hlt">death</span> fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats <span class="hlt">death</span> in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive <span class="hlt">death</span> differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+death+AND+attitudes&pg=6&id=EJ239498','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+death+AND+attitudes&pg=6&id=EJ239498"><span>Helping Students Cope with <span class="hlt">Death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodabough, Tillman</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of <span class="hlt">death</span> and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of <span class="hlt">death</span> and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of <span class="hlt">death</span> and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=euthanasia&pg=6&id=ED166116','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=euthanasia&pg=6&id=ED166116"><span>Teaching about <span class="hlt">Death</span> to Undergraduates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and <span class="hlt">death</span> are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with <span class="hlt">death</span> education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and <span class="hlt">death</span> at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443928.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443928.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Deaths</span>: Final Data for 1998.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Murphy, Sherry L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This report presents final 1998 data on U.S. <span class="hlt">deaths</span> and <span class="hlt">death</span> rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114245"><span>The Role of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Cities' Staff Exchanges in Developing "Learning Cities": Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy</p> <p>2015-06-24</p> <p>In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building "learning cities" through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal <span class="hlt">sister</span> city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit <span class="hlt">Link</span> approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276942"><span>Effect of oral administration of mutagens found in food on the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in the colonic epithelium of mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, D.B.; Stuart, E.; Heddle, J.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies indicate there is a <span class="hlt">link</span> between dietary factors and the incidence of colon cancer, and it has been suggested mutagens in foods might be responsible for initiating the carcinogenic process. Some food mutagens are formed during the cooking process. For example, certain heterocyclic amines, including Trp-P-2 (3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-n) indole) and MeIQ (2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline), which have been isolated from broiled meat and fish at low (ng/g) levels, are extremely potent mutagens in the Ames Salmonella/microsome test and can induce mutation in cultured mammalian cells as well. Other mutagens in foods are natural products; quercetin, a flavanoid widely distributed in plant products, is mutagenic to Salmonella and cultured mammalian cells. As most of the evidence implicating substance in food as mutagenic carcinogens comes from in vitro studies, it is of interest to determine whether these compounds can also exert genotoxic effects in vivo, particularly in colonic tissue. The ability to induce nuclear aberrations in vivo in murine colonic epithelial tissue has been suggested to be a property of colon carcinogens specifically, and several mutagens found in cooked food, including MeIQ and Trp-P-2, have been found to produce such nucleotoxicity. The authors report here tests of the ability of MeIQ, Trp-P-2, and quercetin to induce <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the colonic epithelium of mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515646','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515646"><span>The Role of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal <span class="hlt">sister</span> city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit <span class="hlt">Link</span> approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. PMID:26114245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3101564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3101564"><span>A <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Group Contrast Using Untargeted Global Metabolomic Analysis Delineates the Biochemical Regulation Underlying Desiccation Tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus[C][W][OA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oliver, Melvin J.; Guo, Lining; Alexander, Danny C.; Ryals, John A.; Wone, Bernard W.M.; Cushman, John C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how plants tolerate dehydration is a prerequisite for developing novel strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation-tolerant (DT) Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation-sensitive (DS) Sporobolus pyramidalis formed a <span class="hlt">sister</span> group contrast to reveal adaptive metabolic responses to dehydration using untargeted global metabolomic analysis. Young leaves from both grasses at full hydration or at 60% relative water content (RWC) and from S. stapfianus at lower RWCs were analyzed using liquid and gas chromatography <span class="hlt">linked</span> to mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the two species in the fully hydrated state revealed intrinsic differences between the two metabolomes. S. stapfianus had higher concentrations of osmolytes, lower concentrations of metabolites associated with energy metabolism, and higher concentrations of nitrogen metabolites, suggesting that it is primed metabolically for dehydration stress. Further reduction of the leaf RWC to 60% instigated a metabolic shift in S. stapfianus toward the production of protective compounds, whereas S. pyramidalis responded differently. The metabolomes of S. stapfianus leaves below 40% RWC were strongly directed toward antioxidant production, nitrogen remobilization, ammonia detoxification, and soluble sugar production. Collectively, the metabolic profiles obtained uncovered a cascade of biochemical regulation strategies critical to the survival of S. stapfianus under desiccation. PMID:21467579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JPhy1...5.1681K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JPhy1...5.1681K"><span>Eartkquake <span class="hlt">Death</span> Tolls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knopoff, Leon; Sornette, Didier</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>In the risk and insurance literature, the (one-point) distributions of losses in natural disasters have been proposed to be characterized by “fat tail” power laws, i.e. very large destruction may occur with a non-vanishing rate. A naive hypothesis of uncorrelated Poissonian occurrence would suggest that the losses are solely characterized by the properties of the underlying power law distributions, i.e. the longer we wait, the more dramatic will be the largest disaster, which could be as much as a finite fraction of the total population or the total wealth of a country. We find indeed that the numbers Z of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in the very largest earthquakes of this century can be described by a power law distribution P(Z)simeq Z^{-(1+δ)} with δ=1.0±0.3, implying an unbounded behavior for the most devastating earthquakes. However, the distribution of the number of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> per capita in each country in this century has a well-defined maximum value, suggesting that the naive extrapolation of the power law distribution is incorrect and that the understanding of correlations is necessary to ascertain the level of risk from natural disasters. The one-point distributions only provide an upper bound of the expected risk. We propose a speculative model to explain the correlations between <span class="hlt">deaths</span> in large earthquakes and their countries of occurrence: we suggest that large ancient civilizations that have matured into large present-day populations were the beneficiaries of isolation from marauders due to the relative geographic protection by tectonic processes largely of an orogenic nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595219"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span>, dying, and domination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spindelman, Marc</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of <span class="hlt">death</span> and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4368666','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4368666"><span>Phylogenomic Analyses of Echinodermata Support the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general. PMID:25794146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5007344','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5007344"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph Nodule as a First Manifestation of a Metastatic Ovarian Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ogino, Mai; Kinuta, Takatoshi; Hori, Masateru; Mori, Tatsuo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A 76-year-old female presented to our hospital with a 2 cm firm, nontender, protuberant umbilical nodule. She received treatment with antibiotics for suspected granuloma, with no improvement after two months. High levels of CA125 as well as an ovarian cyst and intrathoracic and intra-abdominal lesions on imaging studies made us suspect an ovarian cancer with a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph nodule (SMJN) and other metastases. A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and umbilical and omentum tumor resections were performed and a metastatic ovarian serous adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by histopathology. After surgery, the patient received chemotherapy with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab; however paclitaxel allergy was observed. As a result, chemotherapy continued with carboplatin and bevacizumab every three weeks for a total of 6 courses. Currently, she is still undergoing treatment with bevacizumab and CA125 levels have been progressively decreasing. SMJN is a rare umbilical metastasis which needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis in the presence of an umbilical tumor for prompt treatment initiation. PMID:27635270</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970083"><span>A high rate of telomeric <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange occurs in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B-cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Medves, Sandrine; Auchter, Morgan; Chambeau, Laetitia; Gazzo, Sophie; Poncet, Delphine; Grangier, Blandine; Verney, Aurélie; Moussay, Etienne; Ammerlaan, Wim; Brisou, Gabriel; Morjani, Hamid; Géli, Vincent; Palissot, Valérie; Berchem, Guy; Salles, Gilles; Wenner, Thomas</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Cancer cells protect their telomere ends from erosion through reactivation of telomerase or by using the Alternative Lengthening of Telomere (ALT) mechanism that depends on homologous recombination. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells are characterized by almost no telomerase activity, shelterin deregulation and telomere fusions. To characterize telomeric maintenance mechanisms in B-CLL patients, we measured their telomere length, telomerase expression and the main hallmarks of the ALT activity i.e. C-circle concentration, an extra-chromosomal telomere repeat (ECTR), and the level of telomeric <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (T-SCE) rate. Patients showed relative homogenous telomere length although almost no TERT transcript and nearly no C-circle were evidenced. Nevertheless, compared with normal B cells, B-CLL cells showed an increase in T-SCE rate that was correlated with a strong down-regulation of the topoisomerase III alpha (TOP3A) expression, involved in the dissolution of Holliday Junctions (HJ), together with an increased expression of SLX1A, SLX4, MUS81 and GEN1, involved in the resolution of HJ. Altogether, our results suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism of B-CLL cells do not preferentially use telomerase or ALT. Rather, the rupture of the dissolvasome/resolvasome balance may increase telomere shuffling that could homogenize telomere length, slowing telomere erosion in this disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16156672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16156672"><span>Bile acid transport in <span class="hlt">sister</span> of P-glycoprotein (ABCB11) knockout mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lam, Ping; Wang, Renxue; Ling, Victor</p> <p>2005-09-20</p> <p>In vertebrates, bile flow is essential for movement of water and solutes across liver canalicular membranes. In recent years, the molecular motor of canalicular bile acid secretion has been identified as a member of the ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC) superfamily, known as <span class="hlt">sister</span> of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) or bile salt export pump (Bsep, ABCB11). In humans, mutations in the BSEP gene are associated with a very low level of bile acid secretion and severe cholestasis. However, as reported previously, because the spgp(-)(/)(-) knockout mice do not express severe cholestasis and have substantial bile acid secretion, we investigated the "alternative transport system" that allows these mice to be physiologically relatively normal. We examined the expression levels of several ABC transporters in spgp(-)(/)(-) mice and found that the level of multidrug resistance Mdr1 (P-glycoprotein) was strikingly increased while those of Mdr2, Mrp2, and Mrp3 were increased to only a moderate extent. We hypothesize that an elevated level of Mdr1 in the spgp(-)(/)(-) knockout mice functions as an alternative pathway to transport bile acids and protects hepatocytes from bile acid-induced cholestasis. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that plasma membrane vesicles isolated from a drug resistant cell line expressing high levels of P-glycoprotein were capable of transporting bile acids, albeit with a 5-fold lower affinity compared to Spgp. This finding is the first direct evidence that P-glycoprotein (Mdr1) is capable of transporting bile acids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344150','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344150"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species identifies factors underpinning plastid compatibility in green sea slugs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Vries, Jan; Woehle, Christian; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Tielens, Aloysius G. M.; Jahns, Peter; Gould, Sven B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The only animal cells known that can maintain functional plastids (kleptoplasts) in their cytosol occur in the digestive gland epithelia of sacoglossan slugs. Only a few species of the many hundred known can profit from kleptoplasty during starvation long-term, but why is not understood. The two <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa Elysia cornigera and Elysia timida sequester plastids from the same algal species, but with a very different outcome: while E. cornigera usually dies within the first two weeks when deprived of food, E. timida can survive for many months to come. Here we compare the responses of the two slugs to starvation, blocked photosynthesis and light stress. The two species respond differently, but in both starvation is the main denominator that alters global gene expression profiles. The kleptoplasts' ability to fix CO2 decreases at a similar rate in both slugs during starvation, but only E. cornigera individuals die in the presence of functional kleptoplasts, concomitant with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the digestive tract. We show that profiting from the acquisition of robust plastids, and key to E. timida's longer survival, is determined by an increased starvation tolerance that keeps ROS levels at bay. PMID:25652835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27616061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27616061"><span>Type VI Secretion System Substrates Are Transferred and Reused among <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vettiger, Andrea; Basler, Marek</p> <p>2016-09-22</p> <p>Bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a nanomachine that works similarly to a speargun. Rapid contraction of a sling (sheath) drives a long shaft (Hcp) with a sharp tip and associated effectors through the target cell membrane. We show that the amount and composition of the tip regulates initiation of full-length sheath assembly and low amount of available Hcp decreases sheath length. Importantly, we show that both tip and Hcp are exchanged by T6SS among by-standing cells within minutes of initial cell-cell contact. The translocated proteins are reused for new T6SS assemblies suggesting that tip and Hcp reach the cytosol of target cells. The efficiency of protein translocation depends on precise aiming of T6SS at the target cells. This interbacterial protein complementation can support T6SS activity in <span class="hlt">sister</span> cells with blocked protein synthesis and also allows cooperation between strains to increase their potential to kill competition. VIDEO ABSTRACT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7005926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7005926"><span>Mutagenicity and induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange by optically active enantiomers of secondary butyl methanesulfonate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ball, J.C.; Salmeen, I.T. ); Morris, S.M. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This report describes experiments in which a chiral alkyl methanesulfonate was used to investigate possible mechanisms by which alkylating agents cause their mutagenic, cytotoxic, and clastogenic effects. Optically active enantiomers and the racemic mixtures of 2-butyl methanesulfonate (2-BMS) were cytotoxic and mutagenic in Chinese hamster V79 cells and in AS52 cells and mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1535. Within the experimental uncertainties, the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity curves were the same for the R and S enantiomers and for the racemic mixture. The 2-BMS isomers were cytotoxic and induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) in CHO-K{sub 1}-BH{sub 4} cells. The cytotoxicity curve was similar to that observed with V79 and AS52 cells. The results can be interpreted two ways. The first interpretation is that 2-BMS reacts via a carbocation, and the second interpretation involves an S{sub N}2 reaction of 2-BMS with DNA. The latter interpretation suggests that the mechanisms of mutagenesis, cytotoxicity, or the induction of SCE cannot distinguish between small (four-carbon) optically active DNA adducts. The authors favor the second interpretation because of solvolysis experiments showing the complete inversion of configuration of optically active 2-octyl methanesulfonate. While they assume that optically active 2-BMS will react using the same mechanism as chiral 2-OMS, they cannot exclude the possibility that 2-BMS reacts via a carbonation intermediate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27836740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27836740"><span>Comparative transcriptome analysis of chemosensory genes in two <span class="hlt">sister</span> leaf beetles provides insights into chemosensory speciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Rui-E; Li, Wen-Zhu; Segraves, Kari A; Yang, Xing-Ke; Xue, Huai-Jun</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Divergence in chemosensory traits has been posited as an important component of chemosensory speciation in insects. In particular, chemosensory genes expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons are likely to influence insect behaviors such as preference for food, oviposition sites, and mates. Despite their key role in insect behavior and potentially speciation, the underlying genetic basis for divergence in chemosensory traits remains largely unexplored. One way to ascertain the role of chemosensory genes in speciation is to make comparisons of these genes across closely related species to detect the genetic signatures of divergence. Here, we used high throughput transcriptome analysis to compare chemosensory genes of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> leaf beetles species Pyrrhalta maculicollis and P. aenescens, whose sexual isolation and host plant preference are mediated by divergent chemical signals. Although there was low overall divergence between transcriptome profiles, there were a number of genes that were differentially expressed between the species. Furthermore, we also detected two chemosensory genes under positive selection, one of which that was also differentially expressed between the species, suggesting a possible role for these genes in chemical-based premating reproductive isolation and host use. Combined with the available chemical and ecological work in this system, further studies of the divergent chemosensory genes presented here will provide insight into the process of chemosensory speciation among Pyrrhalta beetles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976385','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976385"><span>Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches. PMID:27498754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686863','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686863"><span>PICH promotes <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid disjunction and co-operates with topoisomerase II in mitosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Christian F.; Huttner, Diana; Bizard, Anna H.; Hirano, Seiki; Li, Tian-Neng; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Bjerregaard, Victoria A.; Liu, Ying; Nigg, Erich A.; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Hickson, Ian D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>PICH is a SNF2 family DNA translocase that binds to ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. Numerous roles for PICH have been proposed from protein depletion experiments, but a consensus has failed to emerge. Here, we report that deletion of PICH in avian cells causes chromosome structural abnormalities, and hypersensitivity to an inhibitor of Topoisomerase II (Topo II), ICRF-193. ICRF-193-treated PICH−/− cells undergo <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid non-disjunction in anaphase, and frequently abort cytokinesis. PICH co-localizes with Topo IIα on UFBs and at the ribosomal DNA locus, and the timely resolution of both structures depends on the ATPase activity of PICH. Purified PICH protein strongly stimulates the catalytic activity of Topo II in vitro. Consistent with this, a human PICH−/− cell line exhibits chromosome instability and chromosome condensation and decatenation defects similar to those of ICRF-193-treated cells. We propose that PICH and Topo II cooperate to prevent chromosome missegregation events in mitosis. PMID:26643143</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232130"><span>Birth order and ratio of brothers to <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in Spanish transsexuals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5738888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5738888"><span>Enhanced response to the induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange by gamma radiation in neurofibromatosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hafez, M.; Abd el-Nabi, S.M.; el-Wehedi, G.; Al-Tonbary, Y.</p> <p>1986-05-15</p> <p>The study included 8 unrelated patients with neurofibromatosis, and 10 unrelated normal and healthy persons as controls. Whole blood samples were divided into plastic T flasks and exposed at room temperature to gamma rays. The radiation dose was 36 rad/minute, and the doses delivered were 0, 75, 150 and 300 rad. The lymphocytes were cultured in (RPMI) 1640 tissue culture medium and autologous serum (20%). Phytohemagglutinin and bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) (10 microM) were added at initiation of culture and harvesting was done 64 to 68 hours after culture initiation. Slides were coded, differential staining was done, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and aberrations (gaps, breaks, dicentrics, fragments and minutes) were counted. In the controls no significant increase in frequency of SCE has been found (P greater than 0.5). In the patients, the frequencies significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation (P less than 0.001). Furthermore, after irradiation, the incidence of gaps, breaks, and dicentrics were significantly increased in patients compared with controls. Moreover, the incidence increased with the increase in the dose of radiation. The results are discussed with a conclusion that the results add to the indication of a genetic predisposition to develop cancer in neurofibromatosis patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990877"><span>p53 gene discriminates two ecologically divergent <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of pine voles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quina, A S; Bastos-Silveira, C; Miñarro, M; Ventura, J; Jiménez, R; Paulo, O S; da Luz Mathias, M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Genes with relevant roles in the differentiation of closely-related species are likely to have diverged simultaneously with the species and more accurately reproduce the species tree. The Lusitanian (Microtus lusitanicus) and Mediterranean (M. duodecimcostatus) pine voles are two recently separated <span class="hlt">sister</span> species with fossorial lifestyles whose different ecological, physiological and morphological phenotypes reflect the better adaptation of M. duodecimcostatus to the underground habitat. Here we asked whether the differentiation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus involved genetic variations within the tumour suppressor p53 gene, given its role in stress-associated responses. We performed a population-genetic analysis through sequencing of exons and introns of p53 in individuals from sympatric and allopatric populations of both the species in the Iberian Peninsula in which a unidirectional introgression of mitochondrial DNA was previously observed. We were able to discriminate the two species to a large extent. We show that M. duodecimcostatus is composed of one genetically unstructured group of populations sharing a P53 protein that carries a mutation in the DNA-binding region not observed in M. lusitanicus, raising the possibility that this mutation may have been central in the evolutionary history of M. duodecimcostatus. Our results provide suggestive evidence for the involvement of a master transcription factor in the separation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus during Microtus radiation in the Quaternary presumably via a differential adaptive role of the novel p53 in M. duodecimcostatus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456618"><span>Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oró-Piqueras, Maricel</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The TV series, Brothers & <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431321"><span>Elevated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (<span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between the mean of the experimental group (11.05) and the mean of a matched control group (8.18). The experimental group also has an exceptionally high proportion of HFCs (cells with high SCE frequencies) above the 95th percentile compared to the controls (11.0 and 0.07%, respectively). We conclude that the New Zealand Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20499263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20499263"><span>Taxonomy of Nephroselmis viridis sp. nov. (Nephroselmidophyceae, Chlorophyta), a <span class="hlt">sister</span> marine species to freshwater N. olivacea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suda, Shoichiro; Nakayama, Takeshi; Pienaar, Richard N; Chihara, Mitsuo; Inouye, Isao</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The genus Nephroselmis (Nephroselmidophyceae), which had been placed in the Prasinophyceae, is one of the primitive green flagellates that are important to our understanding of the early evolution of green plants. We studied a new species of Nephroselmis isolated from Japan, Fiji and South Africa. This species has been known for a long time as undescribed species 'N. viridis.' N. viridis possesses some ultrastructural characters shared with only the freshwater type species N. olivacea, including a disc-like structure beneath the pyrenoid and bipolar spiny body scales with 1-5-8-5-1 spines. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA also supports a <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship between N. viridis and N. olivacea. However, N. viridis is distinguishable from N. olivacea by the shape of its starch sheath, its scales, its pigment composition and its habitat. In this paper, we designate the formal description of N. viridis sp. nov. We also describe variability in the 18S rDNA introns of various N. viridis strains. This detailed study of N. viridis provides some insights into the evolution of Nephroselmis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815896"><span>Fear and loathing in Mississippi: the attack on cAMP <span class="hlt">sister</span> spirit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene, Kate</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY In 1993, the small rural community of Ovett, Miss., and a group of self-described radical lesbian feminists clashed over the establishment by the women of a feminist educational retreat known as Camp <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Spirit. This dispute took the form of physical and psychological harassment of the women, wide-open public debate in the community, in the press, and on television, federal mediation efforts, and two lawsuits. This article analyzes this dispute using Mary Daly's seven patterns of the sado-ritual syndrome (Daly, 1978). The analysis examines the ideological and moral standpoints of the participants, the issues of "blaming the victim" and scapegoating, the development of the conflict from a dispute between neighbors to the involvement of international media, national activists and the Clinton Administration, the transformation of the conflict from a political to legal dispute, the representations of the groups within the community and the media, the effect of public opinion on the dispute, and the politics of the media in the dispute.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794146"><span>Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the <span class="hlt">sister</span> groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22252612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22252612"><span>The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee <span class="hlt">sister</span> species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HMR....66..363M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HMR....66..363M"><span>Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that <span class="hlt">sister</span>-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4995168','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4995168"><span>Increased anticipatory but decreased consummatory brain responses to food in <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of anorexia nervosa patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horndasch, Stefanie; O’Keefe, Sophie; Lamond, Anneka; Brown, Katie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background We have previously shown increased anticipatory and consummatory neural responses to rewarding and aversive food stimuli in women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). Aims To determine whether these differences are trait markers for AN, we examined the neural response in those with a familial history but no personal history of AN. Method Thirty-six volunteers were recruited: 15 who had a <span class="hlt">sister</span> with anorexia nervosa (family history) and 21 control participants. Using fMRI we examined the neural response during an anticipatory phase (food cues, rewarding and aversive), an effort phase and a consummatory phase (rewarding and aversive tastes). Results Family history (FH) volunteers showed increased activity in the caudate during the anticipation of both reward and aversive food and in the thalamus and amygdala during anticipation of aversive only. FH had decreased activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the pallidum and the superior frontal gyrus during taste consumption. Conclusions Increased neural anticipatory but decreased consummatory responses to food might be a biomarker for AN. Interventions that could normalise these differences may help to prevent disorder onset. Declaration of interest C.M. has acted as a consultant to P1VITAL, Givaudan, GWPharma, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Channel 4. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852491"><span>Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: micronucleus and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange evaluations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Hoffman, Gary M; Gudi, Ramadevi; Clark, Charles R</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Micronucleus and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were performed for vapor condensate of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline with oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl tert butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), or ethanol (G/EtOH). Sprague Dawley rats (the same 5/sex/group for both endpoints) were exposed to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3) of each condensate, 6h/day, 5days/week over 4weeks. Positive controls (5/sex/test) were given cyclophosphamide IP, 24h prior to sacrifice at 5mg/kg (SCE test) and 40mg/kg (micronucleus test). Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta for the SCE test and femurs removed for the micronucleus test. Blood cell cultures were treated with 5μg/ml bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for SCE evaluation. No significant increases in micronucleated immature erythrocytes were observed for any test material. Statistically significant increases in SCE were observed in rats given BGVC alone or in female rats given G/MTBE. G/TAME induced increased SCE in both sexes at the highest dose only. Although DNA perturbation was observed for several samples, DNA damage was not expressed as increased micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Inclusion of oxygenates in gasoline did not increase the effects of gasoline alone or produce a cytogenetic hazard.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5474094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5474094"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange induction and cell cycle inhibition by aniline and its metabolites in human fibroblasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilmer, J.L.; Kligerman, A.D.; Erexson, G.L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) and cell cycle analyses in human fibroblasts were used to ascertain the relative genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of aniline and its metabolites. Significant increases (P0.05) in SCE frequencies were found with aniline HCl, o-aminophenol, N-phenylhydroxylamine, and trimethymelamine (TEM). On an SCE/mmole basis at the highest concentrations examined, o-aminophenol was 270 times more potent than aniline in inducing SCE, whereas TEM was about 390 times more potent than o-aminophenol. Furthermore, fibroblasts treated with o-aminophenol responded in a dose-dependent fashion and exhibited a 2-fold increase in SCE frequency. N-phenylhydroxylamine induced a less clear-cut, dose related increase in SCE frequency with a 1.4-fold elevation. Only marginal increases in SCE were observed with aniline at the highest doses. Using these data, we propose that aniline may exert its turmorigenic potential in rats through the production of both genotoxic and cytotoxic metabolities. (JMT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630908K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630908K"><span>Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6415339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6415339"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25652835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25652835"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species identifies factors underpinning plastid compatibility in green sea slugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Vries, Jan; Woehle, Christian; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Jahns, Peter; Gould, Sven B</p> <p>2015-03-07</p> <p>The only animal cells known that can maintain functional plastids (kleptoplasts) in their cytosol occur in the digestive gland epithelia of sacoglossan slugs. Only a few species of the many hundred known can profit from kleptoplasty during starvation long-term, but why is not understood. The two <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa Elysia cornigera and Elysia timida sequester plastids from the same algal species, but with a very different outcome: while E. cornigera usually dies within the first two weeks when deprived of food, E. timida can survive for many months to come. Here we compare the responses of the two slugs to starvation, blocked photosynthesis and light stress. The two species respond differently, but in both starvation is the main denominator that alters global gene expression profiles. The kleptoplasts' ability to fix CO2 decreases at a similar rate in both slugs during starvation, but only E. cornigera individuals die in the presence of functional kleptoplasts, concomitant with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the digestive tract. We show that profiting from the acquisition of robust plastids, and key to E. timida's longer survival, is determined by an increased starvation tolerance that keeps ROS levels at bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462220','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462220"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges and bacterial revertants by organic extracts of airborne particles. [Humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lockard, J.M.; Viau, C.J.; Lee-Stephens, C.; Caldwell, J.C.; Wojciechowski, J.P.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The genotoxicities of organic extracts of airborne particles have been studied extensively in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome (Ames) test, but in few other bioassays. In these studies, we tested benzene-acetone extracts of particulate pollutants collected in Lexington, Kentucky, for capacity to induce increases in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lumphocytes and V79 cells, as well as in the Ames assay. Extracts induced linear dose-related increases in SCE in human lumphocytes and in bacterial revertants.However, variable responses were observed in SCE assays in V79 cells with and without activation by rat liver S9 or feeder layers of irradiated Syrian hamster fetal cells. We conclude that the SCE assay in human lumphocytes may be a useful indicator of the potential risks to humans of airborne particulate pollutants, as it utilizes human cells recently taken from the host, is rapid and economical, and requires small quantities of test materials. However, thorough studies of the quantitative relationships between SCE induction and mutagenicity in human cells are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10449658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10449658"><span>Bilateral sensorineural deafness, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid cysts in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hendriks, Y M; Laan, L A; Vielvoye, G J; van Haeringen, A</p> <p>1999-09-10</p> <p>We describe two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> (ages 10 and 3 years, respectively) with a normal development and a combination of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, arachnoid cyst, and hydrocephalus. Neither girl has distinctive physical anomalies. In the oldest girl, there was a hearing loss of 80 dB bilaterally, and the most severe loss on audiogram was seen at 2,000-4,000 Hz. In the youngest girl, there was a hearing loss of 100 dB bilaterally. Above 2,000 Hz no neural reactions were seen. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in one girl and computed tomography in the other showed a partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and a cyst in the pineal region, causing an aqueduct stenosis by compression and consequent hydrocephalus. The parents have normal hearing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. They are nonconsanguineous but from the same small village. This is the first report of a combination of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and an arachnoid cyst. The pattern of inheritance is probably autosomal recessive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20980821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20980821"><span>Rfc5p regulates alternate RFC complex functions in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid pairing reactions in budding yeast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maradeo, Marie E; Garg, Anisha; Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid pairing reactions, termed cohesion establishment, occur during S-phase and appear to be regulated by Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes. For instance, RFCs that contain Ctf18p exhibit pro-establishment activities while those that contain Elg1p exhibit anti-establishment activities. It remains unknown whether Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC functions are simply opposing or instead reveal complicated and non-parallel regulatory mechanisms. To better understand the nature of these novel pathways, we analyzed the small RFC subunit Rfc5p that is common to both Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC. Despite this commonality, the data show that diminished Rfc5p function rescues ctf7/eco1 mutant cell phenotypes, revealing that Rfc5p promotes anti-establishment activities. This rescue is specific to establishment pathways in that rfc5-1 greatly accentuates growth defects when expressed in scc2 (deposition), mcd1/scc1 or smc3 (cohesion maintenance) mutated cells. Our results reveal for the first time a role for small RFC subunits in directing RFC complex functions-in this case towards anti-establishment pathways. We further report that Pds5p exhibits both establishment and anti-establishment functions in cohesion. This duality suggests that categorizations of establishment and anti-establishment activities require further examination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611239','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611239"><span>p53 gene discriminates two ecologically divergent <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of pine voles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Quina, A S; Bastos-Silveira, C; Miñarro, M; Ventura, J; Jiménez, R; Paulo, O S; da Luz Mathias, M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Genes with relevant roles in the differentiation of closely-related species are likely to have diverged simultaneously with the species and more accurately reproduce the species tree. The Lusitanian (Microtus lusitanicus) and Mediterranean (M. duodecimcostatus) pine voles are two recently separated <span class="hlt">sister</span> species with fossorial lifestyles whose different ecological, physiological and morphological phenotypes reflect the better adaptation of M. duodecimcostatus to the underground habitat. Here we asked whether the differentiation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus involved genetic variations within the tumour suppressor p53 gene, given its role in stress-associated responses. We performed a population-genetic analysis through sequencing of exons and introns of p53 in individuals from sympatric and allopatric populations of both the species in the Iberian Peninsula in which a unidirectional introgression of mitochondrial DNA was previously observed. We were able to discriminate the two species to a large extent. We show that M. duodecimcostatus is composed of one genetically unstructured group of populations sharing a P53 protein that carries a mutation in the DNA-binding region not observed in M. lusitanicus, raising the possibility that this mutation may have been central in the evolutionary history of M. duodecimcostatus. Our results provide suggestive evidence for the involvement of a master transcription factor in the separation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus during Microtus radiation in the Quaternary presumably via a differential adaptive role of the novel p53 in M. duodecimcostatus. PMID:25990877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26034855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26034855"><span>Sudden infant <span class="hlt">death</span> syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Sudden infant <span class="hlt">death</span> syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected <span class="hlt">death</span> of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6427E..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6427E..02K"><span>PDT: <span class="hlt">death</span> pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kessel, David</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Cellular targets of photodynamic therapy include mitochondria, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane. PDT can evoke necrosis, autophagy and apoptosis, or combinations of these, depending on the PDT dose, the site(s) of photodamage and the cellular phenotype. It has been established that loss of viability occurs even when the apoptotic program is inhibited. Studies assessing effects of ER or mitochondrial photodamage, involving loss of Bcl-2 function, indicate that low-dose PDT elicited a rapid autophagic response in L1210 cells. This was attributed to the ability of autophagy to recycle photodamaged organelles, and there was partial protection from loss of viability. This effect was not observed in L1210/Atg7, where autophagy was silenced. At higher PDT doses, apoptotic cells were observed within 60 min in both cell lines, but more so in L1210. The ability of L1210 cells to undergo autophagy did not offer protection from cell <span class="hlt">death</span> at the higher PDT dose. Previous studies had indicated that autophagy can contribute to cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, since L1210 cells that do not undergo an initial apoptotic response often contain multiple autophagic vacuoles 24 hr later. With L1210/Atg7, apoptosis alone may account for the loss of viability at an LD 90 PDT dose.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19229707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19229707"><span>Coded cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> and timing of COPD diagnosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pickard, A Simon; Jung, Eunmi; Bartle, Brian; Weiss, Kevin B; Lee, Todd A</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The aims of this study were to characterize causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> among veterans with COPD using multiple cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> coding, and to examine whether causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> differed according to timing of COPD diagnosis. Veterans with COPD who died during a five-year follow-up period were identified from national VA databases <span class="hlt">linked</span> to National <span class="hlt">Death</span> Index files. Primary, secondary, underlying, and all-coded causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> were compared between recent and preexistent COPD cohorts using proportional mortality ratios (PMRs), which compares proportion dying from specific causes as opposed to absolute risk of <span class="hlt">death</span>. Of 26,357 decedents, 7,729 were categorized preexistent and 18,628 were recent COPD cases. Unspecified COPD was listed as underlying cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> in a significantly greater proportion of preexistent COPD cases compared to recent cases, 20% vs 10%, PMR = 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9-2.1). A relatively higher proportion of recently diagnosed cases died from lung/bronchus, prostate, and site-unspecified cancers. Respiratory failure (J969) was rarely coded as an underlying or primary cause (< 1%), but was a second-code cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> in 9% of recent and 12% of preexistent cases. Differences in coded causes of <span class="hlt">death</span> between patients with a recent diagnosis of COPD compared to a preexistent diagnosis of COPD suggests that there is either coded cause-related bias or true differences in cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> related to length of time with diagnosis. Thus, methods used to identify cohorts of COPD patients, i.e., incidence versus prevalence-based approaches, and coded cause of <span class="hlt">death</span> can affect estimates of cause-specific mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/391300','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/391300"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Sho</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The authors investigate the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27470716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27470716"><span>Chromosomal relationships of Simulium armoricanum and its undescribed <span class="hlt">sister</span> species in the Simulium vernum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adler, Peter H; Belqat, Boutaïna; González, Josefina Garrido; Pérez, Alexandre Justo; Seitz, Gunther</p> <p>2016-07-11</p> <p>The banding sequence of the polytene chromosomes of Simulium armoricanum Doby & David from England, Portugal, and Spain was resolved relative to the standard map for the S. vernum group. The species is characterized by 11 fixed inversions, one nearly fixed inversion, and three common polymorphisms. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of S. armoricanum is proposed as a formally undescribed species discovered in samples from Portugal. It shares one unique inversion with S. armoricanum, but otherwise differs by eight fixed or nearly fixed rearrangements. Simulium armoricanum and its newly discovered <span class="hlt">sister</span> species, informally referred to as Simulium 'IL-8', are members of a larger clade of Palearctic species defined by a small pericentric inversion in chromosome III. Among the simuliid species occupying the same streams with S. armoricanum was the first record, chromosomally confirmed, of S. aureum Fries sensu stricto in Portugal. Successful chromosomal analysis of samples of S. armoricanum 17 years after initial fixation demonstrates the importance of storing cytologically fixed larvae at subzero temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5171793','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5171793"><span>Naa50/San-dependent N-terminal acetylation of Scc1 is potentially important for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Ana Luisa; Silva, Rui D.; Foyn, Håvard; Tiago, Margarida N.; Rathore, Om Singh; Arnesen, Thomas; Martinho, Rui Gonçalo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The gene separation anxiety (san) encodes Naa50/San, a N-terminal acetyltransferase required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, the mitotic function of this enzyme is still poorly understood. Naa50/San was originally proposed to be required for centromeric <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in Drosophila and human cells, yet, more recently, it was also suggested to be a negative regulator of microtubule polymerization through internal acetylation of beta Tubulin. We used genetic and biochemical approaches to clarify the function of Naa50/San during development. Our work suggests that Naa50/San is required during tissue proliferation for the correct interaction between the cohesin subunits Scc1 and Smc3. Our results also suggest a working model where Naa50/San N-terminally acetylates the nascent Scc1 polypeptide, and that this co-translational modification is subsequently required for the establishment and/or maintenance of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. PMID:27996020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6903812','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6903812"><span>Increase of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges and perturbations of cell division kinetics in human lymphocytes by benzene metabolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morimoto, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Benzene, which has been associated with human cancers, is metabolized to produce several major metabolites that could be responsible for the biological effects. Tests have now been carried out on human lymphocytes in culture to determine if benzene or its metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone, induce cytogenetic changes and affect the cell cycle. The results indicate that benzene itself does not induce <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges or affect cell cycle kinetics over a wide range of doses. Catechol is a potent compound that induces <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges and delays cell division very readily. Hydroquinone is also potent, but less so than catechol. Thus, the formation of catechol and hydroquinone is the most likely cause of benzene toxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22701929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22701929"><span>Under the shadow of maternity: birth, <span class="hlt">death</span> and puerperal insanity in Victorian Britain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marland, Hilary</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Death</span> and fear of <span class="hlt">death</span> in cases of puerperal insanity can be <span class="hlt">linked</span> to a much broader set of anxieties surrounding childbirth in Victorian Britain. Compared with other forms of mental affliction, puerperal insanity was known for its good prognosis, with many women recovering over the course of several months. Even so, a significant number of <span class="hlt">deaths</span> were associated with the disorder, and a large proportion of sufferers struggled with urges to destroy their infants and themselves. The disorder evoked powerful delusions concerning <span class="hlt">death</span>, with patients expressing intimations of mortality and longing for <span class="hlt">death</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1606/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1606/report.pdf"><span>Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19397055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19397055"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "<span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "<span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "<span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25101996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25101996"><span>The cohesin subunit Rad21 is required for synaptonemal complex maintenance, but not <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion, during Drosophila female meiosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urban, Evelin; Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lehner, Christian F; Heidmann, Stefan K</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Replicated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2)M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4125089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4125089"><span>The Cohesin Subunit Rad21 Is Required for Synaptonemal Complex Maintenance, but Not <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion, during Drosophila Female Meiosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lehner, Christian F.; Heidmann, Stefan K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Replicated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2)M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin. PMID:25101996</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807899"><span>RSC facilitates Rad59-dependent homologous recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by promoting cohesin loading at DNA double-strand breaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oum, Ji-Hyun; Seong, Changhyun; Kwon, Youngho; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Sid, Amy; Ramakrishnan, Sreejith; Ira, Grzegorz; Malkova, Anna; Sung, Patrick; Lee, Sang Eun; Shim, Eun Yong</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks by searching for, invading, and copying information from a homologous template, typically the homologous chromosome or <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid. Tight wrapping of DNA around histone octamers, however, impedes access of repair proteins to DNA damage. To facilitate DNA repair, modifications of histones and energy-dependent remodeling of chromatin are required, but the precise mechanisms by which chromatin modification and remodeling enzymes contribute to homologous DNA repair are unknown. Here we have systematically assessed the role of budding yeast RSC (remodel structure of chromatin), an abundant, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, in the cellular response to spontaneous and induced DNA damage. RSC physically interacts with the recombination protein Rad59 and functions in homologous recombination. Multiple recombination assays revealed that RSC is uniquely required for recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by virtue of its ability to recruit cohesin at DNA breaks and thereby promoting <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. This study provides molecular insights into how chromatin remodeling contributes to DNA repair and maintenance of chromatin fidelity in the face of DNA damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27934691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27934691"><span>Dead Cert: Measuring Cell <span class="hlt">Death</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Scott, Adrian P; Boughaba, Jeanne A; Chojnowski, Grace; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Many cells in the body die at specific times to facilitate healthy development or because they have become old, damaged, or infected. Defects in cells that result in their inappropriate survival or untimely <span class="hlt">death</span> can negatively impact development or contribute to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, AIDS, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infection. Cell <span class="hlt">death</span> may also occur following exposure to environmental toxins or cytotoxic chemicals. Although this is often harmful, it can be beneficial in some cases, such as in the treatment of cancer. The ability to objectively measure cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in a laboratory setting is therefore essential to understanding and investigating the causes and treatments of many human diseases and disorders. Often, it is sufficient to know the extent of cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in a sample; however, the mechanism of <span class="hlt">death</span> may also have implications for disease progression, treatment, and the outcomes of experimental investigations. There are a myriad of assays available for measuring the known forms of cell <span class="hlt">death</span>, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, necroptosis, anoikis, and pyroptosis. Here, we introduce a range of assays for measuring cell <span class="hlt">death</span> in cultured cells, and we outline basic techniques for distinguishing healthy cells from apoptotic or necrotic cells-the two most common forms of cell <span class="hlt">death</span>. We also provide personal insight into where these assays may be useful and how they may or may not be used to distinguish apoptotic cell <span class="hlt">death</span> from other <span class="hlt">death</span> modalities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS059%28S%29026&hterms=Death&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDeath','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS059%28S%29026&hterms=Death&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDeath"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an image of <span class="hlt">Death</span> Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12053855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12053855"><span><span class="hlt">Death</span> by water intoxication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gardner, John W</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>With recent emphasis on increased water intake during exercise for the prevention of dehydration and exertional heat illness, there has been an increase in cases of hyponatremia related to excessive water intake. This article reviews several recent military cases and three <span class="hlt">deaths</span> that have occurred as a result of overhydration, with resultant hyponatremia and cerebral edema. All of these cases are associated with more than 5 L (usually 10-20 L) of water intake during a period of a few hours. The importance of maintaining adequate hydration in exertional heat illness prevention cannot be overemphasized, but excessive fluid intake may lead to life-threatening hyponatremia. Current guidelines provide safety by limiting fluid intake during times of heavy sweating to 1 to 1.5 L per hour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236840','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236840"><span>Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Rods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marschman, Steven C.; Warmann, Stephan A.; Rusch, Chris</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, “<span class="hlt">sister</span> ” fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE’s obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5218391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5218391"><span>Comparative Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny in Two <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Lineages of Old World Tree Frogs (Rhacophoridae: Taruga, Polypedates)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Senevirathne, Gayani; Kerney, Ryan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus. For each species, we differentially stained a nearly complete developmental series of tadpoles from early postembryonic stages through metamorphosis to determine the intraspecific and interspecific differences of cranial and postcranial bones. Chondrocrania of the four species differ in 1) size; 2) presence/absence of anterolateral and posterior process; and 3) shape of the suprarostral cartilages. Interspecific variation of ossification sequences is limited during early stages, but conspicuous during later development. Early cranial ossification is typical of other anuran larvae, where the frontoparietal, exoccipital and parasphenoid ossify first. The ossification sequences of the cranial bones vary considerably within the four species. Both species of Taruga show a faster cranial ossification rate than Polypedates. Seven cranial bones form when larvae near metamorphic climax. Ossification of all 18 cranial bones is initiated by larval Gosner stage 46 in T. eques. However, some cranial bone formation is not initiated until after metamorphosis in the other three species. Postcranial sequence does not vary significantly. The comparison of adult osteology highlights two characters, which have not been previously recorded: presence/absence of the parieto-squamosal plates and bifurcated base of the omosternum. This study will provide a starting point for comparative analyses of rhacophorid skeletal ontogeny and facilitate the study of the evolution of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120835"><span>Associations among personal care product use patterns and exogenous hormone use in the NIEHS <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Kyla W; Baird, Donna D; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Nichols, Hazel B; Sandler, Dale P; Troester, Melissa A</p> <p>2017-01-25</p> <p>It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions. Personal care products were categorized into three product types (beauty, hair, and skincare products) and separate latent classes were constructed for each type. Adjusted prevalence differences (PD) were calculated to estimate the association between exogenous hormone use, as measured by ever/never OC or HT use, and patterns of personal care product use. LCA reduced data dimensionality by grouping of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use into mutually exclusive latent classes (three latent classes for beauty product use, three for hair, and four for skin care. There were strong differences in personal care usage by race, particularly for haircare products. For both blacks and whites, exogenous hormone exposures were associated with higher levels of product use, especially beauty and skincare products. Relative to individual product use questions, latent class variables capture complex patterns of personal care product usage. These patterns differed by race and were associated with ever OC and HT use. Future studies should consider personal care product exposures with other exogenous exposures when modeling health risks.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.82.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3894986','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3894986"><span>Dated Phylogenies of the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the <span class="hlt">sister</span> genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057685"><span>The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Nhu, Dang Duc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tawara, Kenji; Horikawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Dung, Phung Tri; Thom, Le Hong; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64), and octaCDD (β = 0.65) were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34) and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42). The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38) was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents); R2 = 0.23). This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid) is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency. PMID:24786289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28060923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28060923"><span>Comparative Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny in Two <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Lineages of Old World Tree Frogs (Rhacophoridae: Taruga, Polypedates).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Senevirathne, Gayani; Kerney, Ryan; Meegaskumbura, Madhava</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus. For each species, we differentially stained a nearly complete developmental series of tadpoles from early postembryonic stages through metamorphosis to determine the intraspecific and interspecific differences of cranial and postcranial bones. Chondrocrania of the four species differ in 1) size; 2) presence/absence of anterolateral and posterior process; and 3) shape of the suprarostral cartilages. Interspecific variation of ossification sequences is limited during early stages, but conspicuous during later development. Early cranial ossification is typical of other anuran larvae, where the frontoparietal, exoccipital and parasphenoid ossify first. The ossification sequences of the cranial bones vary considerably within the four species. Both species of Taruga show a faster cranial ossification rate than Polypedates. Seven cranial bones form when larvae near metamorphic climax. Ossification of all 18 cranial bones is initiated by larval Gosner stage 46 in T. eques. However, some cranial bone formation is not initiated until after metamorphosis in the other three species. Postcranial sequence does not vary significantly. The comparison of adult osteology highlights two characters, which have not been previously recorded: presence/absence of the parieto-squamosal plates and bifurcated base of the omosternum. This study will provide a starting point for comparative analyses of rhacophorid skeletal ontogeny and facilitate the study of the evolution of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24787951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24787951"><span>Evolutionary basis of mitonuclear discordance between <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Denton, Robert D; Kenyon, Laura J; Greenwald, Katherine R; Gibbs, H Lisle</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Distinct genetic markers should show similar patterns of differentiation between species reflecting their common evolutionary histories, yet there are increasing examples of differences in the biogeographic distribution of species-specific nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants within and between species. Identifying the evolutionary processes that underlie these anomalous patterns of genetic differentiation is an important goal. Here, we analyse the putative mitonuclear discordance observed between <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri and A. texanum) in which A. barbouri-specific mtDNA is found in animals located within the range of A. texanum. We test three hypotheses for this discordance (undetected range expansion, mtDNA introgression, and hybridization) using nuDNA and mtDNA data analysed with methods that varied in the parameters estimated and the timescales measured. Results from a Bayesian clustering technique (structure), bidirectional estimates of gene flow (migrate-n and IMa2) and phylogeny-based methods (*beast, bucky) all support the conclusion that the discordance is due to geographically restricted mtDNA introgression from A. barbouri into A. texanum. Limited data on species-specific tooth morphology match this conclusion. Significant differences in environmental conditions exist between sites where A. texanum with and without A. barbouri-like mtDNA occur, suggesting a possible role for selection in the process of introgression. Overall, our study provides a general example of the value of using complimentary analyses to make inferences of the directionality, timescale, and source of mtDNA introgression in animals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6791580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6791580"><span>Incorporation of deoxyuridine monophosphate into DNA increases the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchange yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pardo, E.G.; Hernandez, P.; Gutierrez, C.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>The effect of a treatment with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) in combination with 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd) on cell proliferation, incorporation of DNA precursors into DNA and <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been analyzed in Allium cepa meristem cells. FdUrd in the range 10/sup -9/-5 x 10/sup -7/ M produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the amount of cells in mitosis. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by 70-80% in short-term (6 h) experiments, by exogenously supplied dUrd at a concentration of 10/sup -1/ M. However, at the highest FdUrd dose tested (10/sup -7/ M), 10/sup -4/ M dUrd could not reverse the FdUrd effect in long-term experiments as shown by analyzing the kinetics of synchronous cell populations. DNA extracted from cells pulsed with (6-/sup 3/H)dUrd in the presence of FdUrd and 6-amino-uracil (6-AU), an inhibitor of uracil-DNA glycosylase, contained a small amount of label in the form of (6-/sup 3/H)dUMP. Thus the authors conclude that under the experimental conditions, exogenously supplied dUrd may be metabolized intracellularly to 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and that this deoxynucleotide may eventually be mis-incorporated into DNA. By analyzing SCE levels in third division chromosomes of cells treated with FdUrd and dUrd during their second cycle, they has scored a 6-fold increase in the reciprocal SCE level which demonstrates that the replication of a dUMP-containing DNA template leads to a higher SCE yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8700176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8700176"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange analysis in workers exposed to noise and vibration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, M J; Carothers, A; Branco, N C; Dias, A; Boavida, M G</p> <p>1996-07-10</p> <p>Workers chronically exposed to whole-body vibration and noise are known to develop pathophysiological and psychological disturbances. The frequencies of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and of cells with high frequencies of SCEs (HFCs) were analyzed in lymphocytes of 50 workers occupationally exposed to vibration and noise and of 34 controls. The exposed group included: individuals operating hand-vibrating tools (group 1), 'test-cell operators' (group 2) and 'run-up' operators (group 3) from an air base and helicopter pilots (group 4). The statistical analysis of the mean SCE count per cell was carried out by multiple regression analysis, comparing various predictor variables: exposure group, duration of exposure, age and cigarette consumption. Only cigarette consumption and exposure group were found to be significantly correlated with the mean SCE frequency. After allowing for the effects of smoking, the analysis indicates that: (1) there was no significant difference between group 1 and controls (p > 0.05); (2) the differences between group 2 and group 0, group 3 and group 0 and group 4 and group 0 were all highly significant (p < 0.001); (3) there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05), nor between groups 2 and 3 combined and group 4 (p > 0.05); (4) exposure groups 2, 3 and 4 combined, had a significantly elevated mean SCE frequency compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). Statistical analysis of the proportion of HFCs was consistent with these results. Our data suggest that chronic exposure to whole-body vibration and noise may lead to an increase in the level of SCEs in man. The observed effects may not reflect a direct action of these physical agents on DNA. Alternative explanations may include some of the whole-body vibration and noise-induced or stress-induced pathophysiological alterations which may indirectly induce SCE formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24298060"><span>The <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion pathway suppresses multiple chromosome gain and chromosome amplification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Covo, Shay; Puccia, Christopher M; Argueso, Juan Lucas; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Resnick, Michael A</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Gain or loss of chromosomes resulting in aneuploidy can be important factors in cancer and adaptive evolution. Although chromosome gain is a frequent event in eukaryotes, there is limited information on its genetic control. Here we measured the rates of chromosome gain in wild-type yeast and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion (SCC) compromised strains. SCC tethers the newly replicated chromatids until anaphase via the cohesin complex. Chromosome gain was measured by selecting and characterizing copper-resistant colonies that emerged due to increased copies of the metallothionein gene CUP1. Although all defective SCC diploid strains exhibited increased rates of chromosome gain, there were 15-fold differences between them. Of all mutants examined, a hypomorphic mutation at the cohesin complex caused the highest rate of chromosome gain while disruption of WPL1, an important regulator of SCC and chromosome condensation, resulted in the smallest increase in chromosome gain. In addition to defects in SCC, yeast cell type contributed significantly to chromosome gain, with the greatest rates observed for homozygous mating-type diploids, followed by heterozygous mating type, and smallest in haploids. In fact, wpl1-deficient haploids did not show any difference in chromosome gain rates compared to wild-type haploids. Genomic analysis of copper-resistant colonies revealed that the "driver" chromosome for which selection was applied could be amplified to over five copies per diploid cell. In addition, an increase in the expected driver chromosome was often accompanied by a gain of a small number of other chromosomes. We suggest that while chromosome gain due to SCC malfunction can have negative effects through gene imbalance, it could also facilitate opportunities for adaptive changes. In multicellular organisms, both factors could lead to somatic diseases including cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139827"><span>FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN <span class="hlt">SISTER</span> OF FT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Suhyun; Jung, Hye Seung; Chung, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hoon</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN <span class="hlt">SISTER</span> OF FT (TSF). During the vegetative phase, TSF shows high levels of expression in the hypocotyl before FT induction, but the tsf mutation does not have an apparent flowering-time phenotype on its own under long-day conditions. This study compared the protein mobility of FT and TSF. With TSF-overexpressing plants as the rootstock, the flowering time of ft tsf scion plants was only slightly accelerated. Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants. This study used plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins to map a region responsible for FT movement. A chimeric TSF with region II of FT (L28 to G98) expressed in the rootstock caused early flowering in ft tsf scion plants; movement of the chimeric protein from the rootstocks into the shoot apical region of the ft tsf scion plants was also detected. Misexpression of TSF in the leaf under the control of the FT promoter or grafting of 35S::TSF cotyledons accelerated flowering of ft-10 plants. FT was more stable than TSF. Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240803','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240803"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of shoe factory workers exposed to solvents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pitarque, Marià; Vaglenov, Alexander; Nosko, Maria; Pavlova, Sonya; Petkova, Vera; Hirvonen, Ari; Creus, Amadeu; Norppa, Hannu; Marcos, Ricard</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We examined <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN; cytokinesis-block method) in cultured peripheral lymphocytes from 52 female workers of two shoe factories and from 36 unexposed age- and sex-matched referents. The factory workers showed an elevated level of urinary hippuric acid, a biomarker of toluene exposure, and workplace air contained high concentrations of various organic solvents such as toluene, gasoline, acetone, and (in one of the plants only) ethylacetate and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate. The shoe factory workers showed a statistically significant higher frequency of micronucleated binucleate lymphocytes in comparison with the referents. This finding agreed with three preliminary MN determinations (each comprising 27-32 shoe workers and 16-20 controls) performed in one of the plants 2-5 years earlier. The shoe factory workers also had a lower average level of blood hemoglobin than the referents. In contrast, no difference was found between the groups in SCE analysis. Smokers showed significantly higher mean frequencies of SCEs per cell and high frequency cells (HFC) than nonsmokers. Aging was associated with increased MN rates and reduced cell proliferation. Polymorphism of the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene (GSTM1) did not affect the individual level of SCEs; but in smoking shoe workers an effect of the occupational exposure on the frequency of micronucleated cells could be seen only in GSTM1 null subjects. The low prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype precluded the evaluation of the influence of GSTT1 polymorphism. Our results show that the shoe factory workers have experienced genotoxic exposure, which is manifest as an increase in the frequency of MN, but not of SCEs, in peripheral lymphocytes. The exposures responsible for the MN induction could not be identified with certainty, but exposure to benzene in gasoline and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate may explain some of the findings. PMID:11940458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1617033C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1617033C"><span>The Face of the Earth and those of her <span class="hlt">sisters</span>: why are they so different?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Celal Sengor, A. M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The terrestrial planets, Mercury (uncompressed density: 5.3 g/cm3) Venus (4.4), the earth (4.4), and Mars 3.8) and the Moon, the rocky satellite of the earth (3.3), have formed some 4500 to 4600 million years ago through gravitational accretion about individual centres of attraction around the Sun. Yet all five have very different "faces" to use Eduard Suess' happy expression (adopted by Alfred Wegener for the Moon also). The earth looks blue when viewed from space because of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere. Venus looks yellowish due to its clouds of sulfuric acid and Mars is buff because of its dusty atmosphere. The earth's hypsometric curve is double-peaked; Mars' approaches the earth's. The others have single-peaked curves. Mercury and the Moon are very similar-looking, but this is deceptive: we now recognise that Mercury has extensive thrust faulting resulting from planetary contraction; the Moon probably has contractional structures, but on an incomparably smaller scale. Venus has an active interior albeit incapable of dividing its surface into horizontally-moving plates. Mars has a less active interior, but it seems nevertheless active with volcanism as recently as 2 Ma ago. Venus and Mars have plume-dominated tectonics. The earth gets its heat out by plate tectonics (but also by plumes) creating its most distinctive facial features: the orogenic belts and the oceans. The differences among the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> seem to be due to distance from the sun, accretion history and final size. So far, the most thrilling results concerning their geology have been gained as soon as we obtained the capability of looking at their faces and knock on their rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228369','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228369"><span>Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to vascular plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Whether male and female gametes are produced by single or separate individuals shapes plant mating and hence patterns of genetic diversity among and within populations. Haploid-dominant plants (“bryophytes”: liverworts, mosses and hornworts) can have unisexual (dioicous) or bisexual (monoicous) gametophytes, and today, 68% of liverwort species, 57% of moss species, and 40% of hornwort species are dioicous. The transitions between the two sexual systems and possible correlations with other traits have been studied in liverworts and mosses, but not hornworts. Here we use a phylogeny for 98 of the 200 species of hornworts, the <span class="hlt">sister</span> group to vascular plants, representing roughly equal proportions of all monoicous and all dioicous species, to test whether transitions in sexual systems are predominantly from monoicy to dioicy as might be expected based on studies of mosses. We further investigate possible correlations between sexual system and spore size, antheridium number, ploidy level, and diversification rate, with character selection partly based on findings in mosses and liverworts. Results Hornworts underwent numerous transitions between monoicy and dioicy. The transition rate from dioicy to monoicy was 2× higher than in the opposite direction, but monoicous groups have higher extinction rates; diversification rates do not correlate with sexual system. A correlation important in mosses, that between monoicy and polyploidy, apparently plays a small role: of 20 species with chromosome counts, only one is polyploid, the monoicous Anthoceros punctatus. A contingency test revealed that transitions to dioicy were more likely in species with small spores, supporting the hypothesis that small but numerous spores may be advantageous for dioicous species that depend on dense carpets of gametophytes for reproductive assurance. However, we found no evidence for increased antheridium-per-chamber numbers in dioicous species. Conclusions Sexual systems in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378582"><span>A novel mechanism for the establishment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion by the ECO1 acetyltransferase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guacci, Vincent; Stricklin, Jeremiah; Bloom, Michelle S; Guō, Xuánzōng; Bhatter, Meghna; Koshland, Douglas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cohesin complex mediates cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids, which promotes high-fidelity chromosome segregation. Eco1p acetylates the cohesin subunit Smc3p during S phase to establish cohesion. The current model posits that this Eco1p-mediated acetylation promotes establishment by abrogating the ability of Wpl1p to destabilize cohesin binding to chromosomes. Here we present data from budding yeast that is incompatible with this Wpl1p-centric model. Two independent in vivo assays show that a wpl1∆ fails to suppress cohesion defects of eco1∆ cells. Moreover, a wpl1∆ also fails to suppress cohesion defects engendered by blocking just the essential Eco1p acetylation sites on Smc3p (K112, K113). Thus removing WPL1 inhibition is insufficient for generating cohesion without ECO1 activity. To elucidate how ECO1 promotes cohesion, we conducted a genetic screen and identified a cohesion activator mutation in the SMC3 head domain (D1189H). Smc3-D1189H partially restores cohesion in eco1∆ wpl1∆ or eco1 mutant cells but robustly restores cohesion in cells blocked for Smc3p K112 K113 acetylation. These data support two important conclusions. First, acetylation of the K112 K113 region by Eco1p promotes cohesion establishment by altering Smc3p head function independent of its ability to antagonize Wpl1p. Second, Eco1p targets other than Smc3p K112 K113 are necessary for efficient establishment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html"><span>Ten Leading Causes of <span class="hlt">Death</span> and Injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of <span class="hlt">Death</span> and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Injury <span class="hlt">Deaths</span>, United States - 2013 Leading Causes of <span class="hlt">Death</span> Charts Causes of <span class="hlt">Death</span> by Age Group 2014 [ ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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