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Sample records for death receptor-4 expression

  1. Death receptor-4 (DR4) expression is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappaB in response to etoposide treatment.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Francisco José; Ishdorj, Ganchimeg; Hu, Xiaojie; Gibson, Spencer B

    2008-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) binds to death receptor 4 (DR4) activating the apoptotic signalling pathway. DNA damaging agents (genotoxins) such as etoposide increase DR4 expression and when combined with TRAIL induce a synergistic apoptotic response. The mechanism for up-regulation of DR4 expression following genotoxin treatment is not well understood. Herein, we determined that transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a role in genotoxin induced DR4 expression. Increased expression of DR4 following etoposide treatment is blocked by inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway. Moreover, expression of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB is sufficient to increase DR4 protein levels. Indeed, knockdown of p65 by RNA interference blocked etoposide up-regulation of DR4. We further identified a functional NF-kappaB binding site located in the DR4 promoter. Mutation of this site abrogates the induction of luciferase activity after p65 over-expression. Furthermore, electromobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitaton suggest that NF-kappaB binds to this site upon etoposide treatment. MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) is a serine threonine kinase that is activated following etoposide treatment and activates NF-kappaB. Expression of the kinase inactive MEKK1 (MEKK1-KM) abrogates the up-regulation of DR4 after etoposide treatment. Taken together, NF-kappaB plays a role in up-regulation of DR4 following etoposide treatment.

  2. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors are sensitive to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and express death receptor 4 and death receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Mitsiades, N; Poulaki, V; Mitsiades, C; Tsokos, M

    2001-03-15

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) of children and adolescents to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL binds to death receptors (DRs) DR4, DR5, DcR1, and DcR2. Either DR4 or DR5 can induce apoptosis, whereas DcR1 and DcR2 are considered inhibitory receptors. Nine of 10 ESFT cell lines, including several that were Fas resistant, underwent apoptosis with TRAIL through activation of caspase-10, capase-8 (FLICE), caspase-3, and caspase-9. In contrast to the Fas signaling pathway, caspase-10, but not caspase-8 or the Fas-associated death domain-containing molecule, was recruited to the TRAIL receptor-associated signaling complex. We found that 9 of 10 ESFT cell lines expressed both DR4 and DR5 by Western blotting, whereas the TRAIL-resistant line expressed only DR4. However, DR4 was absent from the cell surface in the resistant and two additional lines (three of five tested lines), suggesting that it may have been nonfunctional. On the contrary, DR5 was located on the cell surface in all four sensitive lines tested, being absent only from the cell surface of the resistant line that was also DR5-negative by Western blotting. In agreement with these findings, the resistance of the line was overcome by restoration of DR5 levels by transfection. Levels of DcR1 and DcR2 or levels of the FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) did not correlate with TRAIL resistance, and protein synthesis inhibition did not sensitize the TRAIL-resistant line to TRAIL. Because these data suggested that sensitivity of ESFTs to TRAIL was mainly based on the presence of DR4/DR5, we investigated the presence of these receptors in 32 ESFT tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. We found that 23 of 32 tumor tissues (72%) expressed both receptors, 8 of 32 (25%) expressed one receptor only, and 1 was negative for both. Our finding of wide expression of DR4/DR5 in ESFT in vivo, in combination with their high sensitivity

  3. Real-time detection of cellular death receptor-4 activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Dereli-Korkut, Zeynep; Gandhok, Harmeet; Zeng, Ling Ge; Waqas, Sidra; Jiang, Xuejun; Wang, Sihong

    2013-05-01

    Targeted therapy involving the activation of death receptors DR4 and/or DR5 by its ligand, TRAIL, can selectively induce apoptosis in certain tumor cells. In order to profile the dynamic activation or trimerization of TRAIL-DR4 in live cells in real-time, the development of an apoptosis reporter cell line is essential. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology via a FRET pair, cyan fluorescence protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescence protein (YFP), was used in this study. DR4-CFP and DR4-YFP were stably expressed in human lung cancer PC9 cells. Flow cytometer sorting and limited dilution coupled with fluorescence microscopy were used to select a monoclonal reporter cell line with high and compatible expression levels of DR4-CFP and DR4-YFP. FRET experiments were conducted and FRET efficiencies were monitored according to the Siegel's YFP photobleaching FRET protocol. Upon TRAIL induction a significant increase in FRET efficiencies from 5% to 9% demonstrated the ability of the DR4-CFP/YFP reporter cell line in monitoring the dynamic activation of TRAIL pathways. 3D reconstructed confocal images of DR4-CFP/YFP reporter cells exhibited a colocalized expression of DR4-CFP and DR4-YFP mainly on cell membranes. FRET results obtained during this study complements the use of epi-fluorescence microscopy for FRET analysis. The real-time FRET analysis allows the dynamic profiling of the activation of TRAIL pathways by using the time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Therefore, DR4-CFP/YFP PC9 reporter cells along with FRET technology can be used as a tool for anti-cancer drug screening to identify compounds that are capable of activating TRAIL pathways.

  4. Human Toll like receptor 4 gene expression of PBMCs in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Z; Kiani, Z; Nasiri, A A; Mashhadi, M A; Javadian, F; Haghighi, A; Kohan, F; Bahari, A; Sargazi, A

    2015-07-31

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the most pivotal pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune systems. In this study, we evaluate the expression of the TLR4 in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) in comparison to healthy controls. Expression of TLR4 in 32 human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with DM2 and 20 control samples was assessed using Real—Time PCR technique. For each patient, body mass index (BMI) and blood glucose levels were measured. The results of Real—Time PCR showed a 5—folds increase in expression of TLR4 on the PBMCs of DM2 patients in comparison to controls. No correlation was observed between the TLR4 expression and sex or BMI. Our results confirmed that DM2 can increase TLR4 expression independent from sex, blood glucose concentrations and BMI.

  5. Tenascin C upregulates interleukin-6 expression in human cardiac myofibroblasts via toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, Azhar; Spary, Emma J; Manfield, Iain W; Ruhmann, Michaela; Zuliani-Alvarez, Lorena; Gamboa-Esteves, Filomena O; Porter, Karen E; Drinkhill, Mark J; Midwood, Kim S; Turner, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Tenascin C (TNC) on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in human cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF). METHODS: CMF were isolated and cultured from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Cultured cells were treated with either TNC (0.1 μmol/L, 24 h) or a recombinant protein corresponding to different domains of the TNC protein; fibrinogen-like globe (FBG) and fibronectin type III-like repeats (TNIII 5-7) (both 1 μmol/L, 24 h). The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, TNFα and the matrix metalloproteinases; MMPs (MMP1, 2, 3, 9, 10, MT1-MMP) was assessed using real time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. RESULTS: TNC increased both IL-6 and MMP3 (P < 0.01) mRNA levels in cultured human CMF but had no significant effect on the other markers studied. The increase in IL-6 mRNA expression was mirrored by an increase in protein secretion as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (P < 0.01). Treating CMF with the recombinant protein FBG increased IL-6 mRNA and protein (P < 0.01) whereas the recombinant protein TNIII 5-7 had no effect. Neither FBG nor TNIII 5-7 had any significant effect on MMP3 expression. The expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in human CMF was confirmed by real time RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Pre-incubation of cells with TLR4 neutralising antisera attenuated the effect of both TNC and FBG on IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. CONCLUSION: TNC up-regulates IL-6 expression in human CMF, an effect mediated through the FBG domain of TNC and via the TLR4 receptor. PMID:27231521

  6. 68Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT for Imaging of Chemokine Receptor 4 Expression in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lapa, Constantin; Lückerath, Katharina; Kleinlein, Irene; Monoranu, Camelia Maria; Linsenmann, Thomas; Kessler, Almuth F.; Rudelius, Martina; Kropf, Saskia; Buck, Andreas K.; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Löhr, Mario; Herrmann, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) has been reported to be overexpressed in glioblastoma (GBM) and to be associated with poor survival. This study investigated the feasibility of non-invasive CXCR4-directed imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using the radiolabelled chemokine receptor ligand 68Ga-Pentixafor. 15 patients with clinical suspicion on primary or recurrent glioblastoma (13 primary, 2 recurrent tumors) underwent 68Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT for assessment of CXCR4 expression prior to surgery. O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) PET/CT images were available in 11/15 cases and were compared visually and semi-quantitatively (SUVmax, SUVmean). Tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated for both PET probes. 68Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT results were also compared to histological CXCR4 expression on neuronavigated surgical samples. 68Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT was visually positive in 13/15 cases with SUVmean and SUVmax of 3.0±1.5 and 3.9±2.0 respectively. Respective values for 18F-FET were 4.4±2.0 (SUVmean) and 5.3±2.3 (SUVmax). TBR for SUVmean and SUVmax were higher for 68Ga-Pentixafor than for 18F-FET (SUVmean 154.0±90.7 vs. 4.1±1.3; SUVmax 70.3±44.0 and 3.8±1.2, p<0.01), respectively. Histological analysis confirmed CXCR4 expression in tumor areas with high 68Ga-Pentixafor uptake; regions of the same tumor without apparent 68Ga-Pentixafor uptake showed no or low receptor expression. In this pilot study, 68Ga-Pentixafor retention has been observed in the vast majority of glioblastoma lesions and served as readout for non-invasive determination of CXCR4 expression. Given the paramount importance of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis in tumor biology, 68Ga-Pentixafor-PET/CT might prove a useful tool for sensitive, non-invasive in-vivo quantification of CXCR4 as well as selection of patients who might benefit from CXCR4-directed therapy. PMID:26909116

  7. RIPK1 and RIPK3 Kinases Promote Cell-Death-Independent Inflammation by Toll-like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Malek; Saleh, Danish; Zelic, Matija; Nogusa, Shoko; Shah, Saumil; Tai, Albert; Finger, Joshua N; Polykratis, Apostolos; Gough, Peter J; Bertin, John; Whalen, Michael J; Pasparakis, Manolis; Balachandran, Siddharth; Kelliher, Michelle; Poltorak, Alexander; Degterev, Alexei

    2016-07-19

    Macrophages are a crucial component of the innate immune system in sensing pathogens and promoting local and systemic inflammation. RIPK1 and RIPK3 are homologous kinases, previously linked to activation of necroptotic death. In this study, we have described roles for these kinases as master regulators of pro-inflammatory gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide, independent of their well-documented cell death functions. In primary macrophages, this regulation was elicited in the absence of caspase-8 activity, required the adaptor molecule TRIF, and proceeded in a cell autonomous manner. RIPK1 and RIPK3 kinases promoted sustained activation of Erk, cFos, and NF-κB, which were required for inflammatory changes. Utilizing genetic and pharmacologic tools, we showed that RIPK1 and RIPK3 account for acute inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide in vivo; notably, this regulation did not require exogenous manipulation of caspases. These findings identified a new pharmacologically accessible pathway that may be relevant to inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27396959

  8. Oxidative Stress Increases Surface Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in Murine Macrophages Via Ceramide Generation.

    PubMed

    Tawadros, Patrick S; Powers, Kinga A; Ailenberg, Menachem; Birch, Simone E; Marshall, John C; Szaszi, Katalin; Kapus, Andras; Rotstein, Ori D

    2015-08-01

    Multiorgan failure is a major cause of late mortality following trauma. Oxidative stress generated during shock/resuscitation contributes to tissue injury by priming the immune system for an exaggerated response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We recently reported that oxidative stress causes rapid recruitment of the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to membrane lipid rafts, thus increasing LPS responsiveness and cellular priming. We hypothesized that activation of Src family kinases by oxidants might contribute to these events. We utilized microscopy, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin-layer chromatography methods. Using hydrogen peroxide in vitro and hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in vivo, oxidant-induced TLR4 translocation in macrophages occurred in an Src-dependent manner. Approaches supporting this conclusion included pharmacologic inhibition of the Src family kinases by PP2, Src inhibition by a molecular approach of cell transfection with Csk, and genetic inhibition of all Src kinases relevant to the monocyte/macrophage lineage in hckfgrlyn triple knockout mice. To evaluate the upstream molecules involved in Src activation, we evaluated the ability of oxidative stress to activate the bioactive lipid molecule ceramide. Oxidants induced ceramide generation in macrophages both in vitro and in vivo, an effect that appears to be due to activation of the acid sphingomyelinase. Using pharmacological approaches, ceramide was shown to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate TLR4 translocation to the plasma membrane in an Src-dependent manner. This study identifies a hierarchy of signaling molecules following oxidative stress that might represent novel targets for therapy in critical illness and organ injury.

  9. Artesunate ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats by inhibiting expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yanyan; Liu, Chao; Li, Xiaoli; Yan, Zifei; Kuang, Mei; Su, Yujie; Pan, Xichun; Qin, Rongxin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a severe clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple organs dysfunction (MOD) is the leading cause of SAP-related death. The over-release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α is the underlying mechanism of MOD; however, there is no effective agent against the inflammation. Herein, artesunate (AS) was found to increase the survival of SAP rats significantly when injected with 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct in a retrograde direction, improving their pancreatic pathology and decreasing serum amylase and pancreatic lipase activities along with substantially reduced pancreatic IL-1β and IL-6 release. In vitro, AS-pretreatment strongly inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 release and their mRNA expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but exerted little effect on TNF-α release. Additionally, AS reduced the mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 as well as their protein expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that AS could significantly protect SAP rats, and this protection was related to the reduction of digestive enzyme activities and pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, AS may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SAP.

  10. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in healthy and infected canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Chotimanukul, S; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2011-10-01

    This study provides the first report into immunohistochemical localization of Toll-like receptor (TLR) in the canine reproductive tract. TLR4 was investigated in endometrium during the estrous cycle and in pyometra. Pyometra is the most important pathological condition of the uterus due to bacterial infection in dogs. To protect against invading pathogens, the female reproductive tract has evolved immune mechanisms. TLRs are the cellular components of the afferent arm of the innate immune system. The expression of TLR4 was significantly higher in the endometrial stroma compared to the endometrial surface epithelium and glandular epithelium in proestrus. The glandular epithelium and stroma at the diestrous stage expressed TLR4 significantly higher than surface epithelium. Furthermore, when compared to other healthy groups, the glandular epithelium at diestrus also higher expressed TLR4 than other stages. The expression of TLR4 in the surface epithelium was higher in dogs with pyometra compared with all other groups. And, the surface epithelium of dogs suffering from pyometra also expressed TLR4 more intensely than the glandular epithelium. The innate immunity of infected canine endometrium response to bacterial infection is intensely extremely increased by the expression of TLR4. Furthermore, the different levels of TLR4 expression seems related to physiological changes in distinct cell types of endometrium, leukocytes populations, cytokines and sex hormones. PMID:21752456

  11. RANTES expression induced by Toll-like receptor 4 ligand in rat airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, Kaori; Tamaoka, Meiyo; Takayama, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Sumi, Yuki; Inase, Naohiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) have been reported to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and take part in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbation. Though TLRs were found to activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in airway epithelial cells, little is known about the association of TLR ligands with EGFR signaling pathways in ASMCs. Using primary cultured ASMCs from Brown Norway rats, TLR4, eotaxin, and RANTES mRNA were examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The concentration of RANTES protein in culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. The effect of EGFR signaling inhibitors on RANTES expression was examined as well. Phosphorylation of EGFR after stimulation was examined by Western Blotting. Rat ASMCs expressed TLR4 and eotaxin, and LPS upregulated RANTES production. The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor GM6001 inhibited RANTES expression induced by LPS. LPS phosphorylated EGFR. TLR4 activation can induce RANTES expression via EGFR transactivation and PI3K/Akt pathway in rat ASMCs. MMP-induced EGFR proligand cleavage and ligand binding to EGFR seem to be involved in this pathway. These findings may be critical in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbation by airway infection. PMID:23896774

  12. Characterization of Antibodies to Identify Cellular Expression of Dopamine Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Deming, Janise D; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Eom, Yun Sung; Lee, Eun-Jin; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) plays an important role in vision. In order to study the DRD4 expression in vivo, it is important to have antibodies that are specific for DRD4 for both immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) applications. In this study, six antibodies raised against DRD4 peptides were tested in vitro, using transfected mammalian cells, and in vivo, using mouse retinas. Three Santa Cruz (SC) antibodies, D-16, N-20, and R-20, were successful in IHC of transfected DRD4; however, N-20 was the only one effective on immunoblot analysis in DRD4 transfected cells and IHC of mouse retinal sections, while R-20, 2B9, and Antibody Verify AAS63631C were non-specific or below detection.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in the Epithelium of Inflammatory Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, R.; Perrotta, R.E.; Musumeci, G.; Crimi, S.; dos Santos, J.N.; Rusu, M.C.; Bufo, P.; Barbato, E.; Pannone, G.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease. PMID:26708181

  14. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés; De Paul, Ana Lucía

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  15. Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in lungs of immune-suppressed rat with Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanmei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Feng, Xuanlin; Liu, Xiaoshu; Deng, Lei; Liang, Zong-An

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in the regulation of host responses to Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). The aim of the present study was to examine the function of TLR4 in lung inflammation in immune-suppressed rats with A. baumannii infection. A total of 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into the control, A. baumannii infection and immune-suppressed infection groups. The immune-suppressed infection group was treated with 100 mg/kg hydrocortisone by subcutaneous injection every other day for 2 weeks prior to A. baumannii infection. Lung tissue was obtained on the 3rd and 7th day after tracheal inoculation with A. baumannii. The expression of TLR4 in bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophage was examined using immunohistochemistry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were detected using ELISA. The results showed that in the control group, the expression of TLR4 was upregulated in the bronchial and alveolar epithelial, and alveolar macrophages, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased in the early phase of A. baumannii infection. On the 7th day, no significant difference in the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α was observed between the A. baumannii infection and control groups. Conversely, the expression of TLR4 was downregulated in the immune-suppressed group, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced on the 3rd day after infection. In the subsequent observation period, the expression of TLR4 was upregulated and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased. In conclusion, the results show a critical role of TLR4 in mediating effective immune response in the lung of rat with A. baumannii infection. PMID:27703512

  16. Hypoxia preconditioning increases survival and decreases expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ali, Irshad; Nanchal, Rahul; Husnain, Fouad; Audi, Said; Konduri, G Ganesh; Densmore, John C; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    Abstract Pulmonary or systemic infections and hypoxemic respiratory failure are among the leading causes of admission to intensive care units, and these conditions frequently exist in sequence or in tandem. Inflammatory responses to infections are reproduced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) engaging Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Apoptosis is a hallmark of lung injury in sepsis. This study was conducted to determine whether preexposure to LPS or hypoxia modulated the survival of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). We also investigated the role TLR4 receptor expression plays in apoptosis due to these conditions. Bovine PAECs were cultured in hypoxic or normoxic environments and treated with LPS. TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 was used to probe the role played by TLR4 receptors in cell survival. Cell apoptosis and survival were measured by caspase 3 activity and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) incorporation. TLR4 expression and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production were also determined. LPS increased caspase 3 activity in a TAK-242-sensitive manner and decreased MTT incorporation. Apoptosis was decreased in PAECs preconditioned with hypoxia prior to LPS exposure. LPS increased TNF-α production, and hypoxic preconditioning blunted it. Hypoxic preconditioning reduced LPS-induced TLR4 messenger RNA and TLR4 protein. TAK-242 decreased to baseline the LPS-stimulated expression of TLR4 messenger RNA regardless of environmental conditions. In contrast, LPS followed by hypoxia substantially increased apoptosis and cell death. In conclusion, protection from LPS-stimulated PAEC apoptosis by hypoxic preconditioning is attributable in part to reduction in TLR4 expression. If these signaling pathways apply to septic patients, they may account for differing sensitivities of individuals to acute lung injury depending on oxygen tensions in PAECs in vivo.

  17. Hypoxia preconditioning increases survival and decreases expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Nanchal, Rahul; Audi, Said; Konduri, G. Ganesh; Medhora, Meetha

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary or systemic infections and hypoxemic respiratory failure are among the leading causes of admission to intensive care units, and these conditions frequently exist in sequence or in tandem. Inflammatory responses to infections are reproduced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) engaging Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Apoptosis is a hallmark of lung injury in sepsis. This study was conducted to determine whether preexposure to LPS or hypoxia modulated the survival of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). We also investigated the role TLR4 receptor expression plays in apoptosis due to these conditions. Bovine PAECs were cultured in hypoxic or normoxic environments and treated with LPS. TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 was used to probe the role played by TLR4 receptors in cell survival. Cell apoptosis and survival were measured by caspase 3 activity and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) incorporation. TLR4 expression and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production were also determined. LPS increased caspase 3 activity in a TAK-242-sensitive manner and decreased MTT incorporation. Apoptosis was decreased in PAECs preconditioned with hypoxia prior to LPS exposure. LPS increased TNF-α production, and hypoxic preconditioning blunted it. Hypoxic preconditioning reduced LPS-induced TLR4 messenger RNA and TLR4 protein. TAK-242 decreased to baseline the LPS-stimulated expression of TLR4 messenger RNA regardless of environmental conditions. In contrast, LPS followed by hypoxia substantially increased apoptosis and cell death. In conclusion, protection from LPS-stimulated PAEC apoptosis by hypoxic preconditioning is attributable in part to reduction in TLR4 expression. If these signaling pathways apply to septic patients, they may account for differing sensitivities of individuals to acute lung injury depending on oxygen tensions in PAECs in vivo. PMID:24618542

  18. Carbon monoxide down-modulates Toll-like receptor 4/MD2 expression on innate immune cells and reduces endotoxic shock susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Sebastián A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recently reported as the main anti-inflammatory mediator of the haem-degrading enzyme haem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1). It has been shown that either HO-1 induction or CO treatment reduces the ability of monocytes to respond to inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), due to an inhibition of the signalling pathways leading to nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases and interferon regulatory factor 3 activation. Hence, it has been suggested that CO impairs the stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD2) complex located on the surface of immune cells. However, whether CO can negatively modulate the surface expression of the TLR4/MD2 complex in immune cells remains unknown. Here we report that either HO-1 induction or treatment with CO decreases the surface expression of TLR4/MD2 in dendritic cells (DC) and neutrophils. In addition, in a septic shock model of mice intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), prophylactic treatment with CO protected animals from hypothermia, weight loss, mobility loss and death. Further, mice pre-treated with CO and challenged with LPS showed reduced recruitment of DC and neutrophils to peripheral blood, suggesting that this gas causes a systemic tolerance to endotoxin challenge. No differences in the amount of innate cells in lymphoid tissues were observed in CO-treated mice. Our results suggest that CO treatment reduces the expression of the TLR4/MD2 complex on the surface of myeloid cells, which renders them resistant to LPS priming in vitro, as well as in vivo in a model of endotoxic shock. PMID:25179131

  19. Carbon monoxide down-modulates Toll-like receptor 4/MD2 expression on innate immune cells and reduces endotoxic shock susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Sebastián A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recently reported as the main anti-inflammatory mediator of the haem-degrading enzyme haem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1). It has been shown that either HO-1 induction or CO treatment reduces the ability of monocytes to respond to inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), due to an inhibition of the signalling pathways leading to nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases and interferon regulatory factor 3 activation. Hence, it has been suggested that CO impairs the stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD2) complex located on the surface of immune cells. However, whether CO can negatively modulate the surface expression of the TLR4/MD2 complex in immune cells remains unknown. Here we report that either HO-1 induction or treatment with CO decreases the surface expression of TLR4/MD2 in dendritic cells (DC) and neutrophils. In addition, in a septic shock model of mice intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), prophylactic treatment with CO protected animals from hypothermia, weight loss, mobility loss and death. Further, mice pre-treated with CO and challenged with LPS showed reduced recruitment of DC and neutrophils to peripheral blood, suggesting that this gas causes a systemic tolerance to endotoxin challenge. No differences in the amount of innate cells in lymphoid tissues were observed in CO-treated mice. Our results suggest that CO treatment reduces the expression of the TLR4/MD2 complex on the surface of myeloid cells, which renders them resistant to LPS priming in vitro, as well as in vivo in a model of endotoxic shock.

  20. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Okito, Asuka; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Akiyama, Masako; Ono, Takashi; Morita, Ikuo

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  1. TRAIL-Death Receptor 4 Signaling via Lysosome Fusion and Membrane Raft Clustering In Coronary Arterial Endothelial Cells: Evidence from ASM Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor death receptor 4 (DR4) have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation and leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MRs) clustering and formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and its co-localization with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1+/+) mice. Further, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O2−· production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside GM1 (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking and fusion with membrane and formation of MR redox signaling platforms, which may

  2. Different regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 expression on blood CD14+ monocytes by simvastatin in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huanzhang; Wang, Cunzhen; Zhu, Wenliang; Huang, Xiaopei; Guo, Zhisong; Zhang, Huifeng; Qin, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) surface expression levels on blood CD14+ monocytes by simvastatin treatment in patient with sepsis is different from that in patients with severe sepsis. In patients with sepsis simvastatin treatment statistically significantly decreased TLR4 surface expression level on blood CD14+ monocytes, while in patients with severe sepsis simvastatin treatment had no significant influence on TLR4 surface expression level on blood CD14+ monocytes. The changes of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by simvastatin in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis were similar with that of TLR4. Our results indicated simvastatin treatment differently influenced inflammation process in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis, which might partially explain the discrepancy, presented by previous trials, about the therapeutic effects of simvastatin treatment in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis. PMID:26550333

  3. INVOLVEMENT OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 AND MAPK PATHWAYS IN LPS-INDUCED CD40 EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD40 is a co-stimulatory surface molecule actively expressed on mature dendritic cells (DC). Recent studies suggest that endotoxin (LPS) inhalation induces DC maturation in the airways of healthy volunteers. To characterize the effect of LPS on CD40 expression and underlying mech...

  4. Involvement of L-type Ca²⁺ channel and toll-like receptor-4 in nickel-induced interleukin-8 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Chung, Chih-Ang; Wong, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Ben-Kuen; Chiu, Siou-Jin; Klahan, Sukhontip; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The metal nickel (Ni(2+)) is found everywhere in our daily lives, including coins, costume jewelry, and even nuts and chocolates. Nickel poisoning can cause inflammatory reactions, respiratory diseases, and allergic contact dermatitis. To clarify the mechanism by which nickel induces mediators of inflammation, we used the human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line as a model. Interleukin (IL)-8 promoter activity as well as gene expression were tested by luciferase assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The underlying mechanisms of nickel-induced IL-8 were investigated. We found that nickel induced IL-8 gene expression via the L-type Ca(2+) channel, Toll-like receptor-4 (TRL-4) and nuclear factor NF-κB signal transduction pathways. Nickel activated NF-κB expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and then increased IL-8 expression. Thus, the L-type Ca(2+) channel and TRL-4 play important roles in nickel-induced inflammatory gene expressions.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Lai, Ruifang; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Zhan, Fanbin; Wei, Jin; Yang, Pinhong; Wang, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in teleost innate immune system. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala (ma) tlr4 gene was cloned, its putative polypeptide product characterized, and expression analysed. Matlr4 cDNA is 2862 bp long, with an open reading frame of 2364 bp encoding 787 amino acids. MaTlr4 is a typical TLR protein, including the extracellular part with nine leucine-rich repeat motifs, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. MaTlr4 has the highest level of identity (94%) and similarity (97%) with the grass carp Tlr4.2 homolog. This was also corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis, which placed MaTlr4 in a cluster with other cyprinid homologs. Matlr4 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and during all sampled developmental stages. The observed peak in matlr4 mRNA expression during gastrula and somite stages is in good agreement with its proposed role in the development of the neural system. Temporal expression patterns of matlr4 and maMyD88 mRNAs and proteins were analyzed in liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. And mRNA expression varied between different time-points. Both MaTlr4 and MaMyD88 protein expressions at 12 hpi were significantly enhanced in head kidney and intestine. These results indicate that matlr4 is involved in the immune response in M. amblycephala, and that it is indeed a functional homologue of tlr4s described in other animal species. PMID:26802439

  6. Impact of probiotics on toll-like receptor 4 expression in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Fu, Yu; Liu, Jun; Ren, Hong-yu

    2013-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system which trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. This study aimed to investigate the impact of probiotics (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium) on the expression of TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the colon mucosa of rat experimental ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol and immune complexes. The gross and histological changes of the colonic mucosa were observed and assessed by the means-standard deviation and independent samples t-test. The protein expression levels of TLR4 and TNF-α were detected by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. It was revealed that there was visible infiltration of inflammatory cells, formation of crypt abscess, and the reduction of goblet cells in the colon tissue of experimental models. As compared with the control group, the levels of TLR4 and TNF-α protein were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.01 for both). No significant difference was found in the expression of TLR4 and TNF-α between the two-week probiotics treatment group and the model group (P>0.05), whereas significant reductions were shown in rats which were treated with probiotics for four weeks as compared with the model group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between two probiotics-treated groups. Our results implied that probiotics were likely to play a key role in protecting ulcerative colitis by reducing the inflammatory factor TNF-α expression through inhibiting the TLR4 expression in the colon tissue of experimental models.

  7. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Intestinal Gene Expression During Arcobacter Butzleri Infection of Gnotobiotic Il-10 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gölz1, Greta; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that Arcobacter butzleri infection induces Toll-like receptor (TLR) -4 dependent immune responses in perorally infected gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. Here, we analyzed TLR-4-dependent expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators and matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in the small and large intestines of gnotobiotic TLR-4-deficient IL-10–/– mice that were perorally infected with A. butzleri strains CCUG 30485 or C1, of human and chicken origin, respectively. At day 6 following A. butzleri infection, colonic mucin-2 mRNA, as integral part of the intestinal mucus layer, was downregulated in the colon, but not ileum, of IL-10–/– but not TLR-4–/– IL-10–/– mice. CCUG 30485 strain-infected TLR-4-deficient IL-10–/– mice displayed less distinctly upregulated IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-1β mRNA levels in ileum and colon, which was also true for colonic IL-22. These changes were accompanied by upregulated colonic MMP-2 and ileal MMP-9 mRNA exclusively in IL-10–/– mice. In conclusion, TLR-4 is essentially involved in A. butzleri mediated modulation of gene expression in the intestines of gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. PMID:27141316

  9. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 enhances the pulmonary metastatic potential of murine B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Maki, Wusi; Cardones, Adela R; Fang, Hui; Tun Kyi, Adrian; Nestle, Frank O; Hwang, Sam T

    2002-12-15

    The chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 7 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 have been implicated in cancer metastasis. To evaluate whether CXCR4 is sufficient to increase tumor metastasis in an organ-specific manner, we transduced murine B16 melanoma cells with CXCR4 (CXCR4-B16) and followed the metastatic fate of the transduced cells in both i.v. and s.c. inoculation models of metastasis. CXCR4-B16 cells demonstrated marked increases (>10-fold) in pulmonary metastasis compared with vector (pLNCX2)-B16 after i.v. and s.c. inoculation of tumor cells. The increase in metastasis could be completely inhibited by T22, a small peptide antagonist of CXCR4. As early as 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection, CXCR4-B16 cells were significantly increased in the lung compared with control B16 cells by 5- and 10-fold (P < 0.05), respectively. CXCR4-B16 cells adhered better to both dermal and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells relative to control B16 cells. Moreover, CXCL12 promoted the growth of CXCR4-B16 cells in vitro. Whereas expression of CXCR4 in B16 cells dramatically enhanced pulmonary metastasis, metastasis to the lymph nodes, liver, and kidney was rare. Immunohistochemical staining of both primary human cutaneous melanoma and pulmonary metastases revealed CXCR4 expression. Thus, CXCR4 plays a potentially important role in promoting organ-selective metastasis, possibly by stimulating tumor adhesion to microvascular endothelial cells and by enhancing the growth of tumor cells under stress. PMID:12499276

  10. Protein kinase Cε-calcineurin cosignaling downstream of toll-like receptor 4 downregulates fibrosis and induces wound healing gene expression in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Rui F D S; Paul, Margaret A; Valmaseda, Aida; Francois, Asvi; Jabr, Rita; Anjum, Shahzia; Marber, Michael S; Budhram-Mahadeo, Vishwanie; Heads, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    The pathways which regulate resolution of inflammation and contribute to positive remodeling of the myocardium following injury are poorly understood. Here we show that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) cooperates with the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) to potentiate induction of cardioprotective gene expression while suppressing expression of fibrosis markers. This was achieved by detailed analysis of the regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as a marker gene and by using gene expression profiling to identify genes regulated by coexpression of CN-Aα/PKCε in adult rat cardiac myofibroblasts (ARVFs) on a larger scale. GeneChip analysis of CN-Aα/PKCε-coexpressing ARVFs showed that COX-2 provides a signature for wound healing and is associated with downregulation of fibrosis markers, including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin, and collagens Col1a1, Col3a1, Col6a3, Col11a1, Col12a1, and Col14a1, with concomitant upregulation of cardioprotection markers, including COX-2 itself, lipocalin 2 (LCN2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In primary rat cardiomyocyte cultures Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist- or PKCε/CN-dependent COX-2 induction occurred in coresident fibroblasts and was blocked by selective inhibition of CN or PKC α/ε or elimination of fibroblasts. Furthermore, ectopic expression of PKCε and CN in ARVFs showed that the effects on COX-2 expression are mediated by specific NFAT sites within the COX-2 promoter as confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Therefore, PKCε may negatively regulate adverse myocardial remodeling by cooperating with CN to downregulate fibrosis and induce transcription of cardioprotective wound healing genes, including COX-2. PMID:24298017

  11. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway genes in Escherichia coli F18-resistant and - sensitive Meishan piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gan, L N; Qin, W Y; Sun, S Y; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is an important inflammatory pathways associated with the progression of numerous diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between TLR4 signaling and resistance to Escherichia coli F18 in locally weaned Meishan piglets. Using a real-time PCR approach, expression profiles were determined for key TLR4 signaling pathway genes TLR4, MyD88, CD14, IFN-α, IL-1β and TNF-α in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, duodenum and jejunum of E. coli F18-resistant and -sensitive animals. TLR4 signaling pathway genes were expressed in all the immune organs and intestinal tissues, and the expression was generally higher in the spleen and lymph nodes. TLR4 transcription was higher in the spleen of sensitive piglets (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in TLR4 mRNA levels in other tissues. Similarly, CD14 transcription was higher in lymph nodes of sensitive animals (p<0.05) but not in other tissues. IL-1β expression was higher in the spleen and in the duodenum of resistant piglets (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively), and there were no significant differences in other tissues. There were also no significant differences in the expression of MyD88, TNF-α and IFN-α between sensitive and resistant piglets (p>0.05). These results further confirm the involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in resistance to E. coli F18 in Meishan weaned piglets. The resistance appeared to be mediated via downregulation of TLR4 and CD14, and upregulation of MyD88 that may promote the release of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-α and other inflammatory mediators which help to fight against E. coli F18 infection. PMID:27487503

  12. [Inhibitory effect of polydatin on expression of toll-like receptor 4 in ischemia-reperfusion injured NRK-52E cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Xiong, Wei-Jian; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Jin; Zheng, Jin; Zhang, Ling; Ouyang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-08-01

    Polydatin is a monocrystaline compound isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Polygonaceae) with biological properties, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative and nephroprotective effects. Increasing number of studies have demonstrated the protective effect of polydatin on renal ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the possible mechanisms of this protection are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polydatin on ischemia-reperfusion induced expression of toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) in rat renal tubular epithelia cells (NRK-52E), and analyze the mechanism of polydatin on TLR4 signal pathway. The cultured NRK-52E cells were incubated in three gas incubators for a period of 6 h at hypoxia and 24h at reoxygenation to simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vitro. TLR4 mRNA level was analyzed by real-time-PCR, and the protein expression of TLR4 and NF-κB by Western blotting, while TNF-α and IL-1β proteins expressions were detected by ELISA. Polydatin downregulated I/R induced mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, and decreased the protein expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β. The TLR4 blocker partially antagonized the effect of I/R on NF-κB signaling, and such inhibitory effect was markedly enhanced by polydatin. In the present study, polydatin protects NRK-52E cells from I/R injury possibly by relieving the inflammatory response through regulation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:25509306

  13. Mutation at the folate receptor 4 locus modulates gene expression profiles in the mouse uterus in response to preconceptual folate supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Salbaum, J. michael; Kruger, Claudia; Kappen, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional supplementation of folic acid to the diet of women is considered a great success for a public health intervention. Higher folate status, either by supplementation, or via the mandatory fortification of grain products in the United States, has lead to significant reduction in the incidence of neural tube defects. Besides birth defects, folate deficiency has been linked to a variety of morbidities, most notably to increased risk for cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that excess folate may be detrimental - for birth defect incidence or in the progression of cancer. How folate mediates beneficial or detrimental effects is not well understood. It is also unknown what molecular responses are elicited in women taking folate supplements, and thus experience a bolus of folate on top of the status achieved by fortification. To characterize the response to a preconceptional regimen of supplementation with folinic acid, we performed gene expression profiling experiments on uterus tissue of pregnant mice with either wildtype alleles or targeted disruption at the folate receptor 4 locus. We observed that, depending on the genetic background, folinic acid supplementation affects expression of genes that contribute to lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, cell cycle, and cell activation. The extent of the response is strongly modulated by the genetic background. Finally, we provide evidence that folinic acid supplementation in the mutant paradigm affects histone methylation status, a potential mechanisms of gene regulation in this model. PMID:23651732

  14. Inhibition of microglial activity alters spinal wide dynamic range neuron discharge and reduces microglial Toll-like receptor 4 expression in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, Samad; Manaheji, Homa; Noorbakhsh, Syyed Mohammad; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-07-01

    It is believed that neuropathic pain results from aberrant neuronal discharges although some evidence suggests that the activation of glia cells contributes to pain after an injury to the nervous system. This study aimed to evaluate the role of microglial activation on the hyper-responsiveness of wide dynamic range neurons (WDR) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 30 g) underwent surgery for induction of CCI neuropathy. Six days after surgery, administration of minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated and continued until day 14. After administration of the last dose of minocycline or saline, a behavioral test was conducted, then animals were sacrificed and lumbar segments of the spinal cord were collected for Western blot analysis of TLR4 expression. The electrophysiological properties of WDR neurons were investigated by single unit recordings in separate groups. The findings showed that after CCI, in parallel with thermal hyperalgesia, the expression of TLR4 in the spinal cord and the evoked response of the WDR neurons to electrical, mechanical, and thermal stimulation significantly increased. Post-injury administration of minocycline effectively decreased thermal hyperalgesia, TLR4 expression, and hyper-responsiveness of WDR neurons in CCI rats. The results of this study indicate that post-injury, repeated administration of minocycline attenuated neuropathic pain by suppressing microglia activation and reducing WDR neuron hyper-responsiveness. This study confirms that post-injury modulation of microglial activity is a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide differentially modulates expression of cytokines and cyclooxygenases in dorsal root ganglion cells via Toll-like receptor-4 dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Tse, K-H; Chow, K B S; Leung, W K; Wong, Y H; Wise, H

    2014-05-16

    We have examined the functional expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in adult male rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in culture by studying changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent prostanoid production. In the mixed population of DRG neurons and glial cells, only DRG neurons expressed cell surface TLR4 along with MD-2 and CD14. This classical TLR4 signaling complex on DRG neurons responded to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with a TLR4-dependent and time-dependent increase in interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression which was entirely dependent on NF-κB activity. In contrast, after 2-h incubation with DRG cells, LPS-stimulated COX-2 was regulated by both NF-κB and transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential downstream activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinase. In contrast to this evidence for myeloid differentiation primary response gene-88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling, no evidence was obtained for TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-ß (TRIF)-dependent signaling from TLR4 in DRG neurons. LPS surprisingly produced a time-dependent decrease in COX-1 protein which likely facilitates the COX-2-dependent production of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin. Our study is the first to demonstrate the activation of TLR4-dependent production of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in DRG cell cultures. Our findings support the concept that the activation of TLR4 on primary sensory neurons by endogenous ligands may underlie neuropathic and inflammatory pain states.

  16. Bovine beta-casein (1-28), a casein phosphopeptide, enhances proliferation and IL-6 expression of mouse CD19+ cells via Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Keisuke; Kawahara, Takeshi; Otani, Hajime

    2006-10-18

    This study was conducted to elucidate the target cells and receptors which participate in the mitogenic and interleukin (IL)-6-enhancing effect of bovine beta-casein (1-28), a casein phosphopeptide. When the spleen lymphocyte subset (CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cells) from C3H/HeN mice was cultured with the beta-casein (1-28), it exerted a dose-dependent mitogenic effect on CD19+ cells. The effect of beta-casein (1-28) was not apparent in the case of CD19+ cells from C3H/HeJ mouse. In addition, the effect was significantly inhibited by treating the C3H/HeN mouse-derived CD19+ cells with neutralizing antibody for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the beta-casein (1-28) exerted an IL-6-enhancing effect on the CD19+ cells. The effect was also abrogated in either C3H/HeJ mouse-derived CD19+ cell culture or the anti-TLR4 antibody-added culture. These results suggest that the beta-casein (1-28) stimulates both proliferation and IL-6 expression of CD19+ cells via TLR4.

  17. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation downregulates the increase of monocytes expressing toll-like receptor 4 in response to 6-day intensive training in kendo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kon, Michihiro; Tanimura, Yuko; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Kimura, Fuminori; Akama, Takao; Kono, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    This study examined changes in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-expressing monocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in response to continuous intensive exercise training in athletes, as well as the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on these changes. Eighteen male elite kendo athletes in Japan were randomly assigned to a CoQ10-supplementation group (n = 9) or a placebo-supplementation group (n = 9) using a double-blind method. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per day for 20 days. Subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of placebo. All subjects practiced kendo 5.5 h per day for 6 consecutive days during the study period. Blood samples were collected 2 weeks before training, on the first day (day 1), third day (day 3), and fifth day of training (day 5), and 1 week after the training period (post-training) to ascertain TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD28(+)/CD4(+), CD28(+)/CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells) using flow cytometry analysis. The group × time interaction for TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Within the CoQ10 group, the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells was significantly higher only at day 5. The placebo group showed a significant increase in the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells at day 3, day 5, and post-training (p < 0.05). There was no significant group × time interaction for any lymphocyte subpopulation. CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells were significantly reduced at day 3 in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 supplementation might downregulate the increase of TLR-4-expressing monocytes in response to continuous strenuous exercise training in kendo athletes. PMID:25941765

  18. The GroEL protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis regulates atherogenic phenomena in endothelial cells mediated by upregulating toll-like receptor 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yao; Shih, Chun-Ming; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shih, Chun-Che; Chiang, Kuang-Hsing; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chang, Yu-Jia; Hsieh, Chi-Kun; Lin, Feng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a bacterial species that causes periodontitis. GroEL from P. gingivalis may possess biological activity and may be involved in the destruction of periodontal tissues. However, it is unclear whether P. gingivalis GroEL enhances the appearance of atherogenic phenomena in endothelial cells and vessels. Here, we constructed recombinant GroEL from P. gingivalis to investigate its effects in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) in vitro and on aortas of high-cholesterol (HC)-fed B57BL/6 and B57BL/6-Tlr4(lps-del) mice in vivo. The results showed that GroEL impaired tube-formation capacity under non-cytotoxic conditions in HCAECs. GroEL increased THP-1 cell/HCAEC adhesion by increasing the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in endothelial cells. Additionally, GroEL increased DiI-oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake, which may be mediated by elevated lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX)-1 but not scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells (SREC) and scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1) expression. Furthermore, GroEL interacts with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and plays a causal role in atherogenesis in HCAECs. Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein with a high affinity for the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TLR4 mRNA, contributes to the up-regulation of TLR4 induced by GroEL in HCAECs. In a GroEL animal administration study, GroEL elevated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, LOX-1 and TLR4 expression in the aortas of HC diet-fed wild C57BL/6 but not C57BL/6-Tlr4(lps-del) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that P. gingivalis GroEL may contribute to cardiovascular disorders by affecting TLR4 expression. PMID:27158334

  19. The GroEL protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis regulates atherogenic phenomena in endothelial cells mediated by upregulating toll-like receptor 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Yao; Shih, Chun-Ming; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shih, Chun-Che; Chiang, Kuang-Hsing; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chang, Yu-Jia; Hsieh, Chi-Kun; Lin, Feng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a bacterial species that causes periodontitis. GroEL from P. gingivalis may possess biological activity and may be involved in the destruction of periodontal tissues. However, it is unclear whether P. gingivalis GroEL enhances the appearance of atherogenic phenomena in endothelial cells and vessels. Here, we constructed recombinant GroEL from P. gingivalis to investigate its effects in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) in vitro and on aortas of high-cholesterol (HC)-fed B57BL/6 and B57BL/6-Tlr4lps-del mice in vivo. The results showed that GroEL impaired tube-formation capacity under non-cytotoxic conditions in HCAECs. GroEL increased THP-1 cell/HCAEC adhesion by increasing the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in endothelial cells. Additionally, GroEL increased DiI-oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake, which may be mediated by elevated lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX)-1 but not scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells (SREC) and scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1) expression. Furthermore, GroEL interacts with toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and plays a causal role in atherogenesis in HCAECs. Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein with a high affinity for the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR) of TLR4 mRNA, contributes to the up-regulation of TLR4 induced by GroEL in HCAECs. In a GroEL animal administration study, GroEL elevated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, LOX-1 and TLR4 expression in the aortas of HC diet-fed wild C57BL/6 but not C57BL/6-Tlr4lps-del mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that P. gingivalis GroEL may contribute to cardiovascular disorders by affecting TLR4 expression. PMID:27158334

  20. EPA and DHA exposure alters the inflammatory response but not the surface expression of toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kaori L.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Wu, Dayong; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their respective enrichment in cell membranes have been negatively associated with atherosclerotic lesion development. This effect may be mediated, in part, by dampened inflammatory response of macrophages triggered by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. This study investigated the influence of membrane fatty acid profile on TLR4-mediated inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cells pretreated with myristic acid (MA), EPA, DHA or vehicle control for 24 h were stimulated with ultra-pure LPS, a specific TLR4 agonist, for 6 h or 24 h, corresponding to early and late stages of TNFα and IL-6 protein induction. Treatment significantly increased cell membrane MA, EPA, and DHA by 4.5-, 20.6-, and 8.9-fold, respectively. MA significantly increased IL-6 secretion 6 h post-exposure to the fatty acid, but did not change TNFα secretion in response to any other treatment condition. EPA and DHA significantly reduced TNFα secretion by 36% and 41%, respectively, in cells stimulated for 24 h but not 6 h. In contrast, EPA and DHA significantly reduced IL-6 secretion at both 6 h (67% and 72%, respectively) and 24 h (69% and 72%, respectively). MA or DHA treatment had no significant effect compared to vehicle on factors influencing cellular LPS recognition, including LPS-cell association, and cell surface expression of TLR4, TLR4-MD2 complex, and CD14. These data suggest that membrane fatty acid profiles influence the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in macrophages, via mechanisms that occur downstream of TLR4 receptor activation. PMID:25408476

  1. Campylobacter jejuni Increases Flagellar Expression and Adhesion of Noninvasive Escherichia coli: Effects on Enterocytic Toll-Like Receptor 4 and CXCL-8 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Kristen L.; Tymensen, Lisa D.; Davis, Shevaun P.; Amrein, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-induced gastroenteritis, and while typically self-limiting, C. jejuni infections are associated with postinfectious intestinal disorders, including flares in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), via mechanisms that remain obscure. Based on the hypothesis that acute campylobacteriosis may cause pathogenic microbiota dysbiosis, we investigated whether C. jejuni may activate dormant virulence genes in noninvasive Escherichia coli and examined the epithelial pathophysiological consequences of these alterations. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that E. coli adhesin, flagellum, and hemolysin gene expression were increased when E. coli was exposed to C. jejuni-conditioned medium. Increased development of bacterial flagella upon exposure to live C. jejuni or C. jejuni-conditioned medium was observed under transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the forces of bacterial adhesion to colonic T84 enterocytes, and the work required to rupture this adhesion, were significantly increased in E. coli exposed to C. jejuni-conditioned media. Finally, C. jejuni-modified E. coli disrupted TLR4 gene expression and induced proinflammatory CXCL-8 gene expression in colonic enterocytes. Together, these data suggest that exposure to live C. jejuni, and/or to its secretory-excretory products, may activate latent virulence genes in noninvasive E. coli and that these alterations may directly trigger proinflammatory signaling in intestinal epithelia. These observations shed new light on mechanisms that may contribute, at least in part, to postcampylobacteriosis inflammatory disorders. PMID:26371123

  2. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms

  3. Aberrant expression and function of death receptor-3 and death decoy receptor-3 in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    GE, ZHICHENG; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; YE, LIN; JIANG, WEN G.

    2011-01-01

    Death receptor-3 (DR3) and death decoy receptor-3 (DcR3) are both members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. The TNFR superfamily contains eight death domain-containing receptors, including TNFR1 (also called DR1), Fas (also called DR2), DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, NGFR and EDAR. Upon the binding of these receptors with their corresponding ligands, the death domain recruits various proteins that mediate both the death and proliferation of cells. Receptor function is negatively regulated by decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, DcR3 and OPG). DR3/DcR3 are a pair of positive and negative players with which vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) interacts. VEGI has been suggested to be a potential tumour suppressor. The inhibitory effects of VEGI on cancer are manifested in three main areas: a direct effect on cancer cells, an anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells, and the stimulation of dendritic cell maturation. A recent study indicated that DR3 may be a new receptor for E-selectin, which has been reported to be associated with cancer metastasis. DcR3 is a soluble receptor, highly expressed in various tumours, which lacks an apparent transmembrane segment, prevents cytokine response through ligand binding and neutralization, and is an inhibitor of apoptosis. DcR3 serves as a decoy receptor for FasL, LIGHT and VEGI. The cytokine LIGHT activates various anti-tumour functions and is expected to be a promising candidate for cancer therapy. Certain tumours may escape FasL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing DcR3, which blocks FasL function. DR3/DcR3 play profound roles in regulating cell death and proliferation in cancer. The present review briefly discusses DR3/DcR3 and attempts to elucidate the role of these negative and positive players in cancer. PMID:22977485

  4. PI3K/Akt contributes to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages exposed to hypoxic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Young; Jeong, Eunshil; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Joo Young

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression is mediated by PI3K/Akt in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI3K/Akt regulated HIF-1 activation leading to TLR4 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was not involved in TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia-mediated TLR4 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in triggering immune and inflammatory responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Increased expression of TLR4 is implicated in aggravated inflammatory symptoms in ischemic tissue injury and chronic diseases. Results from our previous study showed that TLR4 expression was upregulated by hypoxic stress mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at a transcriptional level in macrophages. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling pathway that contributed to the increase of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Either treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of Akt expression by siRNA blocked the increase of TLR4 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages exposed to hypoxia and CoCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylation of Akt by hypoxic stress preceded nuclear accumulation of HIF-1{alpha}. A PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated CoCl{sub 2}-induced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. In addition, HIF-1{alpha}-mediated upregulation of TLR4 expression was blocked by LY294002. Furthermore, sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia- and CoCl{sub 2}-induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein by inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and the subsequent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. However, p38 was not involved in HIF-1{alpha} activation and TLR4 expression induced by hypoxic stress in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PI3K

  5. Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and 5 during progression of prostate transformation in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Ju-Hee; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Chang, Seo-Na; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Park, Jae-Hak; Kim, Dong-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been considered an important risk factor for development of prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial moieties or endogenous molecules and play an important role in the triggering and promotion of inflammation. In this study, we examined whether expression of TLR4 and TLR5 was associated with progression of prostate transformation in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The expression of TLR4 and TLR5 was evaluated by immunohistochemisty in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate tissue from wild-type (WT) and TRAMP mice. Normal prostate tissue from WT mice showed strong expression of TLR4 and TLR5. However, TLR4 expression in the prostate tissue from TRAMP mice gradually decreased as pathologic grade became more aggressive. TLR5 expression in the prostate tissue from TRAMP mice also decreased in low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), high-grade PIN and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Overall, our results suggest that decreased expression of TLR4 and TLR5 may contribute to prostate tumorigenesis.

  6. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  7. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  8. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other type of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:23743303

  9. RNA Interference of Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 Gene Expression in THP-1 Cell Line Leads to Toll-Like Receptor-4 Overexpression/Activation As Well As Up-modulation of Annexin-II1

    PubMed Central

    Maratheftis, Christos I; Giannouli, Stavroula; Spachidou, Maria P; Panayotou, George; Voulgarelis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a candidate transcription factor for the regulation of the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene. Using a small interfering RNA-based (siRNA) process to silence IRF-1 gene expression in the leukemic monocytic cell line THP-1, we investigated whether such a modulation would alter TLR-4 expression and activation status in these cells. The siIRF-1 cells expressed elevated levels of TLR-4 mRNA and protein compared to controls by 90% and 77%, respectively. ICAM.1 protein expression and apoptosis levels were increased by 8.35- and 4.25-fold, respectively. The siIRF-1 cells overexpressed Bax mRNA compared to controls. Proteomic analysis revealed upmodulation of the Annexin-II protein in siIRF-1 THP-1 cells. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with an absence of full-length IRF-1 mRNA also overexpressed Annexin-II. It is plausible that this overexpression may lead to the activation of TLR-4 contributing to the increased apoptosis characterizing MDS. PMID:18084608

  10. Essential requirement of toll-like receptor 4 expression on CD11c+ cells for locoregional immunotherapy of malignant ascites using a streptococcal preparation OK-432.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Okita, Riki; Okawaki, Makoto; Nagamine, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules that stimulate the innate immunity in order to eradicate microbial pathogens, after which the adaptive immunity emerges. The involvement of TLRs in the action mechanism of OK-432, a bacterial preparation, was investigated in the locoregional treatment of malignant ascites from gastric cancer. The expression of TLRs in ascites cells was analyzed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction specific for TLRs and by flow cytometry using anti-TLR2, -TLR4, -CD4, -CD8, and -CD11c antibodies. These measurements were compared with the locoregional response of OK-432 immunotherapy for malignant ascites, as well as TNF-alpha producing potential, which was measured by ELISA, of ascites cells stimulated in vitro with OK-432. It was observed that OK-432 immunotherapy for malignant ascites showed 8 positive (67%) and 4 negative responses with the tolerable adverse effects of fever elevation and abdominal pain. The TNF-alpha production of ascites cells by in vitro OK-432 stimulation was significantly higher in responder patients than in non-responders. The clinical responses were correlated with the expression of the TLR4 gene of ascites cells. The TNF-alpha-producing potential of ascites cells by in vitro OK-432 stimulation was dependent on the existence of a CD11c + TLR-4+ cell population in ascites cells. OK-432 was highly stimulatory for TNF-alpha production of ascites cells compared with other biological response modifiers of PSK and LEM. These results suggest that TLR-4 expression on ascites cells of a macrophage lineage is essential for ascites cells to produce TNF-alpha in relation to OK-432 stimulation and for subsequent positive clinical responses in locoregional immunotherapy using OK-432 for malignant ascites from gastric cancer.

  11. Mycobacterium leprae Activates Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling and Expression on Macrophages Depending on Previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Polycarpou, Anastasia; Holland, Martin J; Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Walker, Stephen L; Willcocks, Sam; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1 and TLR2 have been shown to be receptors for Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), yet it is unclear whether M. leprae can signal through alternative TLRs. Other mycobacterial species possess ligands for TLR4 and genetic association studies in human populations suggest that people with TLR4 polymorphisms may be protected against leprosy. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells co-transfected with TLR4, we demonstrate that M. leprae activates TLR4. We used human macrophages to show that M. leprae stimulation of cytokine production is diminished if pre-treated with TLR4 neutralizing antibody. TLR4 protein expression was up-regulated on macrophages derived from non-bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated healthy volunteers after incubation with M. leprae, whereas it was down-regulated in macrophages derived from BCG-vaccinated donors. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages derived from BCG-naive donors with BCG reversed the effect of M. leprae on TLR4 expression. This may be a newly described phenomenon by which BCG vaccination stimulates "non-specific" protection to the human immune system. PMID:27458573

  12. Mycobacterium leprae Activates Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling and Expression on Macrophages Depending on Previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Polycarpou, Anastasia; Holland, Martin J.; Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Walker, Stephen L.; Willcocks, Sam; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1 and TLR2 have been shown to be receptors for Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), yet it is unclear whether M. leprae can signal through alternative TLRs. Other mycobacterial species possess ligands for TLR4 and genetic association studies in human populations suggest that people with TLR4 polymorphisms may be protected against leprosy. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells co-transfected with TLR4, we demonstrate that M. leprae activates TLR4. We used human macrophages to show that M. leprae stimulation of cytokine production is diminished if pre-treated with TLR4 neutralizing antibody. TLR4 protein expression was up-regulated on macrophages derived from non-bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated healthy volunteers after incubation with M. leprae, whereas it was down-regulated in macrophages derived from BCG-vaccinated donors. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages derived from BCG-naive donors with BCG reversed the effect of M. leprae on TLR4 expression. This may be a newly described phenomenon by which BCG vaccination stimulates “non-specific” protection to the human immune system. PMID:27458573

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Decreases Single Immunoglobulin Interleukin-1 Receptor-related Molecule (SIGIRR) Expression by Suppressing Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) via the Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)-p38 Pathway in Monocytes and Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Ueno-Shuto, Keiko; Kato, Kosuke; Tasaki, Yukihiro; Sato, Miki; Sato, Keizo; Uchida, Yuji; Sakai, Hiromichi; Ono, Tomomi; Suico, Mary Ann; Mitsutake, Kazunori; Tokutomi, Naofumi; Kai, Hirofumi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR) is one of the immunoglobulin-like membrane proteins that is crucial for negative regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and interleukin-1 receptor. Despite the importance of understanding its expression and function, knowledge is limited on the regulatory mechanism in the epithelial tissues, such as the liver, lung, and gut, where its predominant expression is originally described. Here, we found expression of SIGIRR in non-epithelial innate immune cells, including primary peripheral blood monocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, monocytic RAW264 cells, and neutrophilic-differentiated HL-60 cells. Consistent with previous findings in epithelial tissues, SIGIRR gene and protein expression were also down-regulated by LPS treatment in a time-dependent manner in primary blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. A reduction was also observed in RAW264 and differentiated HL-60 cells. Notably, exogenous introduction of the dominant negative form of TLR4 and siRNA of p38 resulted in inhibition of LPS-induced SIGIRR down-regulation, whereas treatment with p38 activator anisomycin showed a dose-dependent decrease in SIGIRR expression, suggesting TLR4-p38 signal as a critical pathway for LPS-induced SIGIRR down-regulation. Finally, reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Sp1 is a key factor that directly binds to the proximal promoter of SIGIRR gene and consequently regulates basal SIGIRR expression, which is negatively regulated by the LPS-dependent TLR4-p38 pathway. In summary, the data precisely demonstrate how LPS down-regulates SIGIRR expression and provide a role of LPS signal that counteracts Sp1-dependent basal promoter activation of SIGIRR gene via TLR4-p38 pathway in non-epithelial innate immune cells. PMID:24821721

  14. Subgingival Plaque in Periodontal Health Antagonizes at Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Inhibits E-Selectin Expression on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gümüş, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the subgingival microbial community to induce an inappropriate inflammatory response ultimately results in the destruction of bone and gingival tissue. In this study, subgingival plaque samples from both healthy and diseased sites in the same individual were obtained from adults with chronic periodontitis and screened for their ability to either activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4 and to antagonize TLR4-specific activation by agonist, Fusobacterium nucleatum LPS. Subgingival plaque from diseased sites strongly activated TLR4, whereas matched plaque samples obtained from healthy sites were significantly more variable, with some samples displaying strong TLR4 antagonism, while others were strong TLR4 agonists when combined with F. nucleatum LPS. Similar results were observed when TLR4 dependent E-selectin expression by endothelial cells was determined. These results are the first to demonstrate TLR4 antagonism from human plaque samples and demonstrate that healthy but not diseased sites display a wide variation in TLR4 agonist and antagonist behavior. The results have identified a novel characteristic of clinically healthy sites and warrant further study on the contribution of TLR4 antagonism in the progression of a healthy periodontal site to a diseased one. PMID:26483407

  15. Soybean isoflavone alleviates β-amyloid 1-42 induced inflammatory response to improve learning and memory ability by down regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and nuclear factor-κB activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, B J; Ma, W W; He, L L; Zhou, X; Yuan, L H; Yu, H L; Feng, J F; Xiao, R

    2011-08-01

    β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42)-induced learning and memory impairment in rats is believed to be associated with inflammation. Cytokine production is a key pathologic event in the progression of inflammatory processes. In this rat study, soybean isoflavones (SIF) was used to investigate it's protective effects on inflammation caused by β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), which is associated with learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer disease. We characterized the learning and memory ability. cytokine profiles of circulating interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum and the expression of Toll like receptor4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA and protein in the brain tissue following intracerebroventricular administration of Aβ1-42 by miniosmotic pump for 14 days. The results showed that functional deficits of learning and memory in SIF treatment groups were significantly improved compared to the control group without SIF treatment in water maze test. The serum IL-1β and TNF-α level were significantly increased, and the expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein in the brain were up-regulated, indicating inflammation response was initiated following administration of Aβ1-42. After intragastric pre-treatment with SIF, inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and also SIF reversed the Aβ1-42 induced up-regulation of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein expression in the brain and expression of NF-κB p65 in nuclei. These results suggested that SIF reduced the cytokine cascade and inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42 which could result in the improvement of spatial learning and memory ability impairment in the rats.

  16. [Death].

    PubMed

    Ribas, Jordi Domingo

    2003-12-01

    Intercultural factors are essential for reflection. In this article, the authors deals with a more direct vision on the special edition about Grief and Mourning, about the topic which lies in the depths of all of our consciences: death and the question what lies beyond death? The author provides us elements to reflect about concepts, some accepted in various cases, rejected in others, but always polemical, which help us to penetrate farther into the real mystery of life: death and what follows death.

  17. Elevated Expression of Programmed Death-1 and Programmed Death Ligand-1 Negatively Regulates Immune Response against Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhifang; Pang, Nannan; Du, Rong; Zhu, Yuejie; Fan, Lingling; Cai, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    The present study is to measure the expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), as well as its clinical significance in cervical cancer patients. Our results showed that different T cell subsets in patients with cervical cancer had high expression of PD-1, and DCs had high expression of PD-L1. High expression of PD-1 on Treg cells in cervical cancer patients facilitated the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but inhibited the production of IFN-γ. Cervical cancer elevated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in mRNA level. PD-1 expression in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients was related with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and invasiveness. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibited lymphocyte proliferation but enhanced the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β in vitro. In summary, our findings demonstrate that elevated levels of PD-1/PD-L1, TGF-β, and IL-10 in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients may negatively regulate immune response against cervical cancer cells and contribute to the progression of cervical cancer. Therefore, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may become an immunotherapy target in the future. PMID:27721577

  18. Inhibition of RNA interference and modulation of transposable element expression by cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiwu; Liang, Chengzhi; Birchler, James A

    2011-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) regulates gene expression by sequence-specific destruction of RNA. It acts as a defense mechanism against viruses and represses the expression of transposable elements (TEs) and some endogenous genes. We report that mutations and transgene constructs that condition cell death suppress RNA interference in adjacent cells in Drosophila melanogaster. The reversal of RNAi is effective for both the white (w) eye color gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP), indicating the generality of the inhibition. Antiapoptotic transgenes that reverse cell death will also reverse the inhibition of RNAi. Using GFP and a low level of cell death produced by a heat shock-head involution defective (hs-hid) transgene, the inhibition appears to occur by blocking the conversion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to short interfering RNA (siRNA). We also demonstrate that the mus308 gene and endogenous transposable elements, which are both regularly silenced by RNAi, are increased in expression and accompanied by a reduced level of siRNA, when cell death occurs. The finding that chronic ectopic cell death affects RNAi is critical for an understanding of the application of the technique in basic and applied studies. These results also suggest that developmental perturbations, disease states, or environmental insults that cause ectopic cell death would alter transposon and gene expression patterns in the organism by the inhibition of small RNA silencing processes. PMID:21596898

  19. Novel cell death by downregulation of eEF1A1 expression in tetraploids.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Yonehara, S

    2009-01-01

    When duplicated sister chromatids are not properly compacted in mitosis, chromosomes are mis-segregated, inducing genetically unstable tetraploidy known to facilitate aneuploid malignancies. Here, we show that tetraploid cells produced by impaired chromosomal condensation are eliminated by a novel type of cell death different from caspase-dependent apoptosis. The cell death was associated with downregulation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1 alpha 1 (eEF1A1/EF-1alpha) expression in conjunction with accumulation of its mRNA in processing bodies (P bodies). Importantly, expression of exogenous eEF1A1 was shown to inhibit the caspase-independent cell death, and a similar cell death was observed after inducing the expression of short hairpin RNA specific for eEF1A1. Furthermore, the number of spontaneously arising binucleated cells was indicated to increase several fold during 1- to 2-week cultivation after initiation of exogenous eEF1A expression. Taken together, the novel cell death machinery should help to eliminate abnormal tetraploid cells and inhibit tumorigenesis. PMID:18820646

  20. Jasmonates induce nonapoptotic death in high-resistance mutant p53-expressing B-lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fingrut, Orit; Reischer, Dorit; Rotem, Ronit; Goldin, Natalia; Altboum, Irit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Flescher, Eliezer

    2005-11-01

    Mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene, occur in more than half of human cancers. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that jasmonates (novel anticancer agents) can induce death in mutated p53-expressing cells. Two clones of B-lymphoma cells were studied, one expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and the other expressing mutated p53. Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate (0.25-3 mM) were each equally cytotoxic to both clones, whereas mutant p53-expressing cells were resistant to treatment with the radiomimetic agent neocarzinostatin and the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin. Neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced an elevation in the p53 levels in wt p53-expressing cells, whereas methyl jasmonate did not. Methyl jasmonate induced mostly apoptotic death in the wt p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in mutant p53-expressing cells. In contrast, neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced death only in wt p53-expressing cells, in an apoptotic mode. Methyl jasmonate induced a rapid depletion of ATP in both clones. In both clones, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) did not increase ATP depletion induced by methyl jasmonate, whereas inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose did. High glucose levels protected both clones from methyl jasmonate-induced ATP depletion (and reduced methyl jasmonate-induced cytotoxicity), whereas high levels of pyruvate did not. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate induces ATP depletion mostly by compromising oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In conclusion, jasmonates can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing a nonapoptotic cell death.

  1. Taip2 is a novel cell death-related gene expressed in the brain during development

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Kazumi; Akiyama, Nobutake; Yamada, Shuichi; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Saito, Saburo; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2008-05-02

    TAIP2 was isolated as one of the homologous genes of TAIP3 (TGF-{beta}-up-regulated apoptosis-inducing-protein chromosome 3). The transcript of the mouse counterpart of TAIP2, designated mTaip2, was detected in several tissue specimens from embryos to adults, while mTaip2 was dominantly expressed in the embryonic brain. The overexpression of the full-length mTaip2 induced cell death in various cell lines. An analysis of mTaip2 deletion mutants revealed that the N-terminal half of mTaip2, but not the C-terminal half, had nuclear localization and cell death-inducing activities. The results indicate that mTaip2 is a novel cell death-related gene dominantly expressed in the embryonic brain, thus suggesting that mTaip2 may play a role in development of the brain.

  2. Expression of the human tumor suppressor p53 induces cell death in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Mabrouk, Imed; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2012-02-01

    The human tumor suppressor p53 is known as guardian of genome because of its involvement in many signals related to cell life or death. In this work, we report that human p53 induces cell death in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We showed a growth inhibition effect, which increased with the p53 protein expression level in recombinant Mut(s) (methanol utilization slow) strain of Pichia. However, no effect of p53 was observed in recombinant strain of Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) phenotype. Interestingly, human p53 induces cell death in recombinant strains Mut(s) with characteristic markers of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine, and reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human p53 is biologically active in this heterologous context. Thus, we propose that P. pastoris could be a useful tool to better understand the biological function of human p53.

  3. Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) 27 and 70 in various organ systems in cases of death due to fire.

    PubMed

    Doberentz, E; Genneper, L; Böker, D; Lignitz, E; Madea, B

    2014-11-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) increases in case of variable types of endogenous and exogenous cellular stress, as for example thermal stress. Immunohistochemical staining with hsp antibodies can visualize these stress proteins. Fifty-three cases of death due to heat and a control group of 100 deaths without any antemortem thermic stress were examined regarding hsp27 and hsp70 expression in myocardial, pulmonary, and renal tissues. The results revealed a correlation between hsp expression, survival time, and cause of death. In cases of death due to fire, the expression of hsp is more extensive than in the control group, especially in pulmonary and renal tissues. The immunohistochemical investigation of an hsp expression can support the proof of vitality in cases of death related to fire. PMID:24740765

  4. The Role of Calpain-Myosin 9-Rab7b Pathway in Mediating the Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Platelets: A Novel Mechanism Involved in α-Granules Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jui-Chi; Lin, Yi-Wen; Huang, Chun-Yao; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Shih, Chun-Min; Lee, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Nen-Chung; Lin, Feng-Yen; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a critical role in innate immunity. In 2004, Aslam R. and Shiraki R. first determined that murine and human platelets express functional TLRs. Additionally, Andonegui G. demonstrated that platelets express TLR4, which contributes to thrombocytopenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of TLR4 expression by platelets have been rarely explored until now. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of TLR4 expression underlying thrombin treatment. The human washed platelets were used in this study. According to flowcytometry and western blot analysis, the surface levels of TLR4 were significantly enhanced in thrombin-activated human platelets and decreased by TMB-8, calpeptin, and U73122, but not Y27632 (a Rho-associated protein kinase ROCK inhibitor) indicating that thrombin-mediated TLR4 expression was modulated by PAR/PLC pathway, calcium and calpain. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay demonstrated that the interaction between TLR4 and myosin-9 (a substrate of calpain) was regulated by calpain; cleavage of myosin-9 enhanced TLR4 expression in thrombin treated platelets. Transmission electron microscope data indicated that human platelets used α-granules to control TLR4 expression; the co-IP experiment suggested that myosin-9 did not coordinate with Rab7b to negatively regulate TLR4 trafficking in thrombin treated platelets. In summary, phospholipase Cγ-calpain-myosin 9-Rab7b axis was responsible for the mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR4 containing α-granules trafficking in thrombin-stimulated platelets, which was involved in coagulation. PMID:24489676

  5. Human clusterin gene expression is confined to surviving cells during in vitro programmed cell death.

    PubMed Central

    French, L E; Wohlwend, A; Sappino, A P; Tschopp, J; Schifferli, J A

    1994-01-01

    Clusterin is a serum glycoprotein endowed with cell aggregating, complement inhibitory, and lipid binding properties, and is also considered as a specific marker of dying cells, its expression being increased in various tissues undergoing programmed cell death (PCD). However, no study has so far directly shown that cells expressing clusterin in these tissues are actually apoptotic as defined by morphological and biochemical criteria. We have studied cellular clusterin gene expression in vitro using three different models of PCD: (a) ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation of human U937, HeLa, and A431 cell lines, (b) in vitro aging of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs), and (c) dexamethasone-induced cell death of the human lymphoblastoid cell line CEM-C7. In all three models, the classical morphological and biochemical features of PCD observed did not correlate with an increase, but with either a marked decrease or an absence of clusterin gene expression as assessed by Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization of U937 and A431 cells after UV-B irradiation revealed, in addition, that only morphologically normal cells that are surviving continue to express the clusterin gene. Our results demonstrate that in the human myeloid, lymphoid, and epithelial cell types studied, clusterin gene expression is not a prerequisite to their death by apoptosis. In addition, and most interestingly, in situ hybridization of U937 and A431 cells revealed that only surviving cells express the clusterin gene after the induction of PCD, thus providing novel evidence suggesting that clusterin may be associated with cell survival within tissues regressing as a consequence of PCD. Images PMID:8113419

  6. MicroRNA Expression Profiles of Human Blood Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Reveal miR-511 as Putative Positive Regulator of Toll-like Receptor 4*

    PubMed Central

    Tserel, Liina; Runnel, Toomas; Kisand, Kai; Pihlap, Maire; Bakhoff, Lairi; Kolde, Raivo; Peterson, Hedi; Vilo, Jaak; Peterson, Pärt; Rebane, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MFs) are important multifunctional immune cells. Like other cell types, they express hundreds of different microRNAs (miRNAs) that are recently discovered post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Here we present updated miRNA expression profiles of monocytes, DCs and MFs. Compared with monocytes, ∼50 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in immature and mature DCs or MFs, with major expression changes occurring during the differentiation. Knockdown of DICER1, a protein needed for miRNA biosynthesis, led to lower DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and enhanced CD14 protein levels, confirming the importance of miRNAs in DC differentiation in general. Inhibition of the two most highly up-regulated miRNAs, miR-511 and miR-99b, also resulted in reduced DC-SIGN level. Prediction of miRNA-511 targets revealed a number of genes with known immune functions, of which TLR4 and CD80 were validated using inhibition of miR-511 in DCs and luciferase assays in HEK293 cells. Interestingly, under the cell cycle arrest conditions, miR-511 seems to function as a positive regulator of TLR4. In conclusion, we have identified miR-511 as a novel potent modulator of human immune response. In addition, our data highlight that miRNA influence on gene expression is dependent on the cellular environment. PMID:21646346

  7. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  8. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  9. [The correlation study between the changes of intestinal mucosa predominant bacteria and Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4 gene expressions in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients].

    PubMed

    Guo, W T; Liu, P; Dong, L N; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    Based on high throughput sequencing and PCR detection technology, this study has found out that intestinal microbial diversity was impaired and the quantities of two main bacteria flora (Bacteroidetes and Clostridium) were significantly reduced in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Meanwhile mucosal expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 were significantly enhanced, which was inversely correlated with the reduction of Bacteroidetes and Clostridium. Thus, it suggests that D-IBS may be associated with TLR signal transduction triggered by the intestinal dysbacteriosis. PMID:27373290

  10. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  11. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H; Madrid, Rodolfo; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1(G93A)) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PC(Na)), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Na(v)) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1(G93A). These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1(G93A) on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  12. p53 directly suppresses BNIP3 expression to protect against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xi; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Wuhan

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia stabilizes the tumour suppressor p53, allowing it to function primarily as a transrepressor; however, the function of p53 during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we showed that p53 suppressed BNIP3 expression by directly binding to the p53-response element motif and recruiting corepressor mSin3a to the BNIP3 promoter. The DNA-binding site of p53 must remain intact for the protein to suppress the BNIP3 promoter. In addition, taking advantage of zebrafish as an in vivo model, we confirmed that zebrafish nip3a, a homologous gene of mammalian BNIP3, was indeed induced by hypoxia and p53 mutation/knockdown enhanced nip3a expression under hypoxia resulted in cell death enhancement in p53 mutant embryos. Furthermore, p53 protected against hypoxia-induced cell death mediated by p53 suppression of BNIP3 as illustrated by p53 knockdown/loss assays in both human cell lines and zebrafish model, which is in contrast to the traditional pro-apoptotic role of p53. Our results suggest a novel function of p53 in hypoxia-induced cell death, leading to the development of new treatments for ischaemic heart disease and cerebral stoke. PMID:21792176

  13. The Effects of Antidepressants “Fluoxetine and Imipramine” on Vascular Abnormalities and Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohamed; Shaker, Safaa; El-Gayar, Nesreen; Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reveal that diabetes doubles the odds of comorbid depression with evidence of a pro-inflammatory state underlying its vascular complications. Indeed, little information is available about vascular effects of antidepressant drugs in diabetes. Method: We investigated the effect of chronic administration of fluoxetine “FLU” and imipramine “IMIP” on behavioral, metabolic and vascular abnormalities in diabetic and non-diabetic rats exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS). Results: Both diabetes and CRS induced depressive-like behavior which was more prominent in diabetic/depressed rats; this was reversed by chronic treatment with FLU and IMIP in a comparable manner. Diabetic and non-diabetic rats exposed to CRS exhibited abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and vascular function, manifested by decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation, increased systolic blood pressure and histopathological atherosclerotic changes. Vascular and metabolic dysfunctions were associated with significant increase in aortic expression of TLR-4, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1ß). FLU ameliorated these metabolic, vascular and inflammatory abnormalities, while IMIP induced either no change or even worsening of some parameters. Conclusion: FLU has favorable effect over IMIP on metabolic, vascular and inflammatory aberrations associated with DM and CRS in Wistar rats, clarifying the preference of FLU over IMIP in management of comorbid depression in diabetic subjects. PMID:25826421

  14. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  15. MRP1 gene expression level regulates the death and differentiation response of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Peaston, A E; Gardaneh, M; Franco, A V; Hocker, J E; Murphy, K M; Farnsworth, M L; Catchpoole, D R; Haber, M; Norris, M D; Lock, R B; Marshall, G M

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported a strong correlation between poor prognosis in childhood neuroblastoma (NB) patients and high-level expression of the transmembrane efflux pump, Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein (MRP1), in NB tumour tissue. In this study, we inhibited the endogenous expression of MRP1 in 2 different NB tumour cell lines by stably transfecting an MRP1 antisense expression vector (MRP-AS). Compared with control cells, MRP-AS transfectant cells demonstrated a higher proportion of dead and morphologically apoptotic cells, spontaneous neuritogenesis, and, increased synaptophysin and neurofilament expression. Bcl-2 protein expression was markedly reduced in MRP-AS cells compared to controls. Conversely, we found that the same NB tumour cell line overexpressing the full-length MRP1 cDNA in sense orientation (MRP-S) demonstrated resistance to the neuritogenic effect of the differentiating agent, all-trans-retinoic acid. Taken together, the results suggest that the level of MRP1 expression in NB tumour cells may influence the capacity of NB cells for spontaneous regression in vivo through cell differentiation and death. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720446

  16. Induction of latency-associated peptide (transforming growth factor-β1) expression on CD4+ T cells reduces Toll-like receptor 4 ligand-induced tumour necrosis factor-α production in a transforming growth factor-β-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Sandra; Sharif, Shayan; Alisa, Akeel; Pereira, Stephen P; Williams, Roger; Behboudi, Shahriar

    2011-01-01

    CD4+ T cells expressing the latent form of transforming growth factor-β [latency-associated peptide (LAP) (TGF-β1)] play an important role in the modulation of immune responses. Here, we identified a novel peptide ligand (GPC81–95) with an intrinsic ability to induce membrane-bound LAP (TGF-β1) expression on a subpopulation of human CD4+ T cells (using flow cytometry; ranging from 0·8% to 2·6%) and stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to release LAP (TGF-β1) (using ELISPOT assay; ranging from 0·03% to 0·16%). In spite of this low percentage of responding cells, GPC81–95 significantly reduced Toll-like receptor 4 ligand-induced tumour necrosis factor-α production in a TGF-β1- and CD4+ T-cell-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that GPC81–95 is a useful tool to study the functional properties of a subpopulation of LAP (TGF-β1)+ CD4+ T cells and suggest a pathway that can be exploited to suppress inflammatory response. PMID:21426338

  17. Methoxychlor and fenvalerate induce neuronal death by reducing GluR2 expression.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kanae; Kotake, Yaichiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Ishida, Keishi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    GluR2, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, plays important roles in neuronal survival. We previously showed that exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to several chemicals decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal toxicity. Methoxychlor, the bis-p-methoxy derivative of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid chemical, have been used commercially as agricultural pesticides in several countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term methoxychlor and fenvalerate exposure on neuronal glutamate receptors. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with 1 or 10 µM methoxychlor and fenvalerate for 9 days selectively decreased GluR2 protein expression; the expression of other AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4 did not change under the same conditions. Importantly, the decreases in GluR2 protein expression were also observed on the cell surface membrane where AMPA receptors typically function. In addition, both chemicals decreased neuronal viability, which was blocked by pretreatment with 1-naphtylacetylspermine, an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors, and MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that long-term exposure to methoxychlor and fenvalerate decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal death via overactivation of GluR2-lacking AMPA and NMDA receptors.

  18. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate promotes caspase 3-activated glioblastoma cell death by overcoming enhanced cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Musa; Tietzel, Illya; Quick, Quincy A

    2013-06-01

    The brain consumes ∼20% of the oxygen utilized in the human body, meaning that brain tumors are vulnerable to paradoxical physiological effects from free radical generation. In the present study, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a naturally derived antioxidant that inhibits xanthine oxidase, was evaluated for its role as an anti-tumorigenic agent in glioblastomas. The study revealed that ACA inhibited glioblastoma cell proliferation as a consequence of promoting apoptotic cell death by enhancing caspase 3 activity. It was also shown that ACA impaired the migratory ability of glioblastoma cells by decreasing their adhesive properties. Additionally, ACA increased the protein expression levels of the pro-survival signaling cytokines, IL-6 and IL-1α, established cell protectors and survival molecules in brain tumors. Together, these results demonstrate that, despite enhanced expression of compensatory signaling molecules that contribute to tumor cell survival, ACA is an effective pro-apoptotic inducing agent in glioblastomas.

  19. Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb L.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Rivest, Benjamin D.; Horn, Christopher B.; Bernhard, Joshua; Roberson, Dawnlee; Roach, William P.

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, numerous security, military, and medical applications have been developed which use Terahertz (THz) radiation. These developments have heightened concerns in regards to the potential health risks that are associated with this type of radiation. To determine the cellular and molecular effects caused by THz radiation, we exposed several human cell lines to high-power THz radiation, and then we determined death thresholds and gene expression profiles. Necrotic and apoptotic death thresholds were determined for Jurkat cells using an optically-pumped molecular gas THz source (υ = 2.52 THz, H = 227 mW/cm2), MTT viability assays, and flow cytometric techniques. In addition, we used confocal microscopic techniques to demarcate lethal spatial regions in a monolayer of dermal fibroblasts exposed to THz radiation. Then, to determine if cells exhibit a THz-specific gene expression signature, we exposed dermal fibroblasts to THz radiation and analyzed their transcriptional response using microarray gene chips. We found that 60% of the Jurkat cells survived the 30-minute THz exposure, whereas only 20% survived the 40-minute exposure. The flow data confirmed these results and provided evidence that THz-induced cell death was mediated using both nectrotic and apoptotic processes. The preliminary microscopy studies provided convincing evidence warranting future efforts using these techniques. Lastly, we found that dermal fibroblasts up-regulated several genes when exposed to THz radiation. Overall, these results provide evidence for the cellular and molecular effects associated with THz radiation, and we speculate that the identified up-regulated genes may serve as excellent candidate biomarkers for THz exposures.

  20. Induced expression of neuronal membrane attack complex and cell death by Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Sullivan, T; Lee, C M; Meri, S; Shiosaki, K; Lin, C W

    1998-06-15

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) and complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC) are co-localized in senile plaques of brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. But the relationship between A beta and complement activation is unclear. We have used human neurotypic cells, differentiated SH-SY5Y, as a model system to examine regulation of neuronal MAC expression and cell death by A beta. We demonstrated that mRNAs (C1q, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9) and proteins (C1q, C3 and C9) for the major components of the classical complement cascade are present in the SH-SY5Y neurotypic cells, indicating that neuronal cells can synthesize the necessary proteins required for MAC formation. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies showed the A beta-induced neuronal MAC expression on the SH-SY5Y cells after CD59 was removed by PIPLC or blocked by anti-CD59 antibody. Meanwhile, increased A beta-induced neuronal cell death was observed following treatment with anti-CD59. Taken together, these results suggest that A beta activates neuronal complement cascade to induce MAC, and a deficiency of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, e.g., CD59, may increase the vulnerability of neurons to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:9689469

  1. Reduced expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 and collapsin response mediator protein 1 promotes death of spinal cord neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurnellas, M P; Li, H; Jain, M R; Giraud, S N; Nicot, A B; Ratnayake, A; Heary, R F; Elkabes, S

    2010-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying neuronal pathology and death in the spinal cord (SC) during inflammation remain elusive. We previously showed the important role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) in the survival of SC neurons, in vitro. We also postulated that a decrease in PMCA2 expression could cause neuronal death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The current studies were undertaken to define the specific contribution of PMCA2 to degeneration of SC neurons, the effectors downstream to PMCA2 mediating neuronal death and the triggers that reduce PMCA2 expression. We report that knockdown of PMCA2 in SC neurons decreases collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) levels. This is followed by cell death. Silencing of CRMP1 expression also leads to neuronal loss. Kainic acid reduces both PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels and induces neuronal death. Administration of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist, at onset or peak of EAE, restores the decreased PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels to control values and ameliorates clinical deficits. Thus, our data link the reduction in PMCA2 expression with perturbations in the expression of CRMP1 and the ensuing death of SC neurons. This represents an additional mechanism underlying AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity with relevance to neurodegeneration in EAE. PMID:20489728

  2. Programmed death ligand-1 expression and its prognostic role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ryul; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kwon, Dohee; Ock, Chan-Young; Kim, Miso; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Hak Jae; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Park, In Kyu; Kang, Chang Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young Tae; Heo, Dae Seog

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the expression and prognostic role of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS A total of 200 patients with ESCC who underwent radical esophagectomy with standard lymphadenectomy as the initial definitive treatment in Seoul National University Hospital from December 2000 to April 2013 were eligible for this analysis. Tissue microarrays were constructed by collecting tissue cores from surgical specimens, and immunostained with antibodies directed against PD-L1, p16, and c-Met. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to assess clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into two groups by PD-L1 status, and significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics between the two groups were assessed. RESULTS Tumor tissues from 67 ESCC patients (33.5%) were PD-L1-positive. Positive p16 expression was observed in 21 specimens (10.5%). The H-score for c-Met expression was ≥ 50 in 42 specimens (21.0%). Although PD-L1-positivity was not significantly correlated with any clinical characteristics including age, sex, smoking/alcoholic history, stage, or differentiation, H-scores for c-Met expression were significantly associated with PD-L1-positivity (OR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.16-4.72, P = 0.017). PD-L1 expression was not significantly associated with a change in overall survival (P = 0.656). In contrast, the locoregional relapse rate tended to increase (P = 0.134), and the distant metastasis rate was significantly increased (HR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.01-2.79, P = 0.028) in patients with PD-L1-positive ESCC compared to those with PD-L1-negative ESCC. CONCLUSION PD-L1 expression is positively correlated with c-Met expression in ESCC. PD-L1 may play a critical role in distant failure and progression of ESCC. PMID:27729745

  3. Expression level of P2X7 receptor is a determinant of ATP-induced death of mouse cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, A; Keno, Y; Marumiya, A; Sudo, Y; Uda, Y; Matsuda, K; Morita, Y; Furuta, T; Nishida, K; Nagasawa, K

    2016-04-01

    Activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a purinergic receptor, expressed by neurons is well-known to induce their death, but whether or not their sensitivity to ATP depends on its expression levels remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of the expression level of P2X7Rs on cell viability using pure neuron cultures, co-cultures with astrocytes derived from SJL- and ddY-strain mice, and mouse P2X7R-expressing HEK293T cell systems. Treatment of pure neuron cultures with 5mM ATP for 2h, followed by 3-h incubation in fresh medium, resulted in death of both types of neurons, and their death was prevented by administration of P2X7R-specific antagonists. In both SJL- and ddY-neurons, ATP-induced neuronal death was inhibited by a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A, mitochondrial dysfunction being involved in their death. The ATP-induced neuronal death was greater for SJL-neurons than for ddY-ones, this being correlated with the expression level of P2X7R in them, and the same results were obtained for the HEK293T cell systems. Co-culture of neurons with astrocytes increased the ATP-induced neuronal death compared to the case of pure neuron cultures. Overall, we reveal that neuronal vulnerability to ATP depends on the expression level of P2X7R, and co-existence of astrocytes exacerbates ATP-induced neuronal death.

  4. CD200 restrains macrophage attack on oligodendrocyte precursors via toll-like receptor 4 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Pham, Loc-Duyen D; Seo, Ji Hae; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Maki, Takakuni; Terasaki, Yasukazu; Sakadžić, Sava; Boas, David; van Leyen, Klaus; Waeber, Christian; Kim, Kyu-Won; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous barriers to white matter repair after central nervous system injury and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. In this study, we propose the hypothesis that inflammatory macrophages in damaged white matter attack oligodendrocyte precursor cells via toll-like receptor 4 signaling thus interfering with this endogenous progenitor recovery mechanism. Primary cell culture experiments demonstrate that peritoneal macrophages can attack and digest oligodendrocyte precursor cells via toll-like receptor 4 signaling, and this phagocytosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells can be inhibited by using CD200-Fc to downregulate toll-like receptor 4. In an in vivo model of white matter ischemia induced by endothelin-1, treatment with CD200-Fc suppressed toll-like receptor 4 expression in peripherally circulating macrophages, thus restraining macrophage phagocytosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and leading to improved myelination. Taken together, these findings suggest that deleterious macrophage effects may occur after white matter ischemia, whereby macrophages attack oligodendrocyte precursor cells and interfere with endogenous recovery responses. Targeting this pathway with CD200 may offer a novel therapeutic approach to amplify endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell-mediated repair of white matter damage in mammalian brain.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of programmed cell death 10 from sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jie; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Lu, Shi-Ying; Li, Chuang; Hu, Pan; Li, Yan-Song; Liu, Nan-Nan; Tang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Ming; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Li, Zhao-Hui; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) is a highly conserved adaptor protein. Its mutations result in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). In this study, PDCD10 cDNA from the buffy coat of Small Tail Han sheep (Ovis aries) was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library, named OaPDCD10. The full-length cDNA of OaPDCD10 was 1343bp with a 639bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 212 amino acid residues. Tissue distribution of OaPDCD10 mRNA determined that it was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue samples, and the highest expression was observed in the heart. The differential expression of OaPDCD10 between infected sheep (challenged with Brucella melitensis) and vaccinated sheep (vaccinated with Brucella suis S2) was also investigated. The results revealed that, compared to the control group, the expression of OaPDCD10 from infected and vaccinated sheep was both significantly up-regulated (p<0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of OaPDCD10 from the vaccinated sheep were significantly higher than the infected sheep (p<0.05) after 30days post-inoculation. The recombinant OaPDCD10 (rOaPDCD10) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified by affinity chromatography. The rOaPDCD10 protein was demonstrated to induce apoptosis and promote cell proliferation. Our studies are intended to discover potential diagnostic biomarkers of brucellosis to discern infected sheep from vaccinated sheep, and OaPDCD10 could be considered as a potential diagnostic biomarker of brucellosis.

  6. Programmed death ligand 1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Kiesel, Barbara; Widhalm, Georg; Rajky, Orsolya; Ricken, Gerda; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Dieckmann, Karin; Filipits, Martin; Brandstetter, Anita; Weller, Michael; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Hegi, Monika E.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Marosi, Christine; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Preusser, Matthias; Wick, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD1) or its ligand (PD-L1) showed activity in several cancer types. Methods We performed immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD20, HLA-DR, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), PD-1, and PD-L1 and pyrosequencing for assessment of the O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status in 135 glioblastoma specimens (117 initial resection, 18 first local recurrence). PD-L1 gene expression was analyzed in 446 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Results Diffuse/fibrillary PD-L1 expression of variable extent, with or without interspersed epithelioid tumor cells with membranous PD-L1 expression, was observed in 103 of 117 (88.0%) newly diagnosed and 13 of 18 (72.2%) recurrent glioblastoma specimens. Sparse-to-moderate density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was found in 85 of 117 (72.6%) specimens (CD3+ 78/117, 66.7%; CD8+ 52/117, 44.4%; CD20+ 27/117, 23.1%; PD1+ 34/117, 29.1%). PD1+ TIL density correlated positively with CD3+ (P < .001), CD8+ (P < .001), CD20+ TIL density (P < .001), and PTEN expression (P = .035). Enrichment of specimens with low PD-L1 gene expression levels was observed in the proneural and G-CIMP glioblastoma subtypes and in specimens with high PD-L1 gene expression in the mesenchymal subtype (P = 5.966e-10). No significant differences in PD-L1 expression or TIL density between initial and recurrent glioblastoma specimens or correlation of PD-L1 expression or TIL density with patient age or outcome were evident. Conclusion TILs and PD-L1 expression are detectable in the majority of glioblastoma samples but are not related to outcome. Because the target is present, a clinical study with specific immune checkpoint inhibitors seems to be warranted in glioblastoma. PMID:25355681

  7. Absence of cell surface expression of human ACE leads to perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Annie; Acharya, K Ravi; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Quenech'du, Nicole; Gribouval, Olivier; Morinière, Vincent; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Corvol, Pierre

    2014-03-15

    Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a recessive autosomal disease characterized most often by perinatal death. It is due to the inactivation of any of the major genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), one of which is the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is present as a tissue-bound enzyme and circulates in plasma after its solubilization. In this report, we present the effect of different ACE mutations associated with RTD on ACE intracellular trafficking, secretion and enzymatic activity. One truncated mutant, R762X, responsible for neonatal death was found to be an enzymatically active, secreted form, not inserted in the plasma membrane. In contrast, another mutant, R1180P, was compatible with life after transient neonatal renal insufficiency. This mutant was located at the plasma membrane and rapidly secreted. These results highlight the importance of tissue-bound ACE versus circulating ACE and show that the total absence of cell surface expression of ACE is incompatible with life. In addition, two missense mutants (W594R and R828H) and two truncated mutants (Q1136X and G1145AX) were also studied. These mutants were neither inserted in the plasma membrane nor secreted. Finally, the structural implications of these ACE mutations were examined by molecular modelling, which suggested some important structural alterations such as disruption of intra-molecular non-covalent interactions (e.g. salt bridges).

  8. Altered sensitivity to excitotoxic cell death and glutamate receptor expression between two commonly studied mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Rozzy; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in glutamatergic synapse function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many different neurological disorders including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. While studying glutamate receptor function in juvenile Batten disease on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds, we noticed differences unlikely to be due to mutation difference alone. We report here that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures from C57BL/6J mice are more sensitive to NMDA-mediated cell death. Moreover, sensitivity to AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity is more variable and is dependent upon the treatment conditions and age of the cultures. Glutamate receptor surface expression levels examined in vitro by in situ ELISA and in vivo by Western blot in surface cross-linked cerebellar samples indicated that these differences in sensitivity are likely due to strain-dependent differences in cell surface receptor expression levels. We propose that differences in glutamate receptor expression and in excitotoxic vulnerability should be taken into consideration in the context of characterizing disease models on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds. PMID:20544821

  9. [Precision of estimating the time of death by mathematical expression of rectal body cooling (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Henssge, C

    1979-04-27

    A representative material of experimental rectal cooling curves proves the basic validity of the model described by Marshall et al. for the mathematical expression of body cooling. For defined conditions of cooling as a relating standard the values of the exponents needed for the solution of the formula closely correlate with the weight of body to be raised to the -0.625 power. For applying in forensic cases a prescription easily to be used for the chosen relating standard of cooling is given for the computing of the time of death with permissible variation. From the first experiments of different conditions of body cooling to be met in forensic cases the possibilities of extending the range of application are derived.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Wild Type Homozygozity of Polymorphisms +896 and +1196 Is Associated with High Gastrin Serum Levels and Peptic Ulcer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Mäkinen, Johanna M.; Karhukorpi, Jari M.; Joensuu, Tapio; Koistinen, Pentti O.; Valtonen, Jarno M.; Niemelä, Seppo E.; Karttunen, Riitta A.; Karttunen, Tuomo J.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is a part of the innate immune system and recognizes Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms +896 (rs4986790) and +1196 (rs4986791) in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastroduodenal diseases in relation to gastric secretion and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms, serum gastrin-17 and pepsinogen I and II concentrations were determined, and gastroscopies with histopathological analyses were performed to 216 dyspeptic patients. As genotype controls, 179 controls and 61 gastric cancer patients were studied. In our study, the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 polymorphisms were in total linkage disequilibrium. The homozygous wild types displayed higher gastrin-17 serum concentrations than the mutants (p = 0.001) and this effect was independent of Helicobacter pylori. The homozygous wild types also displayed an increased risk for peptic ulcers (OR: 4.390). Toll-like receptor 4 genotypes did not show any association with Helicobacter pylori positivity or the features of gastric inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was seen in gastrin and somatostatin expressing cells of antral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion. PMID:26161647

  11. Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality.

    PubMed

    Saha, Asim; O'Connor, Roddy S; Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Lovitch, Scott B; Dandamudi, Durga Bhavani; Wilson, Caleph B; Vincent, Benjamin G; Tkachev, Victor; Pawlicki, Jan M; Furlan, Scott N; Kean, Leslie S; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Taylor, Patricia A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Foncea, Rocio; Ranganathan, Parvathi; Devine, Steven M; Burrill, Joel S; Guo, Lili; Sacristan, Catarina; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Blair, Ian A; Milone, Michael C; Dustin, Michael L; Riley, James L; Bernlohr, David A; Murphy, William J; Fife, Brian T; Munn, David H; Miller, Jeffrey S; Serody, Jonathan S; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Turka, Laurence A; Blazar, Bruce R

    2016-07-01

    Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction with PD-1 induces T cell exhaustion and is a therapeutic target to enhance immune responses against cancer and chronic infections. In murine bone marrow transplant models, PD-L1 expression on host target tissues reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PD-L1 is also expressed on T cells; however, it is unclear whether PD-L1 on this population influences immune function. Here, we examined the effects of PD-L1 modulation of T cell function in GVHD. In patients with severe GVHD, PD-L1 expression was increased on donor T cells. Compared with mice that received WT T cells, GVHD was reduced in animals that received T cells from Pdl1-/- donors. PD-L1-deficient T cells had reduced expression of gut homing receptors, diminished production of inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced rates of apoptosis. Moreover, multiple bioenergetic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid metabolism, were also reduced in T cells lacking PD-L1. Finally, the reduction of acute GVHD lethality in mice that received Pdl1-/- donor cells did not affect graft-versus-leukemia responses. These data demonstrate that PD-L1 selectively enhances T cell-mediated immune responses, suggesting a context-dependent function of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, and suggest selective inhibition of PD-L1 on donor T cells as a potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate GVHD.

  12. Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Roddy S.; Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Lovitch, Scott B.; Dandamudi, Durga Bhavani; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Tkachev, Victor; Pawlicki, Jan M.; Furlan, Scott N.; Kean, Leslie S.; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Taylor, Patricia A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Foncea, Rocio; Ranganathan, Parvathi; Devine, Steven M.; Burrill, Joel S.; Guo, Lili; Sacristan, Catarina; Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Blair, Ian A.; Milone, Michael C.; Dustin, Michael L.; Riley, James L.; Bernlohr, David A.; Murphy, William J.; Fife, Brian T.; Munn, David H.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Turka, Laurence A.

    2016-01-01

    Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction with PD-1 induces T cell exhaustion and is a therapeutic target to enhance immune responses against cancer and chronic infections. In murine bone marrow transplant models, PD-L1 expression on host target tissues reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PD-L1 is also expressed on T cells; however, it is unclear whether PD-L1 on this population influences immune function. Here, we examined the effects of PD-L1 modulation of T cell function in GVHD. In patients with severe GVHD, PD-L1 expression was increased on donor T cells. Compared with mice that received WT T cells, GVHD was reduced in animals that received T cells from Pdl1–/– donors. PD-L1–deficient T cells had reduced expression of gut homing receptors, diminished production of inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced rates of apoptosis. Moreover, multiple bioenergetic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid metabolism, were also reduced in T cells lacking PD-L1. Finally, the reduction of acute GVHD lethality in mice that received Pdl1–/– donor cells did not affect graft-versus-leukemia responses. These data demonstrate that PD-L1 selectively enhances T cell–mediated immune responses, suggesting a context-dependent function of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, and suggest selective inhibition of PD-L1 on donor T cells as a potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate GVHD. PMID:27294527

  13. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M.; Cano, Liliana M.; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus “Las” is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  14. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Cano, Liliana M; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus "Las" is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  15. Death receptor 5 and neuroproliferation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanli; Li, Yongqiang; Zang, Jianfeng; Huang, Hongen; Deng, Jiexin; Cui, Zhanjun; Yu, Dongming; Deng, Jinbo

    2012-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Apo2 ligand is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain-containing transmembrane receptors, death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4, DR5). However, DR5 is also expressed in the developing CNS where it appears to play a role unrelated to apoptosis, and instead may be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. We report on the distribution of DR5 expression in mouse hippocampus, cerebellum, and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of olfactory bulb from embryonic (E) day 16 (E16) to postnatal (P) day (P180). At E16, DR5-positive cells were distributed widely in embryonic hippocampus with strong immunostaining in the developing dentate gyrus. In newborn hippocampus, DR5-positive cells were predominantly located in proliferative zones, such as dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, and RMS. After postnatal day 7 (P7), the number of DR5-positive cells decreased, and cells with intense fluorescence were primarily restricted to the subgranular layer (SGL), although the granular cell layer showed weak fluorescence. After P30, only few DR5-positive cells were found in SGL, and mature granule cells were negative for DR5 expression. To address whether DR5 expression is a restricted to progenitor cells and newborn neurons, we performed 5-bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. We report that proliferative cells in the SGL selectively express DR5, with lower levels of expression in cells positive for doublecortin, a marker of newborn neurons. In addition, the stem cells in intestine, cerebellum, and RMS were also demonstrated to be DR5-positive. In the meantime, in cerebellum, DR5-positive cells were also positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker of proliferative Bergmann cells. We conclude that DR5 is selectively expressed by neuroprogenitor cells and newborn neurons, suggesting that the DR5 death receptor is likely to play a key role in neuroproliferation

  16. Lithium increases bcl-2 expression in chick cochlear nucleus and protects against deafferentation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Bush, A L; Hyson, R L

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 20-30% of neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus (nucleus magnocellularis) die following deafferentation (i.e. deafness produced by cochlea removal) and the remaining neurons show a decrease in soma size. Cell death is generally accepted to be a highly regulated process involving various pro-survival and pro-death molecules. One treatment that has been shown to modify the expression of these molecules is chronic administration of lithium. The present experiments examined whether lithium treatment can protect neurons from deafferentation-induced cell death. Post-hatch chicks were treated with LiCl or saline for 17 consecutive days, beginning on the day of hatching. On the 17th day, a unilateral cochlea ablation was performed. Five days following surgery, the nucleus magnocellularis neurons were counted stereologically on opposite sides of the same brains. Lithium reduced deafferentation-induced cell death by more than 50% (9.8% cell death as compared with 22.4% in saline-treated subjects). Lithium did not affect cell number on the intact side of the brain. Lithium also did not prevent the deafferentation-induced decrease in soma size, suggesting a dissociation between the mechanisms involved in the afferent control of soma size and those involved in the afferent control of cell viability. A possible mechanism for lithium's neuroprotective influence was examined in a second set of subjects. Previous studies suggest that the pro-survival molecule, bcl-2, may play a role in regulating cell death following deafferentation. Tissues from lithium- and saline-treated subjects were examined using immunocytochemistry. Chronic administration of lithium dramatically increased the expression of bcl-2 protein in nucleus magnocellularis neurons. These data suggest that lithium may impart its neuroprotective effect by altering the expression of molecules that regulate cell death.

  17. Catching up with solid tumor oncology: what is the evidence for a prognostic role of programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 expression in B-cell lymphomas?

    PubMed Central

    McClanahan, Fabienne; Sharp, Thomas G.; Gribben, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies targeting the programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 pathway have shown significant responses and good tolerability in solid malignancies. Although preclinical studies suggest that inhibiting programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 interactions might also be highly effective in hematological malignancies, remarkably few clinical trials have been published. Determining patients who will benefit most from programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1-directed immunotherapy and whether programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 are adequate prognostic markers becomes an increasingly important clinical question, especially as aberrant programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 expression are key mediators of impaired anti-tumor immune responses in a range of B-cell lymphomas. Herein, we systematically review the published literature on the expression and prognostic value of programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 in these patients and identify considerable differences in expression patterns, distribution and numbers of programmed cell death-ligand 1+/programmed cell death-1+cells, both between and within lymphoma subtypes, which is reflected in conflicting findings regarding the prognostic value of programmed cell death-ligand 1+/programmed cell death-1+ cells. This can be partly explained by differences in methodologies (techniques, protocols, cutoff values) and definitions of positivity. Moreover, lymphomagenesis, disease progression, and prognosis appear to be determined not only by the presence, numbers and distribution of specific subtypes of T cells, but also by other cells and additional immune checkpoints. Collectively, our findings indicate that programmed cell death-ligand 1/programmed cell death-1 interactions play an essential role in B-cell lymphoma biology and are of clinical importance, but that the overall outcome is determined by additional components

  18. Increased programmed death ligand-1 expression predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaobin; Gao, Xian-Shu; Xiong, Wei; Guo, Wei; Han, Linjun; Bai, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Cui, Ming; Xie, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accumulating studies have investigated the prognostic and clinical significance of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the results were conflicting and inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to combine controversial data to precisely evaluate this issue. Methods Relevant studies were thoroughly searched on PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase until April 2016. Eligible studies were evaluated by selection criteria. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the prognostic role of PD-L1 for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)/recurrence-free survival (RFS). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI were selected to assess the relationship between PD-L1 and clinicopathological features of HCC patients. Publication bias was tested using Begg’s funnel plot. Results A total of seven studies published from 2009 to 2016 were included for meta-analysis. The data showed that high PD-L1 expression was correlated to shorter OS (HR =2.09, 95% CI: 1.66–2.64, P<0.001) as well as poor DFS/RFS (HR =2.3, 95% CI: 1.46–3.62, P<0.001). In addition, increased PD-L1 expression was also associated with tumor differentiation (HR =1.51, 95% CI: 1–2.29, P=0.05), vascular invasion (HR =2.16, 95% CI: 1.43–3.27, P<0.001), and α-fetoprotein (AFP; HR =1.46, 95% CI: 1–2.14, P=0.05), but had no association with tumor stage, tumor size, hepatitis history, sex, age, or tumor multiplicity. No publication bias was found for all analyses. Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of PD-L1 was predictive for shortened OS and DFS/RFS in HCC. Furthermore, increased PD-L1 expression was associated with less differentiation, vascular invasion, and AFP elevation. PMID:27536144

  19. Galectin-3 induces death of Candida species expressing specific beta-1,2-linked mannans.

    PubMed

    Kohatsu, Luciana; Hsu, Daniel K; Jegalian, Armin G; Liu, Fu-Tong; Baum, Linda G

    2006-10-01

    Lectins play a critical role in host protection against infection. The galectin family of lectins recognizes saccharide ligands on a variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Galectin-3, a galectin expressed by macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells, binds bacterial and parasitic pathogens including Leishmania major, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, there have been no reports of galectins having direct effects on microbial viability. We found that galectin-3 bound only to Candida albicans species that bear beta-1,2-linked oligomannans on the cell surface, but did not bind Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lacks beta-1,2-linked oligomannans. Surprisingly, binding directly induced death of Candida species containing specific beta-1,2-linked oligomannosides. Thus, galectin-3 can act as a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes a unique pathogen-specific oligosaccharide sequence. This is the first description of antimicrobial activity for a member of the galectin family of mammalian lectins; unlike other lectins of the innate immune system that promote opsonization and phagocytosis, galectin-3 has direct fungicidal activity against opportunistic fungal pathogens.

  20. High CD10 expression in lymph node metastases from surgically treated prostate cancer independently predicts early death.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Achim; Rocha, Carla; Saxer-Sekulic, Nikolina; Zlobec, Inti; Sauter, Guido; Thalmann, George N

    2011-06-01

    Patients with nodal positive prostate cancers are an important cohort with poorly defined risk factors. CD10 is a cell surface metallopeptidase that has been suggested to play a role in prostate cancer progression. CD10 expression was evaluated in 119 nodal positive prostate cancer patients using tissue microarrays constructed from primary tumors and lymph node metastases. All patients underwent radical prostatectomy and standardized extended lymphadenectomy. They had no neoadjuvant therapy and received deferred androgen deprivation. In the primary tumor, high CD10 expression was significantly associated with earlier death from disease when compared with low CD10 expression (5-year survival 73.7% vs. 91.8%; p = 0.043). In the metastases, a high CD10 expression was significantly associated with larger total size of metastases (median 11.4 vs. 6.5 mm; p = 0.015), earlier death of disease (5-year survival 71.5% vs. 87.3%; p = 0.017), and death of any cause (5-year survival 70.0% vs. 87.2%; p = 0.001) when compared with low CD10 expression. CD10 expression in the metastases added independent prognostic information for overall survival (p = 0.029) after adjustment for Gleason score of the primary tumor, nodal tumor burden, and resection margins. In conclusion, a high CD10 expression in prostate cancer predicts early death. This information is inherent in the primary tumors and in the lymph node metastases and might help to personalize patient management.

  1. Melatonin enhances arsenic trioxide-induced cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun-Mi; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Oh, Sang Taek; Hong, Sung-Eun; Choe, Tae-Boo; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seong, Min Ki; Kim, Hyun-A; Noh, Woo Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2016-02-15

    Melatonin is implicated in various physiological functions, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism(s) of its anticancer activity is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of melatonin and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on cell death in human breast cancer cells. Melatonin enhanced the ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via changes in the protein levels of Survivin, Bcl-2, and Bax, thus affecting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, we found that the cell death induced by co-treatment with melatonin and ATO was mediated by sustained upregulation of Redd1, which was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combined treatment with melatonin and ATO induced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase downstream from Redd1 expression. Rapamycin and S6K1 siRNA enhanced, while activation of mTORC1 by transfection with TSC2 siRNA suppressed the cell death induced by melatonin and ATO treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin enhances ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression and inhibition of mTORC1 upstream of the activation of the p38/JNK pathways in human breast cancer cells. PMID:26607805

  2. Protective Effect of Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis by Competitive Binding to Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xue, Yin; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Wangxue

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re enhanced the immune response in C3H/HeB mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a mutation in the Tlr4 gene. The results of the present study showed that both Rg1 and Re inhibited mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory mediators that included tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Rg1 was found to be distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly but Re was located only extracellularly to compete with LPS for binding to Toll-like receptor 4. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into rats suppressed LPS-induced increases in body temperature, white blood cell counts, and levels of serum proinflammatory mediators. Preinjection of Rg1 and Re into mice prevented the LPS-induced decreases in total white blood cell counts and neutrophil counts, inhibited excessive expression of multiple proinflammatory mediators, and successfully rescued 100% of the mice from sepsis-associated death. More significantly, when administered after lethal LPS inoculation, Rg1, but not Re, still showed a potent antisepsis effect and protected 90% of the mice from death. The better protection efficacy of Rg1 could result from its intracellular distribution, suggesting that Rg1 may be an ideal antisepsis agent. PMID:26149990

  3. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications.

  4. Osteopontin Expression in the Brain Triggers Localized Inflammation and Cell Death When Immune Cells Are Activated by Pertussis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Ojakian, Ryan; Bortell, Nikki; Flynn, Claudia; Conti, Bruno; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) is a characteristic of central nervous system pathologies. However, the role of OPN in inflammation is still controversial, since it can both prevent cell death and induce the migration of potentially damaging inflammatory cells. To understand the role of OPN in inflammation and cell survival, we expressed OPN, utilizing an adenoviral vector, in the caudoputamen of mice deficient in OPN, using beta-galactosidase- (β-gal-) expressing vector as control. The tissue pathology and the expression of proinflammatory genes were compared in both treatments. Interestingly, inflammatory infiltrate was only found when the OPN-vector was combined with a peripheral treatment with pertussis toxin (Ptx), which activated peripheral cells to express the OPN receptor CD44v6. Relative to β-gal, OPN increased the levels of inflammatory markers, including IL13Rα1, CXCR3, and CD40L. In Ptx-treated OPN KOs, apoptotic TUNEL+ cells surrounding the OPN expression site increased, compared to β-gal. Together, these results show that local OPN expression combined with a peripheral inflammatory stimulus, such as Ptx, may be implicated in the development of brain inflammation and induction of cell death, by driving a molecular pattern characteristic of cytotoxicity. These are characteristics of inflammatory pathologies of the CNS in which OPN upregulation is a hallmark. PMID:25525298

  5. Programmed cell death 4 and BCR-ABL fusion gene expression are negatively correlated in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Liu, Riming; Huang, Baohua; Zhang, Xiaolu; Yu, Weijuan; Bao, Cuixia; Li, Jie; Sun, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits carcinogenesis, tumor progression and invasion by preventing gene transcription and translation. Downregulation of PDCD4 expression has been identified in multiple types of human cancer, however, to date, the function of PDCD4 in leukemia has not been investigated. In the present study, PDCD4 mRNA and protein expression was investigated in 50 patients exhibiting various phases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 20 healthy individuals by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. PDCD4 expression and cell proliferation was also investigated following treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, in K562 cells. The results demonstrated that PDCD4 mRNA and protein expression was decreased in all CML samples when compared with healthy controls, who expressed high levels of PDCD4 mRNA and protein. No significant differences in PDCD4 expression were identified between chronic phase, accelerated phase and blast phase CML patients. In addition, PDCD4 expression was negatively correlated with BCR-ABL gene expression (r=−0.6716; P<0.001). Furthermore, K562 cells treated with imatinib exhibited significantly enhanced PDCD4 expression. These results indicate that downregulation of PDCD4 expression may exhibit a critical function in the progression and malignant proliferation of human CML.

  6. Systems analysis of apoptosis protein expression allows the case-specific prediction of cell death responsiveness of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Passante, E; Würstle, M L; Hellwig, C T; Leverkus, M; Rehm, M

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer entities and their associated cell line models are highly heterogeneous in their responsiveness to apoptosis inducers and, despite a detailed understanding of the underlying signaling networks, cell death susceptibility currently cannot be predicted reliably from protein expression profiles. Here, we demonstrate that an integration of quantitative apoptosis protein expression data with pathway knowledge can predict the cell death responsiveness of melanoma cell lines. By a total of 612 measurements, we determined the absolute expression (nM) of 17 core apoptosis regulators in a panel of 11 melanoma cell lines, and enriched these data with systems-level information on apoptosis pathway topology. By applying multivariate statistical analysis and multi-dimensional pattern recognition algorithms, the responsiveness of individual cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or dacarbazine (DTIC) could be predicted with very high accuracy (91 and 82% correct predictions), and the most effective treatment option for individual cell lines could be pre-determined in silico. In contrast, cell death responsiveness was poorly predicted when not taking knowledge on protein–protein interactions into account (55 and 36% correct predictions). We also generated mathematical predictions on whether anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members or x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) can be targeted to enhance TRAIL responsiveness in individual cell lines. Subsequent experiments, making use of pharmacological Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition or siRNA-based XIAP depletion, confirmed the accuracy of these predictions. We therefore demonstrate that cell death responsiveness to TRAIL or DTIC can be predicted reliably in a large number of melanoma cell lines when investigating expression patterns of apoptosis regulators in the context of their network-level interplay. The capacity to predict responsiveness at the cellular level may contribute to

  7. Cell Death Processes during Expression of Hybrid Lethality in Interspecific F1 Hybrid between Nicotiana gossei Domin and Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Mino, Masanobu; Maekawa, Kenji; Ogawa, Ken'ichi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid lethality, a type of reproductive isolation, is a genetically controlled event appearing at the seedling stage in interspecific hybrids. We characterized the lethality of F1 hybrid seedlings from Nicotiana gossei Domin and Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 4 using a number of traits including growth rate, microscopic features of tissues and cells, ion leakage, DNA degradation, reactive oxygen intermediates including superoxide radical (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and expression of stress response marker genes. Lethal symptoms appeared at 4 d after germination in the basal hypocotyl and extended toward both the hypocotyl and root of the plants grown at 26°C. Microscopic analysis revealed a prompt lysis of cell components during cell death. Membrane disruption and DNA degradation were found in the advanced stage of the lethality. The death of mesophyll cells in the cotyledon was initiated by the vascular bundle, suggesting that a putative factor inducing cell death diffused into surrounding cells from the vascular tissue. In contrast, these symptoms were not observed in the plants grown at 37°C. Seedlings grown at 26°C generated larger amounts of reactive oxygen intermediate in the hypocotyl than those grown at 37°C. A number of stress response marker genes were expressed at 26°C but not at 37°C. We proposed that a putative death factor moving systemically through the vascular system induced a prompt and successive lysis of the cytoplasm of cells and that massive cell death eventually led to the loss of the hybrid plant. PMID:12481061

  8. Potent antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus expressing Beclin-1 via induction of autophagic cell death in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Li, Lu; Meng, Haitao; Qian, Qijun

    2013-01-01

    An attractive strategy among adenovirus-based oncolytic systems is to design adenoviral vectors to express pro-apoptotic genes, in which this gene-virotherapy approach significantly enhances tumor cell death by activating apoptotic pathways. However, the existence of cancer cells with apoptotic defects is one of the major obstacles in gene-virotherapy. Here, we investigated whether a strategy that combines the oncolytic effects of an adenoviral vector with simultaneous expression of Beclin-1, an autophagy gene, offers a therapeutic advantage for leukemia. A Beclin-1 cDNA was cloned in an oncolytic adenovirus with chimeric Ad5/11 fiber (SG511-BECN). SG511-BECN treatment induced significant autophagic cell death, and resulted in enhanced cell killing in a variety of leukemic cell lines and primary leukemic blasts. SG511-BECN effects were seen in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with resistance to imatinib or chemotherapy, but exhibited much less cytotoxicity on normal cells. The SG511-BECN-induced autophagic cell death could be partially reversed by RNA interference knockdown of UVRAG, ATG5, and ATG7. We also showed that SG511-BECN strongly inhibited the growth of leukemic progenitors in vitro. In murine leukemia models, SG511-BECN prolonged the survival and decreased the xenograft tumor size by inducing autophagic cell death. Our results suggest that infection of leukemia cells with an oncolytic adenovirus overexpressing Beclin-1 can induce significant autophagic cell death and provide a new strategy for the elimination of leukemic cells via a unique mechanism of action distinct from apoptosis. PMID:23765161

  9. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1(G93A) contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Na v ) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1(G93A) and ACM-SOD1(G86R)) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43(A315T)) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30-60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Na v channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Na v channel activity. PMID

  10. Toll-like Receptor 4 in CNS Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Madison M.; Hutchinson, Mark; Watkins, Linda R.; Yin, Hang

    2010-01-01

    The responses of the brain to infection, ischemia and trauma share remarkable similarities. These and other conditions of the CNS coordinate an innate immune response marked by activation of microglia, the macrophage-like cells of the nervous system. An important contributor to microglial activation is toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor known to initiate an inflammatory cascade in response to various CNS stimuli. The present review traces new efforts to characterize and control the contribution of TLR4 to inflammatory etiologies of the nervous system. PMID:20402965

  11. Coordinated Activation of Programmed Cell Death and Defense Mechanisms in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing a Bacterial Proton Pump.

    PubMed Central

    Mittler, R.; Shulaev, V.; Lam, E.

    1995-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death is thought to be activated during the hypersensitive response to certain avirulent pathogens and in the course of several differentiation processes. We describe a transgenic model system that mimics the activation of programmed cell death in higher plants. In this system, expression of a bacterial proton pump in transgenic tobacco plants activates a cell death pathway that may be similar to that triggered by recognition of an incompatible pathogen. Thus, spontaneous lesions that resemble hypersensitive response lesions are formed, multiple defense mechanisms are apparently activated, and systemic resistance is induced in the absence of a pathogen. Interestingly, mutation of a single amino acid in the putative channel of this proton pump renders it inactive with respect to lesion formation and induction of resistance to pathogen challenge. This transgenic model system may provide insights into the mechanisms involved in mediating cell death in higher plants. In addition, it may also be used as a general agronomic tool to enhance disease protection. PMID:12242350

  12. Programed death-1/programed death-ligand 1 expression in lymph nodes of HIV infected patients: results of a pilot safety study in rhesus macaques using anti–programed death-ligand 1 (Avelumab)

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Amanda L.; Green, Samantha A.; Abdullah, Shahed; Le Saout, Cecile; Pittaluga, Stefania; Chen, Hui; Turnier, Refika; Lifson, Jeffrey; Godin, Steven; Qin, Jing; Sneller, Michael C.; Cuillerot, Jean-Marie; Sabzevari, Helen; Lane, H. Clifford; Catalfamo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The programed death-1 (PD1)/programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway plays a critical role in balancing immunity and host immunopathology. During chronic HIV/SIV infection, there is persistent immune activation accompanied by accumulation of virus-specific cells with terminally differentiated phenotypes and expression of regulatory receptors such as PD1. These observations led us to hypothesize that the PD1/PD-L1 pathway contributes to the functional dysregulation and ineffective viral control, and its blockade may be a potential immunotherapeutic target. Methods: Lymph node biopsies from HIV-infected patients (n = 23) were studied for expression of PD1 and PD-L1. In addition, we assessed the safety and biological activity of a human anti-PD-L1 antibody (Avelumab) in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Results: PD-L1 expression was observed in cells with myloid/macrophage morphology in HIV-infected lymph nodes. Administration of anti-PD-L1 was well tolerated, and no changes in body weights, hematologic, or chemistry parameters were observed during the study. Blockade of PD-L1 led to a trend of transient viral control after discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Administration of anti-PD-L1 in chronic SIV-infected rhesus macaques was well tolerated. Overall, these data warrant further investigation to assess the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 treatment on viral control in chronic SIV infection as a prelude to such therapy in humans. PMID:27490642

  13. Glutathione Suppresses Cerebral Infarct Volume and Cell Death after Ischemic Injury: Involvement of FOXO3 Inactivation and Bcl2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joohyun; Oh, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke interrupts the flow of blood to the brain and subsequently results in cerebral infarction and neuronal cell death, leading to severe pathophysiology. Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant with cellular protective functions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in the brain. In addition, GSH is involved in various cellular survival pathways in response to oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined whether GSH reduces cerebral infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo and the signaling mechanisms involved in the promotion of cell survival after GSH treatment under ischemia/reperfusion conditions in vitro. To determine whether GSH reduces the extent of cerebral infarction, cell death after ischemia, and reperfusion injury, we measured infarct size in ischemic brain tissue and the expression of claudin-5 associated with brain infarct formation. We also examined activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, inactivation of FOXO3, and expression of Bcl2 to assess the role of GSH in promoting cell survival in response to ischemic injury. Based on our results, we suggest that GSH might improve the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke by attenuating cerebral infarction and cell death. PMID:25722793

  14. Attitudes of Children towards Aging, the Elderly, and Death & Dying as Expressed through the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptions, feelings and attitudes of elementary and junior high school students toward the topics of aging, the elderly, death, and dying. To gather data, an announcement was made to all schools within the state that the Rhode Island Gerontology Center would sponsor a contest for all school children…

  15. Pathophysiology of Endometriosis: Role of High Mobility Group Box-1 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Developing Inflammation in Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential factor associated with the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Although a few studies have shown possible mechanisms which may play roles in development, progression of endometriosis, few are known in regards of initiation of the disease, especially in the relationship with endometrium. The aim of our study was to investigate whether normal endometrium may be changed by Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which may contribute developing pathologic endometrium to induce endometriosis. Endometrial tissues were obtained from 10 patients with fibroids undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1), which is a representative DAMP, has been chosen that may induce alteration in endometrium. In preceding immunohistochemistry experiments using paraffin-block sections from endometriosis (N = 33) and control (N = 27) group, retrospectively, HMGB-1 expression was shown in both epithelial and stromal cell. HMGB-1 expression was significantly increased in secretory phase of endometriosis group, comparing to the controls. To examine the alteration of endometrial stromal cell (HESC) by oxidative stress in terms of HMGB-1, cell proliferation and expression of its receptor, TLR4 was measured according to recombinant HMGB-1 use. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay; real-time PCR and western blotting were used to quantify Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein expression respectively. A TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS) and an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway (TPCA-1, an IKK-2 inhibitor) were used to confirm the relationships between HMGB-1, TLR4, and the NF-κB pathway. Passive release of HMGB-1 was significantly proportional to the increase in cell death (P<0.05). HESCs showed significant proliferation following treatment with rHMGB-1 (P<0.05), and increased TLR4 expression was observed following rHMGB-1 treatment (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner

  16. Pathophysiology of Endometriosis: Role of High Mobility Group Box-1 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Developing Inflammation in Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a potential factor associated with the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Although a few studies have shown possible mechanisms which may play roles in development, progression of endometriosis, few are known in regards of initiation of the disease, especially in the relationship with endometrium. The aim of our study was to investigate whether normal endometrium may be changed by Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which may contribute developing pathologic endometrium to induce endometriosis. Endometrial tissues were obtained from 10 patients with fibroids undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1), which is a representative DAMP, has been chosen that may induce alteration in endometrium. In preceding immunohistochemistry experiments using paraffin-block sections from endometriosis (N = 33) and control (N = 27) group, retrospectively, HMGB-1 expression was shown in both epithelial and stromal cell. HMGB-1 expression was significantly increased in secretory phase of endometriosis group, comparing to the controls. To examine the alteration of endometrial stromal cell (HESC) by oxidative stress in terms of HMGB-1, cell proliferation and expression of its receptor, TLR4 was measured according to recombinant HMGB-1 use. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay; real-time PCR and western blotting were used to quantify Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein expression respectively. A TLR4 antagonist (LPS-RS) and an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway (TPCA-1, an IKK-2 inhibitor) were used to confirm the relationships between HMGB-1, TLR4, and the NF-κB pathway. Passive release of HMGB-1 was significantly proportional to the increase in cell death (P<0.05). HESCs showed significant proliferation following treatment with rHMGB-1 (P<0.05), and increased TLR4 expression was observed following rHMGB-1 treatment (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner

  17. Expression of Interferon Lambda 4 Is Associated with Reduced Proliferation and Increased Cell Death in Human Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onabajo, Olusegun O.; Porter-Gill, Patricia; Paquin, Ashley; Rao, Nina; Liu, Luyang; Tang, Wei; Brand, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon lambda 4 (IFN-λ4) is a novel type-III interferon that can be generated only in individuals carrying a ΔG frame-shift allele of an exonic genetic variant (rs368234815-ΔG/TT). The rs368234815-ΔG allele is strongly associated with decreased clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we further explored the biological function of IFN-λ4 expressed in human hepatic cells—a hepatoma cell line HepG2 and fresh primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). We performed live confocal imaging, cell death and proliferation assays, mRNA expression profiling, protein detection, and antibody blocking assays using transient and inducible stable in vitro systems. Not only did we observe significant intracellular retention of IFN-λ4 but also detected secreted IFN-λ4 in the culture media of expressing cells. Secreted IFN-λ4 induced strong activation of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in IFN-λ4-expressing and surrounding cells in transwell assays. Specifically, in PHHs, secreted IFN-λ4 induced expression of the CXCL10 transcript and a corresponding pro-inflammatory chemokine, IP-10. In IFN-λ4-expressing HepG2 cells, we also observed decreased proliferation and increased cell death. All IFN-λ4-induced phenotypes—activation of ISGs, decreased proliferation, and increased cell death—could be inhibited by an anti-IFN-λ4-specific antibody. Our study offers new insights into biology of IFN-λ4 and its possible role in HCV clearance. PMID:26134097

  18. Ectopic expression of the serine protease inhibitor PI9 modulates death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, J A; Micheau, O; Schneider, P; Bovenschen, N; Broekhuizen, R; Quadir, R; Strik, M C M; Hack, C E; Tschopp, J

    2007-08-01

    Apoptosis is a highly controlled process, whose triggering is associated with the activation of caspases. Apoptosis can be induced via a subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, which recruit and activate pro-caspase-8 and -10. Regulation of apoptosis is achieved by several inhibitors, including c-FLICE-inhibitory protein, which prevents apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic activation of upstream caspases. Here we show that the human intracellular serine protease inhibitor (serpin), protease inhibitor 9 (PI9), inhibits TNF-, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- and Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in certain TNF-sensitive cell lines. The reactive center P1 residue of PI9 was required for this inhibition since PI9 harboring a Glu --> Ala mutation in its reactive center failed to impair death receptor-induced cell death. This suggests a classical serpin-protease interaction. Indeed, PI9 inhibited apoptotic death by directly interacting with the intermediate active forms of caspase-8 and -10. This indicates that PI9 can regulate pro-apoptotic apical caspases.

  19. Desipramine Protects Neuronal Cell Death and Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mes23.5 Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Huang, Bor-Ren; Lin, Chingju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Ho; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2012-01-01

    Background Desipramine is known principally as a tricyclic antidepressant drug used to promote recovery of depressed patients. It has also been used in a number of other psychiatric and medical conditions. The present study is the first to investigate the neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Methodology/Principal Findings Mes23.5 dopaminergic cells were used to examine neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Western blot, reverse transcription-PCR, MTT assay, siRNA transfection and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were carried out to assess the effects of desipramine. Desipramine induces endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and mRNA expression in concentration- and time-dependent manners. A different type of antidepressant SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), fluoxetine also shows similar effects of desipramine on HO-1 expression. Moreover, desipramine induces HO-1 expression through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Desipramine also increases NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) accumulation in the nucleus and enhances Nrf2-DNA binding activity. Moreover, desipramine-mediated increase of HO-1 expression is reduced by transfection with siRNA against Nrf2. On the other hand, pretreatment of desipramine protects neuronal cells against rotenone- and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuronal death. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 activity by a HO-1 pharmacological inhibitor, ZnPP IX, attenuates the neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Otherwise, activation of HO-1 activity by HO-1 activator and inducer protect 6-OHDA-induced neuronal death. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that desipramine-increased HO-1 expression is mediated by Nrf2 activation through the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Our results also suggest that desipramine provides a novel effect of neuroprotection, and neurodegenerative process might play an important role in depression disorder. PMID:23209658

  20. Apigenin inhibits the inducible expression of programmed death ligand 1 by human and mouse mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Melanie R Power; Harrison, Megan E; Hoskin, David W

    2016-10-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed by many cancer cell types, as well as by activated T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Constitutive and inducible PD-L1 expression contributes to immune evasion by breast cancer (BC) cells. We show here that the dietary phytochemical apigenin inhibited interferon (IFN)-γ-induced PD-L1 upregulation by triple-negative MDA-MB-468 BC cells, HER2(+) SK-BR-3 BC cells, and 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells, as well as human mammary epithelial cells, but did not affect constitutive PD-L1 expression by triple-negative MDA-MB-231 BC cells. IFN-β-induced expression of PD-L1 by MDA-MB-468 cells was also inhibited by apigenin. In addition, luteolin, the major metabolite of apigenin, inhibited IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by MDA-MB-468 cells. Apigenin-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by MDA-MB-468 and 4T1 cells was associated with reduced phosphorylation of STAT1, which was early and transient at Tyr701 and sustained at Ser727. Apigenin-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by MDA-MB-468 cells also increased proliferation and interleukin-2 synthesis by PD-1-expressing Jurkat T cells that were co-cultured with MDA-MB-468 cells. Apigenin therefore has the potential to increase the vulnerability of BC cells to T cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:27378243

  1. 1′-Acetoxychavicol acetate promotes caspase 3-activated glioblastoma cell death by overcoming enhanced cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, MUSA; TIETZEL, ILLYA; QUICK, QUINCY A.

    2013-01-01

    The brain consumes ∼20% of the oxygen utilized in the human body, meaning that brain tumors are vulnerable to paradoxical physiological effects from free radical generation. In the present study, 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a naturally derived antioxidant that inhibits xanthine oxidase, was evaluated for its role as an anti-tumorigenic agent in glioblastomas. The study revealed that ACA inhibited glioblastoma cell proliferation as a consequence of promoting apoptotic cell death by enhancing caspase 3 activity. It was also shown that ACA impaired the migratory ability of glioblastoma cells by decreasing their adhesive properties. Additionally, ACA increased the protein expression levels of the pro-survival signaling cytokines, IL-6 and IL-1α, established cell protectors and survival molecules in brain tumors. Together, these results demonstrate that, despite enhanced expression of compensatory signaling molecules that contribute to tumor cell survival, ACA is an effective pro-apoptotic inducing agent in glioblastomas. PMID:23833677

  2. On the reception of the concept of the death drive in Germany: expressing and resisting an 'evil principle'?

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    With Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud attempted 'to describe and to account for the facts of daily observation in our field of study' (1920, p. 7), in particular concerning destructive clinical phenomena that confront us in the analytic situation: traumatic neuroses, melancholic states, negative-therapeutic reactions, masochism, repetition compulsion and so on. The author demonstrates in the first section how Freud's own resistance - later self-diagnosed - to recognizing these unwelcome facts was expressed in the terminological and conceptual ambiguities of the death drive hypothesis then introduced, ambiguities that to some extent continue to impede the reception of its clinical usefulness to this day. As soon as Freud had demonstrated the connection with clinical practice more directly in The Ego and the Id (1923), some contemporaries adopted it as a helpful clinical concept, while others believed that they could (and must) refute it. The second part outlines its reception in the 1920s and 1930s, which was part of an international discussion that was, of course, initially conducted mainly in German. The beginnings of an important further development of the death drive hypothesis are described in a separate section because it originated from Melanie Klein's earliest experiences in analysing children in Berlin in the early to mid-1920s. She referred at that time to an 'evil principle', and in 1932 published her view of the death drive hypothesis, which was further developed in subsequent decades by her and her followers in London. In this period, conditions changed dramatically: in Germany Freud's books (among others) were burnt, crimes against humanity were instigated and psychoanalysis ceased to exist in this country. Almost all the analysts who published on the death drive had to emigrate. From then on, entirely different discourses took place in the various regions. In Germany, the death drive hypothesis was (largely) disregarded or rejected for decades

  3. On the reception of the concept of the death drive in Germany: expressing and resisting an 'evil principle'?

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    With Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud attempted 'to describe and to account for the facts of daily observation in our field of study' (1920, p. 7), in particular concerning destructive clinical phenomena that confront us in the analytic situation: traumatic neuroses, melancholic states, negative-therapeutic reactions, masochism, repetition compulsion and so on. The author demonstrates in the first section how Freud's own resistance - later self-diagnosed - to recognizing these unwelcome facts was expressed in the terminological and conceptual ambiguities of the death drive hypothesis then introduced, ambiguities that to some extent continue to impede the reception of its clinical usefulness to this day. As soon as Freud had demonstrated the connection with clinical practice more directly in The Ego and the Id (1923), some contemporaries adopted it as a helpful clinical concept, while others believed that they could (and must) refute it. The second part outlines its reception in the 1920s and 1930s, which was part of an international discussion that was, of course, initially conducted mainly in German. The beginnings of an important further development of the death drive hypothesis are described in a separate section because it originated from Melanie Klein's earliest experiences in analysing children in Berlin in the early to mid-1920s. She referred at that time to an 'evil principle', and in 1932 published her view of the death drive hypothesis, which was further developed in subsequent decades by her and her followers in London. In this period, conditions changed dramatically: in Germany Freud's books (among others) were burnt, crimes against humanity were instigated and psychoanalysis ceased to exist in this country. Almost all the analysts who published on the death drive had to emigrate. From then on, entirely different discourses took place in the various regions. In Germany, the death drive hypothesis was (largely) disregarded or rejected for decades

  4. Elevated P75NTR expression causes death of engrailed-deficient midbrain dopaminergic neurons by Erk1/2 suppression

    PubMed Central

    Alavian, Kambiz N; Sgadò, Paola; Alberi, Lavinia; Subramaniam, Srinivasa; Simon, Horst H

    2009-01-01

    Background The homeodomain transcription factors Engrailed-1 and Engrailed-2 are required for the survival of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons in a cell-autonomous and gene-dose-dependent manner. Homozygote mutant mice, deficient of both genes (En1-/-;En2-/-), die at birth and exhibit a loss of all mesDA neurons by mid-gestation. In heterozygote animals (En1+/-;En2-/-), which are viable and fertile, postnatal maintenance of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is afflicted, leading to a progressive degeneration specific to this subpopulation and Parkinson's disease-like molecular and behavioral deficits. Results In this work, we show that the dose of Engrailed is inversely correlated to the expression level of the pan-neurotrophin receptor gene P75NTR (Ngfr). Loss of mesDA neurons in the Engrailed-null mutant embryos is caused by elevated expression of this neurotrophin receptor: Unusually, in this case, the cell death signal of P75NTR is mediated by suppression of Erk1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activity. The reduction in expression of Engrailed, possibly related to the higher levels of P75NTR, also decreases mitochondrial stability. In particular, the dose of Engrailed determines the sensitivity to cell death induced by the classic Parkinson-model toxin MPTP and to inhibition of the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Conclusion Our study links the survival function of the Engrailed genes in developing mesDA neurons to the regulation of P75NTR and the sensitivity of these neurons to mitochondrial insult. The similarities to the disease etiology in combination with the nigral phenotype of En1+/-;En2-/- mice suggests that haplotype variations in the Engrailed genes and/or P75NTR that alter their expression levels could, in part, determine susceptibility to Parkinson's disease. PMID:19291307

  5. Attenuation of dexamethasone-induced cell death in multiple myeloma is mediated by miR-125b expression

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Megan Y.; Rushworth, Stuart A.; Zaitseva, Lyubov; Bowles, Kristian M.; MacEwan, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a key front-line chemotherapeutic for B-cell malignant multiple myeloma (MM). Dexamethasone modulates MM cell survival signaling but fails to induce marked cytotoxicity when used as a monotherapy. We demonstrate here the mechanism behind this insufficient responsiveness of MM cells toward dexamethasone, revealing in MM a dramatic anti-apoptotic role for microRNA (miRNA)-125b in the insensitivity toward dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. MM cells responding to dexamethasone exhibited enhanced expression of oncogenic miR-125b. Dexamethasone also induced expression of miR-34a, which acts to suppress SIRT1 deacetylase, and thus allows maintained acetylation and inactivation of p53. p53 mRNA is also suppressed by miR-125b targeting. Reporter assays showed that both these dexamethasone-induced miRNAs act downstream of their target genes to prevent p53 tumor suppressor actions and, ultimately, resist cytotoxic responses in MM. Use of antisense miR-125b transcripts enhanced expression of pro-apoptotic p53, repressed expression of anti-apoptotic SIRT1 and, importantly, significantly enhanced dexamethasone-induced cell death responses in MM. Pharmacological manipulations showed that the key regulation enabling complete dexamethasone sensitivity in MM cells lies with miR-125b. In summary, dexamethasone-induced miR-125b induces cell death resistance mechanisms in MM cells via the p53/miR-34a/SIRT1 signaling network and provides these cells with an enhanced level of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. Clearly, such anti-apoptotic mechanisms will need to be overcome to more effectively treat nascent, refractory and relapsed MM patients. These mechanisms provide insight into the role of miRNA regulation of apoptosis and their promotion of MM cell proliferative mechanisms. PMID:23759586

  6. The Sarin-like Organophosphorus Agent bis (isopropyl methyl)phosphonate Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and COX-2 Expression in SK-N-SH Cells.

    PubMed

    Arima, Yosuke; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Murata, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    Organophosphorus compounds, such as sarin, are highly toxic nerve agents that inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but not cholinesterase, via multiple mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that organophosphorus compounds increase cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and induce neurotoxicity. In this study, we examined the toxicity of the sarin-like organophosphorus agent bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP) and the effects of BIMP on COX-2 expression in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to BIMP changed cell morphology and induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death accompanied by cleavage of caspase 3, caspase 9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). It also increased COX-2 expression, while pretreatment with a COX inhibitor, ibuprofen, decreased BIMP-dependent cell death and COX-2 expression in SK-N-SH cells. Thus, our findings suggest that BIMP induces apoptotic cell death and upregulates COX-2 expression. PMID:27348899

  7. A New theraphosid Spider Toxin Causes Early Insect Cell Death by Necrosis When Expressed In Vitro during Recombinant Baculovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Morgado, Fabrício Da Silva; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Corzo, Gerardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3) has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1) the full-length sequence, (2) the pro-peptide and mature region, (3) only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4) insect or a (5) virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect cells. PMID

  8. A new theraphosid spider toxin causes early insect cell death by necrosis when expressed in vitro during recombinant baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Morgado, Fabrício Da Silva; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Corzo, Gerardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3) has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1) the full-length sequence, (2) the pro-peptide and mature region, (3) only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4) insect or a (5) virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect cells. PMID

  9. Programmed Death-1 and Its Ligand Are Novel Immunotolerant Molecules Expressed on Leukemic B Cells in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Daniel; Tomczak, Waldemar; Wlasiuk, Paulina; Kosior, Kamila; Piechnik, Agnieszka; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Dmoszynska, Anna; Giannopoulos, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immunoreceptor predominantly expressed on exhausted T cells, which through an interaction with its ligand (PD-L1), controls peripheral tolerance by limiting effector functions of T lymphocytes. qRT-PCR for PD-1, PD-L1 and their splicing forms as well as flow cytometric assessment of surface expression was performed in a cohort of 58 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In functional studies, we assessed the influence of the proliferative response of leukemic B-cells induced by IL-4 and CD40L on PD-1 transcripts and expression on the protein level. The median level of PD-1, but not PD-L1, transcripts in CLL patients was higher in comparison to healthy volunteers (HVs, n = 43, p = 0.0057). We confirmed the presence of PD-1 and PD-L1 on the CLL cell surface, and found the expression of PD-1, but not PD-L1, to be higher among CLL patients in comparison to HVs (47.2% vs. 14.8%, p<0.0001). The Kaplan-Meier curves for the time to progression and overall survival in groups with high and low surface expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 revealed no prognostic value in CLL patients. After stimulation with IL-4 and CD40L, protein expression of PD-1 was significantly increased in samples that responded and up-regulated CD38. PD-1, which is aberrantly expressed both at mRNA and cell surface levels in CLL cells might represent a novel immunotolerant molecule involved in the pathomechanism of the disease, and could provide a novel target for future therapies. PMID:22532845

  10. Nitric oxide synthase expression correlates with death in an experimental mouse model of dengue with CNS involvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical presentation of dengue is classified by the World Health Organization into dengue without warning signs, dengue with warning signs and severe dengue. Reports of neurological disease caused by Dengue virus (DENV) are becoming frequent, with symptoms that include reduced consciousness, severe headache, neck stiffness, focal neurological signs, tense fontanelle and convulsions. However, the immune mechanisms involved in neurovirulence remain poorly understood. Here we present a mouse model in which one genotype of DENV is inoculated by the intracranial route and infects C57/BL6 mice and replicates in the brain, causing death of mice. Methods Mice were infected with different serotypes/genotypes of DENV by the intracranial route to evaluate viral replication, host cytokine and nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) expression in the brain via real-time PCR. Histological analysis of the brain tissues was also performed. An analysis of which cells were responsible for the expression of cytokines and Nos2 was performed using flow cytometry. Survival curves of infected animals were also generated Results DENV 3 genotype I infected mice and replicated in the brain, causing death in our murine model. The increased levels of NOS2 could be the cause of the death of infected mice, as viral replication correlates with increased Nos2 and cytokine expression in the brain of C57BL/6 mice. In Nos2−/− mice that were infected with DENV, no clinical signs of infection were observed and cytokines were expressed at low levels, with the exception of interferon gamma (Ifng). Additionally, the Ifng−/− mice infected with DENV exhibited a severe and lethal disease, similar to the disease observed in C57BL/6 mice, while the DENV- infected Nos2−/− mice did not display increased mortality. Analyses of the brains from infected C57BL/6 mice revealed neuronal degeneration and necrosis during histopathologic examination. IFNg and NOS2 were produced in the brains of

  11. Spatial association of apoptosis-related gene expression and cellular death in clinical neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, J. C.; Gestblom, C.; Olsen, L.; PÃ¥hlman, S.

    1997-01-01

    Several unique features of neuroblastoma (NB), including the capacity for spontaneous regression and maturation to benign pathology, suggest that genes that regulate cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation may be involved in directing clinical tumour aggressiveness. The in situ expression of Bcl-2, Rb, p21, p53 and Bax proteins, as well as the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunocytochemically in a selection of 38 stage- and outcome-identified NB tumours. Apoptotic cells were identified morphologically and by a DNA fragmentation labelling technique (TUNEL). Although the tumour cell density of Bcl-2, p53, Bax, PCNA and TUNEL positivity correlated with patient survival, a spatially organized expression pattern was further recognized in stroma-poor differentiating tumours. Immature tumour cells adjacent to thin fibrovascular stroma are proliferating, as evidenced by PCNA positivity, and often express Bcl-2. At increasing distance from this fibrovascular stroma, intermediately differentiated tumour cells express Rb, while with more advanced differentiation, proliferation ceases and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity is lost. The most differentiated tumour cells, which often express p53, and occasionally p21 and Bax, lie adjacent to TUNEL-positive, morphologically apoptotic cells. This spatial organization in favourable outcome NB tumours suggests that physiological regulation of differentiation and apoptosis may be involved in tumour regression. Images Figure 2 PMID:9099968

  12. Programmed cell death 4 in bacterially-challenged Apostichopus japonicus: Molecular cloning, expression analysis and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Shao, Yina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Zhenhui; Wang, Haihong

    2016-07-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) plays a crucial role in modulating cellular signals, mainly via TOLL cascades during the immune response. In the present study, a novel PDCD4 homologue gene (denoted as AjPDCD4) was cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using RACE. The full-length AjPDCD4 cDNA comprised a 366bp 5'-UTR, a 418bp 3'-UTR, and a 1353bp open reading frame encoding a 450 amino acid residue protein with two typical MA3 domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AjPDCD4 belonged to the invertebrate PDCD4 family. Spatial expression analysis indicated that AjPDCD4 mRNA transcripts are expressed at a high level in the tentacles and at a low level in muscle compared with coelomocytes. Vibrio splendidus challenge and LPS exposure could both significantly down-regulate AjPDCD4 mRNA expression. More importantly, we found that ultraviolet (UV)-induced ROS production and DNA damage were greatly repressed in AjPDCD4-knockdown coelomocytes. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the NF-kappa B homologue, p105, were synchronously up-regulated in the same conditions. All of these results indicated that AjPDCD4 is involved in modulating DNA damage and ROS production in sea cucumber, perhaps by affecting the TLR pathway. PMID:27262523

  13. Rac1 signaling protects monocytic AML cells expressing the MLL-AF9 oncogene from caspase-mediated apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Hinterleitner, C; Huelsenbeck, J; Henninger, C; Wartlick, F; Schorr, A; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the relevance of signaling mechanisms regulated by the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene due to t(9;11)(p21;q23) translocation. Monocytic MLL-AF9 expressing cells (MM6, THP-1) were hypersensitive to both small-molecule inhibitors targeting Rac1 (EHT 1864, NSC 23766) (IC50EHT ~12.5 μM) and lipid lowering drugs (lovastatin, atorvastatin) (IC50Lova ~7.5 μM) as compared to acute myelocytic leukemia (NOMO-1, HL60) and T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells (IC50EHT >30 μM; IC50Lova >25 μM). Hypersensitivity of monocytic cells following Rac1 inhibition resulted from caspase-driven apoptosis as shown by profound activation of caspase-8,-9,-7,-3 and substantial (~90 %) decrease in protein expression of pro-survival factors (survivin, XIAP, p-Akt). Apoptotic death was preceded by S139-posphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a prototypical surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, abrogation of Rac1 signaling causes DSBs in acute monocytic leukemia cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene, which, together with downregulation of survivin, XIAP and p-Akt, results in massive induction of caspase-driven apoptotic death. Apparently, Rac1 signaling is required for maintaining genetic stability and maintaining survival in specific subtypes of AML. Hence, targeting of Rac1 is considered a promising novel strategy to induce lethality in MLL-AF9 expressing AML. PMID:23624644

  14. Chronic Social Stress and Ethanol Increase Expression of KLF11, a Cell Death Mediator, in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jeremy; Wang, Niping; Zhang, Xiao; Johnson, Shakevia; Harris, Sharonda; Zheng, Baoying; Zhang, Qinli; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Sittman, Donald; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Wang, Jun Ming

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder and alcoholism are significant health burdens that can affect executive functioning, cognitive ability, job responsibilities, and personal relationships. Studies in animal models related to depression or alcoholism reveal that the expression of Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11, also called TIEG2) is elevated in frontal cortex, which suggests that KLF11 may play a role in stress- or ethanol-induced psychiatric conditions. KLF11 is a transcriptional activator of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B, but also serves other functions in cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to quantify intensity of nuclear KLF11, combined with an unbiased stereological approach to assess nuclei in fronto-limbic, limbic, and other brain regions of rats exposed chronically to social defeat or ethanol. KLF11 immunoreactivity was increased significantly in the medial prefrontal cortex, frontal cortex and hippocampus of both stressed rats and rats fed ethanol. However, expression of KLF11 protein was not significantly affected in the thalamus, hypothalamus or amygdala in either treatment group compared to respective control rats. Triple-label immunofluorescence revealed that KLF11 protein was localized in nuclei of neurons and astrocytes. KLF11 was also co-localized with the immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase 3. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed a significant reduction in anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL, but an increase of caspase-3 expression in the frontal cortex of ethanol-treated rats compared to ethanol-preferring controls. Thus, KLF11 protein is up-regulated following chronic exposure to stress or ethanol in a region-specific manner and may contribute to pro-apoptotic signaling in ethanol-treated rats. Further investigation into the KLF11 signaling cascade as a mechanism for neurotoxicity and cell death in depression and alcoholism may provide novel pharmacological targets to lessen brain damage

  15. Microarray expression profiling in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Bokyung; Oh, Chang-Ki; Choi, Won-Seok; Chung, In Kwon; Youdim, Moussa B H; Oh, Young J

    2011-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To discover potential key molecules in this process, we utilized cDNA microarray technology to obtain an expression profile of transcripts in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. Using a self-organizing map algorithm, data mining and clustering were combined to identify distinct functional subgroups of genes. We identified alterations in the expression of 81 genes in eight clusters. Among these genes, we verified protein expression patterns of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 and sequestosome 1 using both cell culture and rat brain models of PD. Immunological analyses revealed increased expression levels as well as aggregated distribution patterns of these gene products in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated dopaminergic neurons. In addition to the identification of other proteins that are known to be associated with protein aggregation, our results raise the possibility that a more widespread set of proteins may be associated with the generation of protein aggregates in dying neurons. Further research to determine the functional roles of other altered gene products within the same cluster as well as the seven remaining clusters may provide new insights into the neurodegeneration that underlies PD pathogenesis.

  16. Computational Approaches to Toll-Like Receptor 4 Modulation.

    PubMed

    Billod, Jean-Marc; Lacetera, Alessandra; Guzmán-Caldentey, Joan; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), along with its accessory protein myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2), builds a heterodimeric complex that specifically recognizes lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are present on the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activating the innate immune response. Some TLR4 modulators are undergoing preclinical and clinical evaluation for the treatment of sepsis, inflammatory diseases, cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Since the relatively recent elucidation of the X-ray crystallographic structure of the extracellular domain of TLR4, research around this fascinating receptor has risen to a new level, and thus, new perspectives have been opened. In particular, diverse computational techniques have been applied to decipher some of the basis at the atomic level regarding the mechanism of functioning and the ligand recognition processes involving the TLR4/MD-2 system at the atomic level. This review summarizes the reported molecular modeling and computational studies that have recently provided insights into the mechanism regulating the activation/inactivation of the TLR4/MD-2 system receptor and the key interactions modulating the molecular recognition process by agonist and antagonist ligands. These studies have contributed to the design and the discovery of novel small molecules with promising activity as TLR4 modulators. PMID:27483231

  17. Toll-like receptor 4 limits transmission of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Olivier; Smallridge, Will; Henry, Michael; Goodfield, Laura; Place, David; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens has been notoriously difficult to study under laboratory conditions leaving knowledge gaps regarding how bacterial factors and host immune components affect the spread of infections between hosts. We describe the development of a mouse model of transmission of a natural pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and its use to assess the impact of host immune functions. Although B. bronchiseptica transmits poorly between wild-type mice and mice lacking other immune components, it transmits efficiently between mice deficient in Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4-mutant mice were more susceptible to initial colonization, and poorly controlled pathogen growth and shedding. Heavy neutrophil infiltration distinguished TLR4-deficient responses, and neutrophil depletion did not affect respiratory CFU load, but decreased bacterial shedding. The effect of TLR4 response on transmission may explain the extensive variation in TLR4 agonist potency observed among closely related subspecies of Bordetella. This transmission model will enable mechanistic studies of how pathogens spread from one host to another, the defining feature of infectious disease.

  18. Postmortem mRNA Expression Patterns in Left Ventricular Myocardial Tissues and Their Implications for Forensic Diagnosis of Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Son, Gi Hoon; Park, Seong Hwan; Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Hyun; Hwang, Juck-Joon; Seo, Joong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is primarily caused by lethal heart disorders resulting in structural and arrhythmogenic abnormalities, is one of the prevalent modes of death in most developed countries. Myocardial ischemia, mainly due to coronary artery disease, is the most common type of heart disease leading to SCD. However, postmortem diagnosis of SCD is frequently complicated by obscure histological evidence. Here, we show that certain mRNA species, namely those encoding hemoglobin A1/2 and B (Hba1/2 and Hbb, respectively) as well as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (Pdk4), exhibit distinct postmortem expression patterns in the left ventricular free wall of SCD subjects when compared with their expression patterns in the corresponding tissues from control subjects with non-cardiac causes of death. Hba1/2 and Hbb mRNA expression levels were higher in ischemic SCD cases with acute myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease without recent infarction, and even in cardiac death subjects without apparent pathological signs of heart injuries, than control subjects. By contrast, Pdk4 mRNA was expressed at lower levels in SCD subjects. In conclusion, we found that altered myocardial Hba1/2, Hbb, and Pdk4 mRNA expression patterns can be employed as molecular signatures of fatal cardiac dysfunction to forensically implicate SCD as the primary cause of death. PMID:24642708

  19. Increased expression and activity of p75NTR are crucial events in azacitidine-induced cell death in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Marampon, Francesco; Sanità, Patrizia; Mancini, Andrea; Colapietro, Alessandro; Scarsella, Luca; Jitariuc, Ana; Biordi, Leda; Ficorella, Corrado; Festuccia, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The high affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) NGF receptor, p75NTR, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that shares a conserved intracellular death domain capable of inducing apoptosis and suppressing growth in prostate epithelial cells. Expression of this receptor is lost as prostate cancer progresses and is minimal in established prostate cancer cell lines. We aimed to verify the role of p75NTR in the azacitidine-mediated antitumor effects on 22Rv1 and PC3 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 5-azacytidine (azacitidine) were more marked in the presence of physiological concentrations of NGF and were reduced when a blocking p75NTR antibody or the selective p75NTR inhibitor, Ro 08-2750, were used. Azacitidine increased the expression of p75NTR without interfering with the expression of the low affinity NGF receptor TrkA and induced caspase 9-dependent caspase 3 activity. Taken together, our results suggest that the NGF network could be a candidate for future pharmacological manipulation in aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:27222100

  20. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Nicolas; Goeke, Friederike; Splittstoesser, Vera; Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte; Mueller, Stefan C.; Ellinger, Joerg

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  1. Microcirculatory detection of Toll-like receptor 4 in rat pancreas and intestine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, You-Dai; Li, Hong-Guang; Gao, Hong-Kai; Wang, Rong; Hu, Ting-Ze

    2006-01-01

    This paper was aimed to detect Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) microcirculatory expression and localization in rat pancreas and intestine. Acute pancreatitis (AP) was induced by twice injections of cerulein (20 mug in total) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) was induced by intraductal injection of 5% taurocholate (1 ml/kg.bw). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect and localize TLR4 in the pancreas and intestine. Results showed that RT-PCR of RNA isolated from pancreatic and intestinal tissue yielded the predicted amplicon for TLR4; IHC analysis localized TLR4 expression to the endothelium of pancreatic arteriole, venule, acinar capillary network and sinusoidal capillary of endocrine islet; TLR4 expression in intestine was principally in the microvascular endothelium and leucocytes within the mucosa lamina propria. TLR4 staining in intestine was more intense in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis (TIP) than that in cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP). In conclusion, TLR4 could be detected in the pancreatic and intestinal microcirculation, suggesting TLR4 involved in the microcirculatory impairment in AP; the more intense intestinal TLR4 expression in TIP suggests a potential risk for secondary infection.

  2. Correlation between potassium channel expression and sensitivity to drug-induced cell death in tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Leanza, Luigi; O'Reilly, Paul; Doyle, Anne; Venturini, Elisa; Zoratti, Mario; Szegezdi, Eva; Szabo, Ildiko

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) and mitochondrial (mt) ion channels - particularly potassium channels - became oncological targets soon after the discovery that they are involved both in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Some members of the Kv Shaker family, namely Kv1.1, Kv1.3, Kv1.5 and Kv11.1 (Herg), and the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium KCa3.1 (IK) channels have been shown to contribute to apoptosis in various cell lines. Kv1.3, Kv1.5 and IK are located in the plasma membrane but also in the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they participate in apoptotic signalling. Interestingly, an altered protein expression of some of the channels mentioned above has been reported in neoplastic cell lines/tissues, but a systematic quantification addressing the protein expression of the above potassium channels in tumor cell lines of different origin has not been carried out yet. In the present study we investigated whether expression of specific potassium channels, at the mRNA and protein level, can be correlated with cell sensitivity to various apoptotic stimuli, including chemotherapeutic drugs, in a panel of cancer cell lines. The results show correlation between the protein expression of the Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels and susceptibility to death upon treatment with staurosporine, C2-ceramide and cisplatin. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between Kv channel expression and sensitivity to three distinct membrane-permeant Kv1.3 inhibitors, since these drugs have recently been shown to be able to induce apoptosis and also reduce tumor volume in an in vivo model. Higher protein expression of Kv1.3 significantly correlated with lower cell survival upon treatment with clofazimine, one of the Kv1.3 inhibitors. These results suggest that expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 sensitizes tumour cells of various origins to cytotoxins. Data reported in this work regarding potassium channel protein expression in different cancer cell lines may be exploited

  3. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  4. Posttranslational Modification of HOIP Blocks Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Linear-Ubiquitin-Chain Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, James; Rodgers, Mary A.; Shi, Mude; Amatya, Rina; Hostager, Bruce; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Linear ubiquitination is an atypical posttranslational modification catalyzed by the linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex (LUBAC), containing HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin. LUBAC facilitates NF-κB activation and inflammation upon receptor stimulation by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to critical signaling molecules. Indeed, linear-ubiquitination-dependent signaling is essential to prevent pyogenic bacterial infections that can lead to death. While linear ubiquitination is essential for intracellular receptor signaling upon microbial infection, this response must be measured and stopped to avoid tissue damage and autoimmunity. While LUBAC is activated upon bacterial stimulation, the mechanisms regulating LUBAC activity in response to bacterial stimuli have remained elusive. We demonstrate that LUBAC activity itself is downregulated through ubiquitination, specifically, ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit HOIP at the carboxyl-terminal lysine 1056. Ubiquitination of Lys1056 dynamically altered HOIP conformation, resulting in the suppression of its catalytic activity. Consequently, HOIP Lys1056-to-Arg mutation led not only to persistent LUBAC activity but also to prolonged NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, whereas it showed no effect on NF-κB activation induced by CD40 stimulation. This study describes a novel posttranslational regulation of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination that is critical for specifically directing TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation. PMID:26578682

  5. Energetics of Endotoxin Recognition in the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Paramo, Teresa; Tomasio, Susana M.; Irvine, Kate L.; Bryant, Clare E.; Bond, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently stimulates the mammalian innate immune system, and can lead to sepsis, the primary cause of death from infections. LPS is sensed by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in complex with its lipid-binding coreceptor MD-2, but subtle structural variations in LPS can profoundly modulate the response. To better understand the mechanism of LPS-induced stimulation and bacterial evasion, we have calculated the binding affinity to MD-2 of agonistic and antagonistic LPS variants including lipid A, lipid IVa, and synthetic antagonist Eritoran, and provide evidence that the coreceptor is a molecular switch that undergoes ligand-induced conformational changes to appropriately activate or inhibit the receptor complex. The plasticity of the coreceptor binding cavity is shown to be essential for distinguishing between ligands, whilst similar calculations for a model bacterial LPS bilayer reveal the “membrane-like” nature of the protein cavity. The ability to predict the activity of LPS variants should facilitate the rational design of TLR4 therapeutics. PMID:26647780

  6. Energetics of Endotoxin Recognition in the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Paramo, Teresa; Tomasio, Susana M; Irvine, Kate L; Bryant, Clare E; Bond, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently stimulates the mammalian innate immune system, and can lead to sepsis, the primary cause of death from infections. LPS is sensed by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in complex with its lipid-binding coreceptor MD-2, but subtle structural variations in LPS can profoundly modulate the response. To better understand the mechanism of LPS-induced stimulation and bacterial evasion, we have calculated the binding affinity to MD-2 of agonistic and antagonistic LPS variants including lipid A, lipid IVa, and synthetic antagonist Eritoran, and provide evidence that the coreceptor is a molecular switch that undergoes ligand-induced conformational changes to appropriately activate or inhibit the receptor complex. The plasticity of the coreceptor binding cavity is shown to be essential for distinguishing between ligands, whilst similar calculations for a model bacterial LPS bilayer reveal the "membrane-like" nature of the protein cavity. The ability to predict the activity of LPS variants should facilitate the rational design of TLR4 therapeutics. PMID:26647780

  7. Energetics of Endotoxin Recognition in the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Paramo, Teresa; Tomasio, Susana M; Irvine, Kate L; Bryant, Clare E; Bond, Peter J

    2015-12-09

    Bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently stimulates the mammalian innate immune system, and can lead to sepsis, the primary cause of death from infections. LPS is sensed by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in complex with its lipid-binding coreceptor MD-2, but subtle structural variations in LPS can profoundly modulate the response. To better understand the mechanism of LPS-induced stimulation and bacterial evasion, we have calculated the binding affinity to MD-2 of agonistic and antagonistic LPS variants including lipid A, lipid IVa, and synthetic antagonist Eritoran, and provide evidence that the coreceptor is a molecular switch that undergoes ligand-induced conformational changes to appropriately activate or inhibit the receptor complex. The plasticity of the coreceptor binding cavity is shown to be essential for distinguishing between ligands, whilst similar calculations for a model bacterial LPS bilayer reveal the "membrane-like" nature of the protein cavity. The ability to predict the activity of LPS variants should facilitate the rational design of TLR4 therapeutics.

  8. Ectopic Expression of BnaC.CP20.1 Results in Premature Tapetal Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Liping; Zhou, Zhengfu; Tang, Shan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Shengqian; Qin, Maomao; Li, Bao; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-09-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is essential in pollen grain development, and cysteine proteases are ubiquitous enzymes participating in plant PCD. Although the major papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) have been investigated, the exact functions of many PLCPs are still poorly understood in PCD. Here, we identified a PLCP gene, BnaC.CP20.1, which was closely related to XP_013596648.1 from Brassica oleracea. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BnaC.CP20.1 expression was down-regulated in male-sterile lines in oilseed rape, suggesting a connection between this gene and male sterility. BnaC.CP20.1 is especially active in the tapetum and microspores in Brassica napus from the uninucleate stage until formation of mature pollen grains during anther development. On expression of BnaC.CP20.1 prior to the tetrad stage, BnA9::BnaC.CP20.1 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis thaliana showed a male-sterile phenotype with shortened siliques containing fewer or no seeds by self-crossing. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the reticulate exine was defective in aborted microspores. Callose degradation was delayed and microspores were not released from the tetrad in a timely fashion. Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that BnaC.CP20.1 ectopic expression led to premature tapetal PCD. Transmission electron microscopy analyses further demonstrated that the pollen abortion was due to the absence of tectum connections to the bacula in the transgenic anthers. These findings suggest that timely expression of BnaC.CP20.1 is necessary for tapetal degeneration and pollen wall formation. PMID:27388342

  9. Ectopic Expression of BnaC.CP20.1 Results in Premature Tapetal Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Liping; Zhou, Zhengfu; Tang, Shan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Shengqian; Qin, Maomao; Li, Bao; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-09-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is essential in pollen grain development, and cysteine proteases are ubiquitous enzymes participating in plant PCD. Although the major papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) have been investigated, the exact functions of many PLCPs are still poorly understood in PCD. Here, we identified a PLCP gene, BnaC.CP20.1, which was closely related to XP_013596648.1 from Brassica oleracea. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BnaC.CP20.1 expression was down-regulated in male-sterile lines in oilseed rape, suggesting a connection between this gene and male sterility. BnaC.CP20.1 is especially active in the tapetum and microspores in Brassica napus from the uninucleate stage until formation of mature pollen grains during anther development. On expression of BnaC.CP20.1 prior to the tetrad stage, BnA9::BnaC.CP20.1 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis thaliana showed a male-sterile phenotype with shortened siliques containing fewer or no seeds by self-crossing. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the reticulate exine was defective in aborted microspores. Callose degradation was delayed and microspores were not released from the tetrad in a timely fashion. Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that BnaC.CP20.1 ectopic expression led to premature tapetal PCD. Transmission electron microscopy analyses further demonstrated that the pollen abortion was due to the absence of tectum connections to the bacula in the transgenic anthers. These findings suggest that timely expression of BnaC.CP20.1 is necessary for tapetal degeneration and pollen wall formation.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Reduces Oxidative Injury via Glutathione Activity in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Baolu; Liu, Guoshi; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important sensor of Gram-negative bacteria and can trigger activation of the innate immune system. Increased activation of TLR4 can lead to the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, the pathway whereby TLR4 affects antioxidant activity was studied. In TLR4-overexpressing sheep, TLR4 expression was found to be related to the integration copy number when monocytes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Consequently, production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased, which could increase the activation of prooxidative stress enzymes. Meanwhile, activation of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), was increased. Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) were reduced. In transgenic sheep, glutathione (GSH) levels were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, transgenic sheep were intradermally injected with LPS in each ear. The amounts of inflammatory infiltrates were correlated with the number of TLR4 copies that were integrated in the genome. Additionally, the translation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) was increased. Our findings indicated that overexpression of TLR4 in sheep could ameliorate oxidative injury through GSH secretion that was induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ-GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis. PMID:26640618

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Reduces Oxidative Injury via Glutathione Activity in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Baolu; Liu, Guoshi; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important sensor of Gram-negative bacteria and can trigger activation of the innate immune system. Increased activation of TLR4 can lead to the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, the pathway whereby TLR4 affects antioxidant activity was studied. In TLR4-overexpressing sheep, TLR4 expression was found to be related to the integration copy number when monocytes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Consequently, production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased, which could increase the activation of prooxidative stress enzymes. Meanwhile, activation of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), was increased. Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) were reduced. In transgenic sheep, glutathione (GSH) levels were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, transgenic sheep were intradermally injected with LPS in each ear. The amounts of inflammatory infiltrates were correlated with the number of TLR4 copies that were integrated in the genome. Additionally, the translation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) was increased. Our findings indicated that overexpression of TLR4 in sheep could ameliorate oxidative injury through GSH secretion that was induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ-GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis. PMID:26640618

  12. The CNS role of Toll-like receptor 4 in innate neuroimmunity and painful neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tanga, Flobert Y; Nutile-McMenemy, Nancy; DeLeo, Joyce A

    2005-04-19

    Neuropathic pain remains a prevalent and persistent clinical problem because of our incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. This study demonstrates for the first time, to our knowledge, a critical role for CNS innate immunity by means of microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the induction phase of behavioral hypersensitivity in a mouse and rat model of neuropathy. We hypothesized that after L5 nerve transection, CNS neuroimmune activation and subsequent cytokine expression are triggered by the stimulation of microglial membrane-bound TLR4. To test this hypothesis, experiments were undertaken to assess tactile and thermal hypersensitivity in genetically altered (i.e., TLR4 knockout and point-mutant) mice after L5 nerve transection. In a complementary study, TLR4 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) was administered intrathecally to L5 spinal nerve injured rats to reduce the expression of spinal TLR4. Both the genetically altered mice and the rats treated with TLR4 antisense ODN displayed significantly attenuated behavioral hypersensitivity and decreased expression of spinal microglial markers and proinflammatory cytokines as compared with their respective control groups. This finding shows that TLR4 contributes to the initiation of CNS neuroimmune activation after L5 nerve transection. Further understanding of this early, specific, innate CNS/microglial response and how it leads to sustained glial/neuronal hypersensitivity may point to new therapies for the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes. PMID:15809417

  13. The CNS role of Toll-like receptor 4 in innate neuroimmunity and painful neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Flobert Y.; Nutile-McMenemy, Nancy; DeLeo, Joyce A.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains a prevalent and persistent clinical problem because of our incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. This study demonstrates for the first time, to our knowledge, a critical role for CNS innate immunity by means of microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the induction phase of behavioral hypersensitivity in a mouse and rat model of neuropathy. We hypothesized that after L5 nerve transection, CNS neuroimmune activation and subsequent cytokine expression are triggered by the stimulation of microglial membrane-bound TLR4. To test this hypothesis, experiments were undertaken to assess tactile and thermal hypersensitivity in genetically altered (i.e., TLR4 knockout and point-mutant) mice after L5 nerve transection. In a complementary study, TLR4 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) was administered intrathecally to L5 spinal nerve injured rats to reduce the expression of spinal TLR4. Both the genetically altered mice and the rats treated with TLR4 antisense ODN displayed significantly attenuated behavioral hypersensitivity and decreased expression of spinal microglial markers and proinflammatory cytokines as compared with their respective control groups. This finding shows that TLR4 contributes to the initiation of CNS neuroimmune activation after L5 nerve transection. Further understanding of this early, specific, innate CNS/microglial response and how it leads to sustained glial/neuronal hypersensitivity may point to new therapies for the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes. PMID:15809417

  14. Endogenous DUX4 expression in FSHD myotubes is sufficient to cause cell death and disrupts RNA splicing and cell migration pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rickard, Amanda M.; Petek, Lisa M.; Miller, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by chromatin relaxation that results in aberrant expression of the transcription factor Double Homeobox 4 (DUX4). DUX4 protein is present in a small subset of FSHD muscle cells, making its detection and analysis of its effects historically difficult. Using a DUX4-activated reporter, we demonstrate the burst expression pattern of endogenous DUX4, its method of signal amplification in the unique shared cytoplasm of the myotube, and FSHD cell death that depends on its activation. Transcriptome analysis of DUX4-expressing cells revealed that DUX4 activation disrupts RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, surveillance and transport pathways. Cell signaling, polarity and migration pathways were also disrupted. Thus, DUX4 expression is sufficient for myocyte death, and these findings suggest mechanistic links between DUX4 expression and cell migration, supporting recent descriptions of phenotypic similarities between FSHD and an FSHD-like condition caused by FAT1 mutations. PMID:26246499

  15. Endogenous DUX4 expression in FSHD myotubes is sufficient to cause cell death and disrupts RNA splicing and cell migration pathways.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Amanda M; Petek, Lisa M; Miller, Daniel G

    2015-10-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by chromatin relaxation that results in aberrant expression of the transcription factor Double Homeobox 4 (DUX4). DUX4 protein is present in a small subset of FSHD muscle cells, making its detection and analysis of its effects historically difficult. Using a DUX4-activated reporter, we demonstrate the burst expression pattern of endogenous DUX4, its method of signal amplification in the unique shared cytoplasm of the myotube, and FSHD cell death that depends on its activation. Transcriptome analysis of DUX4-expressing cells revealed that DUX4 activation disrupts RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, surveillance and transport pathways. Cell signaling, polarity and migration pathways were also disrupted. Thus, DUX4 expression is sufficient for myocyte death, and these findings suggest mechanistic links between DUX4 expression and cell migration, supporting recent descriptions of phenotypic similarities between FSHD and an FSHD-like condition caused by FAT1 mutations. PMID:26246499

  16. Expression of the fetal Alz-50 clone 1 protein induces apoptotic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Gordon D.; Ostrow, Liya Avshalumov; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L. . E-mail: Jordan@path.dental.upenn.edu

    2005-10-21

    The fetal Alz-50 clone 1 (FAC1) protein exhibits altered expression patterns in neurodegenerative disease. Though it has been shown to bind DNA in a site-specific, phosphorylation-dependent manner, its cellular function remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of FAC1 in PT67 fibroblasts induces nuclear condensation and cleavage of caspase 3 to its active form indicating induction of apoptosis. The amino-terminal domain of FAC1 is necessary and sufficient to induce both nuclear condensation and activation of caspase 3. Disruption of FAC1 interaction with a known binding partner, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), enhances activation of caspase 3. Keap1 is known to block activation of the antioxidant response gene products by direct interaction with the transcriptional activator, Nrf2. Disruption of the Keap1:Nrf2 interaction enhances FAC1 induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a role for FAC1 in apoptosis following release of Nrf2 from Keap1 in response to oxidative stress.

  17. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem.

    PubMed

    Tang, Samantha; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2012-01-15

    This study compared the expression of BDNF (proBDNF and rhBDNF forms) and its receptor TrkB, in the medulla of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants and infants who died from known causes (non-SIDS). This study also evaluated these markers in association with SIDS clinical risk factors including, sleep position, cigarette smoke exposure and gender. Brainstem tissue was immunohistochemically stained and quantitative analyses were made for eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla. Compared to non-SIDS, SIDS infants had lower rhBDNF in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract and higher TrkB in the caudal dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Within the SIDS cohort, prone sleep position was associated with lower rhBDNF in the caudal arcuate nucleus, and cigarette smoke exposure was associated with lower rhBDNF and TrkB in the inferior olivary nucleus. Abnormal expression of BDNF and TrkB suggests that neuroprotective functions of the BDNF/TrkB system may be reduced in respiratory-related nuclei of SIDS infants. PMID:22020324

  18. Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Program Genes and Comet DNA Damage Assay Induced by Escherichia coli in Layer Hens.

    PubMed

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Eshak, Mariam G; El Sabry, M I; Abass, Ahmed O

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods of industrial poultry and egg production systems involve stressful practices that stimulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) activity causing endotoxic shock. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death program genes and DNA damage induced by E. coli in the brain and liver tissues of laying hens. A total of two hundred and ten H&N brown layer hens with 20 week age, were used in this research. First, preliminary experiments were designed (60 hens in total) to establish the optimal exposure dose of E. coli and to determine the nearest time of notable response to be used in the remainder studies of this research. At 35-wk of age, 150 hens were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 25 birds each; the first group was injected in the brachial wing vein with 107 E. coli colony/hen, while the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. The body temperature and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured 3 hr after injection. Specimens of liver and brain were obtained from each group and the gene expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, interlukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bax, and caspase-3 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. DNA damage in the brain and liver tissues were also measured by comet assay. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P<0.05) increase of body temperature and plasma corticosterone (42.6°C and 14.5 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (41.1°C and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively). Additional remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of p38, IL-1β and TNF-α.genes were also detected in the brain (2.2-fold, 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively) and the liver (2.1-fold, 1.9-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively) tissues of the infected chickens. It is also important to note that hens injected with E. coli showed an increase in DNA damage in the brain and liver cells (P<0.05). These

  19. Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Program Genes and Comet DNA Damage Assay Induced by Escherichia coli in Layer Hens

    PubMed Central

    Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Eshak, Mariam G.; El Sabry, M. I.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods of industrial poultry and egg production systems involve stressful practices that stimulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) activity causing endotoxic shock. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death program genes and DNA damage induced by E. coli in the brain and liver tissues of laying hens. A total of two hundred and ten H&N brown layer hens with 20 week age, were used in this research. First, preliminary experiments were designed (60 hens in total) to establish the optimal exposure dose of E. coli and to determine the nearest time of notable response to be used in the remainder studies of this research. At 35-wk of age, 150 hens were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 25 birds each; the first group was injected in the brachial wing vein with 107 E. coli colony/hen, while the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. The body temperature and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured 3 hr after injection. Specimens of liver and brain were obtained from each group and the gene expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, interlukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bax, and caspase-3 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. DNA damage in the brain and liver tissues were also measured by comet assay. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P<0.05) increase of body temperature and plasma corticosterone (42.6°C and 14.5 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (41.1°C and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively). Additional remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of p38, IL-1β and TNF-α.genes were also detected in the brain (2.2-fold, 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively) and the liver (2.1-fold, 1.9-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively) tissues of the infected chickens. It is also important to note that hens injected with E. coli showed an increase in DNA damage in the brain and liver cells (P<0.05). These

  20. The long form of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule is expressed specifically in neurons and protects them against death receptor-triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Segura, Miguel F; Sole, Carme; Pascual, Marta; Moubarak, Rana S; Perez-Garcia, M Jose; Gozzelino, Raffaella; Iglesias, Victoria; Badiola, Nahuai; Bayascas, Jose R; Llecha, Nuria; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Jose; Soriano, Eduardo; Yuste, Victor J; Comella, Joan X

    2007-10-17

    Death receptors (DRs) and their ligands are expressed in developing nervous system. However, neurons are generally resistant to death induction through DRs and rather their activation promotes neuronal outgrowth and branching. These results suppose the existence of DRs antagonists expressed in the nervous system. Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM(S)) was first identified as a Fas antagonist in B-cells. Soon after, a longer alternative spliced isoform with unknown function was identified and named FAIM(L). FAIM(S) is widely expressed, including the nervous system, and we have shown previously that it promotes neuronal differentiation but it is not an anti-apoptotic molecule in this system. Here, we demonstrate that FAIM(L) is expressed specifically in neurons, and its expression is regulated during the development. Expression could be induced by NGF through the extracellular regulated kinase pathway in PC12 (pheochromocytoma cell line) cells. Contrary to FAIM(S), FAIM(L) does not increase the neurite outgrowth induced by neurotrophins and does not interfere with nuclear factor kappaB pathway activation as FAIM(S) does. Cells overexpressing FAIM(L) are resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by DRs such as Fas or tumor necrosis factor R1. Reduction of endogenous expression by small interfering RNA shows that endogenous FAIM(L) protects primary neurons from DR-induced cell death. The detailed analysis of this antagonism shows that FAIM(L) can bind to Fas receptor and prevent the activation of the initiator caspase-8 induced by Fas. In conclusion, our results indicate that FAIM(L) could be responsible for maintaining initiator caspases inactive after receptor engagement protecting neurons from the cytotoxic action of death ligands.

  1. Phorbol esters induce death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with altered expression of protein kinase C isoforms. Role for p53-independent induction of gadd-45 in initiating death.

    PubMed Central

    de Vente, J E; Kukoly, C A; Bryant, W O; Posekany, K J; Chen, J; Fletcher, D J; Parker, P J; Pettit, G J; Lozano, G; Cook, P P

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulates growth, differentiation and apoptosis in a cell-specific fashion. Overexpression of PKC-alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7-PKC-alpha cell) leads to expression of a more transformed phenotype. The response of MCF-7 and MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells to phorbol esters (TPA) was examined. TPA-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated a modest cytostatic response associated with a G1 arrest that was accompanied by Cip1 expression and retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. While p53 was detected in MCF-7 cells, evidence for TPA-induced stimulation of p53 transcriptional activity was not evident. In contrast, TPA treatment induced death of MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells. Bryostatin 1, another PKC activator, exerted modest cytostatic effects on MCF-7 cells while producing a cytotoxic response at low doses in MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells that waned at higher concentrations. TPA-treated MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells accumulated in G2/M, did not express p53, displayed decreased Cip1 expression, and demonstrated a reduction in retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. TPA-treated MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells expressed gadd-45 which occurred before the onset of apoptosis. Thus, alterations in the PKC pathway can modulate the decision of a breast cancer cell to undergo death or differentiation. In addition, these data show that PKC activation can induce expression of gadd45 in a p53-independent fashion. Images PMID:7560079

  2. A matrix metalloproteinase gene is expressed at the boundary of senescence and programmed cell death in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Delorme, V G; McCabe, P F; Kim, D J; Leaver, C J

    2000-07-01

    Cell-cell and extracellular cell matrix (ECM) interactions provide cells with information essential for controlling morphogenesis, cell-fate specification, and cell death. In animals, one of the major groups of enzymes that degrade the ECM is the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we report the characterization of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketmore) Cs1-MMP gene encoding such an enzyme likely to play a role in plant ECM degradation. Cs1-MMP has all the hallmark motif characteristics of animal MMPs and is a pre-pro-enzyme having a signal peptide, propeptide, and zinc-binding catalytic domains. Cs1-MMP also displays functional similarities with animal MMPs. For example, it has a collagenase-like activity that can cleave synthetic peptides and type-I collagen, a major component of animal ECM. Cs1-MMP activity is completely inhibited by a hydroxamate-based inhibitor that binds at the active site of MMPs in a stereospecific manner. The Cs1-MMP gene is expressed de novo at the end stage of developmental senescence, prior to the appearance of DNA laddering in cucumber cotyledons leaf discs and male flowers. As the steady-state level of Cs1-MMP mRNA peaks late in senescence and the pro-enzyme must undergo maturation and activation, the protease is probably not involved in nutrient remobilization during senescence but may have another function. The physiological substrates for Cs1-MMP remain to be determined, but the enzyme represents a good candidate for plant ECM degradation and may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD). Our results suggest that PCD occurs only at the culmination of the senescence program or that the processes are distinct with PCD being triggered at the end of senescence.

  3. A Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Is Expressed at the Boundary of Senescence and Programmed Cell Death in Cucumber1

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Valérie G.R.; McCabe, Paul F.; Kim, Dae-Jae; Leaver, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Cell-cell and extracellular cell matrix (ECM) interactions provide cells with information essential for controlling morphogenesis, cell-fate specification, and cell death. In animals, one of the major groups of enzymes that degrade the ECM is the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we report the characterization of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketmore) Cs1-MMP gene encoding such an enzyme likely to play a role in plant ECM degradation. Cs1-MMP has all the hallmark motif characteristics of animal MMPs and is a pre-pro-enzyme having a signal peptide, propeptide, and zinc-binding catalytic domains. Cs1-MMP also displays functional similarities with animal MMPs. For example, it has a collagenase-like activity that can cleave synthetic peptides and type-I collagen, a major component of animal ECM. Cs1-MMP activity is completely inhibited by a hydroxamate-based inhibitor that binds at the active site of MMPs in a stereospecific manner. The Cs1-MMP gene is expressed de novo at the end stage of developmental senescence, prior to the appearance of DNA laddering in cucumber cotyledons leaf discs and male flowers. As the steady-state level of Cs1-MMP mRNA peaks late in senescence and the pro-enzyme must undergo maturation and activation, the protease is probably not involved in nutrient remobilization during senescence but may have another function. The physiological substrates for Cs1-MMP remain to be determined, but the enzyme represents a good candidate for plant ECM degradation and may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD). Our results suggest that PCD occurs only at the culmination of the senescence program or that the processes are distinct with PCD being triggered at the end of senescence. PMID:10889240

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui; Suo, Ning; Chen, Yu-Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  5. The expression of '150-kDa oxygen regulated protein (ORP-150)' in human brain and its relationship with duration time until death.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Kazuya; Tsuda, Ryouichi; Kondo, Toshikazu; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Ozawa, Kentaro; Ogawa, Satoshi; Nakasono, Ichiro

    2004-04-01

    The expression of oxygen regulated protein 150-kDa (ORP-150) was strongly induced in human brain under the hypoxic conditions. We examined the expression of ORP-150 in the brain samples, and discussed its significance in forensic practice. The cerebral cortexes of 31 cases (asphyxia: 9 cases, hypothermia: 4, exsanguinations: 5, CO intoxication (CO): 6, sudden cardiac death (SCD): 7) were used for this study. Each tissue section was incubated with anti-ORP-150 polyclonal antibody and the number of ORP-150 positive cells were counted. In the multiple linear regression method, the estimated regression coefficient of ORP-150 on age was significant (P=0.039) thus, we could find that the ORP-150 expression level depended on age. Using analysis of covariance, we compared the means of ORP-150, LSMEAN, which means hypothetic average value excluding influence of age, for each cause of death. The LSMEAN+/-SE was 84.74+/-9.03 in hypothermia, 57.52+/-6.34 in asphyxia, 46.68+/-6.70 in CO, 24.84+/-8.05 in exsanguinations, and 16.24+/-7.35 in SCD. As a result of the analysis, the LSMEAN of the ORP-150 expression level was related to the cause of death. There might be differences in the duration of brain ischemia before death. For example, SCD is presumed to be instant death, while brain ischemia continues for several minutes in asphyxia, CO and exsanguinations, and for several hours in hypothermia cases. Therefore, the immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of ORP-150 in the brain may be very useful to determine the duration of brain ischemia before death in forensic autopsy cases.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced FasL expression in human monocytic cells and its implications for cell death, viral replication, and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Iannello, Alexandre; Debbeche, Olfa; El Arabi, Raoudha; Samarani, Suzanne; Hamel, David; Rozenberg, Flore; Heveker, Nikolaus; Ahmad, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitously occurring pathogen that infects humans early in childhood. The virus persists as a latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, especially of the trigeminal nerve, and frequently becomes reactivated in humans under conditions of stress. Monocytic cells constitute an important component of the innate and adaptive immune responses. We show here for the first time that HSV-1 stimulates human FasL promoter and induces de novo expression of FasL on the surface of human monocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages. This virus-induced FasL expression causes death of monocytic cells growing in suspension, but not in monolayers (e.g., macrophages). The addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, as well as anti-FasL antibodies, reduced cell death but increased viral replication in the virus-infected cell cultures. We also show here for the first time that the virus-induced de novo expression of FasL on the cell surface acts as an immune evasion mechanism by causing the death of interacting human CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Our study provides novel insights on FasL expression and cell death in HSV-infected human monocytic cells and their impact on interacting immune cells.

  7. Faces in the face of death: effects of exposure to life-threatening events and mortality salience on facial expression recognition in combat and noncombat military veterans.

    PubMed

    Anaki, David; Brezniak, Tamar; Shalom, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Soldiers in war zones often experience life-threatening events that put their lives at stake. The present study examined how these exposures shape soldiers' social behavior, manifested by recognition of facial expressions. In addition, we investigated how explicit awareness of one's eventual death affects sensitivity to facial expressions. Veterans of elite military combat units were exposed to conditions of mortality or pain salience and later requested to label the emotions depicted in threatening and nonthreatening faces. Combat veterans were more accurate than noncombat veterans in identifying threatening expressions, both in mortality or pain salience induction (experiment 1) or under no induction at all (experiment 2). In addition, noncombat veterans primed with mortality salience identified fear expressions more accurately than those primed with pain salience. Finally, mortality salience improved accuracy for nonthreatening expressions for all veterans. The present results demonstrate that fear of death, resulting from exposure to concrete life-endangering perils or from thoughts on human's inevitable death, influences perception of facial expressions, which is critical for successful interpersonal communication.

  8. A primate subfamily of galectins expressed at the maternal–fetal interface that promote immune cell death

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Goodman, Morris; Weckle, Amy; Xing, Jun; Dong, Zhong; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Szilagyi, Andras; Gal, Peter; Hou, Zhuocheng; Tarca, Adi L.; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Jung-Sun; Haidarian, Saied; Uddin, Monica; Bohn, Hans; Benirschke, Kurt; Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Erez, Offer; Hassan, Sonia S.; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Wildman, Derek E.

    2009-01-01

    Galectins are proteins that regulate immune responses through the recognition of cell-surface glycans. We present evidence that 16 human galectin genes are expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and demonstrate that a cluster of 5 galectin genes on human chromosome 19 emerged during primate evolution as a result of duplication and rearrangement of genes and pseudogenes via a birth and death process primarily mediated by transposable long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs). Genes in the cluster are found only in anthropoids, a group of primate species that differ from their strepsirrhine counterparts by having relatively large brains and long gestations. Three of the human cluster genes (LGALS13, -14, and -16) were found to be placenta-specific. Homology modeling revealed conserved three-dimensional structures of galectins in the human cluster; however, analyses of 24 newly derived and 69 publicly available sequences in 10 anthropoid species indicate functional diversification by evidence of positive selection and amino acid replacements in carbohydrate-recognition domains. Moreover, we demonstrate altered sugar-binding capacities of 6 recombinant galectins in the cluster. We show that human placenta-specific galectins are predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast, a primary site of metabolic exchange where, early during pregnancy, the fetus comes in contact with immune cells circulating in maternal blood. Because ex vivo functional assays demonstrate that placenta-specific galectins induce the apoptosis of T lymphocytes, we propose that these galectins reduce the danger of maternal immune attacks on the fetal semiallograft, presumably conferring additional immune tolerance mechanisms and in turn sustaining hemochorial placentation during the long gestation of anthropoid primates. PMID:19497882

  9. Hexamethylene bisacetamide induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) and down-regulates BCL-2 expression in human myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D S; Zhang, X; Feinman, R; Teitz, T; Zelenetz, A; Richon, V M; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A; Michaeli, J

    1998-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy characterized by the expansion of monoclonal Ig-secreting plasma cells with low proliferative activity. It is postulated that inhibition of physiologic cell death is an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of MM. The development of chemoresistance is a common feature in patients with MM. In the present studies, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), a hybrid polar compound that is a potent inducer of terminal differentiation of various transformed cells, is shown to inhibit the growth of several human myeloma cell lines (ARP-1, U266, and RPMI 8226), including doxorubicin-resistant RPMI 8226 variants that overexpress the multidrug-resistance gene, MDR-1, and its product, p-glycoprotein. In addition to growth arrest and suppression of clonogenicity, HMBA induces apoptosis both in freshly isolated human myeloma cells and in cell lines, as determined by morphologic alterations, cell cycle distribution and endonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Further, HMBA decreases BCL-2 protein expression in myeloma cells within 12-48 hr. Overexpression of BCL-2 protein in ARP-1 cells confers resistance to HMBA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that HMBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human myeloma cells, which may act through suppressing the anti-apoptotic function of the bcl-2 gene. HMBA, and related hybrid polar compounds, may prove useful in the management of this presently incurable disease.

  10. Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Kenichi; Gotoh, Akito; Eguchi, Takanori; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP. PMID:23492901

  11. Early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear-derived cloned embryo.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Masahito; Gohma, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Taniguchi, Yukio; Yasue, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seiya; Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-04-01

    Successful somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloning has been reported in cattle; however, the cloned embryo is highly susceptible to death around day 60 of gestation leading to early embryonic loss. The early embryonic death is postulated to possibly arise in part from an atypical placentation. We have performed cDNA macroarray analysis using 3,353 of the previously cataloged 4,165 genes, in order to characterize the early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloned embryo. A more marked difference in the expression profiles was observed between the fetal placentas of the cows with the cloned immotile embryo (CD) and with the cloned motile embryo (CL) or artificial insemination-derived motile embryo (AI), as compared to between the CL and AI placentas, suggesting an aberration of the expression profile in the CD placenta among the three placentas. Further, 291 and 77 genes showed more than twofold elevation and less than 50% reduction, respectively, in either or both of two CD (CD1 and CD2) placentas in comparison with the CL placenta, but no differential expression between the CL and AI placentas. The expression patterns of six genes in the AI, CL, and CD placentas were confirmed in an experiment with an additional sample for each of the three placentas. Among the placental genes showing the early embryonic death-associated changes of expression in the cow with the cloned embryo, IGF2 (elevated gene), and HBA1, HBA2, SPTB, and SPTBN1 genes (reduced gene) are intriguing in that the changes of expression in these genes were observed in an additional sample of CD placenta as well as the CD1 and CD2 placentas, and in that overexpression (for IGF2) and dysfunction or deficiency (for HBA1, HBA2, SPTB, and SPTBN1) result in embryonic lethality.

  12. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  13. Discovery, characterization, and antiparkinsonian effect of novel positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Niswender, Colleen M.; Johnson, Kari A.; Weaver, C. David; Jones, Carrie K.; Xiang, Zixiu; Luo, Qingwei; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Marlo, Joy E.; de Paulis, Tomas; Thompson, Analisa D.; Days, Emily L.; Nalywajko, Tasha; Aust, Cheryl A.; Williams, Michael Baxter; Ayala, Jennifer E.; Williams, Richard; Lindsley, Craig W.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the death of dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia and results in motor symptoms such as tremor and bradykinesia. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) has been shown to modulate neurotransmission in the basal ganglia and results in antiparkinsonian effects in rodent PD models. PHCCC is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGluR4 which has been used to further validate the role of mGluR4 in PD, but the compound suffers from a lack of selectivity, relatively low potency and poor solubility. Via high-throughput screening, we discovered over 400 novel PAMs of mGluR4. Compounds derived from a novel chemical scaffold were characterized in vitro at both rat and human mGluR4 using two distinct assays of mGluR4 function. The lead compound was approximately 8-fold more potent than PHCCC, enhanced the potency of glutamate at mGluR4 by 8-fold, and did not show any significant potentiator or antagonist activity at other mGluR subtypes. Resolution of the regioisomers of the lead revealed that the cis regioisomer, VU0155041, contained the majority of the mGluR4 PAM activity and also exhibited partial agonist activity at mGluR4 at a site that was distinct from the glutamate binding site, suggesting that this compound is a mixed allosteric agonist/PAM of mGluR4. VU0155041 was soluble in an aqueous vehicle and intracerebroventricular administration of 31 to 316 nmol of VU0155041 dose-dependently decreased haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reserpine-induced akinesia in rats. These exciting results provide continued support for mGluR4 as a therapeutic target in PD. PMID:18664603

  14. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:26918856

  15. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells.

  16. Stimulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Beta Interferon Increases Necrotic Death of Macrophages upon Listeria monocytogenes Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Zwaferink, Heather; Stockinger, Silvia; Reipert, Siegfried; Decker, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Murine macrophage death upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes was previously shown to be increased by beta interferon, produced by the infected cells. We saw that interferon-upregulated caspase activation or other interferon-inducible, death-associated proteins, including TRAIL, protein kinase R, and p53, were not necessary for cell death. Macrophage death was reduced when inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited during infection, and iNOS-deficient macrophages were less susceptible to death upon infection than wild-type cells. The production of nitric oxide correlated with increased death, while no role was seen for iNOS in control of Listeria numbers during infection of resting macrophages. This indicates that the induction of iNOS by beta interferon in cells infected with L. monocytogenes contributes to cell death. Based on morphology, the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, and a lack of dependence on caspase 1, we characterize the type of cell death occurring and show that infected macrophages die by interferon-upregulated necrosis. PMID:18268032

  17. Toll‑like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild‑type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4‑mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth‑regulated oncogene‑β (GRO‑β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in a CA‑duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM‑1 and GRO‑β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR. PMID:27510583

  18. Toll‑like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild‑type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4‑mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth‑regulated oncogene‑β (GRO‑β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in a CA‑duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM‑1, GRO‑β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM‑1 and GRO‑β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR.

  19. Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild-type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4-mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth-regulated oncogene-β (GRO-β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM-1, GRO-β and MPO in a CA-duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM-1, GRO-β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM-1 and GRO-β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR. PMID:27510583

  20. Functional inactivation of CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated responses through SOCS3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Silvia F; Hernanz-Falcón, Patricia; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; De Ana, Ana Martín; Garzón, Ruth; Carvalho-Pinto, Carla; Vila-Coro, Antonio J; Zaballos, Angel; Balomenos, Dimitrios; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mellado, Mario

    2002-08-01

    Hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and chemotactic responses require coordinated action between cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines promote receptor oligomerization, followed by Janus kinase (JAK) kinase activation, signal transducers and transactivators of transcription (STAT) nuclear translocation, and transcription of cytokine-responsive genes. These include genes that encode a family of negative regulators of cytokine signaling, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. After binding their specific receptors, chemokines trigger receptor dimerization and activate the JAK/STAT pathway. We show that SOCS3 overexpression or up-regulation, stimulated by a cytokine such as growth hormone, impairs the response to CXCL12, measured by Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. This effect is mediated by SOCS3 binding to the CXC chemokine receptor 4 receptor, blocking JAK/STAT and Galpha(i) pathways, without interfering with cell surface chemokine receptor expression. The data provide clear evidence for signaling cross-talk between cytokine and chemokine responses in building a functional immune system.

  1. Curdlan activates dendritic cells through dectin-1 and toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sook; Park, Ki Hwan; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kim, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Ki Hun; Yun, Jieun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2016-10-01

    Curdlan, a β-1,3-glucan isolated from Alcaligenes faecalis, is an agonist of dectin-1 in various immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether curdlan also activates DCs through other receptors remains unknown. In this study, we found that curdlan activates DCs through dectin-1 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Curdlan increased the expression levels of surface molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC-I/II), the production of cytokines (IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-β), migration toward MIP-3β, and allogeneic T cell stimulation activity of DCs. Curdlan increased the phosphorylation of Syk, Raf-1, Akt, MAPKs, IKK, and NF-κB p65 in DCs. However, curdlan only slightly activated DCs transfected with small interfering RNAs against dectin-1 or TLR4 and C3H/HeJ DCs, which have non-functional TLR4, in comparison with control DCs. Curdlan increased antitumor activity of DCs in a syngeneic tumor model. In summary, our data show that curdlan activates DCs through dectin-1 and TLR4 signaling and the combination of curdlan and DCs efficiently inhibit tumor growth in mice.

  2. The Contributing Role of CD14 in Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dependent Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ling; Tanga, Flobert Y; DeLeo, Joyce A.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that central nervous system (CNS) toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in a rodent model of neuropathic pain, spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx). TLR4 is a well-known receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in innate immune responses. In the current study, we further investigated the role of CD14, an accessory molecule in the LPS-TLR4 signaling pathway, in the development of L5Tx-induced neuropathic pain. CD14 knockout (KO) mice displayed significantly decreased behavioral sensitivity (mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia) as early as day 1 post-L5Tx, indicating a nociceptive role of CD14. By flow cytometric analyses, we observed significantly elevated microglial surface CD14 expression in the ipsilateral lumbar spinal cord 3 days post-L5Tx, as well as remarkable increases in microglial size (via forward scatter (FSC)) and granularity (via side scatter (SSC)). Further, intrathecal injection of soluble CD14 induced significantly greater mechanical hypersensitivity in wild type (C3H/HeN) mice compared to TLR4-deficient (C3H/HeJ) mice. Together, these data demonstrate that CD14 plays a contributing role in TLR4-dependent nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:18976692

  3. microRNA-26a modulates inflammatory response induced by toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in microglia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Asit; Bhatia, Harsharan Singh; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2015-12-01

    MiRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNAs, have emerged as novel post-transcriptional regulators of numerous cellular responses. Although the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of neuroinflammation in various neurological diseases has been previously studied, their role in the production of inflammatory mediators during microglia activation is poorly understood. In this study, the role of miR-26a has been investigated in the modulation of inflammatory response in cultured microglia. Using real-time PCR, the expression of miR-26a was studied in toll-like receptors 4 stimulated primary mouse microglia. miR-26a expression was found to be rapidly reduced after the stimulation of toll-like receptors 4 in microglia. Over-expression of miR-26a significantly decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α and IL-6, whereas knockdown of miR-26a increased the expression of these mediators. Furthermore, using in silico analysis, we identified that the activating transcription factor (ATF) 2 is directly targeted by miR-26a. This finding was confirmed by loss and gain of function studies. Similar to the effect of miR-26a over-expression, knockdown of activating transcription factor 2 inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of miR-26a in the regulation of the production of proinflammatory cytokines in microglia. We proposed that in microglia, activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) down-regulates miR-26a. The down-regulation of this miR increases expression of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). This event, in addition to the activation of ATF2 by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), increases interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. On the other hand, miR-26a also increases the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) by a mechanism independent of ATF2.

  4. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A expression in developing Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toomey, B.H.; Bello, S.; Hahn, M.E.; Cantrell, S.; Wright, P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early development using nanoinjection or water bath exposure. TCDD caused developmental abnormalities that included hemorrhaging, loss of vascular integrity, edema, stunted development and death. The LC50 and LD50 of TCDD for Fundulus embryos were ???19.7??9.5 pg TCDD/??l (water bath) and 0.25??0.09 ng TCDD/g embryo (nanoinjection). To identify a possible cause for these developmental abnormalities we analyzed the effects of TCDD on apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the embryos. TCDD exposure increased apoptotic cell death in several tissues including brain, eye, gill, kidney, tail, intestine, heart, and vascular tissue. CYP1A expression was also increased in the TCDD-exposed embryos predominantly in liver, kidney, gill, heart, intestine, and in vascular tissues throughout the embryo. There was co-occurrence of TCDD-induced apoptosis and CYP1A expression in some, but not all, cell types. In addition the dose response relationships for apoptosis and mortality were similar, while CYP1A expression appeared more sensitive to TCDD induction. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Impairs Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and motor coordination. Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and are critical for the execution of its functions, including motor coordination. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is involved in the innate immune response and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its role in cerebellum-related motor functions. To address this question, we evaluated motor behavior in TLR4 deficient mice. We found that TLR4−∕− mice showed impaired motor coordination. Morphological analyses revealed that TLR4 deficiency was associated with a reduction in the thickness of the molecular layer of the cerebellum. TLR4 was highly expressed in PCs but not in Bergmann glia or cerebellar granule cells; however, loss of TLR4 decreased the number of PCs. These findings suggest a novel role for TLR4 in cerebellum-related motor coordination through maintenance of the PC population. PMID:26909014

  6. Arundic acid attenuates retinal ganglion cell death by increasing glutamate/aspartate transporter expression in a model of normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, M; Aida, T; Takeda, T; Namekata, K; Harada, T; Shinagawa, R; Tanaka, K

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and is characterized by gradual visual impairment owing to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated as a mechanism of RGC death in glaucoma. Consistent with this claim, we previously reported that glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST)-deficient mice show optic nerve degeneration that is similar to that observed in glaucoma. Therefore, drugs that upregulate GLAST may be useful for neuroprotection in glaucoma. Although many compounds are known to increase the expression of another glial glutamate transporter, EAAT2/GLT1, few compounds are shown to increase GLAST expression. Arundic acid is a glial modulating agent that ameliorates delayed ischemic brain damage by attenuating increases in extracellular glutamate. We hypothesized that arundic acid neuroprotection involves upregulation of GLAST. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of arundic acid on GLAST expression and glutamate uptake. We found that arundic acid induces GLAST expression in vitro and in vivo. In addition, arundic acid treatment prevented RGC death by upregulating GLAST in heterozygous (GLAST+/−) mice. Furthermore, arundic acid stimulates the human GLAST ortholog, EAAT1, expression in human neuroglioblastoma cells. Thus, discovering compounds that can enhance EAAT1 expression and activity may be a novel strategy for therapeutic treatment of glaucoma. PMID:25789968

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P < 0.05). Compared to WT mice, bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P < 0.05). Collagen I was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (0.838 ± 0.352 vs 2.427 ± 0.551, P < 0.05). Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P < 0.05). Body weight reduction was lower in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice; this difference was not statistically significant (-3.735 ± 5.276 vs -6.698 ± 3.218, P > 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  8. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  9. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophagecell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  10. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved.

  11. Sensitization for death receptor- or drug-induced apoptosis by re-expression of caspase-8 through demethylation or gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fulda, S; Küfer, M U; Meyer, E; van Valen, F; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B; Debatin, K M

    2001-09-13

    Resistance of tumors to treatment with cytotoxic drugs, irradiation or immunotherapy may be due to disrupted apoptosis programs. Here, we report in a variety of different tumor cells including Ewing tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant brain tumors and melanoma that caspase-8 expression acts as a key determinant of sensitivity for apoptosis induced by death-inducing ligands or cytotoxic drugs. In tumor cell lines resistant to TRAIL, anti-CD95 or TNFalpha, caspase-8 protein and mRNA expression was decreased or absent without caspase-8 gene loss. Methylation-specific PCR revealed hypermethylation of caspase-8 regulatory sequences in cells with impaired caspase-8 expression. Treatment with the demethylation agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) reversed hypermethylation of caspase-8 resulting in restoration of caspase-8 expression and recruitment and activation of caspase-8 at the CD95 DISC upon receptor cross-linking thereby sensitizing for death receptor-, and importantly, also for drug-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase-8 activity also inhibited apoptosis sensitization by 5-dAzaC. Similar to demethylation, introduction of caspase-8 by gene transfer sensitized for apoptosis induction. Hypermethylation of caspase-8 was linked to reduced caspase-8 expression in different tumor cell lines in vitro and, most importantly, also in primary tumor samples. Thus, these findings indicate that re-expression of caspase-8, e.g. by demethylation or caspase-8 gene transfer, might be an effective strategy to restore sensitivity for chemotherapy- or death receptor-induced apoptosis in various tumors in vivo.

  12. Sensitization for death receptor- or drug-induced apoptosis by re-expression of caspase-8 through demethylation or gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fulda, S; Küfer, M U; Meyer, E; van Valen, F; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B; Debatin, K M

    2001-09-13

    Resistance of tumors to treatment with cytotoxic drugs, irradiation or immunotherapy may be due to disrupted apoptosis programs. Here, we report in a variety of different tumor cells including Ewing tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant brain tumors and melanoma that caspase-8 expression acts as a key determinant of sensitivity for apoptosis induced by death-inducing ligands or cytotoxic drugs. In tumor cell lines resistant to TRAIL, anti-CD95 or TNFalpha, caspase-8 protein and mRNA expression was decreased or absent without caspase-8 gene loss. Methylation-specific PCR revealed hypermethylation of caspase-8 regulatory sequences in cells with impaired caspase-8 expression. Treatment with the demethylation agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) reversed hypermethylation of caspase-8 resulting in restoration of caspase-8 expression and recruitment and activation of caspase-8 at the CD95 DISC upon receptor cross-linking thereby sensitizing for death receptor-, and importantly, also for drug-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase-8 activity also inhibited apoptosis sensitization by 5-dAzaC. Similar to demethylation, introduction of caspase-8 by gene transfer sensitized for apoptosis induction. Hypermethylation of caspase-8 was linked to reduced caspase-8 expression in different tumor cell lines in vitro and, most importantly, also in primary tumor samples. Thus, these findings indicate that re-expression of caspase-8, e.g. by demethylation or caspase-8 gene transfer, might be an effective strategy to restore sensitivity for chemotherapy- or death receptor-induced apoptosis in various tumors in vivo. PMID:11593392

  13. Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Shen, Jacson; Gao, Yan; Liao, Yunfei; Cote, Gregory; Choy, Edwin; Chebib, Ivan; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are primary malignant tumors of the notochord that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and their clinical relevance in chordoma remain unknown. We evaluated PD-L1 expression in three chordoma cell lines and nine chordoma tissue samples by western blot. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a chordoma tissue microarray (TMA) that contained 78 tissue specimens. We also correlated the expression of PD-L1 and TILs with clinical outcomes. PD-L1 protein expression was demonstrated to be induced by IFN-γ in both UCH1 and UCH2 cell lines. Across nine human chordoma tissue samples, PD-L1 protein was differentially expressed. 94.9% of chordoma samples showed positive PD-L1 expression in the TMA. The expression score of PD-L1 for metastatic chordoma tumors was significant higher as compared with non-metastatic chordoma tumors. Expression of PD-L1 protein significantly correlates with the presence of elevated TILs, which correlates with metastasis. In summary, our study showed high levels of PD-L1 are expressed in chordoma, which is correlated with the prevalence of TILs. The current study suggests targeting PD-L1 may be a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for chordoma clinical trials. PMID:25871477

  14. Death imagery and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R T; Hilgendorf, W A

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between positive/negative death imagery and death anxiety. Subjects were 179 undergraduate students at a large, private, midwestern university. Results reveal that on five measures of death anxiety the subjects with low death anxiety scores had significantly more positive death images than did those with high death anxiety scores. The few subjects who imagined death to be young (N = 14) had a significantly more positive image of death than those who perceived it to be an old person. Death was seen as male by 92% of the male respondents and 74% of the female respondents. Significant differences in death imagery and death anxiety were found between subjects enrolled in an introductory psychology course and those enrolled in a thanatology course. No sex differences in death anxiety or positive/negative death imagery were found.

  15. Activated Müller Cells Involved in ATP-Induced Upregulation of P2X7 Receptor Expression and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ying; Xie, Yuting; Xue, Bo; Guan, Huaijin

    2016-01-01

    P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptotic death, in which activated retinal Müller glial cells may be involved by releasing ATP. In the present study, we investigated whether and how activated Müller cells may induce changes in P2X7R expression in RGCs by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Intravitreal injection of DHPG, a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) agonist, induced upregulation of GFAP expression, suggestive of Müller cell activation (gliosis), as we previously reported. Accompanying Müller cell activation, P2X7R protein expression was upregulated, especially in the cells of ganglion cell layer (GCL), which was reversed by coinjection of brilliant blue G (BBG), a P2X7R blocker. In addition, intravitreal injection of ATP also induced upregulation of P2X7R protein expression. Similar results were observed in cultured retinal neurons by ATP treatment. Moreover, both DHPG and ATP intravitreal injection induced a reduction in the number of fluorogold retrogradely labeled RGCs, and the DHPG effect was partially rescued by coinjection of BBG. All these results suggest that activated Müller cells may release ATP and, in turn, induce upregulation of P2X7R expression in the cells of GCL, thus contributing to RGC death. PMID:27738636

  16. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-07-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  17. Murine regulatory T cells contain hyper-proliferative and death-prone subsets with differential ICOS expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Shen, Shudan; Gorentla, Balachandra; Gao, Jimin; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are crucial for self-tolerance. It has been an enigma that Treg exhibit an anergic phenotype reflected by hypo-proliferation in vitro following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation but undergo vigorous proliferation in vivo. We report here that, different from conventional T cells (Tcon), murine Treg are prone to death but hyper-proliferative in vitro and in vivo. During in vitro culture, most Treg die with or without TCR stimulation, correlated with constitutive activation of the intrinsic death pathway. However, a small portion of the Treg population is more sensitive to TCR stimulation, particularly weak stimulation, proliferates more vigorously than CD4+ Tcon, and are resistant to activation induced cell death. Treg proliferation is enhanced by IL-2 but less dependent on CD28-mediated costimulation than Tcon. We demonstrate further that the surviving and proliferative Treg are ICOS positive while the death-prone Treg are ICOS negative. Moreover, ICOS+ Treg contain much stronger suppressive activity than ICOS− Treg. Our data indicates that massive death contributes to the anergic phenotype of Treg in vitro and suggest modulating Treg survival as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. PMID:22231701

  18. Expression of Programmed Death Receptor Ligand 1 with High Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sang Byung; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Oh, Mee-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hye; Jang, Si-Hyong; Hong, Soon Auck; Cho, Junhun; Kim, Sung Yong; Han, Sun Wook; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Han Jo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The interaction of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), negatively regulates immune responses. This study aimed to clarify PD-L1 expression levels in breast cancer through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to evaluate associations between these findings and clinicopathologic variables, including prognosis. Methods PD-L1 expression was analyzed using IHC on tissue microarrays of 465 invasive breast carcinomas. Results High PD-L1 expression was demonstrated in 63 of 465 tumors (13.5%). High PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade (p<0.001), negative lymph nodes (p=0.011), early pathologic stage (p=0.025), high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) (p<0.001) counts, negative estrogen receptor (p<0.001) and progesterone receptor (p=0.002) expression, positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (p=0.003), cytokeratin 5/6 (p=0.011), epidermal growth factor receptor (p<0.001), and p53 (p<0.001) expression, and high Ki-67 proliferating index (p<0.001). Based on intrinsic subtypes, high PD-L1 expression and high TIL counts were significantly associated with the HER2 and triple-negative basal type (p<0.001). PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with better disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.041) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.026) in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis. Higher TIL levels was an independent prognostic factor for decreased disease progression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.389; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.284–4.445; p=0.006) and overall death (HR, 3.666; 95% CI, 1.561–8.607; p=0.003). Conclusion PD-L1 protein expression in breast cancer is associated with better DFS and OS, but is not an independent prognostic factor. High PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with high TIL levels. This finding has important implications for antibody therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism in breast cancer. PMID

  19. Expression of the antiapoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in tomato blocks programmed cell death and provides broad-spectrum resistance to disease

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, James E.; Richael, Craig; Overduin, Bert; Smith, Kathy; Bostock, Richard; Gilchrist, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The sphinganine analog mycotoxin, AAL-toxin, induces a death process in plant and animal cells that shows apoptotic morphology. In nature, the AAL-toxin is the primary determinant of the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato, thus linking apoptosis to this disease caused by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici. The product of the baculovirus p35 gene is a specific inhibitor of a class of cysteine proteases termed caspases, and naturally functions in infected insects. Transgenic tomato plants bearing the p35 gene were protected against AAL-toxin-induced death and pathogen infection. Resistance to the toxin and pathogen co-segregated with the expression of the p35 gene through the T3 generation, as did resistance to A. alternata, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The p35 gene, stably transformed into tomato roots by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, protected roots against a 30-fold greater concentration of AAL-toxin than control roots tolerated. Transgenic expression of a p35 binding site mutant (DQMD to DRIL), inactive against animal caspases-3, did not protect against AAL-toxin. These results indicate that plants possess a protease with substrate-site specificity that is functionally equivalent to certain animal caspases. A biological conclusion is that diverse plant pathogens co-opt apoptosis during infection, and that transgenic modification of pathways regulating programmed cell death in plants is a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. PMID:12403830

  20. miR-homoHSV of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) inhibits expression of the SGIV pro-apoptotic factor LITAF and attenuates cell death.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanyu; Yan, Yang; Cui, Huachun; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that various large DNA viruses could encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate host and viral genes to achieve immune evasion. In this study, we report that miR-homoHSV, an miRNA encoded by Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), can attenuate SGIV-induced cell death. Mechanistically, SGIV miR-homoHSV targets SGIV ORF136R, a viral gene that encodes the pro-apoptotic lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (LITAF)-like factor. miR-homoHSV suppressed exogenous and endogenous SGIV LITAF expression, and thus inhibited SGIV LITAF-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, miR-homoHSV expression was able to attenuate cell death induced by viral infection, presumably facilitating viral replication through the down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene SGIV LITAF. Together, our data suggest miR-homoHSV may serve as a feedback regulator of cell death during viral infection. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of SGIV replication and pathogenesis.

  1. Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) mediates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of FLIP expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqiang; Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Hongbin; Sun, Yonggang; Peng, Zhihong; Zhou, Gang; Fan, Lilin; Wang, Xingwei; Yang, Shiming; Wang, Rongquan; Fang, Dianchun

    2010-09-10

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis induced ligand (TRAIL) is an important apoptosis inducer in a variety of tumor cells. In the present study, we determined the underlying molecular mechanisms by which certain gastric cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL. We first detected expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in three gastric cancer cell lines and identified its association with the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL. We then stably transfected PDCD4 cDNA or shRNA into these gastric cell lines. Our data showed that restoration of PDCD4 expression induced TRAIL sensitivity, whereas knockdown of PDCD4 expression reduced the sensitivity of these tumor cells to TRAIL treatment. PDCD4 was able to suppress expression of FLICE-inhibiting protein (FLIP), a negative regulator of apoptosis. Knockdown of FLIP expression using FLIP shRNA had similar effects as those of restored PDCD4 expression. Furthermore, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was able to inhibit expression of FLIP mRNA and protein and upregulate the sensitivity of these cells to TRAIL treatment. Taken together, the results from the current study demonstrated that PDCD4 plays an important role in mediating the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through FLIP suppression. Therefore, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 should be further evaluated for combination therapy with TRAIL. PMID:20595005

  2. Transgenic over-expression of slit2 enhances disruption of blood-brain barrier and increases cell death after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Li, Hang; He, Xiao-Fei; Li, Ge; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Jia, Huan-Huan; Li, Jiang-Chao; Huang, Ren; Pei, Zhong; Wang, Li-Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability among male adolescents and young adults; and mild traumatic brain injury is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in brain trauma. Previously, we have found that slit2, a member of slit protein family, increases permeability of BBB. In the present study, we examined the role of slit2 in the pathogenesis of mild TBI in a mouse model of micro TBI. Rhodamine BandPI (PropidiumIodide) staining were used to detect the permeability of BBB and cell death, respectively. The leakage of Rhodamine B and cell death were significantly increased in Slit2-Tg mice than in C57 control mice after micro TBI. The present results suggest that over expression of slit2 plays a detrimental role in the pathophysiology of mild TBI.

  3. Antagonists of toll like receptor 4 maybe a new strategy to counteract opioid-induced hyperalgesia and opioid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Long term opioid treatment results in hyperalgesia and tolerance, which is a troublesome phenomenon in clinic application. Recent studies have revealed a critical role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the neuropathological process of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. TLR4 is predominantly expressed by microglial cells and is a key modulator in the activation of the innate immune system. Activation of TLR4 may initiate the activation of microglia and hence a number of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that could enhance neuronal excitability are released. Blockade of TLR4 activation by its antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone, which were also demonstrated to be TLR4 antagonist, may have clinic application value in attenuation of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance.

  4. Expression of Ik6 and Ik8 Isoforms and Their Association with Relapse and Death in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-León, Adriana; Juárez-Velázquez, Rocío; Medrano-Hernández, Alma; Cuenca-Roldán, Teresa; Salas-Labadía, Consuelo; del Pilar Navarrete-Meneses, María; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; López-Hernández, Gerardo; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the 6 and 8 dominant-negative Ikaros isoforms in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been associated with a high risk of relapse and death; due to these isoforms disrupting the differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid cells. The aim of this study was to know the frequency of Ik6 and Ik8 in 113 Mexican ALL-children treated within the National Popular Medical Insurance Program to determine whether there was an association with relapse-free survival, event-free survival and overall survival, and to assess its usefulness in the initial stratification of patients. The expression of these isoforms was analyzed using specific primer sets and nested RT-PCR. The detected transcripts were classified according to the isoforms’s sizes reported. A non-expected band of 300 bp from one patient was analyzed by sequencing. Twenty-six patients expressed Ik6 and/or Ik8 and one of them expressed a variant of Ik8 denominated Ik8-deleted. Although the presence of them was not statistically associated with lower relapse free survival (p = 0.432), event free survival (p = 0.667) or overall survival (p = 0.531), inferior overall survival was observed in patients that expressed these isoforms and showed high or standard risk by age and white blood-cell count at diagnosis. Of the 26 patients Ik6+ and/or Ik8+, 14 did not present adverse events; from them 6 were exclusively Ik6+ and/or Ik8+, and 8 were positive for the other Ikaros isoforms (Ik1, Ik2, Ik5, Ik3A, Ik4, Ik4A, Ik7). In the patients studied, the expression of Ik6 and Ik8 did not constitute an independent prognostic factor for relapse or death related to disease; therefore, they could not be used in the initial risk stratification. PMID:26131904

  5. MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 signal pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chuqiang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Le; Tang, Long; Li, Shuangqing; Yang, Yixi; Yang, Fuguo; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is a common and remitting problem. One of the primary causes of LBP is thought to be degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal pathway in the mechanism of IVD degeneration. IVD nucleus pulposus cells isolated and cultured from the lumbar vertebrae of Wistar rats were stimulated by various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml) to simulate IVD degeneration. Cells were rinsed and cultured in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of incubation. Additionally, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses were used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα, and IL-1β protein expression after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β mRNA all increased in the cells stimulated by 10 µg/ml LPS at 3, 6 and 9 h (all P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β protein all increased at 24, 48 and 72 h (all P<0.001). Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β increased significantly in the cells stimulated by 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml LPS compared with the control group, and reached a peak in the 10 µg/ml LPS group (all P<0.001). These results suggest that the MyD88-dependent TLR4 signal pathway is a target pathway in IVD degeneration. This pathway is time phase- and dose-dependent, and when activated can lead to the release of inflammatory factors that participate in IVD degeneration. PMID:27446251

  6. c-CBL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase is Over-Expressed in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Its Inhibition Promotes Activation Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Salva, Katrin A.; Wood, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS) are two major forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by resistance to apoptosis. A central pathway for T-cell apoptosis is activation-induced cell death (AICD) which is triggered through the T-cell receptor (TCR). This results in upregulation of FAS-ligand (FASL) and subsequent apoptosis through the FAS death receptor pathway. It has been known for more than a decade that TCR signaling is defective in CTCL; however, the underlying mechanism has not been apparent. In this report, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, c-CBL, is over-expressed in CTCL and that its knockdown overcomes defective TCR signaling resulting in phosphorylation of PLCg1, calcium influx, ROS generation, up-regulation of FASL and extrinsic pathway apoptosis in CTCL cells expressing adequate FAS. In CTCL cells with suboptimal FAS expression, FAS can be upregulated epigenetically by derepression of the FAS promoter using methotrexate (MTX) which we showed previously has activity as a DNA methylation inhibitor. Using these combined strategies, FAS-low as well as FAS-high CTCL cells can be killed effectively. PMID:25140833

  7. Molecular cloning and responsive expression to injury stimulus of a defender against cell death 1 (DAD1) gene from bay scallops Argopecten irradians.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Zhao, Jianmin; Li, Chenghua; Xu, Wei

    2008-06-01

    Apoptosis is an active process of cell death, which is an integral part of growth and development in multicellular organisms. The defender against cell death 1 (DAD1), the regulatory protein to inhibit the apoptosis process, was first cloned from the bay scallop Argopecten irradians by randomly sequencing a whole tissue cDNA library and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The full-length cDNA of the A. irradians DAD1 was 607 bp, consist of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 63 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 205 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 339 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of the A. irradians DAD1 showed 75.5% identity to Araneus ventricosus, 74.5% to Drosophila melanogaster, and 73.6% to Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Mesocricetus auratus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. Excluding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAD1 homologue, all animal DAD1 including A. irradians DAD1 homologue formed a subgroup and all plant DAD1 proteins formed another subgroup in the phylogenetic analysis. The A. irradians DAD1 was expressed in all examined tissues including adductor muscle, mantle, gills, digestive gland, gonad and hemolymph, suggesting that A. irradians DAD1 is expressed in most body tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of A. irradians DAD1 gene of hemolymph were particularly high after injury, suggesting that the gene is responsive to injury stimuli. PMID:17294251

  8. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  9. Toll Like Receptor-4 Mediates Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular dysfunction is a major complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The current studies were undertaken to determine if inflammatory responses are activated in the vasculature of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), and if so, whether Toll Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), a ke...

  10. Plant programmed cell death caused by an autoactive form of Prf is suppressed by co-expression of the Prf LRR domain.

    PubMed

    Du, Xinran; Miao, Min; Ma, Xinrong; Liu, Yongsheng; Kuhl, Joseph C; Martin, Gregory B; Xiao, Fangming

    2012-09-01

    In tomato, the NBARC-LRR resistance (R) protein Prf acts in concert with the Pto or Fen kinase to determine immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Prf-mediated defense signaling is initiated by the recognition of two sequence-unrelated Pst-secreted effector proteins, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, by tomato Pto or Fen. Prf detects these interactions and activates signaling leading to host defense responses including localized programmed cell death (PCD) that is associated with the arrest of Pst growth. We found that Prf variants with single amino acid substitutions at D1416 in the IHD motif (isoleucine-histidine-aspartic acid) in the NBARC domain cause effector-independent PCD when transiently expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting D1416 plays an important role in activation of Prf. The N-terminal region of Prf (NPrf) and the LRR domain are required for this autoactive Prf cell death signaling but dispensable for accumulation of the Prf(D1416V) protein. Significantly, co-expression of the Prf LRR but not NPrf, with Prf(D1416V), AvrPto/Pto, AvrPtoB/Pto, an autoactive form of Pto (Pto(Y207D)), or Fen completely suppresses PCD. However, the Prf LRR does not interfere with PCD caused by Rpi-blb1(D475V), a distinct R protein-mediated PCD signaling event, or that caused by overexpression of MAPKKKα, a protein acting downstream of Prf. Furthermore, we found the Prf(D1416V) protein is unable to accumulate in plant cells when co-expressed with the Prf LRR domain, likely explaining the cell death suppression. The mechanism for the LRR-induced degradation of Prf(D1416V) is unknown but may involve interference in the intramolecular interactions of Prf or to binding of the unattached LRR to other host proteins that are needed for Prf stability.

  11. Silymarin modulates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress, Bcl-xL and p53 expression while preventing apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nirav; Joseph, Cecil; Corcoran, George B.; Ray, Sidhartha D.

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of silymarin (SMN) as a natural remedy for liver diseases, coupled with its entry into NIH clinical trial, signifies its hepatoprotective potential. SMN is noted for its ability to interfere with apoptotic signaling while acting as an antioxidant. This in vivo study was designed to explore the hepatotoxic potential of Doxorubicin (Dox), the well-known cardiotoxin, and in particular whether pre-exposures to SMN can prevent hepatotoxicity by reducing Dox-induced free radical mediated oxidative stress, by modulating expression of apoptotic signaling proteins like Bcl-xL, and by minimizing liver cell death occurring by apoptosis or necrosis. Groups of male ICR mice included Control, Dox alone, SMN alone, and Dox with SMN pre/co-treatment. Control and Dox groups received saline i.p. for 14 days. SMN was administered p.o. for 14 days at 16 mg/kg/day. An approximate LD{sub 50} dose of Dox, 60 mg/kg, was administered i.p. on day 12 to animals receiving saline or SMN. Animals were euthanized 48 h later. Dox alone induced frank liver injury (> 50-fold increase in serum ALT) and oxidative stress (> 20-fold increase in malondialdehyde [MDA]), as well as direct damage to DNA (> 15-fold increase in DNA fragmentation). Coincident genomic damage and oxidative stress influenced genomic stability, reflected in increased PARP activity and p53 expression. Decreases in Bcl-xL protein coupled with enhanced accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol accompanied elevated indexes of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Significantly, SMN exposure reduced Dox hepatotoxicity and associated apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The effects of SMN on Dox were broad, including the ability to modulate changes in both Bcl-xL and p53 expression. In animals treated with SMN, tissue Bcl-xL expression exceeded control values after Dox treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrated that SMN (i) reduced, delayed onset, or prevented toxic effects of Dox which are typically associated

  12. Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) in Human Transitional Bladder Cancer and its Role in Inducing Cell Death1

    PubMed Central

    Guan, You-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Hua; Breyer, Richard M; Davis, Linda; Breyer, Matthew D

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The present study examined the expression and role of the thiazolidinedione (TZD)-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), in human bladder cancers. In situ hybridization shows that PPARγ mRNA is highly expressed in all human transitional epithelial cell cancers (TCCa's) studied (n=11). PPARγ was also expressed in five TCCa cell lines as determined by RNase protection assays and immunoblot. Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), a 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated (9-cis-RA) heterodimeric partner of PPARγ, was also co-expressed in all TCCa tissues and cell lines. Treatment of the T24 bladder cancer cells with the TZD PPARγ agonist troglitazone, dramatically inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation and induced cell death. Addition of the RXRα ligands, 9-cis-RA or LG100268, sensitized T24 bladder cancer cells to the lethal effect of troglitazone and two other PPARγ activators, ciglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ2,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2). Troglitazone treatment increased expression of two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, P21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4, and reduced cyclin D1 expression, consistent with G1 arrest. Troglitazone also induced an endogenous PPARγ target gene in T24 cells, adipocyte-type fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), the expression of which correlates with bladder cancer differentiation. In situ hybridization shows that A-FABP expression is localized to normal uroepithelial cells as well as some TCCa's. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in human TCCa where it may play a role in regulating TCCa differentiation and survival, thereby providing a potential target for therapy of uroepithelial cancers. PMID:10935488

  13. Adenovirus expressing dual c-Met-specific shRNA exhibits potent antitumor effect through autophagic cell death accompanied by senescence-like phenotypes in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Yoon, Mi Jin; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-01-01

    c-Met, a cognate receptor tyrosine kinase of hepatocyte growth factor, is overexpressed and/or mutated in number of tumors. Therefore, abrogation of c-Met signaling may serve as potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we generated Ads expressing single shRNA specific to c-Met (shMet) (dl/shMet4 and dl/shMet5) or dual shRNAs specific to c-Met (dl/shMet4+5); and examined the therapeutic potential of these newly engineered Ads in targeting c-Met, and delineated their mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Ads expressing shMet induced knock-down in c-Met, and phenotypically resulted in autophagy-like features including appearance of membranousvacuoles, formation of acidic vesicular organelles, and cleavage and recruitment of microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3 to autophagosomes. Ads expressing shMet also suppressed Akt phosphorylation and increased number of senescence-related gene products including SM22, TGase II, and PAI-1. These changes resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M arrest of U343 cells. In vivo, intratumoral injection with dl/shMet4+5 resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth with corresponding increasing overall survival. Histopathological analysis of these treated tumors revealed that Atg5 was highly up-regulated, indicating the therapeutic induction of autophagy. In sum, these results reveal that autophagic cell death induced by shMet-expressing Ads provide a novel strategy for targeting c-Met-expressing tumors through non-apoptotic mechanism of cell death. PMID:25726528

  14. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma is associated with an inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Gupta, Ruta; Madore, Jason; Chia, Noel; Lum, Trina; Palme, Carsten E; Boyer, Michael; Scolyer, Richard A; Clark, Jonathan R

    2016-10-01

    Phase 2 clinical trials utilising novel anti-PD1/PD-L1 antibodies are being conducted in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. However, data regarding PD-L1 expression in OSCC is limited. The aim of this study was to characterise the PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in OSCC and its association with clinicopathological factors. Clinicopathological review of 217 patients with OSCC was performed, including quantifying tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry with PD-L1, CD4 and CD8 was performed. Forty (18.3%) cases showed PD-L1 expression. Expression was significantly more frequent in females (p=0.013), tongue/buccal mucosal SCCs (p=0.05), and in tumours with a high lymphocytic infiltrate (p>0.001). Intratumoural heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression was observed in 30% of the cases. PD-L1 expression was not significantly associated with disease-free (p=0.82) or overall survival (p=0.93). PD-L1 expression occurred in a significant minority of OSCC and can be heterogeneous. Frequent PD-L1 expression in OSCCs in females and in tumours with high lymphocytic infiltrate may assist in the selection of patients who may respond to anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapies. PMID:27590194

  15. Hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS induces death of alveolar epithelial L2 cells that is associated with cellular shrinkage, transgelin expression and myosin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yusuke; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Noritake, Kanako; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gaseous molecule that causes death to humans exposed to high concentrations. H2S is absorbed into the body through the alveolar epithelium and other tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism underling acute lung injury caused by the inhalation of high concentrations of H2S. Rat lung epithelium-derived L2 cells were exposed to a H2S donor, NaHS, at concentrations of 2-4 mM for 1-6 hr. NaHS caused shrinkage and death of the cells without caspase activation. An actin-binding protein, transgelin, was identified as one of the NaHS-inducible proteins in the cells. NaHS increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, indicating that actomyosin-mediated cellular contractility and/or motility could be increased after NaHS exposure. The administration of ML-7, a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, accelerated cell death after NaHS exposure. Based on these data, we conclude that the increase in MLC phosphorylation in response to NaHS exposure is a cellular protective reaction against NaHS toxicity. Enhancements in smooth muscle cell properties such as transgelin expression and actomyosin-mediated contractility/motility might be involved in cell survival after NaHS exposure. PMID:27665774

  16. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  17. The Expression of Programmed Death-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Severe Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunsheng; Shao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Programmed death-1 (PD-1) on T lymphocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and severe sepsis, we determined PD-1 expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of patients with T2DM, severe sepsis, and T2DM combined with severe sepsis. Research Design and Methods This prospective and observational study included 50 healthy controls, 80 cases of T2DM without infection (T2DM group), 88 cases of severe sepsis without T2DM (SS group), and 77 cases of severe sepsis combined with T2DM (SS+T2DM group). Expression of peripheral blood PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells were compared between these 4 groups. Then, 28-day survival of the SS and SS+T2DM patients was assessed, and the expression of PD-1 on T cells was also compared between survivors and non-survivors. Results Percentages of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells were higher in the T2DM group than in the healthy control group, and were highest in the SS and SS+T2DM groups. However, the expression of PD-1 on T cells and the mortality showed no significant difference between the SS and SS+T2DM groups. The expression of PD-1 on T cells was higher in non-survivors than survivors, but within the survivor group or non-survivor group, no difference can be detected between those with T2DM and those without T2DM. Conclusion The expression of PD-1 on T cells was increased in both T2DM and severe septic patients, but combining T2DM did not cause a further increase on the PD-1 expression in patients with severe sepsis. PMID:27459386

  18. Expression of programmed death 1 ligand 1 on periodontal tissue cells as a possible protective feedback mechanism against periodontal tissue destruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIEHUA; WANG, CHIEH-MEI; ZHANG, PING; WANG, XIAOQIAN; CHEN, JIAO; YANG, JUN; LU, WANLU; ZHOU, WENJIE; YUAN, WENWEN; FENG, YUN

    2016-01-01

    Programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a negative co-stimulatory molecule in immune responses. Previous reports have indicated that inflammatory cytokines can upregulate the expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells, which in turn suppresses host immune responses. Periodontitis is characterized by persistent inflammation of the periodontium, which is initiated by infection with oral bacteria and results in damage to cells and the matrices of the periodontal connective tissues. In the present study, the expression and function of PD-L1 in periodontal tissue destruction were examined. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were stimulated by inflammatory cytokines and periodontal pathogens. The expression and function of PD-L1 on the surface of PDLCs was investigated using flow cytometry in vitro. Periodontal disease was induced by the injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in mouse models. The expression levels of PD-L1 in the periodontal tissues of the mice were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. PD-L1 was inducibly expressed on the PDLCs by the inflammatory cytokines and periodontal pathogens. The inflammation-induced expression of PD-L1 was shown to cause the apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes and improve the survival of PDLCs. Furthermore, in the mouse model of experimental periodontitis, the expression of PD-L1 in severe cases of periodontitis was significantly lower, compared with that in mild cases. By contrast, no significant differences were observed between the healthy control and severe periodontitis groups. The results of the present study showed that the expression of PD-L1 may inhibit the destruction of periodontal tissues, indicating the involvement of a possible protective feedback mechanism against periodontal infection. PMID:26847035

  19. Oocyte-secreted growth differentiation factor 9 inhibits BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death-extra long expression in porcine cumulus cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Long; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Shuan; Wu, Yi; Gao, Hui; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) maintain the low incidence of cumulus cell apoptosis. In this report, we described that the presence of oocytes suppressed the expression of proapoptotic protein BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death-extra long (BIMEL) in porcine cumulus cells. Atretic (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive) cumulus cells strongly expressed BIMEL protein. The healthy cumulus- oocyte complex exhibited a low BIMEL expression in cumulus cell while the removal of oocyte led to an about 2.5-fold (P < 0.5) increased expression in oocytectomized complex (OOX). Coculturing OOXs with denuded oocytes decreased BIMEL expression to the normal level. The similar expression pattern could also be achieved in OOXs treated with exogenous recombinant mouse growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), a well-characterized OSF. This inhibitory action of GDF9 was prevented by the addition of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Luciferase assay further demonstrated that BIM gene expression was forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a)-dependent because mutation of FOXO3a-binding site on the BIM promoter inhibited luciferase activities. Moreover, the activity of BIM promoter encompassing the FOXO3a-binding site could be regulated by GDF9. Additionally, we found that GDF9 elevated the levels of phosphorylated AKT and FOXO3a, and this process was independent of the SMAD signal pathway. Taken together, we concluded that OSFs, particularly GDF9, maintained the low level of BIMEL expression in cumulus cell through activation of the PI3K/FOXO3a pathway.

  20. High expression of IMPACT protein promotes resistance to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Darya; Jalili, Reza B; Forouzandeh, Farshad; Ong, Christopher J; Ghahary, Aziz

    2010-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan degrading enzyme, is a potent immunomodulatory factor. IDO expression in fibroblasts selectively induces apoptosis in immune cells but not in primary skin cells. However, the mechanism(s) of this selective effect of IDO-induced low tryptophan environment is not elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate whether the activity of general control non-derepressible-2(GCN2) kinase stress-responsive pathway and its known inhibitor, protein IMPACT homolog, in immune and skin cells are differentially regulated in response to IDO-induced low tryptophan environment. IDO-expressing human fibroblasts were co-cultured with Jurkat cells, human T cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. Activation of GCN2 pathway was significantly higher in immune cells exposed to IDO-expressing environment relative to that of skin cells. In contrast, IMPACT was highly and constitutively expressed in skin cells while its expression was very low in stimulated T cells and undetectable in Jurkat cells. A significant IDO-induced suppressive as well as apoptotic effect was demonstrated in IMPACT knocked down fibroblasts co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts. Proliferation of Jurkat cells, stably transduced with IMPACT-expressing vector, was rescued significantly in tryptophan-deficient but not IDO-expressing environment. This may be due to the ability of IMPACT to recover the effects of IDO-mediated tryptophan depletion (GCN2 dependent) but not the effects of IDO-generated cytotoxic metabolites. These findings collectively suggest for the first time that high expression of protein IMPACT homolog in non-immune cells such as skin cells acts as a protective mechanism against IDO-induced GCN2 activation, therefore, makes them resistant to the amino acid-deprived environment caused by IDO. PMID:20648630

  1. High expression of IMPACT protein promotes resistance to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Darya; Jalili, Reza B; Forouzandeh, Farshad; Ong, Christopher J; Ghahary, Aziz

    2010-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan degrading enzyme, is a potent immunomodulatory factor. IDO expression in fibroblasts selectively induces apoptosis in immune cells but not in primary skin cells. However, the mechanism(s) of this selective effect of IDO-induced low tryptophan environment is not elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate whether the activity of general control non-derepressible-2(GCN2) kinase stress-responsive pathway and its known inhibitor, protein IMPACT homolog, in immune and skin cells are differentially regulated in response to IDO-induced low tryptophan environment. IDO-expressing human fibroblasts were co-cultured with Jurkat cells, human T cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. Activation of GCN2 pathway was significantly higher in immune cells exposed to IDO-expressing environment relative to that of skin cells. In contrast, IMPACT was highly and constitutively expressed in skin cells while its expression was very low in stimulated T cells and undetectable in Jurkat cells. A significant IDO-induced suppressive as well as apoptotic effect was demonstrated in IMPACT knocked down fibroblasts co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts. Proliferation of Jurkat cells, stably transduced with IMPACT-expressing vector, was rescued significantly in tryptophan-deficient but not IDO-expressing environment. This may be due to the ability of IMPACT to recover the effects of IDO-mediated tryptophan depletion (GCN2 dependent) but not the effects of IDO-generated cytotoxic metabolites. These findings collectively suggest for the first time that high expression of protein IMPACT homolog in non-immune cells such as skin cells acts as a protective mechanism against IDO-induced GCN2 activation, therefore, makes them resistant to the amino acid-deprived environment caused by IDO.

  2. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields modulate the expression of Fas/CD95 death receptor pathway regulators in U937 and Jurkat Cells.

    PubMed

    Estlack, Larry E; Roth, Caleb C; Thompson, Gary L; Lambert, William A; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    In this publication, we demonstrate that exposure of Jurkat and U937 cells to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEF) can modulate the extrinsic-mediated apoptotic pathway via the Fas/CD95 death receptor. An inherent difference in survival between these two cell lines in response to 10 ns exposures has been previously reported (Jurkat being more sensitive to nsPEF than U937), but the reason for this sensitivity difference remains unknown. We found that exposure of each cell line to 100, 10 ns pulses at 50 kV/cm caused a marked increase in expression of cFLIP (extrinsic apoptosis inhibitor) in U937 and FasL (extrinsic apoptosis activator) in Jurkat, respectively. Measurement of basal expression levels revealed an inherent difference between U937 cells, having a higher expression of cFLIP, and Jurkat cells, having a higher expression of FasL. From these data, we hypothesize that the sensitivity difference between the cells to nsPEF exposure may be directly related to expression of extrinsic apoptotic regulators. To validate this hypothesis, we used siRNA to knockdown cFLAR (coding for cFLIP protein) expression in U937, and FasL expression in Jurkat and challenged them to 100, 10 ns pulses at 150 kV/cm, a typical lethal dose. We observed that U937 survival was reduced nearly 60% in the knockdown population while Jurkat survival improved ~40%. These findings support the hypothesis that cell survival following 10 ns pulse exposures depends on extrinsic apoptotic regulators. Interestingly, pretreatment of U937 with a 100-pulse, 50 kV/cm exposure (to amplify cFLAR expression) significantly reduced the lethality of a 150 kV/cm, 100-pulse exposure applied 24 h later. From these data, we conclude that the observed survival differences between cells, exposed to 10 ns pulsed electric fields, is due to inherent cell biochemistry rather than the biophysics of the exposure itself. Understanding cell sensitivity to nsPEF may provide researchers/clinicians with a predicable way

  3. Yokukansan, a kampo medicine, protects PC12 cells from glutamate-induced death by augmenting gene expression of cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc-.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitomi; Kawakami, Zenji; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Kase, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the kampo medicine yokukansan on gene expression of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc-, which protects against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, were examined in Pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells). Yokukansan inhibited glutamate-induced PC12 cell death. Similar cytoprotective effects were found in Uncaria hook. Experiments to clarify the active compounds revealed that geissoschizine methyl ether, hirsuteine, hirsutine, and procyanidin B1 in Uncaria hook, had cytoprotective effects. These components enhanced gene expressions of system Xc- subunits xCT and 4F2hc, and also ameliorated the glutamate-induced decrease in glutathione levels. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of yokukansan may be attributed to geissoschizine methyl ether, hirsuteine, hirsutine, and procyanidin B1 in Uncaria hook.

  4. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants.

    PubMed

    Maringer, Katherine; Saheb, Entsar; Bush, John

    2014-01-01

    Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA), and dominant negative (DN) forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell-cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  5. Treadmill exercise inhibits apoptotic neuronal cell death with suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the retinas of the diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Ko, Il-Gyu; Cho, Jung-Wan; Davis, Ronald W.; Hwang, Gwang-Yon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most important microvascular complications in diabetes, and it is the major cause of visual loss. Physical exercise is known to ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic syndromes such as diabetic mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and apoptotic cell death in the retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 in each group): control group, STZ-induce diabetes group, STZ-induced diabetes and treadmill exercise group. To induce diabetes in the experimental animals, a single intraperitioneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg) was given to each animal. The rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day during 1 week starting 6 weeks after STZ injection. In the present results, VEGF expression in the retinas was increased by induction of diabetes. The numbers of caspase-3-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the retinas were also enhanced by induction of diabetes. Treadmill exercise significantly decreased VEGF expression and suppressed the number of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the retinas of diabetic rats. In the present study, we have shown that treadmill exercise might alleviate the progression of diabetic retinopathy through suppressing VEGF expression and apoptotic cell death in the retinas of the diabetic rats. PMID:24278883

  6. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1-3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  7. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  8. Expression analysis of programmed death ligand 2 in tumors caused by the avian oncovirus Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama-Kato, Ayumi; Murata, Shiro; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Takasaki, Sarah; Kano, Rika; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    PD-L2 is a ligand of the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1. Here, we report functional and expression analyses of PD-L2 in tumor lesions and spleens from chickens infected with gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, Marek's disease virus), which induces malignant lymphomas in chickens. We show that the expression of IFN-γ protein was decreased in PBMCs and splenocytes co-cultured with PD-L2-expressing cells and that the expression of PD-L2 mRNA was significantly higher in the spleens of infected chickens in the latent phase and in tumor lesions caused by GaHV-2. These results suggest that chicken PD-L2 has an immunoinhibitory function and is involved in the establishment of latency and tumor formation by GaHV-2.

  9. Pesticide exposure during pregnancy, like nicotine, affects the brainstem α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression, increasing the risk of sudden unexplained perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Cappiello, Achille; Pusiol, Teresa; Corna, Melissa Felicita; Termopoli, Veronica; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-01-15

    This study indicates the impact of nicotine and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides used in agriculture) on neuronal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in human perinatal life. An in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system and immunohistochemistry to analyze the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in the brainstem from 44 fetuses and newborns were performed. In addition, the presence of selected agricultural pesticides in cerebral cortex samples of the victims was determined by specific analytical procedures. Hypodevelopment of brainstem structures checking the vital functions, frequently associated with α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor immunopositivity and smoke absorption in pregnancy, was observed in high percentages of victims of sudden unexpected perinatal death. In nearly 30% of cases however the mothers never smoked, but lived in rural areas. The search for pesticides highlighted in many of these cases traces of both organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. We detain that exposition to pesticides in pregnancy produces homologous actions to those of nicotine on neuronal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, allowing to developmental alterations of brainstem vital centers in victims of sudden unexplained death.

  10. Programmed Death-1 Affects Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 Expression in T Cells During Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Ashley D.; Zhang, Chun L.; Ni, Lei; Ma, Cheng J.; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Xiao Y.; Atia, Antwan N.; Yao, Zhi Q.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with T-cell exhaustion that is mediated through upregulation of the PD-1 negative regulatory pathway. PD-1 expression is induced by HCV core protein, which also induces upregulation of SOCS-1, a key modulator that controls the Jak/STAT pathway regulating cytokine expression. To determine whether these two negative regulatory pathways are linked during T-cell signaling, SOCS-1 expression was examined by blocking the PD-1 pathway in T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence of HCV core protein. T cells isolated from healthy subjects or HCV-infected individuals were treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PDL-1 antibodies in the presence or absence of HCV core protein, and SOCS-1 gene expression was detected by RT-PCR or immunoblotting, while T-cell functions were assayed by flow cytometric analyses. Both PD-1 and SOCS-1 gene expression were upregulated in healthy T cells exposed to HCV core protein, and blocking the PD-1 pathway downregulated SOCS-1 gene expression in these cells. Additionally, T cells isolated from chronically HCV-infected subjects exhibited increased PD-1 and SOCS-1 expression compared to healthy subjects, and SOCS-1 expression in T cells isolated from HCV-infected subjects was also inhibited by blocking PD-1 signaling; this in turn enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT-1, and improved the impaired T-cell proliferation observed in the setting of HCV infection. These data demonstrate that PD-1 and SOCS-1 are linked in dysregulating T-cell signaling during HCV infection, and their cross-talk may coordinately inhibit T-cell signaling pathways that lead to T-cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection. PMID:20883163

  11. Downregulation of toll-like receptor 4 and IL-6 following irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Giglio, D; Wasén, C; Mölne, J; Suchy, D; Swanpalmer, J; Jabonero Valbuena, J; Tobin, G; Ny, L

    2016-07-01

    The pathophysiology behind radiation cystitis is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether bladder irradiation affects the immune system of the rat urinary bladder. Female rats were sedated and exposed to one single radiation dose of 20 Gy or only sedated (controls) and killed 16 h to 14 days later. Rats were placed in a metabolic cage at 16 h, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days following bladder irradiation. The urinary bladders were harvested and analysed with qPCR, immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot for the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, nitric oxide synthases (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Urine was collected and analysed for IL-6 and nitrite (reflecting nitric oxide activity) with ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Irradiation increased bladder frequency and decreased voiding volumes 14 days following bladder irradiation. Bladder irradiation increased the expression of IL-10 and collagen in the bladder, while TLR4 and IL-6 expressions were decreased in the urothelium concomitantly with a decrease in mast cells in the submucosa and urine levels of IL-6 and nitrite. The present findings show that bladder irradiation leads to urodynamic changes in the bladder and may suppress important immunoregulatory pathways in the urinary bladder. PMID:27117224

  12. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  13. Disabled-2 is a negative immune regulator of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Toll-like receptor 4 internalization and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wei-Shan; Ling, Pin; Cheng, Ju-Chien; Chang, Shy-Shin; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role in the host response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we elucidated whether the endocytic adaptor protein Disabled-2 (Dab2), which is abundantly expressed in macrophages, plays a role in LPS-stimulated TLR4 signaling and trafficking. Molecular analysis and transcriptome profiling of RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells expressing short-hairpin RNA of Dab2 revealed that Dab2 regulated the TLR4/TRIF pathway upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of Dab2 augmented TRIF-dependent interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and the expression of subsets of inflammatory cytokines and interferon-inducible genes. Dab2 acted as a clathrin sponge and sequestered clathrin from TLR4 in the resting stage of macrophages. Upon LPS stimulation, clathrin was released from Dab2 to facilitate endocytosis of TLR4 for triggering the TRIF-mediated pathway. Dab2 functions as a negative immune regulator of TLR4 endocytosis and signaling, supporting a novel role for a Dab2-associated regulatory circuit in controlling the inflammatory response of macrophages to endotoxin. PMID:27748405

  14. CD34+ gene expression profiling of individual children with very severe aplastic anemia indicates a pathogenic role of integrin receptors and the proapoptotic death ligand TRAIL

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ute; Ruckert, Christian; Hubner, Bernd; Eckermann, Olaf; Binder, Vera; Bakchoul, Tamam; Schuster, Friedhelm R.; Merk, Sylvia; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Führer, Monika; Dugas, Martin; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    Background Very severe aplastic anemia is characterized by a hypoplastic bone marrow due to destruction of CD34+ stem cells by autoreactive T cells. Investigation of the pathomechanism by patient-specific gene expression analysis of the attacked stem cells has previously been impractical because of the scarcity of these cells at diagnosis. Design and Methods Employing unbiased RNA amplification, patient-specific gene expression profiling was carried out for CD34+ cells from patients newly diagnosed with very severe aplastic anemia (n=13), refractory anemia (n=8) and healthy controls (n=10). These data were compared to profiles of myelodysplastic disease (n=55), including refractory anemia (n=18). To identify possible targets of autoimmune attack, presence of autoreactive antibodies was tested in pre-therapeutic sera of patients with very severe aplastic anemia (n=19). Results CD34+ gene expression profiling distinguished between healthy controls, children with aplastic or refractory anemia and clonal disease. Interferon stimulated genes such as the apoptosis inducing death ligand TRAIL were strongly up-regulated in CD34+ cells of patients with aplastic anemia, in particular in patients responding to immunosuppressive treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of integrin GPVI and the integrin complexes GPIa/IIa, GPIIb/IIIa, GPIB/GPIX/GPV was significantly down-regulated and corresponding antibodies were detected in 7 of 11 profiled patients and in 11 of 19 aplastic anemia patients. Conclusions As a potential diagnostic tool, patient-specific gene expression profiling of CD34+ stem cells made it possible to make the difficult differential diagnosis of most patients with aplastic and refractory anemia. Profiling indicated a prognostic correlation of TRAIL expression and patient benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. Downregulation of integrin expression and concurrent presence of autoreactive anti-integrin-antibodies suggested a previously unrecognized pathological

  15. Expression of programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with favorable spinal chordoma prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming-Xiang; Peng, An-Bo; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Jing; She, Xiao-Ling; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) proteins alters human immunoresponse and promotes tumor development and progression. We assessed the expression status of PD-1 and PD-L1 in spinal chordoma tissue specimens and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of patients. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 54 patients with spinal chordoma were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. The association of the expression levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 with clinicopathological variables and survival data were statistically analyzed. Lymphocyte infiltrates were present in all 54 patient samples. Of 54 samples, 37 (68.5%) had both positive PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor cell membrane. Moreover, 38 (70.4%) and 12 (22.2%) had positive PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), respectively. Tumors with positive PD-L1 expression were significantly associated with advanced stages of chordoma (p = 0.041) and TIL infiltration (p = 0.005), and had a borderline association with tumor grade (p = 0.051). However, positive tumor PD-L1 expression was not significantly associated with local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) or overall survival (OS). PD-1 expression in TILs was associated with poor LRFS (χ(2) = 10.051, p = 0.002, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis showed that PD-L1 expression only in TILs was an independent predictor for LRFS (HR = 0.298, 95% CI: 0.098-0.907, p = 0.033), and OS (HR = 0.188, 95% CI: 0.051-0.687, p = 0.011) in spinal chordoma patients. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression in TILs was an independent predictor for both LRFS and OS in spinal chordoma patients. Our findings suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the immunotherapy of chordoma.

  16. Expression of programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with favorable spinal chordoma prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming-Xiang; Peng, An-Bo; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Jing; She, Xiao-Ling; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) proteins alters human immunoresponse and promotes tumor development and progression. We assessed the expression status of PD-1 and PD-L1 in spinal chordoma tissue specimens and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of patients. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 54 patients with spinal chordoma were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. The association of the expression levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 with clinicopathological variables and survival data were statistically analyzed. Lymphocyte infiltrates were present in all 54 patient samples. Of 54 samples, 37 (68.5%) had both positive PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor cell membrane. Moreover, 38 (70.4%) and 12 (22.2%) had positive PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), respectively. Tumors with positive PD-L1 expression were significantly associated with advanced stages of chordoma (p = 0.041) and TIL infiltration (p = 0.005), and had a borderline association with tumor grade (p = 0.051). However, positive tumor PD-L1 expression was not significantly associated with local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) or overall survival (OS). PD-1 expression in TILs was associated with poor LRFS (χ2 = 10.051, p = 0.002, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis showed that PD-L1 expression only in TILs was an independent predictor for LRFS (HR = 0.298, 95% CI: 0.098-0.907, p = 0.033), and OS (HR = 0.188, 95% CI: 0.051-0.687, p = 0.011) in spinal chordoma patients. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression in TILs was an independent predictor for both LRFS and OS in spinal chordoma patients. Our findings suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the immunotherapy of chordoma. PMID:27508049

  17. Improved Survival and Neurological Outcomes after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Toll-like Receptor 4-mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Qing-Song; Li, Qian; Han, Ji-Yuan; Sun, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system and noninfectious immune responses. It has been reported that TLR4 participates in the pathological course of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of TLR4 in the process of I/R injury after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TLR4 mutation on survival and neurological outcome in a mouse model of CA/CPR. Methods: A model of potassium-induced CA was performed on TLR4-mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild-type mice (C3H/HeN). After 3 min of untreated CA, resuscitation was attempted with chest compression, ventilation, and intravenous epinephrine. Behavioral tests were performed on mice on day 3 after CPR. The morphological changes in hippocampal neurons were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Expressions of TLR4 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by Western blot. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On day 3 after resuscitation the overall mortality was 33.33% in C3H/HeJ group compared with 53.33% in C3H/HeN group (P < 0.05). And there was much higher central tendency in C3H/HeJ group than C3H/HeN group during open field test (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of nonviable neurons was 21.16% in C3H/HeJ group compared with 53.11% in C3H/HeN group (P < 0.05). And there were significantly lower levels of hippocampal TNF-α and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice (TNF-α: 6.85±1.19 ng/mL, MPO: 0.33±0.11 U/g) than C3H/HeN mice (TNF-α: 11.36±2.12 ng/mL, MPO: 0.54±0.17 U/g) (all P < 0.01). CPR also significantly increased the expressions of TLR4 and ICAM-1 in C3H/HeN group. However, the expression of ICAM-1 was much lower in C3H/HeJ group than in C3H/HeN group after CPR (P < 0.01). Conclusion: TLR4 signaling is involved in brain damage and in inflammation

  18. Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by regulating Bcl-2 expression and its cellular localization.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, F; Martínez-A, C; Camonis, J; Rebollo, A

    1999-01-01

    We searched for proteins that interact with Ras in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated or IL-2-deprived cells, and found that the transcription factor Aiolos interacts with Ras. The Ras-Aiolos interaction was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. Indirect immunofluorescence shows that IL-2 controls the cellular distribution of Aiolos and induces its tyrosine phosphorylation, required for dissociation from Ras. We also identified functional Aiolos-binding sites in the Bcl-2 promoter, which are able to activate the luciferase reporter gene. Mutation of Aiolos-binding sites within the Bcl-2 promoter inhibits transactivation of the reporter gene luciferase, suggesting direct control of Bcl-2 expression by Aiolos. Co-transfection experiments confirm that Aiolos induces Bcl-2 expression and prevents apoptosis in IL-2-deprived cells. We propose a model for the regulation of Bcl-2 expression via Aiolos. PMID:10369681

  19. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youhong; Chen, Lin; Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-02-20

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future. PMID:25605010

  20. Human gliomas and epileptic foci express high levels of a mRNA related to rat testicular sulfated glycoprotein 2, a purported marker of cell death.

    PubMed

    Danik, M; Chabot, J G; Mercier, C; Benabid, A L; Chauvin, C; Quirion, R; Suh, M

    1991-10-01

    Clone pTB16 has been isolated by differential screening of a human glioma cDNA library. Northern blot analysis has shown that pTB16 expression is several times (greater than 11-fold) higher in gliomas than in a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. This observation was supported by in situ hybridization and extended to nine other gliomas. Expression was virtually absent in adenocarcinoma cells metastasized to brain. Malignant gliomas showed stronger hybridization than benign gliomas, while blood capillaries did not show hybridization. pTB16 mRNA was also shown to be expressed in established glioma cell lines and at high levels in epileptic foci, indicating that expression of the gene may be limited to certain cell types and that its upregulation is not merely a consequence of cellular proliferation. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified pTB16 as the human counterpart for rat testicular sulfated glycoprotein 2 (SGP-2), whose function in the reproductive system remains unknown. Although SGP-2 transcripts, and hence pTB16, were recently shown to be increased in neurodegenerative diseases such as scrapie in hamsters and Alzheimer disease in humans, our observations with brain tumors and epilepsy are suggestive of a role for pTB16 in neuropathologies in general and support the hypothesis of its involvement in tissue remodeling and cell death. PMID:1924317

  1. [Increased expressions of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands in peripheral CD3(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Chai, Lin; Liang, Junli; Lu, Zhizhong; Yang, Siwei

    2016-09-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and ligands, as well as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The peripheral blood was collected from 15 early HCC patients, 13 progressive HCC patients and 12 healthy volunteers. PBMCs was isolated from the peripheral blood. The expressions of PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 in PBMCs were detected by flow cytometry; the serum level of IFN-γ was determined by ELISA; the correlation of PD-1 and IFN-γ was analyzed with Pearson's correlation and One-way ANOVA. Results The expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 in CD3(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells and serum IFN-γ level in progressive HCC patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy group and early HCC patients. The expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 in the CD3(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells of the HCC patients were positively correlated with IFN-γ. Conclusion The expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 increase in the PBMCs of HCC patients; PD-1 and PD-L1 are correlated with IFN-γ level. PMID:27609582

  2. Tamoxifen-Induced Cell Death of Malignant Glioma Cells Is Brought About by Oxidative-Stress-Mediated Alterations in the Expression of BCL2 Family Members and Is Enhanced on miR-21 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Harmalkar, Mugdha; Upraity, Shailendra; Kazi, Sadaf; Shirsat, Neelam Vishwanath

    2015-10-01

    High-grade gliomas are refractory to the current mode of treatment primarily due to their inherent resistance to cell death. Tamoxifen has been reported to inhibit growth and induce cell death of glioma cells in vitro, in an estrogen-receptor-independent manner. Delineating the molecular mechanism underlying tamoxifen-induced cell death of human glioma cells would help in identifying pathways/genes that could be targeted to induce tumor-cell-specific cell death. In the present study, tamoxifen was found to bring about autophagic cell death of human glioma cells that was accompanied by oxidative stress induction, JNK activation, downregulation of anti-autophagic BCL2 family members, viz. BCL2 and BCL-XL, and increased expression of the pro-autophagic members BCL-Xs and BAK. Oxidative stress induction appears to be primarily responsible for the tamoxifen-induced cell death since the cell death, JNK activation, and the alterations in the expression levels of BCL2 family members were abrogated on pretreatment with antioxidant vitamin E. MiR-21, an oncogenic miRNA, is known to be highly upregulated in malignant glioma. Inhibition of miR-21 activity was found to enhance tamoxifen-induced cell death of U87 MG malignant glioma cells. Tamoxifen treatment coupled with miR-21 inhibition could therefore be an effective strategy for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  3. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  4. Smad8 is expressed in the anterior necrotic zone: evidence for a role of bone morphogenetic proteins/SMAD signaling in the activation of a molecular cascade that culminates in cell death.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Buis, René F; Bustamante, Marcia; Cuervo, Rodrigo; Aguilar-Fernández-de-Lara, Dante; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a crucial role in programmed cell death (PCD), a biological process required for the sculpturing of the embryonic limbs. However, it is unknown if BMP signaling directly promotes cell death, or if it induces a molecular cascade that culminates in cell death. Given that Smad8, which encodes one component of BMP signaling, is expressed during the regression of interdigital tissue and responds to BMPs, we presumed that it may be expressed in other cell death areas during chick limb development such as the anterior and posterior necrotic zones (ANZ and PNZ). The present study found that the Smad8 expression pattern in the anterior mesoderm of the hindlimb is very similar to that observed in limbs stained to detect cell death. Also, BMPs and retinoic acid, which act as apoptosis-promoting factors, induced expression of Smad8 before the onset of cell death, while sonic hedgehog protein, acting as a survival factor, inhibited Smad8 expression in the ANZ. However, although there was correlation between Smad8 expression patterns and PCD in the ANZ, phosphorylated forms of SMAD1/5/8 and TUNEL staining did not co-localize in dying cells. Interestingly, a short pulse of BMP was sufficient to trigger cell death. On the other hand, most dying cells were located in the avascular region, while many cells expressing Smad8 were located in the vascular region of the ANZ. These results suggest that BMPs mediated by SMAD signaling activate a molecular cascade that culminates in PCD.

  5. Somatically expressed germ-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, repress programmed cell death in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Min, Hyemin; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Kawasaki, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that germline apoptosis in C. elegans increased by loss of PGL-1 and PGL-3, members of a family of constitutive germ-granule components, from germ cells in adult hermaphrodite gonads. In this study, we found that somatic apoptosis was reduced in synthetic multivulva class B (synMuv B) mutants due to ectopic expression of PGL-1 and PGL-3 in the soma. In synMuv B-mutant somatic cells, CED-4 expression level was reduced due to ectopic expression of PGL-1. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, somatic apoptosis in synMuv B mutants increased following DNA damage in a SIR-2.1-dependent manner. Intriguingly, somatic apoptosis was repressed not only in synMuv B mutants but also by ectopically expressing pgl-1 and/or pgl-3 transgenes in wild-type somatic cells. Our study demonstrates that germ-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, can serve as negative regulators of apoptosis not only in the germline but also in the soma in C. elegans. PMID:27650246

  6. Somatically expressed germ-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, repress programmed cell death in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Min, Hyemin; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Kawasaki, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that germline apoptosis in C. elegans increased by loss of PGL-1 and PGL-3, members of a family of constitutive germ-granule components, from germ cells in adult hermaphrodite gonads. In this study, we found that somatic apoptosis was reduced in synthetic multivulva class B (synMuv B) mutants due to ectopic expression of PGL-1 and PGL-3 in the soma. In synMuv B-mutant somatic cells, CED-4 expression level was reduced due to ectopic expression of PGL-1. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, somatic apoptosis in synMuv B mutants increased following DNA damage in a SIR-2.1-dependent manner. Intriguingly, somatic apoptosis was repressed not only in synMuv B mutants but also by ectopically expressing pgl-1 and/or pgl-3 transgenes in wild-type somatic cells. Our study demonstrates that germ-granule components, PGL-1 and PGL-3, can serve as negative regulators of apoptosis not only in the germline but also in the soma in C. elegans. PMID:27650246

  7. Programmed death-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells is shaped by epitope specificity, T-cell receptor clonotype usage and antigen load

    PubMed Central

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; McGregor, Reuben; McLaren, James E.; Ladell, Kristin; Stryhn, Anette; Koofhethile, Catherine; Brener, Jacqui; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Graziano, Luzzi; Klenerman, Paul; Leslie, Alasdair; Buus, Søren; Price, David A.; Goulder, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection, their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion. The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD244 and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), which modulate the functional capabilities of CD8+ T cells. Design and methods: Here, we used an array of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B∗15 : 03 and HLA-B∗42 : 01 tetramers to characterize inhibitory receptor expression as a function of differentiation on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations (n = 128) spanning 11 different epitope targets. Results: Expression levels of PD-1, but not CD244 or LAG-3, varied substantially across epitope specificities both within and between individuals. Differential expression of PD-1 on T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal dominance hierarchies. Positive correlations were detected between PD-1 expression and plasma viral load, which were reinforced by stratification for epitope sequence stability and dictated by effector memory CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggest that PD-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells tracks antigen load at the level of epitope specificity and TCR clonotype usage. These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are influenced by peptide/HLA class I antigen exposure. PMID:24906112

  8. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of programmed cell death ligand1 (PD-L1) expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhen-Kui; Ye, Feng; Wu, Xuan; An, Han-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and one of its ligands, PD-L1, are key immune checkpoint proteins. Evidences showed PD-L1 is an emerging biomarker for immunotherapy by anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibody in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To investigate the association of PD-L1 protein expression with clinicopathological features and its impact on survival outcome, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases (up to July 10, 2014) was performed. Correlation between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) was analyzed by synthesizing the qualified data. Publication biases were examined. Results A total of 1,550 NSCLC patients from 9 studies were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) indicated high PD-L1 expression was associated with poor tumor differentiation [OR =0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39-0.72, P<0.0001]. Whereas, none of other clinicopathological characteristics [gender, smoking status, histological type, invasive depth of tumor, status of lymph node metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage] were correlated with PD-L1 expression in current analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for OS showed high expression of PD-L1 impaired the OS in NSCLC (HRpositive/negative =1.47, 95% CI: 1.19-1.83, P=0.0004). Conclusions Our meta-analysis indicated PD-L1 protein expression in NSCLC was not associated with common clinicopathological characteristics, except tumor differentiation. It was a poor prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. Further research should be performed to investigate the precise clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PD-L1 in NSCLC under uniform testing standard. PMID:25922726

  9. The prevalence and clinicopathological features of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression: a pooled analysis of literatures

    PubMed Central

    He, Qihua; Zhang, Jianrong; He, Jianxing; Liang, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been recognized as a critical and promising target in therapies that direct immune escape of cancers. However, its association with aggressive clinicopathological features in solid tumors remains unclear. We investigated this question by synthesizing published articles. Methods Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies. Outcomes of interest included age, gender, tumor size, tumor size, lymph node metastasis and tumor cell differentiation. Results A total of 61 studies involving 17 types of malignancies were included. The overall expression rate of PD-L1 was 44.5% (95% CI, 37.5% to 51.6 %). Patients with regional lymph node metastases (OR 1.38; P < 0.01), large size tumor (OR 1.89; P < 0.01) or poor differentiated tumors (OR 1.71; P < 0.01) were associated with higher PD-L1 expression rate. However, no significant association was observed between young and elder patients (OR 1.04; P = 0.58), or male and female patients (OR 1.13; P = 0.06). A numerically higher PD-L1 expression rate was detected in polyclonal antibodies (57.2%) than monoclonal antibodies (39.6%). In addition, the PD-L1 expression rate reported by studies from Asian areas (52.3%) was numerically higher than those from non-Asian areas, namely Caucasians (32.7%). Conclusions This meta-analysis indicated that patients with larger tumors, regional lymph node metastases, or poor-differentiated tumors were associated with a higher PD-L1 expression rate; in addition the expression rate of PD-L1 in Asians might be higher than that of Caucasians. This information might be useful in screening candidates for relevant tests and treatments. PMID:26930715

  10. Characterization and functional analysis of toll-like receptor 4 in Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingshan; Liang, Quan; Li, Weifen; Gu, Yuanxing; Liao, Xun; Fang, Weihuan; Li, Xiaoliang

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in initiating the innate immune responses. Early studies indicate that turtles are more resistant to LPS challenge than mammals. It remains unknown if turtles express TLR4 and why they are more resistant to LPS. In this study, TLR4 gene from Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, was cloned and characterized. The full length cDNA of turtle TLR4 (tTLR4) consists of 3396 base pairs with an 2499-bp open reading frame, encoding 833 amino acids. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses suggest that tTLR4 is to be orthologous to human TLR4. Its mRNA expression was up-regulated in spleen and blood of turtles upon Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Stimulation of turtle peripheral blood monocytes with LPS significantly upregulated tTLR4 mRNA and inflammation-related gene expression, such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In tTLR4-expressing HEK293 cells, higher concentration of LPS exposure could enhance the activity of the NF-κB promoter, but not the INF-β promoter. Such activity required co-expression of turtle myeloid differentiation factor 2 (tMD2) and cluster of differentiation 14 (tCD14). These results provide evidence for a functional TLR4 in reptiles and, together with the syntenic analysis, support the idea that the TLR4 receptor for LPS recognition may have arisen after reptiles. PMID:27259833

  11. Reduced Expression of Brain-Enriched microRNAs in Glioblastomas Permits Targeted Regulation of a Cell Death Gene

    PubMed Central

    Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers. PMID:21912681

  12. Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  13. Toll-like receptor 4 in bone marrow-derived cells contributes to the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Haojun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Jinxiang; Jiang, Fagang; Xiao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major microvascular complication in diabetics, and its mechanism is not fully understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the inflammatory state during DR, and the deletion of TLR4 eventually alleviates the diabetic inflammatory state. To further elucidate the mechanism of DR, we used bone marrow transplantation to establish reciprocal chimeric animals of TLR4 mutant mice and TLR4 WT mice combined with diabetes mellitus (DM) induction by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment to identify the role of TLR4 in different cell types in the development of the proinflammatory state during DR. TLR4 mutation did not block the occurrence of high blood glucose after STZ injection compared with WT mice but did alleviate the progression of DR and alter the expression of the small vessel proliferation-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Grafting bone marrow-derived cells from TLR4 WT mice into TLR4 mutant mice increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-2 and increased the damage to the retina. Similarly, VEGF and HIF-1α expression were restored by the bone marrow transplantation. These findings identify an essential role for TLR4 in bone marrow-derived cells contributing to the progression of DR. PMID:25214718

  14. Prostaglandin E receptor 4 (PTGER4) involved in host protection against immune challenge in oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fufa; Xiang, Zhiming; Wang, Fuxuan; Qi, Lin; Xu, Fengjiao; Xiao, Shu; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-02-01

    Prostaglandin E receptor 4 (PTGER4) is an essential receptor that can detect various physiological and pathological stimuli and has been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes, including the regulation of immune responses, cytokine production, and apoptosis. In this report, the first mollusk PTGER4, referred to as ChPTGER4, was cloned and characterized from the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Its full-length cDNA is 1734 bp in length, including 5'- and 3'-untranslated region (UTRs) of 354 bp and 306 bp, respectively, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1074 bp. ChPTGER4 comprises 357 amino acids and shares significant homology with its vertebrate homologs. The results of phylogenetic analysis revealed that ChPTGER4 clusters with PTGER4 from the Pacific oyster. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ChPTGER4 was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined and that its expression was significantly up-regulated in hemocytes and gills following challenge by pathogens (Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN). Moreover, fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that ChPTGER4 localized to the membrane, and its overexpression significantly enhanced NF-κB reporter gene activation in the HEK293T cell line. In summary, this study provides the first experimental evidence of a functional PTGER4 in mollusks, which suggests its involvement in the innate immune response in oyster.

  15. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  16. Cobalt alleviates GA-induced programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers via the regulation of H2O2 production and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-11-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Deficiency of programmed cell death 4 results in increased IL-10 expression by macrophages and thereby attenuates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Gao, Qi; Wang, Liyang; Guo, Chun; Zhu, Faliang; Wang, Bo; Wang, Qun; Gao, Fei; Chen, Youhai; Zhang, Lining

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is a newly defined inhibitor of transcription and translation and a tumor suppressor. Recent studies have suggested that Pdcd4 may also be involved in some inflammatory diseases. However, its role in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, remains to be investigated. Here, we found that Pdcd4 deficiency in mice increased the expression of IL-10 in macrophages and decreased the expression of IL-17 in T cells in the presence of an atherosclerosis-associated stimulator in vitro and in high fat-induced atherosclerotic plaques. Importantly, knocking out Pdcd4 led to a decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in Apoe−/− mice fed a high fat diet. This effect could be partly reversed by blocking IL-10 with a neutralizing antibody but not by the application of exogenous IL-17. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Pdcd4 negatively regulated the expression of IL-10 in an ERK1/2- and p38-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Pdcd4 deficiency attenuates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice in part through the upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. This indicates that endogenous Pdcd4 promotes atherosclerosis and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target for patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:26166769

  18. Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression by immunohistochemistry: could it be predictive and/or prognostic in non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Mino-Kenudson, Mari

    2016-06-01

    Blockade of immune checkpoints has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy in various tumors. In particular, monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) have been most studied in lung cancer, and PD-1 inhibitors are now established agents in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The reports on high-profile clinical trials have shown the association of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with higher overall response rates to the PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade suggesting that PD-L1 expression may serve as a predictive marker. Unfortunately, however, each PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor is coupled with a specific PD-L1 antibody, IHC protocol and scoring system for the biomarker assessment, making the head-to-head comparison of the studies difficult. Similarly, multiple clinical series that correlated PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic and/or molecular variables and/or survival have reported conflicting results. The discrepancy could be explained by the differences in ethnicity and/or histologic types included in the studies, but it appears to be attributed in part to the differences in PD-L1 IHC methods. Thus, orchestrated efforts to standardize the PD-L1 IHC are warranted to establish the IHC as a predictive and/or prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. PMID:27458525

  19. Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25405743

  20. Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression by immunohistochemistry: could it be predictive and/or prognostic in non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Mino-Kenudson, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of immune checkpoints has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy in various tumors. In particular, monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) have been most studied in lung cancer, and PD-1 inhibitors are now established agents in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The reports on high-profile clinical trials have shown the association of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with higher overall response rates to the PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade suggesting that PD-L1 expression may serve as a predictive marker. Unfortunately, however, each PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor is coupled with a specific PD-L1 antibody, IHC protocol and scoring system for the biomarker assessment, making the head-to-head comparison of the studies difficult. Similarly, multiple clinical series that correlated PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic and/or molecular variables and/or survival have reported conflicting results. The discrepancy could be explained by the differences in ethnicity and/or histologic types included in the studies, but it appears to be attributed in part to the differences in PD-L1 IHC methods. Thus, orchestrated efforts to standardize the PD-L1 IHC are warranted to establish the IHC as a predictive and/or prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. PMID:27458525

  1. Expression of a single-chain variable-fragment antibody against a Fusarium virguliforme toxin peptide enhances tolerance to sudden death syndrome in transgenic soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Hargeet K; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2012-06-01

    Plants do not produce antibodies. However, plants can correctly assemble functional antibody molecules encoded by mammalian antibody genes. Many plant diseases are caused by pathogen toxins. One such disease is the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). SDS is a serious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium virguliforme. The pathogen, however, has never been isolated from diseased foliar tissues. Thus, one or more toxins produced by the pathogen have been considered to cause foliar SDS. One of these possible toxins, FvTox1, was recently identified. We investigated whether expression of anti-FvTox1 single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) antibody in transgenic soybean can confer resistance to foliar SDS. We have created two scFv antibody genes, Anti-FvTox1-1 and Anti-FvTox1-2, encoding anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies from RNAs of a hybridoma cell line that expresses mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Both anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies interacted with an antigenic site of FvTox1 that binds to mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Binding of FvTox1 by the anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies, expressed in either Escherichia coli or transgenic soybean roots, was initially verified on nitrocellulose membranes. Expression of anti-FvTox1-1 in stable transgenic soybean plants resulted in enhanced foliar SDS resistance compared with that in nontransgenic control plants. Our results suggest that i) FvTox1 is an important pathogenicity factor for foliar SDS development and ii) expression of scFv antibodies against pathogen toxins could be a suitable biotechnology approach for protecting crop plants from toxin-induced diseases.

  2. Expression of a single-chain variable-fragment antibody against a Fusarium virguliforme toxin peptide enhances tolerance to sudden death syndrome in transgenic soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Hargeet K; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2012-06-01

    Plants do not produce antibodies. However, plants can correctly assemble functional antibody molecules encoded by mammalian antibody genes. Many plant diseases are caused by pathogen toxins. One such disease is the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). SDS is a serious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium virguliforme. The pathogen, however, has never been isolated from diseased foliar tissues. Thus, one or more toxins produced by the pathogen have been considered to cause foliar SDS. One of these possible toxins, FvTox1, was recently identified. We investigated whether expression of anti-FvTox1 single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) antibody in transgenic soybean can confer resistance to foliar SDS. We have created two scFv antibody genes, Anti-FvTox1-1 and Anti-FvTox1-2, encoding anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies from RNAs of a hybridoma cell line that expresses mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Both anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies interacted with an antigenic site of FvTox1 that binds to mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Binding of FvTox1 by the anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies, expressed in either Escherichia coli or transgenic soybean roots, was initially verified on nitrocellulose membranes. Expression of anti-FvTox1-1 in stable transgenic soybean plants resulted in enhanced foliar SDS resistance compared with that in nontransgenic control plants. Our results suggest that i) FvTox1 is an important pathogenicity factor for foliar SDS development and ii) expression of scFv antibodies against pathogen toxins could be a suitable biotechnology approach for protecting crop plants from toxin-induced diseases. PMID:22397408

  3. Religiosity and the Construction of Death in Turkish Death Announcements, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Death and rituals performed after death reflect and reproduce social distinctions despite death's popular reputation as a great leveler. This study examines expressions of religiosity and constructions of death in Turkish death announcements, paying particular attention to gendered, ethnic, and temporal variations as well as markers of status and…

  4. A Switch in Akt Isoforms Is Required for Notch-Induced Snail1 Expression and Protection from Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Alex; Lambies, Guillem; Viñas-Castells, Rosa; Martínez-Guillamon, Catalina; Dave, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    Notch activation in aortic endothelial cells (ECs) takes place at embryonic stages during cardiac valve formation and induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Using aortic ECs, we show here that active Notch expression promotes EndMT, resulting in downregulation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and upregulation of mesenchymal genes such as those for fibronectin and Snail1/2. In these cells, transforming growth factor β1 exacerbates Notch effects by increasing Snail1 and fibronectin activation. When Notch-downstream pathways were analyzed, we detected an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation and inactivation that facilitates Snail1 nuclear retention and protein stabilization. However, the total activity of Akt was downregulated. The discrepancy between Akt activity and GSK-3β phosphorylation is explained by a Notch-induced switch in the Akt isoforms, whereby Akt1, the predominant isoform expressed in ECs, is decreased and Akt2 transcription is upregulated. Mechanistically, Akt2 induction requires the stimulation of the β-catenin/TCF4 transcriptional complex, which activates the Akt2 promoter. Active, phosphorylated Akt2 translocates to the nucleus in Notch-expressing cells, resulting in GSK-3β inactivation in this compartment. Akt2, but not Akt1, colocalizes in the nucleus with lamin B in the nuclear envelope. In addition to promoting GSK-3β inactivation, Notch downregulates Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), another Akt2 nuclear substrate. Moreover, Notch protects ECs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through an Akt2- and Snail1-dependent mechanism. PMID:26711268

  5. Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Reduced Inflammatory Reaction by Downregulating the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in a Reperfusion Model of Donation After Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhen; Ye, Qifa; Zhang, Yang; Zhong, Zibiao; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yanfeng; Hu, Long; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wei; Ko, Dicken Shiu-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The exact mechanism by which hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) improves the graft quality in kidney transplantation of donation after cardiac death (DCD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and inflammatory reaction in kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury injury followed by cold storage (CS) or HMP model of DCD. New Zealand white rabbit kidneys were subjected to 35 min of warm ischemia and 1 h reperfusion, then preserved by either 1 h reperfusion (sham-operated group), 4 h CS or 4 h HMP in vivo. Kidneys were reperfused 24 h followed by further analysis. No treatment was given to rabbits in the normal control group. The expression of MMP-9, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and MMP-2 mRNA were detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). MMP-9 was located by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by kits for each groups. Compared with the CS group, the expression of MMP-9 and NF-κB mRNA were downregulated in HMP group (P < 0.05). In contrast, expression of MMP-2 mRNA had no statistical significance between CS group and HMP group (P > 0.05). In normal control and sham-operated groups, a low level of MMP-9 expression was detected in glomeruli. However, positive signals of MMP-9 were mostly located in the tubulointerstitium and the vascular wall of CS and HMP groups. Expression of TNF-α, IL-6, MDA, and activity of MPO decreased while activity of SOD in the HMP group increased in contrast to the CS group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, inflammatory cytokines mediated MMP-9 expression through NF-κB band to MMP-9 promoter region, resulting in renal injury. Therefore, HMP reduced inflammatory reaction by downregulating the expression of MMP-9, which may be the mechanism of kidney protection in I

  6. Effect of baicalin on toll-like receptor 4-mediated ischemia/reperfusion inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver condition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is susceptible to secondary stresses such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Baicalin is an active component extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, which is widely used in herbal preparations for treatment of hepatic diseases and inflammatory disorders. This study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of baicalin on I/R injury in alcoholic fatty liver. Rats were fed an alcohol liquid diet or a control isocaloric diet for 5 weeks, and then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion. Baicalin (200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 24 and 1 h before ischemia. After reperfusion, baicalin attenuated the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in alcoholic fatty liver. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expressions increased after reperfusion, which were higher in ethanol-fed animals, were attenuated by baicalin. In ethanol-fed animals, baicalin attenuated the increases in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein expressions and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB after reperfusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that baicalin ameliorates I/R-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver. -- Highlights: ► Baicalin attenuates hepatic I/R-induced inflammation in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin downregulates TLR4, MyD88 expression during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin attenuates NF-κB nuclear translocation during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver.

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is an Essential Upstream Regulator of On-Time Parturition and Perinatal Viability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Hanan H; Dorian, Camilla L; Chin, Peck Yin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Rice, Kenner C; Olson, David M; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-10-01

    An inflammatory response is instrumental in the physiological process of parturition but the upstream signals initiating inflammation are undefined. Because endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are released in late gestation, we hypothesized that on-time labor requires TLR4 signaling, to trigger a cytokine and leukocyte response and accelerate the parturition cascade. In pregnant TLR4-deficient (Tlr4-/-) mice, average gestation length was extended by 13 hours and increased perinatal mortality was seen compared with wild-type controls. Quantification of cytokine and uterine activation gene expression showed that late gestation induction of Il1b, Il6, Il12b, and Tnf expression seen in control placenta and fetal membranes was disrupted in Tlr4-/- mice, and accompanied by a transient delay in expression of uterine activation genes, including prostaglandin F receptor, oxytocin receptor, and connexin-43. Leukocyte populations were altered before birth in TLR4-deficient females, with fewer neutrophils and macrophages in the placenta, and fewer dendritic cells and more regulatory T cells in the myometrium. Administration of TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide to pregnant wild-type mice induced cytokine expression and fetal loss, whereas Tlr4-/- pregnancies were protected. The small molecule TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone increased mean duration of gestation by 16 hours in wild-type mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TLR4 is a key upstream regulator of the inflammatory response acting to drive uterine activation and control the timing of labor. Because causal pathways for term and preterm labor converge with TLR4, interventions to manipulate TLR4 signaling may have therapeutic utility for women at risk of preterm labor, or in postterm pregnancy.

  8. Molecular characterization, genomic structure and expressional profiles of a CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Revathy, Kasthuri Saranya; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2015-06-01

    The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is the cognate receptor of the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and plays a pivotal role under immune-pathophysiological conditions. In the current study, the CXCR4 homolog of Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfCXCR4) was sequenced and the mRNA expression levels were characterized. The genomic structure of the cloned OfCXCR4 coding region (2094 bp) revealed a bi-exonic element, where the open reading frame (ORF) appears split by a single intron. Analysis of the ORF (1134 bp) of OfCXCR4 revealed a predicted protein of 42.1 kDa with typical seven transmembrane (TM) domain architecture and several conserved structural features, including two cysteine residues forming a predicted disulfide bond, a characteristic CXC motif (containing CYC) and a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family 1 signature. Furthermore, based on comparative analysis, the structure OfCXCR4 appears well conserved at both the genomic DNA and the amino acid levels. Phylogenic analysis of OfCXCR4 revealed that the greatest homology was with its teleostean relatives. Expression studies showed ubiquitous OfCXCR4 transcription, mainly in immune organs, with the highest levels in the head kidney. Examination of OfCXCR4 transcriptional regulation post injection to different stimuli or pathogens revealed a significant modulation of mRNA expression as detected by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR. Evidence of various transcription factor binding sites present in the 5'-flanking region of OfCXCR4 coupled with its observed regulated mRNA expression suggest that it may have an important role in immune surveillance in rock bream. PMID:25795219

  9. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is an Essential Upstream Regulator of On-Time Parturition and Perinatal Viability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Hanan H; Dorian, Camilla L; Chin, Peck Yin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Rice, Kenner C; Olson, David M; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-10-01

    An inflammatory response is instrumental in the physiological process of parturition but the upstream signals initiating inflammation are undefined. Because endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are released in late gestation, we hypothesized that on-time labor requires TLR4 signaling, to trigger a cytokine and leukocyte response and accelerate the parturition cascade. In pregnant TLR4-deficient (Tlr4-/-) mice, average gestation length was extended by 13 hours and increased perinatal mortality was seen compared with wild-type controls. Quantification of cytokine and uterine activation gene expression showed that late gestation induction of Il1b, Il6, Il12b, and Tnf expression seen in control placenta and fetal membranes was disrupted in Tlr4-/- mice, and accompanied by a transient delay in expression of uterine activation genes, including prostaglandin F receptor, oxytocin receptor, and connexin-43. Leukocyte populations were altered before birth in TLR4-deficient females, with fewer neutrophils and macrophages in the placenta, and fewer dendritic cells and more regulatory T cells in the myometrium. Administration of TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide to pregnant wild-type mice induced cytokine expression and fetal loss, whereas Tlr4-/- pregnancies were protected. The small molecule TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone increased mean duration of gestation by 16 hours in wild-type mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TLR4 is a key upstream regulator of the inflammatory response acting to drive uterine activation and control the timing of labor. Because causal pathways for term and preterm labor converge with TLR4, interventions to manipulate TLR4 signaling may have therapeutic utility for women at risk of preterm labor, or in postterm pregnancy. PMID:26151355

  10. Methylation and mRNA expression levels of P15, death-associated protein kinase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 genes in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Tan, Lin; He, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to investigate the methylation status and mRNA expression levels of P15, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) genes in multiple myeloma (MM). Materials and Methods: The bone marrow samples of 54 MM patients were collected and the methylation status of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 gene promoter regions was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Automated sequencing technology was used to sequence the amplified products in order to analyze the base methylation sites. mRNA expression levels were determined using real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Among the 54 MM patients, the positive methylation rates of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes were 27.78%, 18.52%, and 16.67%, respectively. The methylation results were confirmed by sequencing. The positive methylation rates of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes showed no correlation with patient gender, age, typing, staging, and grouping (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes between the MM patient group and the control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Aberrant methylation of the P15, DAPK, and SOCS1 genes exists in MM, and these genes may play certain roles in pathogenesis of MM. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression levels between the methylated group and the non-methylated group, suggesting that these genes are regulated by other mechanisms during their transcription. PMID:27635200

  11. TRAIL induces apoptosis in oral squamous carcinoma cells: a crosstalk with oncogenic Ras regulated cell surface expression of death receptor 5

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-jie; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Zhang, Yaqin; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Zhang, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the surface of target cells. The selectivity of TRAIL towards cancer cells has promoted clinical evaluation of recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) and its agonistic antibodies in treating several major human cancers including colon and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, little is known about their ability in killing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we tested the apoptotic responses of a panel of seven human OSCC cell lines (HN31, HN30, HN12, HN6, HN4, Cal27, and OSCC3) to rhTRAIL and monoclonal antibodies against DR4 or DR5. We found that rhTRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most of the oral cancer cell lines tested both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that DR5 was expressed on the surface of the tested cell lines which correlated with the cellular susceptibility to apoptosis induced by rhTRAIL and anti-DR5 antibody. By contrast, little or no DR4 was detected on the surface of OSCC3 and HN6 cells rendering cellular resistance to DR4 antibody and a reduced sensitivity to rhTRAIL. Notably, the overall TRAIL sensitivity correlated well with the levels of endogenous active Ras in the cell lines tested. Expression of a constitutively active Ras mutant (RasV12) in OSCC3 cells selectively upregulated surface expression of DR5, but not DR4, and restored TRAIL sensitivity. Our findings could have implications for the use of TRAIL receptor targeted therapies in the treatment of human OSCC tumors particularly the ones harboring constitutively active Ras mutant. PMID:23470485

  12. Dysregulation of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) expression resulted in aberrant Wnt-β-catenin signaling and cell death of the cloaca endoderm, and anorectal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, R C-L; Matsumaru, D; Ho, A S-H; Garcia-Barceló, M-M; Yuan, Z-W; Smith, D; Kodjabachian, L; Tam, P K-H; Yamada, G; Lui, V C-H

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian urorectal development, the urorectal septum (urs) descends from the ventral body wall to the cloaca membrane (cm) to partition the cloaca into urogenital sinus and rectum. Defective urs growth results in human congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs), and their pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Recent studies only focused on the importance of urs mesenchyme proliferation, which is induced by endoderm-derived Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Here, we showed that the programmed cell death of the apical urs and proximal cm endoderm is particularly crucial for the growth of urs during septation. The apoptotic endoderm was closely associated with the tempo-spatial expression of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is an inhibitor of Wnt-β-catenin signaling. In Wif1lacZ/lacZ mutant mice and cultured urorectum with exogenous Wif1, cloaca septation was defective with undescended urs and hypospadias-like phenotypes, and such septation defects were also observed in Shh−/− mutants and in endodermal β-catenin gain-of-function (GOF) mutants. In addition, Wif1 and Shh were expressed in a complementary manner in the cloaca endoderm, and Wif1 was ectopically expressed in the urs and cm associated with excessive endodermal apoptosis and septation defects in Shh−/− mutants. Furthermore, apoptotic cells were markedly reduced in the endodermal β-catenin GOF mutant embryos, which counteracted the inhibitory effects of Wif1. Taken altogether, these data suggest that regulated expression of Wif1 is critical for the growth of the urs during cloaca septation. Hence, Wif1 governs cell apoptosis of urs endoderm by repressing β-catenin signal, which may facilitate the protrusion of the underlying proliferating mesenchymal cells towards the cm for cloaca septation. Dysregulation of this endodermal Shh-Wif1-β-catenin signaling axis contributes to ARM pathogenesis. PMID:24632949

  13. Death duties

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kathryn A.; Eden, David

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians are often called upon to pronounce and certify the deaths of patients. Inadequate knowledge of the Coroners Act (in the province of Ontario) and of the correct process of certifying death can make physicians uncomfortable when confronted with these tasks. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To educate family physicians about how to perform the administrative tasks required of them when patients die. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The program included an educational video, a tutorial outlining the process of death certification, and discussion with a regional coroner about key features of the Coroners Act. In small groups, participants worked through cases of patient deaths in which they were asked to determine whether a coroner needed to be involved, to determine the manner of death, and to complete a mock death certificate for each case. CONCLUSION All participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the workshop and thought the main objective of the program had been achieved. Results of a test given 3 months after the workshop showed substantial improvement in participants’ knowledge of the coroner’s role and of the process of death certification. PMID:17872782

  14. Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Simona Federica; Merlo, Sara; Chisari, Mariangela; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Sortino, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mediate important neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Stimulation of mGlu4 receptor reduces neuroinflammation in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) whereas mGlu4 knockout mice display exacerbated EAE clinical scores. We now show that mGlu4 receptors are expressed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia in culture. Oligodendrocytes express mGlu4 receptors only at early stages of maturation (O4 positive), but not when more differentiated (myelin basic protein, MBP positive). Treatment of immature oligodendrocytes with the mGlu4 receptor agonist L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4; 50 μM for 48 h) accelerates differentiation with enhanced branching and earlier appearance of MBP staining. Oligodendrocyte death induced by exposure to 1 mM kainic acid for 24 h is significantly reduced by a 30-min pretreatment with L-AP4 (50 μM), an effect observed only in the presence of astrocytes, mimicked by the specific mGlu4 receptor positive allosteric modulator N-Phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide (PHCCC) (30 μM) and prevented by pretreatment with the mGlu4 receptor antagonist, cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG) (100 μM). In astrocytes, mGlu4 receptor is the most expressed among group III mGlu receptors, as by Quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR), and its silencing prevents protective effects. Protection is also observed when conditioned medium (CM) from L-AP4-pretreated astrocytes is transferred to oligodendrocytes challenged with kainic acid. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) mediates the increased oligodendrocyte survival as the effect of L-AP4 is mimicked by addition of 10 ng/ml TGF-β and prevented by incubation with a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. In contrast, despite the expression of mGlu4 receptor in resting and activated microglia, CM from L-AP4-stimulated microglia does not modify kainate-induced oligodendrocyte toxicity. Our

  15. Synthesis of Indole Derived Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Antagonists and Characterization in Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Young, Summer E.; Duvernay, Matthew T.; Schulte, Michael L.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hamm, Heidi E.

    2013-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is one of the thrombin receptors on human platelets and is a potential target for the management of thrombotic disorders. We sought to develop potent, selective, and novel PAR4 antagonists to test the role of PAR4 in thrombosis and hemostasis. Development of an expedient three-step synthetic route to access a novel series of indole-based PAR4 antagonists also necessitated the development of a platelet based high-throughput screening assay. Screening and subsequent structure activity relationship analysis yielded several selective PAR4 antagonists as well as possible new scaffolds for future antagonist development. PMID:23776495

  16. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Maringer, Katherine; Saheb, Entsar; Bush, John

    2014-01-01

    Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA), and dominant negative (DN) forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses. PMID:25157910

  17. Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) regulates autophagy through promoting the expression of Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) in human breast adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Liangqiang; Ren, Yongzhe; Zheng, Qianqian; Wang, Lu; Lai, Yueyang; Guan, Shengwen; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jie; Chen, Dianhua; Yang, Yunwen; Zhuang, Hongqin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Hua, Zi-chun

    2016-01-01

    FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain) is a classical adaptor protein in apoptosis. Increasing evidences have shown that FADD is also implicated in cell cycle progression, proliferation and tumorigenesis. The role of FADD in cancer remains largely unexplored. In this study, In Silico Analysis using Oncomine and Kaplan Meier plotter revealed that FADD is significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and closely associated with a poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. To better understanding the FADD functions in breast cancer, we performed proteomics analysis by LC-MS/MS detection and found that Rheb–mTORC1 pathway was dysregulated in MCF-7 cells when FADD knockdown. The mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator in many processes, including cell growth, metabolism and autophagy. Here, FADD interference down-regulated Rheb expression and repressed mTORC1 activity in breast cancer cell lines. The autophagy was induced by FADD deficiency in MCF7 or MDA-231 cells but rescued by recovering Rheb expression. Similarly, growth defect in FADD-knockdown cells was also restored by Rheb overexpression. These findings implied a novel role of FADD in tumor progression via Rheb–mTORC1 pathway in breast cancer. PMID:27013580

  18. The unfolded protein response and programmed cell death are induced by expression of Garlic virus X p11 in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuwen; Yin, Mingyuan; Wang, Xiaodan; Chen, Binghua; Yang, Xue; Peng, Jiejun; Zheng, Hongying; Zhao, Jinping; Lin, Lin; Yu, Chulang; MacFarlane, Stuart; He, Jianqing; Liu, Yong; Chen, Jianping; Dai, Liangying; Yan, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Garlic virus X (GarVX) ORF3 encodes a p11 protein, which contributes to virus cell-to-cell movement and forms granules on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression of p11 either from a binary vector, PVX or TMV induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), as demonstrated by an increase in transcription of the ER luminal binding protein (BiP) and bZIP60 genes. UPR-related programmed cell death (PCD) was elicited by PVX : p11 or TMV : p11 in systemic infected leaves. Examination of p11 mutants with deletions of two transmembrane domains (TM) revealed that both were required for generating granules and for inducing necrosis. TRV-based VIGS was used to investigate the correlation between bZIP60 expression and p11-induced UPR-related PCD. Less necrosis was observed on local and systemic leaves of bZIP60 knockdown plants when infected with PVXp11, suggesting that bZIP60 plays an important role in the UPR-related PCD response to p11 in N. benthamiana. PMID:27011387

  19. Genistein Alleviates β-Amyloid-Induced Inflammatory Damage Through Regulating Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor κB

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weiwei; Ding, Bingjie; Yu, Huanling; Yuan, Linhong; Xi, Yuandi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genistein (GEN), a major soybean isoflavone (SIF), might possess neuroprotective properties through its anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that GEN could prevent the inflammatory damage detected in C6 cells induced by β-amyloid peptides 25-35 (Aβ25-35). Accordingly, we evaluated the inflammatory damage induced by Aβ25-35 and the protective effect of GEN against Aβ25-35 in C6 cells. In our study, the C6 glial cells (rats glioma cell lines) were preincubated with or without GEN for 2 h following incubation with Aβ25-35 for another 24 h. Then, methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to assess the cell viability. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify the C6 cells. Inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed to assess the expression of Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), inhibitor of kappaB-alpha (IκB-α). The current results showed that GEN could alleviate Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis and prevent Aβ25-35-induced TNF-α and IL-1β release from C6 cells. In addition, GEN prevented Aβ25-35-induced upregulation of the gene and protein expression of TLR4, and GEN significantly upregulated the expression of IκB-α in C6 cells damaged by Aβ25-35. These results suggest that GEN can alleviate the inflammatory stress caused by Aβ25-35 treatment, which might be associated with the neuroprotective effect of GEN regulating the TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway. PMID:25384233

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Alexander; Zhang, Guohua; Abdel Fattah, Elmoataz A.; Eissa, N. Tony; Li, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Cachectic muscle wasting is a frequent complication of many inflammatory conditions, due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. However, the pathogenesis and intervention strategies against it remain to be established. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a master regulator of inflammatory muscle catabolism. We demonstrate that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces C2C12 myotube atrophy via up-regulating autophagosome formation and the expression of ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1. TLR4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is necessary and sufficient for the up-regulation of atrogin1/MAFbx and autophagosomes, resulting in myotube atrophy. Similarly, LPS up-regulates muscle autophagosome formation and ubiquitin ligase expression in mice. Importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine completely abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis, while proteasome inhibitor lactacystin partially blocks it. Furthermore, TLR4 knockout or p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes LPS-induced muscle proteolysis. Thus, TLR4 mediates LPS-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosomal pathways.—Doyle, A., Zhang, G., Abdel Fattah, E. A., Eissa, N. T., Li, Y.-P. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced muscle catabolism via coordinate activation of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways. PMID:20826541

  1. Identification of oxidative stress and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling as a key pathway of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yumiko; Kuba, Keiji; Neely, G Greg; Yaghubian-Malhami, Rubina; Perkmann, Thomas; van Loo, Geert; Ermolaeva, Maria; Veldhuizen, Ruud; Leung, Y H Connie; Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Haolin; Sun, Yang; Pasparakis, Manolis; Kopf, Manfred; Mech, Christin; Bavari, Sina; Peiris, J S Malik; Slutsky, Arthur S; Akira, Shizuo; Hultqvist, Malin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Nicholls, John; Jiang, Chengyu; Binder, Christoph J; Penninger, Josef M

    2008-04-18

    Multiple lung pathogens such as chemical agents, H5N1 avian flu, or SARS cause high lethality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here we report that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant mice display natural resistance to acid-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We show that TLR4-TRIF-TRAF6 signaling is a key disease pathway that controls the severity of ALI. The oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) OxPAPC was identified to induce lung injury and cytokine production by lung macrophages via TLR4-TRIF. We observed OxPL production in the lungs of humans and animals infected with SARS, Anthrax, or H5N1. Pulmonary challenge with an inactivated H5N1 avian influenza virus rapidly induces ALI and OxPL formation in mice. Loss of TLR4 or TRIF expression protects mice from H5N1-induced ALI. Moreover, deletion of ncf1, which controls ROS production, improves the severity of H5N1-mediated ALI. Our data identify oxidative stress and innate immunity as key lung injury pathways that control the severity of ALI.

  2. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in neurons of trigeminal ganglion contributes to nociception induced by acute pulpitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Du, Yi; Cai, Wen-Ke; Kuang, Rong; Chang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Kuang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pain caused by acute pulpitis (AP) is a common symptom in clinical settings. However, its underlying mechanisms have largely remained unknown. Using AP model, we demonstrated that dental injury caused severe pulp inflammation with up-regulated serum IL-1β. Assessment from head-withdrawal reflex thresholds (HWTs) and open-field test demonstrated nociceptive response at 1 day post injury. A consistent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) ipsilateral to the injured pulp was found; and downstream signaling components of TLR4, including MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB, and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, were also increased. Retrograde labeling indicated that most TLR4 positve neuron in the TG innnervated the pulp and TLR4 immunoreactivity was mainly in the medium and small neurons. Double labeling showed that the TLR4 expressing neurons in the ipsilateral TG were TRPV1 and CGRP positive, but IB4 negative. Furthermore, blocking TLR4 by eritoran (TLR4 antagonist) in TGs of the AP model significantly down-regulated MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β production and behavior of nociceptive response. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling in TG cells, particularly the peptidergic TRPV1 neurons, plays a key role in AP-induced nociception, and indicate that TLR4 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for orofacial pain. PMID:26224622

  4. Gedunin Binds to Myeloid Differentiation Protein 2 and Impairs Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Borges, Perla Villani; Moret, Katelim Hottz; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes; Souza-Silva, Franklin; Alves, Carlos Roberto; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl; Pacheco, Patrícia; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Penido, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by innate immune system is mediated by the cluster of differentiation 14/Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) complex. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effect of gedunin, a limonoid from species of the Meliaceae family described as a heat shock protein Hsp90 inhibitor, on LPS-induced response in immortalized murine macrophages. The pretreatment of wild-type (WT) macrophages with gedunin (0.01-100 µM, noncytotoxic concentrations) inhibited LPS (50 ng/ml)-induced calcium influx, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner. The selective effect of gedunin on MyD88-adapter-like/myeloid differentiation primary response 88- and TRIF-related adaptor molecule/TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β-dependent signaling pathways was further investigated. The pretreatment of WT, TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β knockout, and MyD88 adapter-like knockout macrophages with gedunin (10 µM) significantly inhibited LPS (50 ng/ml)-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, at 6 hours and 24 hours, suggesting that gedunin modulates a common event between both signaling pathways. Furthermore, gedunin (10 µM) inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 production, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and nuclear factor κB translocation into the nucleus of WT macrophages, demonstrating a wide-range effect of this chemical compound. In addition to the ability to inhibit LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators, gedunin also triggered anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10, heme oxygenase-1, and Hsp70 in macrophages stimulated or not with LPS. In silico modeling studies revealed that gedunin efficiently docked into the MD-2 LPS binding site, a phenomenon further confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Our results reveal that, in addition to Hsp90 modulation, gedunin acts as a competitive inhibitor of LPS, blocking

  5. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Neonatal death ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Complications & Loss ...

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell death in bladder cancer is associated with chromatin modification and modifying protein expression: A proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    LI, QINGDI QUENTIN; HAO, JIAN-JIANG; ZHANG, ZHENG; HSU, IAWEN; LIU, YI; TAO, ZHEN; LEWI, KEIDREN; METWALLI, ADAM R.; AGARWAL, PIYUSH K.

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project recently identified the importance of mutations in chromatin remodeling genes in human carcinomas. These findings imply that epigenetic modulators might have a therapeutic role in urothelial cancers. To exploit histone deacetylases (HDACs) as targets for cancer therapy, we investigated the HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) romidepsin, trichostatin A, and vorinostat as potential chemotherapeutic agents for bladder cancer. We demonstrate that the three HDACIs suppressed cell growth and induced cell death in the bladder cancer cell line 5637. To identify potential mechanisms associated with the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the HDACIs, we used quantitative proteomics to determine the proteins potentially involved in these processes. Our proteome studies identified a total of 6003 unique proteins. Of these, 2472 proteins were upregulated and 2049 proteins were downregulated in response to HDACI exposure compared to the untreated controls (P<0.05). Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that those differentially expressed proteins were involved in multiple biological functions and enzyme-regulated pathways, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, autophagy, free radical generation and DNA damage repair. HDACIs also altered the acetylation status of histones and non-histone proteins, as well as the levels of chromatin modification proteins, suggesting that HDACIs exert multiple cytotoxic actions in bladder cancer cells by inhibiting HDAC activity or altering the structure of chromatin. We conclude that HDACIs are effective in the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in the 5637 bladder cancer cells through multiple cell death-associated pathways. These observations support the notion that HDACIs provide new therapeutic options for bladder cancer treatment and thus warrant further preclinical exploration. PMID:27082124

  7. Molluscan death effector domain (DED)-containing caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in apoptosis and immune signaling. In this study, we cloned the first death effector domain (DED)-containing molluscan caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), which is named as hdCaspase-8. The full-length hdCaspase was 2855 bp, with a 1908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids. The hdCaspase-8 had 72 kDa predicted molecular mass with an estimated isoelectric point (PI) of 6.0. The hdCaspase-8 amino acid sequence contained the characteristic feature of an N-terminal two DED, a C-terminal catalytic domain and the caspase family cysteine active site ⁵¹³KPKLFFLQACQG⁵²⁴. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that hdCaspase-8 is more similar to the invertebrate Tubifex tubifex (sludge worm) caspase-8. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that hdCaspase-8 constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue of unchallenged disk abalone. The basal expression level of hdCaspase-8 in gill tissue was higher than all other tested tissues. The hdCaspase-8 mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes was significantly up-regulated by exposure to bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), as compared to control animals. These results suggest that hdCaspase-8 may be involved in immune response reactions in disk abalone.

  8. Expression of bax and bcl2 Genes in MDMA-induced Hepatotoxicity on Rat Liver Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR Method through Triggering Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Behroozaghdam, Mitra; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Javadi, Gholamreza; Mahdian, Reza; Soleimani, Mansoureh

    2015-01-01

    Background: 3-4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic and psychoactive drug, which is known popularly as Ecstasy and has toxic effects on human organs. Objectives: Considering the potential toxic interaction, this study was performed to quantify the expression of bax and bcl2 genes in MDMA-induced hepatotoxicity on rat liver. Subsequently, we evaluated pentoxifylline as a possible protective drug on hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats weighting 250 - 300 grams were used in the study. The rats were equally distributed into four experimental groups (5 rat/group). MDMA was dissolved in PBS and injected intraperitoneally (IP) including untreated control, MDMA (MDMA dissolved in PBS), treated-1 (MDMA followed by PTX) and treated-2 (PTX followed by MDMA). All animals given MDMA received 3 doses of 7.5mg/kg with two hours gap between doses. Liver tissue was removed after anaesthetizing. Subsequently, RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and Real-Time PCR were performed. Finally, data analyzed statistically to determine significantly differences between the groups (P value < 0.05). Results: Using Real-Time quantitative PCR results, the gene expression ratio of bcl2 were calculated 93.80±20.64, 340.45 ± 36.60 and 47.13 ± 5.84 fold in MDMA, treated-1 and treated-2 groups, respectively. Furthermore, this ratio for bax gene obtained 2.13±0.33 fold in MDMA, 1.55 ± 0.26 fold in treated-1 and 10.44 ± 1.56 fold in treated-2 groups. Conclusions: The present study focused on molecular mechanism of MDMA in programmed cell death using gene expression quantification of a pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptoic gene in MDMA-induced hepatotoxocity. The results showed that MDMA prompted apoptosis in liver and pentoxifylline protected against hepatotoxicity before and after taking MDMA. PMID:26732379

  9. Evidence of activation of the Toll-like receptor-4 proinflammatory pathway in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    García-Bueno, Borja; Gassó, Patricia; MacDowell, Karina S.; Callado, Luis F.; Mas, Sergi; Bernardo, Miguel; Lafuente, Amalia; Meana, J. Javier; Leza, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in the innate immune/inflammatory system may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but we do not understand the mechanisms involved. The main agents of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which detect molecular patterns associated with damage and pathogens. The TLR first reported was TLR4, and it is still the most studied one. Methods We aimed to describe putative modifications to the TLR4 proinflammatory pathway using 2 different strategies in 2 cohorts of patients with schizophrenia and matched controls: 1) quantification of protein and mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal cortex samples from 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 controls, and 2) identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the risk of schizophrenia using whole blood samples from 214 patients with schizophrenia and 216 controls. Results We found evidence of alterations in the expression of the initial elements of the TLR4 signalling pathway (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 [MyD88] and nuclear factor-κ B [NF-κB]) in the PFC of patients with schizophrenia. These alterations seem to depend on the presence/absence of antipsychotic treatment at death. Moreover, a polymorphism within the MyD88 gene was significantly associated with schizophrenia risk. Limitations The use of 2 different approaches in 2 different cohorts, the lack of a complementary neuropsychiatric group, the possible confounding effects of antipsychotic treatment and suicide are the main limitations of our study. Conclusion The evidence from this dual approach suggests there is an altered innate immune response in patients with chronic schizophrenia in which the TLR4 proinflammatory pathway could be affected. Improved understanding of the stimuli and mechanisms responsible for this response could lead to improved schizophrenia treatment and better control of the side effects of current antipsychotics. PMID:27070349

  10. Autocrine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress to the Membrane Death Receptor Pathway through IRE1α-Mediated NF-κB Activation and Down-Regulation of TRAF2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Han, Zhang; Couvillon, Anthony D.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Exton, John H.

    2006-01-01

    NF-κB is critical for determining cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli by regulating both mitochondrial and death receptor apoptotic pathways. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) emerges as a new apoptotic signaling initiator. However, the mechanism by which ER stress activates NF-κB and its role in regulation of ER stress-induced cell death are largely unclear. Here, we report that, in response to ER stress, IKK forms a complex with IRE1α through the adapter protein TRAF2. ER stress-induced NF-κB activation is impaired in IRE1α knockdown cells and IRE1α−/− MEFs. We found, however, that inhibiting NF-κB significantly decreased ER stress-induced cell death in a caspase-8-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis revealed that ER stress-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was IRE1α and NF-κB dependent. Blocking TNF receptor 1 signaling significantly inhibited ER stress-induced cell death. Further studies suggest that ER stress induces down-regulation of TRAF2 expression, which impairs TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and turns TNF-α from a weak to a powerful apoptosis inducer. Thus, ER stress induces two signals, namely TNF-α induction and TRAF2 down-regulation. They work in concert to amplify ER-initiated apoptotic signaling through the membrane death receptor. PMID:16581782

  11. Expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 is associated with poor overall survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kiyasu, Junichi; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hirata, Akie; Arakawa, Fumiko; Ichikawa, Ayako; Niino, Daisuke; Sugita, Yasuo; Yufu, Yuji; Choi, Ilseung; Abe, Yasunobu; Uike, Naokuni; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi; Akashi, Koichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on both select diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumor cells and on tumor-infiltrating nonmalignant cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway inhibits host antitumor responses; however, little is known about how this pathway functions in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathological impact of PD-L1+ DLBCL. We performed PD-L1/PAX5 double immunostaining in 1253 DLBCL biopsy samples and established a new definition of PD-L1+ DLBCL. We also defined the criteria for microenvironmental PD-L1+ (mPD-L1+) DLBCL (ie, PD-L1– DLBCL in which PD-L1+ nonmalignant cells are abundant in the tumor microenvironment). Of the 273 patients whose clinical information was available, quantitative analysis of PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was performed. The prevalence rates of PD-L1+ and mPD-L1+ DLBCL were 11% and 15.3%, respectively. Both PD-L1+ and mPD-L1+ DLBCL were significantly associated with non–germinal center B-cell (GCB) type and Epstein-Barr virus positivity. The number of PD-1+ TILs was significantly higher in GCB-type tumors and lower in mPD-L1– and PD-L1+ DLBCL. Patients with PD-L1+ DLBCL had inferior overall survival (OS) compared with that in patients with PD-L1– DLBCL (P = .0009). In contrast, there was no significant difference in OS between mPD-L1+ and mPD-L1– DLBCL (P = .31). The expression of PD-L1 maintained prognostic value for OS in multivariate analysis (P = .0323). This is the first report describing the clinicopathological features and outcomes of PD-L1+ DLBCL. Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway should be considered in this distinct DLBCL subgroup. PMID:26239088

  12. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 suppresses liver injury induced by biliary obstruction and subsequent intraportal lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Oya, Shingo; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Kokuryo, Toshio; Uno, Masanori; Yamauchi, Kohei; Nagino, Masato

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in liver injury induced by biliary obstruction and subsequent intraportal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in rats. Biliary obstruction often leads to the development of bacterial translocation. Rats were subjected to either a sham operation (Sham group) or bile duct ligation for 7 days (BDL group). Seven days after each operation, LPS (0.5 μg) was injected through the ileocecal vein. In other experiments, rats that had undergone BDL were pretreated, before LPS challenge, with internal biliary drainage (Drainage group); intravenous TAK-242, a TLR4 inhibitor (TAK group); or intravenous GdCl3, a Kupffer cell deactivator (GdCl3 group). The expression of the TLR4 protein and the number of Kupffer cells in the liver were significantly increased in the BDL group compared with the Sham group. These changes were normalized after biliary drainage. The expression of TLR4 colocalized with Kupffer cells, which was confirmed by double immunostaining. Serum levels of liver enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines after intraportal LPS injection were significantly higher in the BDL group than in the Sham group. However, pretreatment with TAK-242 or GdCl3 strongly attenuated these changes to levels similar to those seen with biliary drainage. These results imply that blocking TLR4 signaling effectively attenuates liver damage to the same level as that observed with biliary drainage in rats with BDL and subsequent intraportal LPS infusion. TAK-242 treatment may be used for patients who are susceptible to liver damage by biliary obstruction and endotoxemia. PMID:24356883

  13. Daidzein attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via toll-like receptor 4/NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang; Sun, Bo; Li, Tian-zuo

    2015-06-01

    Daidzein, a diphenolic isoflavone from many plants and herbs, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of daidzein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury have not been determined. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of daidzein on LPS-induced acute lung injury and investigate the molecular mechanisms. Daidzein was intraperitoneally injected (2, 4, 8 mg/kg) 30 min after intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg) in rats. The results showed that daidzein treatment remarkably improved the pulmonary histology and decreased the lung wet/dry weight ratios. We also found that daidzein significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases of macrophages and neutrophils infiltration of lung tissues, as well as markedly attenuated MPO activity. Moreover, daidzein effectively reduced the inflammatory cytokines release and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Furthermore, daidzein significantly inhibited LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) protein up-expressions and NF-κB activation in lung tissues. In vitro, daidzein obviously inhibited the expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 and the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated A549 alveolar epithelial cells. In conclusion, these data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of daidzein against LPS-induced ALI may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway and daidzein may be a potential therapeutic agent for LPS-induced ALI. PMID:25887269

  14. Neisseria meningitidis Lipooligosaccharide Structure-Dependent Activation of the Macrophage CD14/Toll-Like Receptor 4 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zughaier, Susu M.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Zimmer, Shanta M.; Datta, Anup; Carlson, Russell W.; Stephens, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Meningococcal lipopoly(oligo)saccharide (LOS) is a major inflammatory mediator of fulminant meningococcal sepsis and meningitis. Highly purified wild-type meningococcal LOS and LOS from genetically defined mutants of Neisseria meningitidis that contained specific mutations in LOS biosynthesis pathways were used to confirm that meningococcal LOS activation of macrophages was CD14/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD-2 dependent and to elucidate the LOS structural requirement for TLR4 activation. Expression of TLR4 but not TLR2 was required, and antibodies to both TLR4 and CD14 blocked meningococcal LOS activation of macrophages. Meningococcal LOS α or β chain oligosaccharide structure did not influence CD14/TLR4-MD-2 activation. However, meningococcal lipid A, expressed by meningococci with defects in 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthesis or transfer, resulted in an ∼10-fold (P < 0.0001) reduction in biologic activity compared to KDO2-containing meningococcal LOS. Removal of KDO2 from LOS by acid hydrolysis also dramatically attenuated cellular responses. Competitive inhibition assays showed similar binding of glycosylated and unglycosylated lipid A to CD14/TLR4-MD-2. A decrease in the number of lipid A phosphate head groups or penta-acylated meningococcal LOS modestly attenuated biologic activity. Meningococcal endotoxin is a potent agonist of the macrophage CD14/TLR4-MD-2 receptor, helping explain the fulminant presentation of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis. KDO2 linked to meningococcal lipid A was structurally required for maximal activation of the human macrophage TLR4 pathway and indicates an important role for KDO-lipid A in endotoxin biologic activity. PMID:14688118

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Tolerance in Macrophages Stimulated with Toxoplasma gondii-Derived Heat Shock Protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Hye-Seong; Aosai, Fumie; Norose, Kazumi; Piao, Lian-Xun; Fang, Hao; Akira, Shizuo; Yano, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice were responsive to recombinant Toxoplasma gondii-derived heat shock protein 70 (rTgHSP70) and natural TgHSP70 (nTgHSP70) in NO release, but those from TLR2-, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-, and interleukin-1R-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4)-deficient mice were not. Polymyxin B did not inhibit PM activation by TgHSP70 and nTgHSP70 from WT and TLR4-deficient mice, while it inhibited PM activation by lipopolysaccharide. Pretreatment of PMs from WT but not from TLR4-deficient mice with rTgHSP70 resulted in suppression of NO release on restimulation with rTgHSP70. Similarly, pretreatment of PMs from WT but not TLR4-deficient mice with nTgHSP70 resulted in suppression of NO release on restimulation with nTgHSP70. Polymyxin B did not inhibit rTgHSP70- and nTgHSP70-induced tolerance of PMs from TLR4-deficient mice. Furthermore, PMs from WT mice increased suppressor of cytokine-signaling-1 (SOCS-1) expression after restimulation with rTgHSP70, while those from TLR4-deficient mice did not. Phosphorylation of JNK and I-κBα occurred in rTgHSP70-induced tolerance of PMs from TLR4-deficient mice, but not in that from WT mice. These data indicated that TgHSP70 signaling mechanisms were mediated by TLR2, MyD88, and IRAK4, but not by TLR4. On the other hand, signaling of TgHSP70-induced tolerance was mediated by TLR4, and the expression of SOCS-1 suppressed the TLR2 signaling pathway. PMID:16040976

  16. CCL-34, a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 activator, modulates differentiation and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu-Ling; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Liu, Sheng-Hung; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    CCL-34, a synthetic α-galactosylceramide analog, has been reported as an activator of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. TLR4 is highly expressed in dendritic cell (DC) and several TLR4 agonists are known to trigger DC maturation. We herein evaluated the effect of CCL-34 on DC maturation. Human CD14+ monocyte-derived immature DC were treated with CCL-34, its inactive structural analog CCL-44, or LPS to assess the DC maturation. CCL-34 induced DC maturation according to their characteristically dendrite-forming morphology, CD83 expression and IL-12p70 production. The allostimulatory activity of DC on proliferation of naive CD4+CD45+RA+ T cells and their secretion of interferon-γ was increased by CCL-34. Phagocytosis, an important function of immature DC, was reduced after CCL-34 treatment. All these effects related to DC maturation were evidently induced by positive control LPS but not by CCL-44 treatment. TLR4 neutralization impaired human DC maturation triggered by CCL-34. The induction of IL-12, a hallmark of DC maturation, by CCL-34 and LPS was only evident in TLR4-competent C3H/HeN, but not in TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. CCL-34 could further elicit the antigen presentation capability in mice inoculated with doxorubicin-treated colorectal cancer cells. In summary, CCL-34 triggers DC maturation via a TLR4-dependent manner, which supports its potential application as an immunostimulator. PMID:26883191

  17. PGE2 released by primary sensory neurons modulates Toll-like receptor 4 activities through an EP4 receptor-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kai-Hei; Chow, Kevin B S; Wise, Helen

    2016-04-15

    Exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) displays mixed regulatory properties with regard to inflammatory gene expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. We show here that endogenously-produced nanomolar concentrations of PGE2, such as that generated in response to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, inhibits both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mRNA expression in DRG cells in an EP4 receptor-dependent manner. DRG neurons appear to be the major source of PGE2 in the DRG and likely serve as both an autocrine and paracrine system for limiting over-activation of both DRG neurons and glial cells in response to TLR4 stimulation. PMID:27049555

  18. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  19. Sleep Deprivation and Divergent Toll-like Receptor-4 Activation of Cellular Inflammation in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard; Witarama, Tuff; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Yokomizo, Megumi; Seeman, Teresa E.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep disturbance and aging are associated with increases in inflammation, as well as increased risk of infectious disease. However, there is limited understanding of the role of sleep loss on age-related differences in immune responses. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on toll-like receptor activation of monocytic inflammation in younger compared to older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Community-dwelling adults (n = 70) who were categorized as younger (25–39 y old, n = 21) and older (60–84 y old, n = 49) participants, underwent a sleep laboratory-based experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, sleep deprivation (sleep restricted to 03:00–07:00), and recovery. Measurement and Results: Blood samples were obtained each morning to measure toll-like receptor-4 activation of monocyte intracellular production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Partial sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in the production of IL-6 and/or TNF-α that persisted after a night of recovery sleep (F(2,121.2) = 3.8, P < 0.05). Age moderated the effects of sleep loss, such that younger adults had an increase in inflammatory cytokine production that was not present in older adults (F(2,121.2) = 4.0, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Older adults exhibit reduced toll-like receptor 4 stimulated cellular inflammation that, unlike in younger adults, is not activated after a night of partial sleep loss. Whereas sleep loss increases cellular inflammation in younger adults and may contribute to inflammatory disorders, blunted toll-like receptor activation in older adults may increase the risk of infectious disease seen with aging. Citation: Carroll JE, Carrillo C, Olmstead R, Witarama T, Breen EC, Yokomizo M, Seeman TE, Irwin MR. Sleep deprivation and divergent toll-like receptor-4 activation of cellular inflammation in aging. SLEEP

  20. Protection of Hippocampal Neurogenesis from Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Innate Immune Activation by Ablation of Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype EP1 or EP2

    PubMed Central

    Keene, C. Dirk; Chang, Rubens; Stephen, Christina; Nivison, Mary; Nutt, Samuel E.; Look, Amy; Breyer, Richard M.; Horner, Phillip J.; Hevner, Robert; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 is one of several eicosanoid products of the cyclooxygenase isozymes and is a key regulator of innate immune responses; it also possesses paracrine effects on mature neurons. The prostaglandin E2 receptor family consists of four subtypes of which EP1 and EP2 are known to be expressed by microglia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune activation leads to the degeneration of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) that are destined for neuronal maturation in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ); these cells can be identified by the expression of the transcription factor T-box brain gene 2 (Tbr2). Importantly, depletion of LPS-induced IPCs from the SGZ is suppressed by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. We therefore tested the hypothesis that either EP1 or EP2 is critical to LPS-induced depletion of Tbr2+ IPCs from the SGZ. Expression of either EP1 or EP2 was necessary for Toll-like receptor 4-dependent innate immune-mediated depletion of these Tbr2+ IPCs in mice. Moreover, EP1 activation was directly toxic to murine adult hippocampal progenitor cells; EP2 was not expressed by these cells. Finally, EP1 modulated the response of murine primary microglia cultures to LPS but in a manner distinct from EP2. These results indicate that prostaglandin E2 signaling via either EP1 or EP2 is largely to completely necessary for Toll-like receptor 4-dependent depletion of IPCs from the SGZ and suggest further pharmacological strategies to protect this important neurogenic niche. PMID:19389932

  1. Bromelain inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of MAPK regulated NF-kappa B against skin tumor-initiation triggering mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-18

    Chemoprevention impels the pursuit for either single targeted or cocktail of multi-targeted agents. Bromelain, potential agent in this regard, is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and fruits of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus), endowed with anti-inflammatory, anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Herein, we report the anti tumor-initiating effects of bromelain in 2-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Pre-treatment of bromelain resulted in reduction in cumulative number of tumors (CNT) and average number of tumors per mouse. Preventive effect was also comprehended in terms of reduction in tumor volume up to a tune of approximately 65%. Components of the cell signaling pathways, connecting proteins involved in cell death were targeted. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in Bcl-2. A marked inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression and inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) was recorded, as phosphorylation and consequent degradation of I kappa B alpha was blocked by bromelain. Also, bromelain treatment curtailed extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt activity. The basis of anti tumor-initiating activity of bromelain was revealed by its time dependent reduction in DNA nick formation and increase in percentage prevention. Thus, modulation of inappropriate cell signaling cascades driven by bromelain is a coherent approach in achieving chemoprevention.

  2. Eriodictyol Protects Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death through Modulating ERK/Nrf2/ARE-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Hye Rim; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases is complex and may involve oxidative stress-related pathways. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid present in citrus fruits that demonstrates anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neurotrophic, and antioxidant effects in a range of pathophysiological conditions including vascular diseases. Because oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the present study was designed to verify whether eriodictyol has therapeutic potential. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a phase II detoxifying enzyme, in endothelial cells is considered to be helpful in cardiovascular disease. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with eriodictyol showed the upregulation of HO-1 through extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathways. Further, eriodictyol treatment provided protection against hydrogen peroxide-provoked cell death. This protective effect was eliminated by treatment with a specific inhibitor of HO-1 and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of HO-1 expression. These data demonstrate that eriodictyol induces ERK/Nrf2/ARE-mediated HO-1 upregulation in human endothelial cells, which is directly associated with its vascular protection against oxidative stress-related endothelial injury, and propose that targeting the upregulation of HO-1 is a promising approach for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26132561

  3. Okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, blocks calcium changes, gene expression, and cell death induced by gibberellin in wheat aleurone cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, A; Cappelluti, S; Cervantes-Cervantes, M; Rodriguez, M; Bush, D S

    1996-01-01

    The cereal aleurone functions during germination by secreting hydrolases, mainly alpha-amylase, into the starchy endosperm. Multiple signal transduction pathways exist in cereal aleurone cells that enable them to modulate hydrolase production in response to both hormonal and environmental stimuli. Gibberellic acid (GA) promotes hydrolase production, whereas abscisic acid (ABA), hypoxia, and osmotic stress reduce amylase production. In an effort to identify the components of transduction pathways in aleurone cells, we have investigated the effect of okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase inhibitor, on stimulus-response coupling for GA, ABA, and hypoxia. We found that OA (100 nM) completely inhibited all the GA responses that we measured, from rapid changes in cytosolic Ca2+ through changes in gene expression and accelerated cell death. OA (100 nM) partially inhibited ABA responses, as measured by changes in the level of PHAV1, a cDNA for an ABA-induced mRNA in barley. In contrast, OA had no effect on the response to hypoxia, as measured by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and by changes in enzyme activity and RNA levels of alcohol dehydrogenase. Our data indicate that OA-sensitive protein phosphatases act early in the transduction pathway of GA but are not involved in the response to hypoxia. These data provide a basis for a model of multiple transduction pathways in which the level of cytosolic Ca2+ is a key point of convergence controlling changes in stimulus-response coupling. PMID:8742711

  4. Eriodictyol Protects Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death through Modulating ERK/Nrf2/ARE-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Hye Rim; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases is complex and may involve oxidative stress-related pathways. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid present in citrus fruits that demonstrates anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neurotrophic, and antioxidant effects in a range of pathophysiological conditions including vascular diseases. Because oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the present study was designed to verify whether eriodictyol has therapeutic potential. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a phase II detoxifying enzyme, in endothelial cells is considered to be helpful in cardiovascular disease. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with eriodictyol showed the upregulation of HO-1 through extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathways. Further, eriodictyol treatment provided protection against hydrogen peroxide-provoked cell death. This protective effect was eliminated by treatment with a specific inhibitor of HO-1 and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of HO-1 expression. These data demonstrate that eriodictyol induces ERK/Nrf2/ARE-mediated HO-1 upregulation in human endothelial cells, which is directly associated with its vascular protection against oxidative stress-related endothelial injury, and propose that targeting the upregulation of HO-1 is a promising approach for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26132561

  5. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of Grifola frondosa polysaccharide via toll-like receptor 4-mitogen-activated protein kinases-nuclear factor κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolei; Meng, Meng; Han, Lirong; Cheng, Dai; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2016-06-15

    We isolated a neutral polysaccharide from the fruiting body of a mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP-A). The aim of this study was to characterize a neutral α-d-polysaccharide derived from G. frondosa and evaluate its immunomodulatory effect on toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB pathways of protein expression in macrophages. The structural features of GFP-A were characterized by physicochemical and instrumental analyses. Its molecular weight was found to be 8.48 × 10(2) kDa. The main chain of GFP-A consisted of (1 → 4)-linked and (1 → 6)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl, and (1 → 3,6)-linked α-d-mannopyranosyl residues, which branched at C-3. The branches consisted of (1 → 6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl and t-l-rhamnopyranosyl residues. An in vitro immunomodulatory assay for pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, etc.) using the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, revealed that GFP-A exhibited significant immunomodulatory activity by stimulating the toll-like receptor 4, mitogen-activated protein kinases to nuclear factor κB/pathway. PMID:27220562

  6. Antagonist of prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 induces metabolic alterations in liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Limin; An, Yanpeng; Zhang, Lulu; Song, Yipeng; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2015-03-01

    Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is one of the receptors for prostaglandin E2 and plays important roles in various biological functions. EP4 antagonists have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. To investigate the effects of an EP4 antagonist (L-161982) on the endogenous metabolism in a holistic manner, we employed a mouse model, and obtained metabolic and transcriptomic profiles of multiple biological matrixes, including serum, liver, and urine of mice with and without EP4 antagonist (L-161982) exposure. We found that this EP4 antagonist caused significant changes in fatty acid metabolism, choline metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. EP4 antagonist exposure also induced oxidative stress to mice. Our research is the first of its kind to report information on the alteration of metabolism associated with an EP4 antagonist. This information could further our understanding of current and new biological functions of EP4.

  7. DAT isn’t all that: cocaine reward and reinforcement requires Toll Like Receptor 4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Northcutt, A.L.; Hutchinson, M.R.; Wang, X.; Baratta, M.V.; Hiranita, T.; Cochran, T.A.; Pomrenze, M.B.; Galer, E.L.; Kopajtic, T.A.; Li, C.M.; Amat, J.; Larson, G.; Cooper, D.C.; Huang, Y.; O’Neill, C.E.; Yin, H.; Zahniser, N.R.; Katz, J.L.; Rice, K.C.; Maier, S.F.; Bachtell, R.K.; Watkins, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, are largely attributed to their ability to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. Resulting increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are traditionally thought to result from cocaine’s ability to block dopamine transporters (DATs). Here we demonstrate that cocaine also interacts with the immunosurveillance receptor complex, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), on microglial cells to initiate central innate immune signaling. Disruption of cocaine signaling at TLR4 suppresses cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine in the NAc, as well as cocaine conditioned place preference and cocaine self-administration. These results provide a novel understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine reward/reinforcement that includes a critical role for central immune signaling, and offer a new target for medication development for cocaine abuse treatment. PMID:25644383

  8. Adjuvants containing natural and synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 ligands.

    PubMed

    Ireton, Gregory C; Reed, Steven G

    2013-07-01

    The last decade has seen an increased focus on the development of adjuvants for vaccines, and several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late-stage clinical development. These advancements have been aided by the discovery of receptors and signaling pathways of the innate immune system and an increased understanding of how these innate responses influence the adaptive immune response. Successful vaccine development relies on knowledge of which adjuvants to use and the proper formulation of adjuvants and antigens to achieve safe, stable and immunogenic vaccines. In this review, the authors focus on the current use of natural and synthetic lipopolysaccharide analogues that retain their adjuvant properties with reduced toxicity compared with the parent compound for use in emerging vaccines. The authors review how these compounds initiate signal transduction through Toll-like receptor 4, insights from structure-function studies and how formulation parameters can influence their effectiveness as vaccine adjuvants.

  9. The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Infectious and Noninfectious Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Molteni, Monica; Gemma, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). They are highly conserved receptors that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), thus representing the first line of defense against infections. TLR4 has been long recognized as the sensing receptor for gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, it also binds endogenous molecules produced as a result of tissue injury. Hence, TLR4 represents a key receptor on which both infectious and noninfectious stimuli converge to induce a proinflammatory response. TLR4-mediated inflammation, triggered by exogenous or endogenous ligands, is also involved in several acute and chronic diseases, having a pivotal role as amplifier of the inflammatory response. This review focuses on the research progress about the role of TLR4 activation in infectious and noninfectious (e.g., sterile) inflammation and the effects of TLR4 signaling in some pathological conditions. PMID:27293318

  10. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms in dengue virus-infected children.

    PubMed

    Djamiatun, Kis; Ferwerda, Bart; Netea, Mihai G; van der Ven, André J A M; Dolmans, Wil M V; Faradz, Sultana M H

    2011-08-01

    Differential viral recognition by cells bearing Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile may influence susceptibility and severity of dengue virus infection. In central Java, Indonesia, we investigated 201 children with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 179 healthy controls. Patients and controls were mostly ethnic Javanese. A nearly complete cosegregation of the two mutations was observed. The TLR4 299/399 genotype was found in five patients and four controls. Prevalence of the TLR4 299/399 genotype did not differ significantly between controls and DHF patients or between patients with different severities of DHF. Also, vascular leakage in patients with different TLR4 genotypes did not differ. Thus, the 299/399 TLR4 haplotype has only minor influence on susceptibility and severity of complicated dengue virus infection.

  11. Toll-like receptor-4 mediates cigarette smoke-induced cytokine production by human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Khalil; Sarir, Hadi; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Smit, Joost J; Hosseini, Hossein; De Kimpe, Sjef J; Nijkamp, Frans P; Folkerts, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Background The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking. Smoking causes activation of resident cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lungs, which leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic factors, oxygen radicals and proteases. In the present study evidence is found for a new cellular mechanism that refers to a link between smoking and inflammation in lungs. Methods Employing human monocyte-derived macrophages, different techniques including FACS analysis, Cytometric Bead Array Assay and ELISA were achieved to evaluate the effects of CS on pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion including IL-8. Then, Toll-like receptor neutralization was performed to study the involvement of Toll-like receptor-4 in IL-8 production. Finally, signaling pathways in macrophages after exposure to CS medium were investigated performing ELISA and Western analysis. Results We demonstrate that especially human monocytes are sensitive to produce IL-8 upon cigarette smoke stimulation compared to lymphocytes or neutrophils. Moreover, monocyte-derived macrophages produce high amounts of the cytokine. The IL-8 production is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation and LPS is not involved. Further research resolved the cellular mechanism by which cigarette smoke induces cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages. Cigarette smoke causes subsequently a concentration-dependent phosphorylation of IRAK and degradation of TRAF6. Moreover, IκBα was phosphorylated which suggests involvement of NF-κB. In addition, NFκB -inhibitor blocked cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 production. Conclusion These findings link cigarette smoke to inflammation and lead to new insights/therapeutic strategies in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema. PMID:16620395

  12. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; Wu, Xinyi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  13. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  14. A novel zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase 2 from Arachis diogoi, expressed in resistance responses against late leaf spot pathogen, induces cell death when transexpressed in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Rampuria, Sakshi; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kirti, Pulugurtha B

    2016-03-01

    A novel zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (AdZADH2) was significantly upregulated in a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi treated with conidia of late leaf spot (LLS) pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. This upregulation was not observed in a comparative analysis of cultivated peanut, which is highly susceptible to LLS. This zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase possessed a Rossmann fold containing NADB domain in addition to the MDR domain present in all previously characterized plant ADH genes/proteins. Transient over-expression of AdZADH2 under an estradiol inducible promoter (XVE) resulted in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death in tobacco leaf. However, the same level of cell death was not observed when the domains were transiently expressed individually. Cell death observed in tobacco was associated with overexpression of cell death related proteins, antioxidative enzymes such as SOD, CAT and APX and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In A. diogoi, AdZADH2 expression was significantly upregulated in response to the plant signaling hormones salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and sodium nitroprusside. PMID:27047748

  15. [Sexuality and death].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.

  16. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we established TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.

  17. Free fatty acids and protein kinase C activation induce GPR120 (free fatty acid receptor 4) phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Takei, Yoshinori; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2014-01-15

    GPR120, free fatty acid receptor 4, is a recently deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor that seems to play cardinal roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and metabolic disorders. In the present work a GPR120-Venus fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 Flp-In T-REx cells and its function (increase in intracellular calcium) and phosphorylation were studied. It was observed that the fusion protein migrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels as a band with a mass of ≈70-75kDa, although other bands of higher apparent weight (>130kDa) were also detected. Cell stimulation with docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid induced concentration-dependent increases in intracellular calcium and GPR120 phosphorylation. Activation of protein kinase C with phorbol esters also induced a marked receptor phosphorylation but did not alter the ability of 1µM docosahexaenoic acid to increase the intracellular calcium concentration. Phorbol ester-induced GPR120 phosphorylation, but not that induced with docosahexaenoic acid, was blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors (bis-indolyl-maleimide I and Gö 6976) suggesting that conventional kinase isoforms mediate this action. The absence of effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on agonist-induced GPR120 phosphorylation indicates that this kinase does not play a major role in agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation. Docosahexaenoic acid action was associated with marked GPR120 internalization whereas that induced with phorbol esters was smaller at early times. PMID:24239485

  18. Diet-induced obesity mediates a proinflammatory response in pancreatic β cell via toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Chen, Shufen; Qiang, Juan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 has an important role in inflammation and immunity. Whether TLR4 signaling contributes to the link between insulin resistance and islet β cell dysfunction is an unanswered question. Here, we show that in the face of the same high-fat continuous stimulation for 24 weeks, in TLR4–/– HF mice, the weight, fraction of the liver, epididymal fat pad fraction, as well as blood glucose and insulin levels were lower than in the WT HF group. In TLR4–/– HF mice, the O2 consumption, CO2 production and activities were higher than in the WT HF group. Glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and insulin release test suggest that the impaired insulin secretion was significantly improved in TLR4–/– HF mice, compared with the WT HF group. In TLR4–/– HF mice, islet β cell ultrastructure was not damaged in the face of the same high-fat continuous stimulation, compared to that in the WT HF group. By detecting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the primary islet, insulin secretion of TLR4–/– HF mice was better than that of the WT HF group, and in the TLR4–/– HF group, at the mRNA level, islet interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were significantly lower than in the WT HF group. There was the islet macrophage infiltration in the WT HF group, but no significant macrophage infiltration in the TLR4–/– HF group. These data suggest that the damaged islet functions of the high fat diet-induced obesity mice may be linked to the TLR4 expression level, and the recruitment of macrophages into the islets. PMID:26155140

  19. Stoichiometry and geometry of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 complex with CXC ligand 12: Molecular modeling and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Kufareva, Irina; Stephens, Bryan S.; Holden, Lauren G.; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Chunxia; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Abagyan, Ruben; Handel, Tracy M.

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors regulate cell migration during development, immune system function, and in inflammatory diseases, making them important therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, the structural basis of receptor:chemokine interaction is poorly understood. Adding to the complexity of the problem is the persistently dimeric behavior of receptors observed in cell-based studies, which in combination with structural and mutagenesis data, suggest several possibilities for receptor:chemokine complex stoichiometry. In this study, a combination of computational, functional, and biophysical approaches was used to elucidate the stoichiometry and geometry of the interaction between the CXC-type chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXCL12. First, relevance and feasibility of a 2:1 stoichiometry hypothesis was probed using functional complementation experiments with multiple pairs of complementary nonfunctional CXCR4 mutants. Next, the importance of dimers of WT CXCR4 was explored using the strategy of dimer dilution, where WT receptor dimerization is disrupted by increasing expression of nonfunctional CXCR4 mutants. The results of these experiments were supportive of a 1:1 stoichiometry, although the latter could not simultaneously reconcile existing structural and mutagenesis data. To resolve the contradiction, cysteine trapping experiments were used to derive residue proximity constraints that enabled construction of a validated 1:1 receptor:chemokine model, consistent with the paradigmatic two-site hypothesis of receptor activation. The observation of a 1:1 stoichiometry is in line with accumulating evidence supporting monomers as minimal functional units of G protein-coupled receptors, and suggests transmission of conformational changes across the dimer interface as the most probable mechanism of altered signaling by receptor heterodimers. PMID:25468967

  20. Prenatal Activation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dampens Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in An IL-6 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mouihate, Abdeslam

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal immune challenge has been associated with alteration in brain development and plasticity that last into adulthood. We have previously shown that prenatal activation of toll-like receptor 4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces IL-6-dependent STAT-3 signaling pathway in the fetal brain. Whether this IL-6-dependent activation of fetal brain results in long lasting impact in brain plasticity is still unknown. Furthermore, it has been shown that prenatal LPS heightens the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) response in adulthood. In the present study we tested whether LPS administration during pregnancy affects neurogenesis in adult male offspring. Because corticosterone, the end-product of HPA axis activity in rats, alters neurogenesis we tested whether this enhanced HPA axis responsiveness in adult male offspring played a role in the long lasting impact of LPS on neurogenesis during adulthood. Pregnant rats were given either LPS, or LPS and an IL-6 neutralizing antibody (IL-6Ab). The newly born neurons were monitored in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of adult male offspring by monitoring doublecortin and T-box brain protein-2 expression: two well-established markers of newly born neurons. Prenatal LPS decreased the number of newly born neurons in the DG, but not in the SVZ of adult offspring. This decreased number of newly born neurons in the DG was absent when IL-6Ab was co-injected with LPS during pregnancy. Furthermore, administration of a corticosterone receptor blocker, RU-486, to adult offspring blunted the prenatal LPS induced decrease in newly born neurons in the DG. These data suggest that maternally triggered IL-6 plays a crucial role in the long lasting impact of LPS on adult neurogenesis. PMID:27445700

  1. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands.

    PubMed

    Gargus, Matthew; Niu, Chao; Vallone, John G; Binkley, Jana; Rubin, Deborah C; Shaker, Anisa

    2015-06-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal injury, repair, and inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux-disease (GERD) is complex. Whereas most studies have focused on the epithelial response to GERD injury, we are interested in the stromal response. We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier breaches or through dilated epithelial intercellular spaces. We determined the percentage of myofibroblasts [-smooth muscle actin (-SMA)+vimentin+CD31-] in the subepithelial GERD and normal esophageal stroma by immunomorphologic analysis. We performed -SMA coimmunostaining with IL-6 and p65. We established and characterized primary cultures of -SMA+vimentin+CD31-CD45- human esophageal myofibroblasts (HuEso MFs). We modeled GERD by treatment with pH 4.5-acidified media and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, LPS and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and determined myofibroblast cytokine secretion in response to GERD injury. We demonstrate that spindle-shaped cell myofibroblasts are located near the basement membrane of stratified squamous epithelium in normal esophagus. We identify an increase in subepithelial myofibroblasts and activation of proinflammatory pathways in patients with GERD. Primary cultures of stromal cells obtained from normal esophagus retain myofibroblast morphology and express the acid receptor transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and TLR4. HuEso MFs stimulated with acid and TLR4 agonists LPS and HMGB1 increase IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via TRPV1 and NF-B activation. Our work implicates a role for human subepithelial stromal cells in the pathogenesis of GERD-related esophageal injury. Findings of this study can be extended to the investigation of epithelial-stromal interactions in inflammatory esophageal mucosal disorders. PMID:25882613

  2. Stoichiometry and geometry of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 complex with CXC ligand 12: molecular modeling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Kufareva, Irina; Stephens, Bryan S; Holden, Lauren G; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Chunxia; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Abagyan, Ruben; Handel, Tracy M

    2014-12-16

    Chemokines and their receptors regulate cell migration during development, immune system function, and in inflammatory diseases, making them important therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, the structural basis of receptor:chemokine interaction is poorly understood. Adding to the complexity of the problem is the persistently dimeric behavior of receptors observed in cell-based studies, which in combination with structural and mutagenesis data, suggest several possibilities for receptor:chemokine complex stoichiometry. In this study, a combination of computational, functional, and biophysical approaches was used to elucidate the stoichiometry and geometry of the interaction between the CXC-type chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXCL12. First, relevance and feasibility of a 2:1 stoichiometry hypothesis was probed using functional complementation experiments with multiple pairs of complementary nonfunctional CXCR4 mutants. Next, the importance of dimers of WT CXCR4 was explored using the strategy of dimer dilution, where WT receptor dimerization is disrupted by increasing expression of nonfunctional CXCR4 mutants. The results of these experiments were supportive of a 1:1 stoichiometry, although the latter could not simultaneously reconcile existing structural and mutagenesis data. To resolve the contradiction, cysteine trapping experiments were used to derive residue proximity constraints that enabled construction of a validated 1:1 receptor:chemokine model, consistent with the paradigmatic two-site hypothesis of receptor activation. The observation of a 1:1 stoichiometry is in line with accumulating evidence supporting monomers as minimal functional units of G protein-coupled receptors, and suggests transmission of conformational changes across the dimer interface as the most probable mechanism of altered signaling by receptor heterodimers.

  3. Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein induces macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress via toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shutong; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Sang, Hui; Tian, Hua; Miao, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun

    2012-07-01

    Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) induces intimal foam cell formation, which is promoted by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a cross-point to link cellular processes with multiple risk factors that exist in all stages of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether mm-LDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages involves ERS and its underlying mechanisms. We showed that mm-LDL induced the accumulation of lipid droplets in RAW264.7 macrophages with increased free cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with an antibody against toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Additionally, mm-LDL stimulated the transport of Cy3-labeled activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), a key sensor to the unfolded protein response (UPR), from cytoplasm into nucleus. The expression of phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1), another sensor to the UPR, and its two downstream molecules, X box binding protein 1 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), were significantly upregulated by mm-LDL. The alterations induced by mm-LDL were all significantly inhibited by antibodies against TLR4 or CD36. In addition, the upregulation of p-IRE1 and GRP78 and the nuclear translocation of ATF6 induced by mm-LDL were significantly attenuated by TLR4 siRNA. These results suggest that mm-LDL may induce free cholesterol accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently stimulate ERS and activate the UPR signaling pathway mediated by ATF6 and IRE1 in macrophages, a process that is potentially mediated by TLR4. PMID:22480542

  4. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gargus, Matthew; Niu, Chao; Vallone, John G.; Binkley, Jana; Rubin, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal injury, repair, and inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux-disease (GERD) is complex. Whereas most studies have focused on the epithelial response to GERD injury, we are interested in the stromal response. We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier breaches or through dilated epithelial intercellular spaces. We determined the percentage of myofibroblasts [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+vimentin+CD31−] in the subepithelial GERD and normal esophageal stroma by immunomorphologic analysis. We performed α-SMA coimmunostaining with IL-6 and p65. We established and characterized primary cultures of α-SMA+vimentin+CD31−CD45− human esophageal myofibroblasts (HuEso MFs). We modeled GERD by treatment with pH 4.5-acidified media and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, LPS and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and determined myofibroblast cytokine secretion in response to GERD injury. We demonstrate that spindle-shaped cell myofibroblasts are located near the basement membrane of stratified squamous epithelium in normal esophagus. We identify an increase in subepithelial myofibroblasts and activation of proinflammatory pathways in patients with GERD. Primary cultures of stromal cells obtained from normal esophagus retain myofibroblast morphology and express the acid receptor transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and TLR4. HuEso MFs stimulated with acid and TLR4 agonists LPS and HMGB1 increase IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via TRPV1 and NF-κB activation. Our work implicates a role for human subepithelial stromal cells in the pathogenesis of GERD-related esophageal injury. Findings of this study can be extended to the investigation of epithelial-stromal interactions in inflammatory esophageal mucosal disorders. PMID:25882613

  5. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates the Response of Epithelial and Stromal Cells to Lipopolysaccharide in the Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Iain Martin; Roberts, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ascending infections of the female genital tract with bacteria causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), preterm labour and infertility. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Innate immunity relies on the detection of LPS by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on host cells. Binding of LPS to TLR4 on immune cells stimulates secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, chemokines such as CXCL1 and CCL20, and prostaglandin E2. The present study tested the hypothesis that TLR4 on endometrial epithelial and stromal cells is essential for the innate immune response to LPS in the female genital tract. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild type (WT) mice expressed TLR4 in the endometrium. Intrauterine infusion of purified LPS caused pelvic inflammatory disease, with accumulation of granulocytes throughout the endometrium of WT but not Tlr4−/− mice. Intra-peritoneal infusion of LPS did not cause PID in WT or Tlr4−/− mice, indicating the importance of TLR4 in the endometrium for the detection of LPS in the female genital tract. Stromal and epithelial cells isolated from the endometrium of WT but not Tlr4−/− mice, secreted IL-6, CXCL1, CCL20 and prostaglandin E2 in response to LPS, in a concentration and time dependent manner. Co-culture of combinations of stromal and epithelial cells from WT and Tlr4−/− mice provided little evidence of stromal-epithelial interactions in the response to LPS. Conclusions/Significance The innate immune response to LPS in the female genital tract is dependent on TLR4 on the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. PMID:20877575

  6. Amyloid-beta mediates the receptor of advanced glycation end product-induced pro-inflammatory response via toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Jer; Wang, Pei-Wen; Yang, I-Hui; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2015-07-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β, a product of amyloid precursor protein, is associated with neuro-inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's diseases. The correlation between amyloid-beta and advanced glycation end products, which accumulate in tissue of diabetic patients, is not clear. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of advanced glycation end product on the expression of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid-beta and associated pro-inflammatory responses in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Treatment with advanced glycation end product produced upregulation of amyloid precursor protein and increased secretion of amyloid-β(1-40). Additionally, amyloid-β(1-40) induced toll-like receptor 4-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine in myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88). We found that N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduced the secretion of amyloid-β(1-40) and inhibited the advanced glycation end product-induced activation of myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88). Amyloid-β(1-40) induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of TNFα mRNA. Knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 inhibited the amyloid-β(1-40)-induced phosphorylation of p65 in NF-κB. Additionally, the nuclear translocation of p65 and transcriptions of TNFα were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of receptor of advanced glycation end product or toll-like receptor 4. The advanced glycation end product-induced secretion of VEGF-A was also reduced by knockdown of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, our data suggested that amyloid-β(1-40) mediates the interaction between receptor of advanced glycation end product and toll-like receptor 4. Inhibition of the toll-like receptor 4 is an effective method for suppressing the amyloid-β(1-40)-induced pro-inflammatory responses in RGC-5 cells.

  7. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide delays GA-triggered programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers by the modulation of glutathione homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Zhang, Chen; Lai, Diwen; Sun, Ya; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered as a cellular signaling intermediate in higher plants, but corresponding molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways in plant biology are still limited. In the present study, a combination of pharmacological and biochemical approaches was used to study the effect of H2S on the alleviation of GA-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone cells. The results showed that in contrast with the responses of ABA, GA brought about a gradual decrease of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) activity and H2S production, and thereafter PCD occurred. Exogenous H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) not only effectively blocked the decrease of endogenous H2S release, but also alleviated GA-triggered PCD in wheat aleurone cells. These responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT), a H2S scavenger, suggesting that this effect of NaHS was in an H2S-dependent fashion. Further experiment confirmed that H2S, rather than other sodium- or sulphur-containing compounds derived from the decomposing of NaHS, was attributed to the rescuing response. Importantly, the reversing effect was associated with glutathione (GSH) because the NaHS triggered increases of endogenous GSH content and the ratio of GSH/oxidized GSH (GSSG) in GA-treated layers, and the NaHS-mediated alleviation of PCD was markedly eliminated by l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a selective inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis). The inducible effect of NaHS was also ascribed to the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), because the specific inhibitor of HO-1 zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) significantly suppressed the NaHS-related responses. By contrast, the above inhibitory effects were reversed partially when carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution or bilirubin (BR), two of the by-products of HO-1, was added, respectively. NaHS-triggered HO-1 gene expression in GA-treated layers was also confirmed. Together, the above results clearly suggested that the H2S-delayed PCD in GA-treated wheat

  9. Hydrogen sulfide delays GA-triggered programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers by the modulation of glutathione homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Zhang, Chen; Lai, Diwen; Sun, Ya; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered as a cellular signaling intermediate in higher plants, but corresponding molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways in plant biology are still limited. In the present study, a combination of pharmacological and biochemical approaches was used to study the effect of H2S on the alleviation of GA-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone cells. The results showed that in contrast with the responses of ABA, GA brought about a gradual decrease of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) activity and H2S production, and thereafter PCD occurred. Exogenous H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) not only effectively blocked the decrease of endogenous H2S release, but also alleviated GA-triggered PCD in wheat aleurone cells. These responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT), a H2S scavenger, suggesting that this effect of NaHS was in an H2S-dependent fashion. Further experiment confirmed that H2S, rather than other sodium- or sulphur-containing compounds derived from the decomposing of NaHS, was attributed to the rescuing response. Importantly, the reversing effect was associated with glutathione (GSH) because the NaHS triggered increases of endogenous GSH content and the ratio of GSH/oxidized GSH (GSSG) in GA-treated layers, and the NaHS-mediated alleviation of PCD was markedly eliminated by l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a selective inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis). The inducible effect of NaHS was also ascribed to the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), because the specific inhibitor of HO-1 zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) significantly suppressed the NaHS-related responses. By contrast, the above inhibitory effects were reversed partially when carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution or bilirubin (BR), two of the by-products of HO-1, was added, respectively. NaHS-triggered HO-1 gene expression in GA-treated layers was also confirmed. Together, the above results clearly suggested that the H2S-delayed PCD in GA-treated wheat

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is a Regulator of Monocyte and Electroencephalographic Responses to Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Clegern, William C.; Schmidt, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep loss triggers changes in inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain and periphery. The mechanisms that underlie these changes are ill-defined. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activates inflammatory signaling cascades in response to endogenous and pathogen-associated ligands known to be elevated in association with sleep loss. TLR4 is therefore a possible mediator of some of the inflammation-related effects of sleep loss. Here we describe the baseline electroencephalographic sleep phenotype and the biochemical and electroencephalographic responses to sleep loss in TLR4-deficient mice. Design, Measurements and Results: TLR4-deficient mice and wild type controls were subjected to electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings during spontaneous sleep/wake cycles and during and after sleep restriction sessions of 3, 6, and 24-h duration, during which sleep was disrupted by an automated sleep restriction system. Relative to wild type control mice, TLR4-deficient mice exhibited an increase in the duration of the primary daily waking bout occurring at dark onset in a light/dark cycle. The amount of time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep by TLR4-deficient mice was reduced in proportion to increased wakefulness in the hours immediately after dark onset. Subsequent to sleep restriction, EEG measures of increased sleep drive were attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. TLR4 was enriched 10-fold in brain cells positive for the cell surface marker CD11b (cells of the monocyte lineage) relative to CD11b-negative cells in wild type mouse brains. To assess whether this population was affected selectively by TLR4 knockout, flow cytometry was used to count F4/80- and CD45-positive cells in the brains of sleep deprived and time of day control mice. While wild-type mice exhibited a significant reduction in the number of CD11b-positive cells in the brain after 24-h sleep restriction, TLR4-deficient mice did not. Conclusion

  11. Signal transmission through the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Wescott, Melanie P; Kufareva, Irina; Paes, Cheryl; Goodman, Jason R; Thaker, Yana; Puffer, Bridget A; Berdougo, Eli; Rucker, Joseph B; Handel, Tracy M; Doranz, Benjamin J

    2016-08-30

    The atomic-level mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular ligand binding events through their transmembrane helices to activate intracellular G proteins remain unclear. Using a comprehensive library of mutations covering all 352 residues of the GPCR CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), we identified 41 amino acids that are required for signaling induced by the chemokine ligand CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). CXCR4 variants with each of these mutations do not signal properly but remain folded, based on receptor surface trafficking, reactivity to conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies, and ligand binding. When visualized on the structure of CXCR4, the majority of these residues form a continuous intramolecular signaling chain through the transmembrane helices; this chain connects chemokine binding residues on the extracellular side of CXCR4 to G protein-coupling residues on its intracellular side. Integrated into a cohesive model of signal transmission, these CXCR4 residues cluster into five functional groups that mediate (i) chemokine engagement, (ii) signal initiation, (iii) signal propagation, (iv) microswitch activation, and (v) G protein coupling. Propagation of the signal passes through a "hydrophobic bridge" on helix VI that coordinates with nearly every known GPCR signaling motif. Our results agree with known conserved mechanisms of GPCR activation and significantly expand on understanding the structural principles of CXCR4 signaling. PMID:27543332

  12. Starring role of toll-like receptor-4 activation in the gut-liver axis

    PubMed Central

    Carotti, Simone; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Morini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of the term “gut-liver axis”, many studies have focused on the functional links of intestinal microbiota, barrier function and immune responses to liver physiology. Intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases alter microbiota composition and lead to dysbiosis, which aggravates impaired intestinal barrier function via increased lipopolysaccharide translocation. The subsequent increased passage of gut-derived product from the intestinal lumen to the organ wall and bloodstream affects gut motility and liver biology. The activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) likely plays a key role in both cases. This review analyzed the most recent literature on the gut-liver axis, with a particular focus on the role of TLR-4 activation. Findings that linked liver disease with dysbiosis are evaluated, and links between dysbiosis and alterations of intestinal permeability and motility are discussed. We also examine the mechanisms of translocated gut bacteria and/or the bacterial product activation of liver inflammation and fibrogenesis via activity on different hepatic cell types. PMID:26600967

  13. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse.

  14. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase is an endogenous activator of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Sawako; Into, Takeshi; Suzuki, Keiko; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi; Shibayama, Keigo; Niida, Shumpei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation-associated bone destruction, which is observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis, is mediated by excessive osteoclastogenesis. We showed previously that γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), an enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism, acts as an endogenous activator of such pathological osteoclastogenesis, independent of its enzymatic activity. GGT accumulation is clinically observed in the joints of RA patients, and, in animals, the administration of recombinant GGT to the gingival sulcus as an in vivo periodontitis model induces an increase in the number of osteoclasts. However, the underlying mechanisms of this process remain unclear. Here, we report that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes GGT to activate inflammation-associated osteoclastogenesis. Unlike lipopolysaccharide, GGT is sensitive to proteinase K treatment and insensitive to polymyxin B treatment. TLR4 deficiency abrogates GGT-induced osteoclastogenesis and activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in precursor cells. Additionally, GGT does not induce osteoclastogenesis in cells lacking the signaling adaptor MyD88. The administration of GGT to the gingival sulcus induces increased osteoclastogenesis in wild-type mice, but does not induce it in TLR4-deficient mice. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism of inflammation-associated osteoclastogenesis, which involves TLR4 recognition of GGT and subsequent activation of MyD88-dependent signaling. PMID:27775020

  15. Paclitaxel induces acute pain via directly activating toll like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Maixner, Dylan W; Yadav, Ruchi; Gao, Mei; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G; Weng, Han-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Paclitaxel, a powerful anti-neoplastic drug, often causes pathological pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life in patients. Paclitaxel-induced pain includes pain that occurs immediately after paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndrome, P-APS) and pain that persists for weeks to years after cessation of paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel induced chronic neuropathic pain). Mechanisms underlying P-APS remain unknown. In this study, we found that paclitaxel causes acute pain in rodents in a dose-dependent manner. The paclitaxel-induced acute pain occurs within 2 hrs after a single intravenous injection of paclitaxel. This is accompanied by low levels of paclitaxel penetrating into the cerebral spinal fluid and spinal dorsal horn. We demonstrated that an intrathecal injection of paclitaxel induces mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Paclitaxel causes activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglions. Through activating TLR4, paclitaxel increases glutamatergic synaptic activities and reduces glial glutamate transporter activities in the dorsal horn. Activations of TLR4 are necessary in the genesis of paclitaxel-induced acute pain. The cellular and molecular signaling pathways revealed in this study could provide rationales for the development of analgesics and management strategies for P-APS in patients. PMID:25775962

  16. Reduced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Canxiang; Yang Qingwu . E-mail: yangqwmlys@hotmail.com; Lv Fenglin; Cui Jie; Fu Huabin; Wang Jingzhou

    2007-02-09

    Inflammatory reaction plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, its mechanism is still unclear. Our study aims to explore the function of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We made middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion model in mice with line embolism method. Compared with C3H/OuJ mice, scores of cerebral water content, cerebral infarct size and neurologic impairment in C3H/Hej mice were obviously lower after 6 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. Light microscopic and electron microscopic results showed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in C3H/Hej mice was less serious than that in C3H/OuJ mice. TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 contents in C3H/HeJ mice were obviously lower than that in C3H/OuJ mice with ELISA. The results showed that TLR4 participates in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably through decrease of inflammatory cytokines. TLR4 may become a new target for prevention of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our study suggests that TLR4 is one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury besides its important role in innate immunity.

  17. Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nina; Gonzalez, Oscar A; Registre, Ludy; Becerril, Carlos; Etemad, Behzad; Lu, Hong; Wu, Xueling; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Myron; Moyo, Sikhulile; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Sagar, Manish

    2016-06-01

    Although both C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-using HIV-1 strains cause AIDS, the emergence of CXCR4-utilizing variants is associated with an accelerated decline in CD4+ T cells. It remains uncertain if CXCR4-using viruses hasten disease or if these variants only emerge after profound immunological damage. We show that exclusively CXCR4- as compared to cocirculating CCR5-utilizing variants are less sensitive to neutralization by both contemporaneous autologous plasma and plasma pools from individuals that harbor only CCR5-using HIV-1. The CXCR4-utilizing variants, however, do not have a global antigenic change because they remain equivalently susceptible to antibodies that do not target coreceptor binding domains. Studies with envelope V3 loop directed antibodies and chimeric envelopes suggest that the neutralization susceptibility differences are potentially influenced by the V3 loop. In vitro passage of a neutralization sensitive CCR5-using virus in the presence of autologous plasma and activated CD4+ T cells led to the emergence of a CXCR4-utilizing virus in 1 of 3 cases. These results suggest that in some but not necessarily all HIV-1 infected individuals humoral immune pressure against the autologous virus selects for CXCR4-using variants, which potentially accelerates disease progression. Our observations have implications for using antibodies for HIV-1 immune therapy. PMID:27428434

  18. Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) modulation by synthetic and natural compounds: an update

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Francesco; Calabrese, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), together with MD-2, binds bacterial endotoxins (E) with high affinity, triggering formation of the activated homodimer (E-MD-2-TLR4)2. Activated TLR4 induces intracellular signaling leading to activation of transcription factors that result in cytokine and chemokine production and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. TLR4 also responds to endogenous ligands called danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Increased sensitivity to infection and a variety of immune pathologies have been associated with either too little or too much TLR4 activation. We review here the molecular mechanisms of TLR4 activation (agonism) or inhibition (antagonism) by small organic molecules of both natural and synthetic origin. The role of co-receptors MD-2 and CD14 in the TLR4 modulation process is also discussed. Recent achievements in the field of chemical TLR4 modulation are reviewed, with special focus on non-classical TLR4 ligands with a chemical structure different from lipid A. PMID:24188011

  19. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Small Intestinal Immune Responses Following Murine Arcobacter Butzleri Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Karadas, Gül; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Gölz, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10–/– control animals, TLR-4–/– IL-10–/– mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN-γ secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions. PMID:26716022

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are important regulators of pulmonary remodeling and airway inflammation. Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen. However, PE has been characterized as a cytosolic enzyme, and the mechanism mediating PE release extracellularly remains unknown. We examined the role of exosomes derived from airway epithelia as a mechanism for PE release and the potential extracellular signals that regulate the release of these exosomes. We demonstrate a specific regulatory pathway of exosome release from airway epithelia and identify PE as novel exosome cargo. LPS stimulation of airway epithelial cells induces release of PE-containing exosomes, which is significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA depletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These differences were recapitulated upon intratracheal LPS administration in mice competent versus deficient for TLR4 signaling. Finally, sputum samples from subjects with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate elevated exosome content and increased PE levels. This TLR4-based mechanism highlights the first report of nonstochastic release of exosomes in the lung and couples TLR4 activation with matrikine generation. The increased quantity of these proteolytic exosomes in the airways of subjects with chronic lung disease highlights a new mechanism of injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders.

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 knockout ameliorates neuroinflammation due to lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Chang; Zhang, Zongze; Zou, Yufeng; Peng, Mian; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system, and increasing evidence supports its role in inflammation, stress, and tissue injury, including injury to the lung and brain. We aimed to investigate the effects of TLR4 on neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice. Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and TLR4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were divided into three groups: (1) control group (C): spontaneous breathing; (2) anesthesia group (A): spontaneous breathing under anesthesia; and (3) mechanical ventilation group (MV): 6h of MV under anesthesia. The behavioral responses of mice were tested with fear conditioning tests. The histological changes in the lung and brain were assessed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The level of TLR4 mRNA in tissue was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microgliosis, astrocytosis, and the TLR4 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were measured by double immunofluorescence. MV mice exhibited impaired cognition, and this impairment was less severe in TLR4 KO mice than in WT mice. In WT mice, MV increased TLR4 mRNA expression in the lung and brain. MV induced mild lung injury, which was prevented in TLR4 KO mice. MV mice exhibited increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, increased microglia and astrocyte activation. Microgliosis was alleviated in TLR4 KO mice. MV mice exhibited increased TLR4 immunoreactivity, which was expressed in microglia and astrocytes. These results demonstrate that TLR4 is involved in neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction and that TLR4 KO ameliorates neuroinflammation due to lung-brain interaction after prolonged MV. In addition, Administration of a TLR4 antagonist (100μg/mice) to WT mice also significantly attenuated neuroinflammation of lung-brain interaction due to prolonged MV. TLR4 antagonism

  2. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  3. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  4. Inhibition of Prostaglandin Reductase 2, a Putative Oncogene Overexpressed in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Cell Death Involving xCT and CTH Gene Expressions through 15-Keto-PGE2.

    PubMed

    Chang, Emily Yun-Chia; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tien, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Hee, Siow-Wey; Chen, Ing-Jung; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) is the enzyme that catalyzes 15-keto-PGE2, an endogenous PPARγ ligand, into 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2. Previously, we have reported a novel oncogenic role of PTGR2 in gastric cancer, where PTGR2 was discovered to modulate ROS-mediated cell death and tumor transformation. In the present study, we demonstrated the oncogenic potency of PTGR2 in pancreatic cancer. First, we observed that the majority of the human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues was stained positive for PTGR2 expression but not in the adjacent normal parts. In vitro analyses showed that silencing of PTGR2 expression enhanced ROS production, suppressed pancreatic cell proliferation, and promoted cell death through increasing 15-keto-PGE2. Mechanistically, silencing of PTGR2 or addition of 15-keto-PGE2 suppressed the expressions of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (xCT) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH), two important providers of intracellular cysteine for the generation of glutathione (GSH), which is widely accepted as the first-line antioxidative defense. The oxidative stress-mediated cell death after silencing of PTGR2 or addition of 15-keto-PGE2 was further abolished after restoring intracellular GSH concentrations and cysteine supply by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and 2-Mercaptomethanol. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting PTGR2/15-keto-PGE2 for pancreatic cancer.

  5. Inhibition of Prostaglandin Reductase 2, a Putative Oncogene Overexpressed in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Cell Death Involving xCT and CTH Gene Expressions through 15-Keto-PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Emily Yun-Chia; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tien, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Hee, Siow-Wey; Chen, Ing-Jung; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) is the enzyme that catalyzes 15-keto-PGE2, an endogenous PPARγ ligand, into 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2. Previously, we have reported a novel oncogenic role of PTGR2 in gastric cancer, where PTGR2 was discovered to modulate ROS-mediated cell death and tumor transformation. In the present study, we demonstrated the oncogenic potency of PTGR2 in pancreatic cancer. First, we observed that the majority of the human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues was stained positive for PTGR2 expression but not in the adjacent normal parts. In vitro analyses showed that silencing of PTGR2 expression enhanced ROS production, suppressed pancreatic cell proliferation, and promoted cell death through increasing 15-keto-PGE2. Mechanistically, silencing of PTGR2 or addition of 15-keto-PGE2 suppressed the expressions of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (xCT) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH), two important providers of intracellular cysteine for the generation of glutathione (GSH), which is widely accepted as the first-line antioxidative defense. The oxidative stress-mediated cell death after silencing of PTGR2 or addition of 15-keto-PGE2 was further abolished after restoring intracellular GSH concentrations and cysteine supply by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and 2-Mercaptomethanol. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting PTGR2/15-keto-PGE2 for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26820738

  6. Quercetin Suppresses the Migration and Invasion in Human Colon Cancer Caco-2 Cells Through Regulating Toll-like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor-kappa B Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mingyang; Song, Yucheng; Zhang, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The migration and invasion features, which were associated with inflammatory response, acted as vital roles in the development of colon cancer. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid compound, was widely spread in vegetables and fruits. Although quercetin exerts antioxidant and anticancer activities, the molecular signaling pathways in human colon cancer cells remain unclear. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the suppression of quercetin on migratory and invasive activity of colon cancer and the underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods: The effect of quercetin on cell viability, migration, and invasion of Caco-2 cells was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, wound-healing assay, and transwell chambers assay, respectively. The protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, mitochondrial membrane potential-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot assay. The inflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in cell supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The concentration of quercetin <20 μM was chosen for further experiments. Quercetin (5 μM) could remarkably suppress the migratory and invasive capacity of Caco-2 cells. The expressions of metastasis-related proteins of MMP-2, MMP-9 were decreased, whereas the expression of E-cadherin protein was increased by quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the anti-TLR4 (2 μg) antibody or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 1 μM) could affect the inhibition of quercetin on cell migration and invasion, as well as the protein expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, E-cadherin, TLR4, and NF-κB p65. In addition, quercetin could reduce the inflammation factors production of TNF-α, Cox-2, and IL-6. Conclusion: The findings suggested for the 1st time that quercetin might exert its anticolon cancer activity via

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and nuclear factor-κB in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Necela, Brian M; Su, Weidong; Thompson, E Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in macrophages and plays an important role in suppressing the inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), reduced PPARγ expression and function in peritoneal macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Moreover, pretreatment with the synthetic PPARγ ligand, rosiglitazone did not prevent LPS-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. Inhibition of PPARγ expression was not blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is not required for LPS-mediated suppression of PPARγ. Destabilization of PPARγ messenger RNA (mRNA) was not observed in LPS-stimulated macrophages, suggesting that LPS regulates the synthesis of PPARγ mRNA. LPS had no effect on PPARγ expression in macrophages from TLR4 knockout mice, whereas LPS inhibited PPARγ expression in cells that had been reconstituted to express functional TLR4. Targeting the TLR4 pathway with inhibitors of MEK1/2, p38, JNK and AP-1 had no effect on PPARγ downregulation by LPS. However, inhibitors that target NEMO, IκB and NF-κB abolished LPS-mediated downregulation of PPARγ in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Our data indicate that activation of TLR4 inhibits PPARγ mRNA synthesis by an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Low-density genomic profiling of macrophage-specific PPARγ knockout cells indicated that PPARγ suppresses inflammation under basal conditions, and that loss of PPARγ expression is sufficient to induce a proinflammatory state. Our data reveal a regulatory feedback loop in which PPARγ represses NF-κB-mediated inflammatory signalling in unstimulated macrophages; however, upon activation of TLR4, NF-κB drives down PPARγ expression and thereby obviates any potential anti-inflammatory effects of PPARγ in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PMID:18422969

  8. Human hsp27, Drosophila hsp27 and human alphaB-crystallin expression-mediated increase in glutathione is essential for the protective activity of these proteins against TNFalpha-induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Mehlen, P; Kretz-Remy, C; Préville, X; Arrigo, A P

    1996-01-01

    Expression of small stress proteins (shsp) enhances the survival of mammalian cells exposed to heat or oxidative injuries. Recently, we have shown that the expression of shsp from different species, such as human hsp27, Drosophila hsp27 or human alphaB-crystallin protected murine L929 cells against cell death induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha), hydrogen peroxide or menadione. Here, we report that, in growing L929 cell lines, the presence of these shsp decreased the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). shsp expression also abolished the burst of intracellular ROS induced by TNFalpha. Several downstream effects resulting from the TNFalpha-mediated ROS increment, such as NF-kappaB activation, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, were inhibited by shsp expression. We also report that the expression of these different shsp raised the total glutathione level in both L929 cell lines and transiently transfected NIH 3T3-ras cells. This phenomenon was essential for the shsp-mediated decrease in ROS and resistance against TNFalpha. Our results therefore suggest that the protective activity shared by human hsp27, Drosophila hsp27 and human alphaB-crystallin against TNFalpha-mediated cell death and probably other types of oxidative stress results from their conserved ability to raise the intracellular concentration of glutathione. Images PMID:8654367

  9. Invariant death

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes. PMID:27785361

  10. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  11. Lipopolysaccharides Belonging to Different Salmonella Serovars Are Differentially Capable of Activating Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Spiga, Luisella; De Riu, Nicola; Delaconi, Paola; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Ganau, Giulia; Rubino, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (serotype) Abortusovis is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae. This serotype is naturally restricted to ovine species and does not infect humans. Limited information is available about the immune response of sheep to S. Abortusovis. S. Abortusovis, like Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, causes a systemic infection in which, under natural conditions, animals are not able to raise a rapid immune response. Failure to induce the appropriate response allows pathogens to reach the placenta and results in an abortion. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are specific to bacteria and are not synthesized by the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors that specifically recognize PAMPs. As a first step, we were able to identify the presence of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the ovine placenta by using an immunohistochemistry technique. To our knowledge, this is the first work describing the interaction between S. Abortusovis LPS and TLR4. Experiments using an embryonic cell line (HEK293) transfected with human and ovine TLR4s showed a reduction of interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by S. Abortusovis and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi upon LPS stimulation compared to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Identical results were observed using heat-killed bacteria instead of LPS. Based on data obtained with TLR4 in vitro stimulation, we demonstrated that the serotype S. Abortusovis is able to successfully evade the immune system whereas S. Typhimurium and other serovars fail to do so. PMID:25135686

  12. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166

  13. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Frick, Morin M.; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F.; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signalling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and tempromandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. PMID:25218902

  14. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior.

  15. Disseminated cysticercosis: clinical spectrum, Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms and role of albendazole: A prospective follow-up of 60 cases with a review of 56 published cases.

    PubMed

    Qavi, Abdul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we describe clinical and imaging spectrum, and the natural course of patients with disseminated cysticercosis. How albendazole affects the course of disease has also been evaluated. We assessed the Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms, to know the reason for the apparently higher prevalence of disseminated cysticercosis in India.Sixty consecutive patients with disseminated cysticercosis were enrolled. Sixty age-and-sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the purpose of genetic study. Twenty patients, who gave consent, were treated with albendazole along with corticosteroids. Forty patients did not give consent for antiparasitic therapy. Assessment for Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genes) was done. Patients were followed for 6 months. We also performed a literature search of cases published in English language using PubMed electronic database and analyzed 56 cases thus available.There was an increased risk (6.63 fold and 4.61 fold) of disseminated cysticercosis in the presence of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor-4, respectively. The allelic frequency of Gly (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] = 3.52) and Ile alleles (11% vs. 2%, P = 0.009, OR = 4.738) in disseminated cysticercosis was high. Albendazole resulted in complete disappearance of all cerebral lesions in 35% (7/20) patients and reduction in lesion load in remaining 65% (13/20) patients. No significant change in number of cysticercal lesion was noted in patients who did not receive albendazole. No major adverse reaction following antiparasitic treatment was noted. Three deaths were recorded in patients who did not receive antiparasitic treatment.Of the 56 cases reported in PubMed, 33 patients received antiparasitic treatment with follow-up data available for 31 patients. Most (24) of these patients received albendazole. A significant clinical and/or imaging improvements, on follow up, were observed in 27 patients

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hernanz, R; Martínez-Revelles, S; Palacios, R; Martín, A; Cachofeiro, V; Aguado, A; García-Redondo, L; Barrús, M T; de Batista, P R; Briones, A M; Salaices, M; Alonso, M J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling contributes to inflammatory cardiovascular diseases, but its role in hypertension and the associated vascular damage is not known. We investigated whether TLR4 activation contributed to angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension and the associated vascular structural, mechanical and functional alterations. Experimental Approach AngII was infused (1.44 mg·kg−1·day−1, s.c.) for 2 weeks in C57BL6 mice, treated with a neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibody or IgG (1 μg·day−1); systolic BP (SBP) and aortic cytokine levels were measured. Structural, mechanical and contractile properties of aortic and mesenteric arterial segments were measured with myography and histology. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to analyse these tissues and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from hypertensive rats (SHR). Key Results Aortic TLR4 mRNA levels were raised by AngII infusion. Anti-TLR4 antibody treatment of AngII-treated mice normalised: (i) increased SBP and TNF-α, IL-6 and CCL2 levels; (ii) vascular structural and mechanical changes; (iii) altered aortic phenylephrine- and ACh-induced responses; (iv) increased NOX-1 mRNA levels, superoxide anion production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity and effects of catalase, apocynin, ML-171 and Mito-TEMPO on vascular responses; and (v) reduced NO release and effects of L-NAME on phenylephrine-induced contraction. In VSMC, the MyD88 inhibitor ST-2825 reduced AngII-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activity. The TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095 reduced AngII-induced increased phospho-JNK1/2 and p65 NF-κB subunit nuclear protein expression. Conclusions and Implications TLR4 up-regulation by AngII contributed to the inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling and stiffness associated with hypertension by mechanisms involving oxidative stress. MyD88-dependent activation and JNK/NF-κB signalling pathways participated in these alterations. PMID:25712370

  17. Pregnane X Receptor Regulates Pathogen-Induced Inflammation and Host Defense against an Intracellular Bacterial Infection through Toll-like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhijuan; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Cicek, Basak B.; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Maher, Leigh A.; Salazar, Juan C.; Mani, Sridhar; Khanna, Kamal M.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a central role in regulating xenobiotic metabolism. We now report a novel role for PXR as a critical negative regulator of innate immunity after infection. Pxr−/− mice exhibited remarkably elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production following infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Despite the more robust innate immune response, Pxr−/− mice were highly susceptible to Lm infection. Surprisingly, disruption of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 signaling restored the inflammation to normal levels and the ability to clear Lm in Pxr−/− mice. Mechanistically, the heightened inflammation in Pxr−/− mice resulted in the death of inflammatory monocytes that led to the enhanced susceptibility to Lm infection. These data demonstrated that PXR regulated pathogen-induced inflammation and host defense against Lm infection through modulating the TLR4 pathway. In summary, we discovered an apical role for PXR in regulating innate immunity. In addition, we uncovered a remarkable negative impact of the TLR4 pathway in controlling the quality of the inflammatory response and host defense against a gram-positive bacterial infection. PMID:27550658

  18. Pregnane X Receptor Regulates Pathogen-Induced Inflammation and Host Defense against an Intracellular Bacterial Infection through Toll-like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhijuan; Cervantes, Jorge L; Cicek, Basak B; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Maher, Leigh A; Salazar, Juan C; Mani, Sridhar; Khanna, Kamal M

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a central role in regulating xenobiotic metabolism. We now report a novel role for PXR as a critical negative regulator of innate immunity after infection. Pxr(-/-) mice exhibited remarkably elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production following infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Despite the more robust innate immune response, Pxr(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to Lm infection. Surprisingly, disruption of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 signaling restored the inflammation to normal levels and the ability to clear Lm in Pxr(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, the heightened inflammation in Pxr(-/-) mice resulted in the death of inflammatory monocytes that led to the enhanced susceptibility to Lm infection. These data demonstrated that PXR regulated pathogen-induced inflammation and host defense against Lm infection through modulating the TLR4 pathway. In summary, we discovered an apical role for PXR in regulating innate immunity. In addition, we uncovered a remarkable negative impact of the TLR4 pathway in controlling the quality of the inflammatory response and host defense against a gram-positive bacterial infection. PMID:27550658

  19. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  20. Intestinal Epithelial Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Affects Epithelial Function and Colonic Microbiota and Promotes a Risk for Transmissible Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Dheer, Rishu; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Davies, Julie M.; Lang, Jessica K.; Phillips, Matthew C.; Pastorini, Cristhine; Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence obtained from gene knockout studies supports the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in intestinal inflammation and microbiota recognition. Increased epithelial TLR4 expression is observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, little is known of the effect of increased TLR4 signaling on intestinal homeostasis. Here, we examined the effect of increased TLR4 signaling on epithelial function and microbiota by using transgenic villin-TLR4 mice that overexpress TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium. Our results revealed that villin-TLR4 mice are characterized by increases in the density of mucosa-associated bacteria and bacterial translocation. Furthermore, increased epithelial TLR4 signaling was associated with an impaired epithelial barrier, altered expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, and altered epithelial cell differentiation. The composition of the colonic luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota differed between villin-TLR4 and wild-type (WT) littermates. Interestingly, WT mice cohoused with villin-TLR4 mice displayed greater susceptibility to acute colitis than singly housed WT mice did. The results of this study suggest that epithelial TLR4 expression shapes the microbiota and affects the functional properties of the epithelium. The changes in the microbiota induced by increased epithelial TLR4 signaling are transmissible and exacerbate dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Together, our findings imply that host innate immune signaling can modulate intestinal bacteria and ultimately the host's susceptibility to colitis. PMID:26755160

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase-1-mediated mesenchymal stem cell tumor tropism is dependent on crosstalk with stromal derived growth factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ivy A W; Yulyana, Yulyana; Sia, Kian C; Newman, Jennifer P; Guo, Chang M; Hui, Kam M; Lam, Paula Y P

    2014-10-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the unique ability to home toward injuries or tumor sites. We have previously shown that the tumor-tropic property is dependent on the intrinsic expression and activity of the matrix remodeling gene, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1). Herein, crosstalk between MMP-1/protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and the G-protein coupled receptor stromal-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR-4) in facilitating cell migration was investigated. Gain-of-function and RNA interference (RNAi) technology were used to evaluate the interplay between the key players. The downstream effect on the tumor-tropic migration of MSCs was investigated using modified Boyden chamber assay. Neutralizing PAR-1 activation using monoclonal antibody and targeted knockdown of MMP-1 using RNAi resulted in decreased expression of SDF-1, which was not observed in control-RNAi-transfected cells. Overexpression of CXCR-4 failed to promote MSC migration; the percentage of migrated cells toward tumor cell conditioned medium was similar to the vector-transduced and the CXCR-4-transduced MSCs. Furthermore, inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR-4 signaling using AMD3100 reduced MSC migration through the deregulation of MMP-1 promoter activities, protein expression, and metalloproteinase activity. Collectively, our results showed that MMP-1-mediated MSC tumor tropism is dependent on crosstalk with the SDF-1/CXCR-4 axis.

  2. The up-regulation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 in rats with inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ting; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral inflammation induces central sensitization that displays the features by the development of pain hypersensitivity to the stimuli. It has been shown that activation of glia contributes to the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after peripheral inflammation. It has been suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) primarily expressed on microglia affects central pain response. The present study was designed to examine the expressions of TLR4 and microglia in the spinal cord in different time points of inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The results show that CFA induces significant pain hypersensitivity and paw edema as well as spinal dorsal horn (SDH) microglia activation with the increased expressions of OX-42 and TLR4 during the inflammatory pain, respectively. The quantification of TLR4 with Western Blot analysis also suggests the same patter with the morphological results during the progress of inflammatory pain. In addition, chronic minocycline hydrochloride intrathecal injection reverses pain hypersensitivity and suppresses activation of microglia and TLR4 induced by CFA, but has hardly any effects on paw edema. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of TLR4 and microglia in rats in CFA inflammatory pain states, and suggest that blockade of microglia should likely be considered as a therapeutic opportunity.

  3. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling illustrates successive phases of increasing gene expression associated with chilling-related apple peel cell death

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a chilling-related storage disorder of apple caused by the death of peel epidermal and hypodermal cells and associated discoloration. It is controlled using postharvest antioxidant (diphenylamine; DPA) and ethylene action inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene; 1-MCP), and/or controlle...

  4. Heat shock protein 70 protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation-induced nitric oxide synthase II expression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2014-02-01

    Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may eventually lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. Based on an animal model of status epilepticus, our laboratory showed previously that sustained hippocampal seizure activity activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and upregulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) II gene expression, leading to apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. The present study examined the potential modulatory role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, kainic acid (KA) was microinjected unilaterally into the hippocampal CA3 subfield to induce prolonged bilateral seizure activity. Expression of HSP70 was elevated as early as 1h after the elicitation of sustained seizure activity, followed by a progressive elevation that peaked at 24h. Pretreatment with an antisense oligonucleotide against hsp70 decreased the HSP70 expression, and significantly augmented IκB kinase (IKK) activity and phosphorylation of IκBα, alongside enhanced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB in the hippocampal CA3 neurons and glial cells. These cellular events were followed by enhanced upregulation of NOS II and peroxynitrite expression 3h after sustained seizure activity that led to an increase of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampal CA3 neurons 7days after experimental status epilepticus. We concluded that HSP70 protects against apoptotic cell death induced by NF-κB activation and NOS II-peroxynitrite signaling cascade in the hippocampal CA3 and glial cells following experimental status epilepticus via suppression of IKK activity and deactivation of IκBα.

  5. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old) SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1) and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3). Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10) and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor) genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS. PMID:26339226

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 in experimental kidney transplantation: early mediator of endogenous danger signals.

    PubMed

    Bergler, Tobias; Hoffmann, Ute; Bergler, Elisabeth; Jung, Bettina; Banas, Miriam C; Reinhold, Stephan W; Krämer, Bernhard K; Banas, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been described in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, but data on the expression and function of TLR4 during renal allograft damage are still scarce. We analyzed the expression of TLR4 in an experimental rat model 6 and 28 days after allogeneic kidney transplantation in comparison to control rats and rats after syngeneic transplantation. On day 6, a significant induction in TLR4 expression--restricted to the glomerular compartment--was found in acute rejecting allografts only. TLR4 expression strongly correlated with renal function, and TLR4 induction was accompanied by a significant increase in CC chemokine expression within the graft as well as in urinary CC chemokine excretion. TLR4 induction may be caused by an influx of macrophages as well as TLR4-expressing intrinsic renal cells. Fibrinogen deposition in renal allografts correlated with renal TLR4 expression and may act as a potent stimulator of chemokine release via TLR4 activation. This study provides, for the first time, data about the precise intrarenal localization and TLR4 induction after experimental kidney transplantation. It supports the hypothesis that local TLR4 activation by endogenous ligands may be one pathological link from unspecific primary allograft damage to subsequent chemokine release, infiltration and activation of immune cells leading to deterioration of renal function and induction of renal fibrosis. PMID:23171961

  7. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions of serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.

  8. Bcl-xL Silencing Induces Alterations in hsa-miR-608 Expression and Subsequent Cell Death in A549 and SK-LU1 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Norahayu; In, Lionel L. A.; Harikrishna, Jennifer A.; Hasima, Noor

    2013-01-01

    Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein that is frequently found to be overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer leading to an inhibition of apoptosis and poor prognosis. Recently, the role of miRNAs in regulating apoptosis and cell survival during tumorigenesis has become evident, with cancer cells showing perturbed expression of various miRNAs. In this study, we utilized miRNA microarrays to determine if miRNA dysregulation in bcl-xL silenced lung adenocarcinoma cells could be involved in regulating cell death. Short interfering RNA-based transfection of A549 and SK-LU1 lung adenocarcinoma cells was successful in inducing a reduction in bcl-xL expression levels, resulting in a decrease in cell viability. A total of 10 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed when compared between siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells including hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-769-5p, hsa-miR-361-5p, hsa-miR-1304 and hsa-miR-608. When overexpression studies on hsa-miR-608 was performed via transfection of miRNA mimics, cell death was found to be induced in A549 and SK-LU1 cells in comparison to untreated cells. This effect was reversed when knockdown studies involving anti-sense inhibitors were introduced. Combination of siRNA based silencing of bcl-xL (siBcl-xL) followed by anti-sense inhibitor transfection led to a decrease in the apoptotic population of A549 and SK-LU1 cells in comparison to cells only treated with siBcl-xL, illustrating the connection between bcl-xL, hsa-miR-608 and cell death. Gene target prediction analysis implicated the PI3K/AKT, WNT, TGF-β, and ERK signaling pathways as targets of bcl-xL induced miRNA alterations. We have demonstrated that bcl-xL silencing in A549 and SK-LU1 cells leads to the occurrence of cell death through the dysregulation of specific miRNAs. This study also provides a platform for anti-sense gene therapy whereby miRNA expression can be exploited to increase the apoptotic properties in lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID

  9. Death Education and Death Fear Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Louise

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the possibility of reducing the fear of death in early adolescents through a 12-lesson unit designed to assist the student to achieve an attitude of integration toward life and death. (NQ)

  10. Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Abrams, J M; Alnemri, E S; Baehrecke, E H; Blagosklonny, M V; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L; El-Deiry, W S; Fulda, S; Gottlieb, E; Green, D R; Hengartner, M O; Kepp, O; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lipton, S A; Lu, X; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Mehlen, P; Nuñez, G; Peter, M E; Piacentini, M; Rubinsztein, D C; Shi, Y; Simon, H-U; Vandenabeele, P; White, E; Yuan, J; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G; Kroemer, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including ‘apoptosis', ‘necrosis' and ‘mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features. PMID:21760595

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  12. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  13. Temporal and spatial discordance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression and lymphocyte tumor infiltration between paired primary lesions and brain metastases in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, A. S.; Aubry, M. C.; Moser, J. C.; Harrington, S. M.; Dronca, R. S.; Park, S. S.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The dynamics of PD-L1 expression may limit its use as a tissue-based predictive biomarker. We sought to expand our understanding of the dynamics of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with lung cancer-related brain metastases. Experimental design Paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases were identified and assessed for PD-L1 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry. Lesions with 5% or greater PD-L1 expression were considered positive. Agreement statistics and the χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used for analysis. Results We analyzed 146 paired lesions from 73 cases. There was disagreement of tumor cell PD-L1 expression in 10 cases (14%, κ = 0.71), and disagreement of TIL PD-L1 expression in 19 cases (26%, κ = 0.38). Most paired lesions with discordant tumor cell expression of PD-L1 were obtained 6 or more months apart. When specimens were categorized using a proposed tumor microenvironment categorization scheme based on PD-L1 expression and TILs, there were significant changes in the classifications because many of the brain metastases lacked either PD-L1 expression, tumor lymphocyte infiltration or both even when they were present in the primary lung cancer specimens (P = 0.009). Conclusions We identified that there are significant differences between the tumor microenvironment of paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases. When physicians decide to treat patients with lung cancer with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, they must do so in the context of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27502709

  14. The pentachlorophenol metabolite tetrachlorohydroquinone induces massive ROS and prolonged p-ERK expression in splenocytes, leading to inhibition of apoptosis and necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Min; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Chen, Rong-Jane; Wang, Bour-Jr; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used extensively as a biocide and a wood preservative and has been reported to be immunosuppressive in rodents and humans. Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) is a major metabolite of PCP. TCHQ has been identified as the main cause of PCP-induced genotoxicity due to reactive oxidant stress (ROS). However, the precise mechanisms associated with the immunotoxic effects of PCP and TCHQ remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PCP and TCHQ on the induction of ROS and injury to primary mouse splenocytes. Our results shown that TCHQ was more toxic than PCP and that a high dose of TCHQ led to necrotic cell death of the splenocytes through induction of massive and sudden ROS and prolonged ROS-triggered ERK activation. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) partially restored the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited ERK activity, elevated caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage, and, eventually, switched the TCHQ-induced necrosis to apoptosis. We suggest that prolonged ERK activation is essential for TCHQ-induced necrosis, and that ROS play a pivotal role in the different TCHQ-induced cell death mechanisms. PMID:24586814

  15. Toll-like receptor-4 pathway is required for the pathogenesis of human chronic endometritis

    PubMed Central

    JU, JINFEN; LI, LIANGPENG; XIE, JINGYAN; WU, YAN; WU, XI; LI, WEIHON

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction is a central component of the primary innate immune response to pathogenic challenge. TLR4, a member of the TLR family, is highly expressed in the endometrial cells of the uterus and could thus be a key link between human chronic endometritis (CE) and the immune system. However, the exact biological function of TLR4 in human CE remains largely unexplored. The present study aimed to examine the role of TLR4 in human CE. A comprehensive expression and activation analysis of TLR4 in the endometrial cells of the uterus from patients with human CE (n=25) and normal endometrial (NE) tissue (n=15) was performed. Western blot analyses demonstrated that compared with NE, the protein expression TLR4 markedly increased in human CE. Endometrial tissue scrapings were also used for total RNA extraction and were transcribed and amplified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and downregulation of IL-10 mRNA was observed in CE compared with the NE group. Furthermore, the protein of the signaling adapter myeloid differentiation factor-88 and the accessory molecules (TNF receptor associated factor 6 and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1) were also detected in all the assayed tissues. Of note, differential expression (CE versus NE) was observed by immunoblotting at each level of the nuclear factor-κB signaling cascade, including inhibitor κBα and P65 (all P<0.05). The altered TLR4 and its corresponding downstream signaling molecules in CE cells may be of relevance for the progression of the human CE. These findings indicate that the evaluation of expression patterns of TLR4 holds promise for the treatment of human CE. PMID:25371751

  16. Toll-like receptor-4 pathway is required for the pathogenesis of human chronic endometritis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jinfen; Li, Liangpeng; Xie, Jingyan; Wu, Yan; Wu, Xi; Li, Weihon

    2014-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction is a central component of the primary innate immune response to pathogenic challenge. TLR4, a member of the TLR family, is highly expressed in the endometrial cells of the uterus and could thus be a key link between human chronic endometritis (CE) and the immune system. However, the exact biological function of TLR4 in human CE remains largely unexplored. The present study aimed to examine the role of TLR4 in human CE. A comprehensive expression and activation analysis of TLR4 in the endometrial cells of the uterus from patients with human CE (n=25) and normal endometrial (NE) tissue (n=15) was performed. Western blot analyses demonstrated that compared with NE, the protein expression TLR4 markedly increased in human CE. Endometrial tissue scrapings were also used for total RNA extraction and were transcribed and amplified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that significant upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and downregulation of IL-10 mRNA was observed in CE compared with the NE group. Furthermore, the protein of the signaling adapter myeloid differentiation factor-88 and the accessory molecules (TNF receptor associated factor 6 and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1) were also detected in all the assayed tissues. Of note, differential expression (CE versus NE) was observed by immunoblotting at each level of the nuclear factor-κB signaling cascade, including inhibitor κBα and P65 (all P<0.05). The altered TLR4 and its corresponding downstream signaling molecules in CE cells may be of relevance for the progression of the human CE. These findings indicate that the evaluation of expression patterns of TLR4 holds promise for the treatment of human CE. PMID:25371751

  17. Toll-like receptor-4-dependence of the lipopolysaccharide-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Huang, D; Li, Z J; Li, X H; Wang, X; Yang, H P; Tian, S P; Mao, Y; Liu, M F; Wang, Y F; Wu6, Y; Han7, X F

    2016-01-01

    Bone fractures or bones subjected to open conduction and internal fixation are easily infected by bacteria; bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as an important pathogenic factor affecting bone fracture healing. Therefore, the effect of LPS on bone metabolism is relevant for bone healing. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPS on the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (an LPS receptor) by using real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. We also examined the regulatory role of LPS in osteoblast differentiation by measuring the ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and ALP, OCN, and Runx2 mRNA (essential factors affecting osteoblast differentiation) expression in LPS-treated mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. We also evaluated the effect of TLR-4 on LPS-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation using RNA interference. LPS promotes TLR-4 mRNA and protein expression in MC3T3-E1 cells (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001), and inhibits osteoblast differentiation by downregulating matrix mineralization and ALP activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001), and suppressing the expression ALP, OCN, and Runx2 mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conversely, RNAi-mediated TLR-4 knockdown abrogates the LPS-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In summary, LPS was shown to inhibit osteoblast differentiation by suppressing the expression of ALP, OCN, and Runx2 in a TLR-4-dependent manner. The results of this study may provide insights into the signal pathway of LPS-induced bone loss or delayed bone fracture healing. PMID:27173231

  18. CXC receptor-4 mRNA silencing abrogates CXCL12-induced migration of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactions between CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 have been shown to be involved in cancer progression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a comparative CXCL12/CXCR4 expression analysis and assessed the effect of external CXCL12 stimulation on migration of CRC cells without and with CXCR4 inhibition. Methods Expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry in resection specimens of 50 CRC patients as well as in the corresponding normal tissues and in three human CRC cell lines with different metastatic potential (Caco-2, SW480 and HT-29). Migration assays were performed after stimulation with CXCL12 and CXCR4 was inhibited by siRNA and neutralizing antibodies. Results In CRC tissues CXCL12 was significantly down-regulated and CXCR4 was significantly up-regulated compared to the corresponding normal tissues. In cell lines CXCR4 was predominantly expressed in SW480 and less pronounced in HT-29 cells. CXCL12 was only detectable in Caco-2 cells. CXCL12 stimulation had no impact on Caco-2 cells but significantly increased migration of CXCR4 bearing SW480 and HT-29 cells. This effect was significantly abrogated by neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody as well as by CXCR4 siRNAs (P < 0.05). Conclusions CXCR4 expression was up-regulated in CRC and CXCL12 stimulation increased migration in CXCR4 bearing cell lines. Migration was inhibited by both neutralizing CXCR4 antibodies and CXCR4 siRNAs. Thus, the expression and functionality of CXCR4 might be associated with the metastatic potential of CRC cells and CXCL12/CXCR4 interactions might therefore constitute a promising target for specific treatment interventions. PMID:21349176

  19. In the shadow of death.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    1995-08-01

    Death dogged Vincent's footsteps throughout his life, and formed a core component of his unconscious fantasy system. It cast a lugubrious shadow over all of his undertakings--he found little joy and less love in life. It found its way onto his canvases, both directly--the grinning death's head--and indirectly. It found expression in his portrayals of sowers and reapers, in his representations of trees--especially the highly symbolic treatments of cypresses--in the menacing crows hovering over storm-darkened fields of wheat, and finally in the images of Christ, suffering and dead, held in the embrace of a loving and grieving mother. If death was a bottomless pit that haunted him with its terrors, it was also a siren song that drew him ever closer to his destiny, ever closer to the edge of the pit. The power of that attraction lies in his identification with the dead Vincent whose place he had taken and whose name he bore. It was through that identification, and through the passageway of suffering and death that he would surcease in the arms of a loving and accepting mother whose warm embrace he had sought throughout his odyssey, but in vain. It was to be gained only in and through death. It was only through death that he would find rest from his pain and would gain the heavenly reward of his suffering in eternal love and bliss. PMID:8545507

  20. In the shadow of death.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    1995-08-01

    Death dogged Vincent's footsteps throughout his life, and formed a core component of his unconscious fantasy system. It cast a lugubrious shadow over all of his undertakings--he found little joy and less love in life. It found its way onto his canvases, both directly--the grinning death's head--and indirectly. It found expression in his portrayals of sowers and reapers, in his representations of trees--especially the highly symbolic treatments of cypresses--in the menacing crows hovering over storm-darkened fields of wheat, and finally in the images of Christ, suffering and dead, held in the embrace of a loving and grieving mother. If death was a bottomless pit that haunted him with its terrors, it was also a siren song that drew him ever closer to his destiny, ever closer to the edge of the pit. The power of that attraction lies in his identification with the dead Vincent whose place he had taken and whose name he bore. It was through that identification, and through the passageway of suffering and death that he would surcease in the arms of a loving and accepting mother whose warm embrace he had sought throughout his odyssey, but in vain. It was to be gained only in and through death. It was only through death that he would find rest from his pain and would gain the heavenly reward of his suffering in eternal love and bliss.

  1. Activation of Cardiac Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 Causes Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Alexander; Amaral, Ansel P; Schramm, Karla; Singh, Saurav; Sloan, Alexis; Yanucil, Christopher; Li, Jihe; Shehadeh, Lina A; Hare, Joshua M; David, Valentin; Martin, Aline; Fornoni, Alessia; Di Marco, Giovana Seno; Kentrup, Dominik; Reuter, Stefan; Mayer, Anna B; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Stypmann, Jörg; Kuhn, Christian; Hille, Susanne; Frey, Norbert; Leifheit-Nestler, Maren; Richter, Beatrice; Haffner, Dieter; Abraham, Reimar; Bange, Johannes; Sperl, Bianca; Ullrich, Axel; Brand, Marcus; Wolf, Myles; Faul, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health threat that increases risk of death due to cardiovascular complications, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Novel therapeutic targets are needed to design treatments to alleviate the cardiovascular burden of CKD. Previously, we demonstrated that circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 rise progressively in CKD and induce LVH through an unknown FGF receptor (FGFR)-dependent mechanism. Here, we report that FGF23 exclusively activates FGFR4 on cardiac myocytes to stimulate phospholipase Cγ/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell signaling. A specific FGFR4-blocking antibody inhibits FGF23-induced hypertrophy of isolated cardiac myocytes and attenuates LVH in rats with CKD. Mice lacking FGFR4 do not develop LVH in response to elevated FGF23, whereas knockin mice carrying an FGFR4 gain-of-function mutation spontaneously develop LVH. Thus, FGF23 promotes LVH by activating FGFR4, thereby establishing FGFR4 as a pharmacological target for reducing cardiovascular risk in CKD.

  2. The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; VanWaes, Carter; Chen, Zhong; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) cluster in lipid rafts and induce pro- and anti-tumor responses. The organization of the assembly is critical to the understanding of how these key receptors control major signaling pathways in the cell. Although several models for individual interactions were proposed, the entire TIR-domain signalosome architecture has not been worked out, possibly due to its complexity. We employ a powerful algorithm, crystal structures and experimental data to model the TLR4 and its cluster. The architecture that we obtain with 8 MyD88 molecules provides the structural basis for the MyD88-templated myddosome helical assembly and receptor clustering; it also provides clues to pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways branching at the signalosome level to Mal/MyD88 and TRAM/TRIF pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. The assembly of MyD88 death domain (DD) with TRAF3 (anti-viral/anti-inflammatory) and TRAF6 (pro-inflammatory) suggest that TRAF3/TRAF6 binding sites on MyD88 DD partially overlap, as do IRAK4 and FADD. Significantly, the organization illuminates mechanisms of oncogenic mutations, demonstrates that almost all TLR4 parallel pathways are competitive and clarifies decisions at pathway branching points. The architectures are compatible with the currently-available experimental data and provide compelling insights into signaling in cancer and inflammation pathways. PMID:26293885

  3. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Merches, Katja; Bobbala, Diwakar; Lang, Florian

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/SGK dependent phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} regulates T lymphocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells from mice expressing Akt/SGK insensitive GSK3{alpha},{beta} (gsk3{sup KI}) release less IL-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice express less CD62L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD8{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice are relatively resistant to activation induced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perforin expression is enhanced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells. -- Abstract: Survival and function of T-lymphocytes critically depends on phosphoinositide (PI) 3 kinase. PI3 kinase signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3{alpha},{beta}. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The present study explored, whether Akt/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 activity is a determinant of T cell survival and function. Experiments were performed in mutant mice in which Akt/SGK-dependent GSK3{alpha},{beta} inhibition was disrupted by replacement of the serine residue in the respective SGK/Akt-phosphorylation consensus sequence by alanine (gsk3{sup KI}). T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice were compared to T cells from corresponding wild type mice (gsk3{sup WT}). As a result, in gsk3{sup KI} CD4{sup +} cells surface CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly less abundant than in gsk3{sup WT} CD4{sup +} cells. Upon activation in vitro T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice reacted with enhanced perforin production and reduced activation induced cell death. Cytokine production was rather reduced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells, suggesting that GSK3 induces effector function in CD8{sup +} T cells. In conclusion, PKB/Akt and SGK sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} is a potent regulator of perforin expression and activation induced cell death in T lymphocytes.

  4. CREB Negatively Regulates IGF2R Gene Expression and Downstream Pathways to Inhibit Hypoxia-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Kung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Pan, Lung-Fa; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    During hypoxia, gene expression is altered by various transcription factors. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) is known to be induced by hypoxia, which binds to IGF2 receptor IGF2R that acts like a G protein-coupled receptor, might cause pathological hypertrophy or activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is central to second messenger-regulated transcription and plays a critical role in the cardiomyocyte survival pathway. In this study, we found that IGF2R level was enhanced in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia in a time-dependent manner but was down-regulated by CREB expression. The over-expression of CREB in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts suppressed the induction of hypoxia-induced IGF2R expression levels and reduced cell apoptosis. Gel shift assay results further indicated that CREB binds to the promoter sequence of IGF2R. With a luciferase assay method, we further observed that CREB represses IGF2R promoter activity. These results suggest that CREB plays an important role in the inhibition of IGF2R expression by binding to the IGF2R promoter and further suppresses H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis induced by IGF2R signaling under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26610485

  5. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels regulate Bcl-xS and Bcl-xL expression in spermatogenic cells during apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Durga Prasad; Pal, Rajarshi; Shaha, Chandrima

    2006-01-27

    Bcl-x exists in two isoforms, the anti-apoptotic form Bcl-xL and the proapoptotic form Bcl-xS. The critical balance between the two forms appears to be important for cell survival; however, it is still not clear exactly how the vital balance is maintained. Using an in vitro spermatogenic cell apoptosis model, this study provides a new insight into the possible role of Ca2+ in regulating the Bcl-xS and Bcl-xL expression. 2,5-Hexanedione, a metabolite of the common industrial solvent n-hexane, caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species followed by an enhancement of intracellular Ca2+ through the T-type Ca2+ channels. Consequent to the above changes, expression of Bcl-xS increased with a concomitant drop in Bcl-xL expression, thus altering the ratio of the two proteins. Impediment of Ca2+ influx by using a T-type Ca2+ channel blocker pimozide resulted in a decrease in Bcl-xS and an increase in Bcl-xL expression. This caused prevention of mitochondrial potential loss, reduction of caspase-3 activity, inhibition of DNA fragmentation, and increase in cell survival. Alternatively, Ca2+ ionophores caused an increase of Bcl-xS encoding isoform over the Bcl-xL-encoding isoform. Therefore, this study proposes a role for Ca2+ in regulation of Bcl-xS and Bcl-xL expression and ultimately cell fate.

  6. Practical techniques for detection of Toll-like receptor-4 in the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Ryan; Abreu, Maria T; Fukata, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    The human intestine has evolved in the presence of a diverse array of luminal microorganisms. In order to maintain intestinal homeostasis, mucosal immune responses to theses microorganisms must be tightly regulated. The intestine needs to be able to respond to pathogenic organisms while at the same time maintain tolerance to normal commensal flora. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in this delicate balance. TLRs are transmembrane noncatalytic receptor proteins that induce activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms by recognizing structurally conserved molecular patterns of microbes. Expression of TLRs by intestinal epithelial cell is normally down-regulated to maintain immune tolerance to the luminal microorganisms.One of the challenges of TLR research in the human intestine is that it is difficult for many experimental methods to detect very low expression of TLRs within the intestinal mucosa. Quantitative methods such as PCR are limited in their ability to detect TLR expression by specific cell types within a tissue sample, which can be important when studying the contribution of TLR signaling to pathological conditions. In this regard, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is advantageous in that one can visualize the distribution and localization of target proteins within both normal and pathologic parts of a given tissue sample. We found that a subset of human colorectal cancers over-express TLR4 by means of immunofluorescence (IF) and IHC methods. Localization of TLR4 within cancer tissue often appears to be patchy, making IHC an appropriate way to examine these changes. We will describe our current techniques to detect TLR4 in paraffin-embedded human large intestine sections. Establishing a practical IHC technique that may provide consistent results between laboratories will significantly enhance understanding of the role of TLRs in human intestinal health and disease.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide and toll-like receptor 4 in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Tivers, M S; Lipscomb, V J; Smith, K C; Wheeler-Jones, C P D; House, A K

    2015-12-01

    Surgical attenuation of a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) results in increased portal vein perfusion, liver growth and clinical improvement. Portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in liver regeneration via toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediated cytokine activation. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with LPS in dogs with CPSS. Plasma LPS concentrations were measured in the peripheral and portal blood using a limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. LPS concentration was significantly greater in the portal blood compared to peripheral blood in dogs with CPSS (P = 0.046) and control dogs (P = 0.002). LPS concentrations in the peripheral (P = 0.012) and portal (P = 0.005) blood of dogs with CPSS were significantly greater than those of control dogs. The relative mRNA expression of cytokines and TLRs was measured in liver biopsies from dogs with CPSS using quantitative PCR. TLR4 expression significantly increased following partial CPSS attenuation (P = 0.020). TLR4 expression was significantly greater in dogs that tolerated complete CPSS attenuation (P = 0.011) and those with good portal blood flow on pre-attenuation (P = 0.004) and post-attenuation (P = 0.015) portovenography. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was measured using a canine specific ELISA and significantly increased 24 h following CPSS attenuation (P < 0.001). Portal LPS was increased in dogs with CPSS, consistent with decreased hepatic clearance. TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly associated with portal blood flow and increased following surgery. These findings support the concept that portal LPS delivery is important in the hepatic response to surgical attenuation. Serum IL-6 significantly increased following surgery, consistent with LPS stimulation via TLR4, although this increase might be non-specific. PMID:26383860

  8. Activation of toll like receptor 4 attenuates GABA synthesis and postsynaptic GABA receptor activities in the spinal dorsal horn via releasing interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Jiang, Enshe; Weng, Han-Rong

    2015-01-09

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an innate immune pattern recognition receptor, expressed predominantly on microglia in the CNS. Activation of spinal TLR4 plays a critical role in the genesis of pathological pain induced by nerve injury, bone cancer, and tissue inflammation. Currently, it remains unknown how synaptic activities in the spinal dorsal horn are regulated by TLR4 receptors. Through recording GABAergic currents in neurons and glial glutamate transporter currents in astrocytes in rodent spinal slices, we determined whether and how TLR4 modulates GABAergic synaptic activities in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. We found that activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces GABAergic synaptic activities through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Specifically, LPS causes the release of IL-1β from microglia. IL-1β in turn suppresses GABA receptor activities at the postsynaptic site through activating protein kinase C (PKC) in neurons. GABA synthesis at the presynaptic site is reduced upon activation of TLR4. Glial glutamate transporter activities are suppressed by IL-1β and PKC activation induced by LPS. The suppression of glial glutamate transporter activities leads to a deficiency of glutamine supply, which results in an attenuation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle-dependent GABA synthesis. These findings shed light on understanding synaptic plasticity induced by activation of TLR4 under neuroinflammation and identify GABA receptors, glial glutamate transporters, IL-1β and PKC as therapeutic targets to abrogate abnormal neuronal activities following activation of TLR4 in pathological pain conditions.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box-1 are involved in ictogenesis and can be targeted to reduce seizures.

    PubMed

    Maroso, Mattia; Balosso, Silvia; Ravizza, Teresa; Liu, Jaron; Aronica, Eleonora; Iyer, Anand M; Rossetti, Carlo; Molteni, Monica; Casalgrandi, Maura; Manfredi, Angelo A; Bianchi, Marco E; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2010-04-01

    Brain inflammation is a major factor in epilepsy, but the impact of specific inflammatory mediators on neuronal excitability is incompletely understood. Using models of acute and chronic seizures in C57BL/6 mice, we discovered a proconvulsant pathway involving high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) release from neurons and glia and its interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key receptor of innate immunity. Antagonists of HMGB1 and TLR4 retard seizure precipitation and decrease acute and chronic seizure recurrence. TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are resistant to kainate-induced seizures. The proconvulsant effects of HMGB1, like those of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), are partly mediated by ifenprodil-sensitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Increased expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 in human epileptogenic tissue, like that observed in the mouse model of chronic seizures, suggests a role for the HMGB1-TLR4 axis in human epilepsy. Thus, HMGB1-TLR4 signaling may contribute to generating and perpetuating seizures in humans and might be targeted to attain anticonvulsant effects in epilepsies that are currently resistant to drugs. PMID:20348922

  10. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  11. Metformin Changes the Relationship between Blood Monocyte Toll-Like Receptor 4 Levels and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—Ex Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwolak, Agnieszka; Słabczyńska, Olga; Semeniuk, Justyna; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to the development of NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) and MetS (metabolic syndrome). It is unclear whether anti-diabetic metformin affects TLR4 expression on blood monocytes, thereby protecting or improving inflammatory parameters. Therefore, we investigated TLR4 in patients with NAFLD meeting different sets of MetS criteria and linked the results with the disease burden. Methods 70 subjects were characterized and divided into three groups: (I) healthy individuals, (II) nonobese with NAFLD and without MetS, and (III) prediabetic, obese with NAFLD and MetS. We determined the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and monocyte TLR4 levels in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures with or without metformin supplementation. Results The characteristics of the study groups revealed a significant association between NAFLD and BMI, MetS and inflammatory parameters, and TLR4. In ex vivo studies, 100 μM of metformin decreased the TLR4 level by 19.9% (II group) or by 35% (III group) as well as IL-1β and TNFα production. A stepwise multiple regression analysis highlighted a strong effect of metformin on attenuation of the link between TLR4 and NAFLD, and TNFα. Conclusion We concluded that, by attenuation of the blood monocyte TLR4 level, metformin reduced their inflammatory potential—critical after recruitment these cells into liver. However, this finding should be confirmed after in vivo metformin administration. PMID:26930651

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced CD300b Receptor Binding to Toll-like Receptor 4 Alters Signaling to Drive Cytokine Responses that Enhance Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Voss, Oliver H; Murakami, Yousuke; Pena, Mirna Y; Lee, Ha-Na; Tian, Linjie; Margulies, David H; Street, Jonathan M; Yuen, Peter S T; Qi, Chen-Feng; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

    2016-06-21

    Receptor CD300b is implicated in regulating the immune response to bacterial infection by an unknown mechanism. Here, we identified CD300b as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding receptor and determined the mechanism underlying CD300b augmentation of septic shock. In vivo depletion and adoptive transfer studies identified CD300b-expressing macrophages as the key cell type augmenting sepsis. We showed that CD300b, and its adaptor DAP12, associated with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) upon LPS binding, thereby enhancing TLR4-adaptor MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling that resulted in an elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine storm. LPS engagement of the CD300b-TLR4 complex led to the recruitment and activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K). This resulted in an inhibition of the ERK1/2 protein kinase- and NF-κB transcription factor-mediated signaling pathways, which subsequently led to a reduced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. Collectively, our data describe a mechanism of TLR4 signaling regulated by CD300b in myeloid cells in response to LPS. PMID:27261276

  13. Toll-like Receptors 4 and 5 Cooperatively Initiate the Innate Immune Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Mouse Epididymal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lijing; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Wu, Han; Wang, Qing; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Han, Daishu

    2016-03-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may cause epididymitis and impair male fertility. The mechanisms underlying the innate immune responses to UPEC infection in the epididymis are not fully understood. This study showed that UPEC induced innate immune responses in mouse epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) through the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR5. Infection with UPEC significantly induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, in EECs through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, UPEC induced the production of type 1 interferons by EECs through the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3. The UPEC-induced innate immune responses were significantly reduced in the EECs of Tlr4 or Tlr5 knockout mice. The innate immune responses were further reduced in Tlr4 and Tlr5 double-knockout EECs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR4 and TLR5 cooperatively initiated the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection in vivo. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection.

  14. Children and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.

    Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child…

  15. Increased expression of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L1 correlates with impaired cell-mediated immunity in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Song, Yan; Lu, Yun-Long; Sun, Jun-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Impaired local cellular immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, the programmed death 1/programmed death 1 ligand (PD-1/PD-L1; CD279/CD274) pathway was demonstrated to play a critical role in attenuating T-cell responses and promoting T-cell tolerance during chronic viral infections. In this study, we examined the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on cervical T cells and dendritic cells (DCs), respectively, from 40 women who were HR-HPV-negative (-) or HR-HPV-positive (+) with CIN grades 0, I and II-III. We also measured interferon-γ, interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 in cervical exudates. The most common HPV type was HPV 16, followed by HPV 18, 33, 51 and 58. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on cervical T cells and DCs, respectively, was associated with HR-HPV positivity and increased in parallel with increasing CIN grade. The opposite pattern was observed for CD80 and CD86 expression on DCs, which decreased in HR-HPV+ patients in parallel with increasing CIN grade. Similarly, reduced levels of the T helper type 1 cytokines interferon-γ and IL-12 and increased levels of the T helper type 2 cytokine IL-10 in cervical exudates correlated with HR-HPV positivity and CIN grade. Our results suggest that up-regulation of the inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may negatively regulate cervical cell-mediated immunity to HPV and contribute to the progression of HR-HPV-related CIN. These results may aid in the development of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-based strategies for immunotherapy of HR-HPV-related CIN.

  16. Curcumin-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Death in Wild Type and Heme Oxygenase-2 Knockout Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; van Dalen, Stephanie C. M.; Schelbergen, Rik F.; van Lent, Peter L. E. M.; Szarek, Walter A.; Regan, Raymond F.; Carels, Carine E.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO) generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from wild type (WT) and HO-2 knockout (KO) mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2) significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy. PMID:25299695

  17. Functional characterization of calliphorid cell death genes and cellularization gene promoters for controlling gene expression and cell viability in early embryos.

    PubMed

    Edman, R M; Linger, R J; Belikoff, E J; Li, F; Sze, S-H; Tarone, A M; Scott, M J

    2015-02-01

    The New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, and the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina, are major pests of livestock. The sterile insect technique was used to eradicate C. hominivorax from North and Central America. This involved area-wide releases of male and female flies that had been sterilized by radiation. Genetic systems have been developed for making 'male-only' strains that would improve the efficiency of genetic control of insect pests. One system involves induction of female lethality in embryos through activation of a pro-apoptotic gene by the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. Sex-specific expression is achieved using an intron from the transformer gene, which we previously isolated from several calliphorids. In the present study, we report the isolation of the promoters from the C. hominivorax slam and Lucilia sericata bnk cellularization genes and show that these promoters can drive expression of a GFP reporter gene in early embryos of transgenic L. cuprina. Additionally, we report the isolation of the L. sericata pro-apoptotic hid and rpr genes, identify conserved motifs in the encoded proteins and determine the relative expression of these genes at different stages of development. We show that widespread expression of the L. sericata pro-apoptotic genes was lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. The isolated gene promoters and pro-apoptotic genes could potentially be used to build transgenic embryonic sexing strains of calliphorid livestock pests.

  18. Innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    García Bueno, B; Caso, J R; Madrigal, J L M; Leza, J C

    2016-05-01

    The innate immunity is a stereotyped first line of defense against pathogens and unspecified damage signals. One of main actors of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and one of the better characterized members of this family is TLR-4, that it is mainly activated by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. In brain, TLR-4 organizes innate immune responses against infections or cellular damage, but also possesses other physiological functions. In the last years, some evidences suggest a role of TLR-4 in stress and stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases. Peripheral and brain TLR-4 activation triggers sickness behavior, and its expression is a risk factor of depression. Some elements of the TLR-4 signaling pathway are up-regulated in peripheral samples and brain post-mortem tissue from depressed and suicidal patients. The "leaky gut" hypothesis of neuropsychiatric diseases is based on the existence of an increase of the intestinal permeability which results in bacterial translocation able to activate TLR-4. Enhanced peripheral TLR-4 expression/activity has been described in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in autistic children. A role for TLR-4 in drugs abuse has been also proposed. The therapeutic potential of pharmacological/genetic modulation of TLRs signaling pathways in neuropsychiatry is promising, but a great preclinical/clinical scientific effort is still needed.

  19. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  20. High humidity suppresses ssi4-mediated cell death and disease resistance upstream of MAP kinase activation, H2O2 production and defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fasong; Menke, Frank L H; Yoshioka, Keiko; Moder, Wolfgang; Shirano, Yumiko; Klessig, Daniel F

    2004-09-01

    The Arabidopsis ssi4 mutant, which exhibits spontaneous lesion formation, constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and enhanced resistance to virulent bacterial and oomycete pathogens, contains a gain-of-function mutation in a TIR-NBS-LRR type R gene. Epistatic analyses revealed that both PR gene expression and disease resistance are activated via a salicylic acid (SA)- and EDS1-dependent, but NPR1- and NDR1-independent signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that in moderate relative humidity (RH; 60%), the ssi4 mutant accumulates H(2)O(2) and SA prior to lesion formation and displays constitutive activation of the MAP kinases AtMPK6 and AtMPK3. It also constitutively expresses a variety of defense-associated genes, including those encoding the WRKY transcription factors AtWRKY29 and AtWRKY6, the MAP kinases AtMPK6 and AtMPK3, the powdery mildew R proteins RPW8.1 and RPW8.2, EDS1 and PR proteins. All of these ssi4-induced responses, as well as the chlorotic, stunted morphology and enhanced disease resistance phenotype, are suppressed by high RH (95%) growth conditions. Thus, a humidity sensitive factor (HSF) appears to function at an early point in the ssi4 signaling pathway. All ssi4 phenotypes, except for MAP kinase activation, also were suppressed by the eds1-1 mutation. Thus, ssi4-induced MAP kinase activation occurs downstream of the HSF but either upstream of EDS1 or on a separate branch of the ssi4 signaling pathway. SA is a critical signaling component in ssi4-mediated defense responses. However, exogenously supplied SA failed to restore lesion formation in high RH-grown ssi4 plants, although it induced defense gene expression. Thus, additional signals also are involved.

  1. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  2. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation in spinal cord contributes to chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liying; Zhai, Caihong; Han, Kun; Li, Zhisong; Qian, Junliang; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Ji-Tian

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the spinal cord is involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated pain facilitation. However, the role of NF-κB activation in chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we found that the level of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65) was increased in the dorsal horn of the lumbar 4-6 segments after intrathecal administration of morphine for 7 consecutive days, and the p-p65 was co-localized with neurons and astrocytes. The expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was also increased in the same area. In addition, pretreatment with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) or SN50, inhibitors of NF-κB, prevented the development of morphine analgesic tolerance and alleviated morphine withdrawal-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. The increase in TNF-α and IL-1β expression induced by chronic morphine exposure was also partially blocked by PDTC pretreatment. In another experiment, rats receiving PDTC or SN50 beginning on day 7 of morphine injection showed partial recovery of the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine and attenuation of the withdrawal-induced abnormal pain. Meanwhile, intrathecal pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an antagonist of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), blocked the activation of NF-κB, and prevented the development of morphine tolerance and withdrawal-induced abnormal pain. These data indicated that TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation in the spinal cord is involved in the development and maintenance of morphine analgesic tolerance and withdrawal-induced pain hypersensitivity.

  3. The role of toll-like receptor-4 in the development of multi-organ failure following traumatic haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    McGhan, Lee J; Jaroszewski, Dawn E

    2012-02-01

    Haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R) following major trauma results in a global ischaemia and reperfusion injury that may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Systemic activation of the immune system is fundamental to the development of MODS in this context, and shares many features in common with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that complicates sepsis. An important advancement in the understanding of the innate response to infection involved the identification of mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on cells of the immune system. Ten TLR homologues have been identified in humans and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) has been studied most intensively. Initially found to recognise bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), it has also recently been discovered that TLR4 is capable of activation by endogenous 'danger signal' molecules released following cellular injury; this has since implicated TLR4 in several non-infectious pathophysiologic processes, including HS/R. The exact events leading to multi-organ dysfunction following HS/R have not yet been clearly defined, although TLR4 is believed to play a central role as has been shown to be expressed at sites including the liver, lungs and myocardium following HS/R. Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients, and current therapy is based on supportive care. Understanding the pathophysiology of HS/R will allow for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at minimising organ dysfunction and improving patient outcomes following traumatic haemorrhage. A review of the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic shock is presented, and the complex, yet critical role of TLR4 as both a key mediator and therapeutic target is discussed.

  4. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation in spinal cord contributes to chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liying; Zhai, Caihong; Han, Kun; Li, Zhisong; Qian, Junliang; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Ji-Tian

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the spinal cord is involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated pain facilitation. However, the role of NF-κB activation in chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we found that the level of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (p-p65) was increased in the dorsal horn of the lumbar 4-6 segments after intrathecal administration of morphine for 7 consecutive days, and the p-p65 was co-localized with neurons and astrocytes. The expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was also increased in the same area. In addition, pretreatment with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) or SN50, inhibitors of NF-κB, prevented the development of morphine analgesic tolerance and alleviated morphine withdrawal-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. The increase in TNF-α and IL-1β expression induced by chronic morphine exposure was also partially blocked by PDTC pretreatment. In another experiment, rats receiving PDTC or SN50 beginning on day 7 of morphine injection showed partial recovery of the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine and attenuation of the withdrawal-induced abnormal pain. Meanwhile, intrathecal pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an antagonist of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), blocked the activation of NF-κB, and prevented the development of morphine tolerance and withdrawal-induced abnormal pain. These data indicated that TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation in the spinal cord is involved in the development and maintenance of morphine analgesic tolerance and withdrawal-induced pain hypersensitivity. PMID:25446875

  5. The Fab Fragment of a Humanized Anti-Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Monoclonal Antibody Reduces the Lipopolysaccharide Response via TLR4 in Mouse Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Cai, Binggang; Wang, Maorong; Zhu, Xuhui; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Wenkai; Zhang, Yiqing; Zheng, Feng; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce acute inflammation, sepsis, or chronic inflammatory disorders through the Toll receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. The TLR4/MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein 2) complex plays a major role in the immune response to LPS. However, there is not a good method to suppress the immune response induced by LPS via this complex in macrophages. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effects of humanized anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibodies on LPS-induced responses in mouse macrophages. The peritoneal macrophages of mice were incubated with anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibodies and stimulated with LPS. The expression levels of cytokines were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Additionally, activation of various signaling pathways was evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that the humanized anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody blocked the inflammatory cytokines expression at both the mRNA and protein level. We also found that the Fab fragment significantly inhibited the nuclear factor kappaB signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappaBalpha and decreasing the translocation of p65, resulting in the suppression of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, and IFN-β regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation. Therefore, our study showed that this humanized anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody could effectively protect against LPS-induced responses by blocking the TLR4 signaling pathway in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

  6. Resveratrol preconditioning protects hepatocytes against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury via Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    He, Diao; Guo, Zhen; Pu, Jun-Liang; Zheng, Dao-Feng; Wei, Xu-Fu; Liu, Rui; Tang, Cheng-Yong; Wu, Zhong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and explore the potential underlying mechanism. Resveratrol-pretreated BRL-3A (rat liver) cells and rats underwent hypoxia/reoxygenation and hepatic ischemia/reperfusion, respectively. BRL-3A cell damage was evaluated, and the mRNA and protein expression of related signal molecules was assessed in cell model. The protein expression of related signal molecules was also assessed in rat model. Inflammatory cytokines levels were determined in the cell supernatant and rat serum while rat liver function and hepatocyte apoptosis were assessed. The results revealed that resveratrol significantly enhanced cell viability, inhibited cell apoptosis, and decreased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-(IL)-1β in the cell supernatant. In addition, resveratrol ameliorated elevated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and the depressed inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB)-α caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation stimulation in BRL-3A cells. Moreover, resveratrol inhibited the translocation of NF-κB p65 after the stimulation of hypoxia/reoxygenation in BRL-3A cells. In vivo assays revealed that resveratrol reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver pathological changes, while it alleviated hepatocyte apoptosis, negatively mediated the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in serum, and reversed TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway caused by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion stimulation in liver tissues. The results indicate that resveratrol protected hepatocytes against HIRI, which may be mediated in part via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Growth inhibition and apoptosis by an active component of OK-432, a streptococcal agent, via Toll-like receptor 4 in human head and neck cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tano, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Masato; Kan, Shin; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Yamashita, Naomi; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a significant role in cancer therapy as receptors of bacteria-derived immunotherapeutic agents such as OK-432, a streptococcal immunotherapeutic agent. In addition, recent reports demonstrated that TLRs, including TLR4, are also expressed in cancer cells as well as in immunocompetent cells. It is a problem in cancer therapy that the immunoadjuvant may activate survival signals such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in cancer cells via TLRs. In the current study, we investigated responsiveness of human head and neck cancer cell lines against TLR4 ligands, OK-PSA, an active component of OK-432, and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Stimulation with LPS or OK-PSA resulted in the activation of NF-κB in these cell lines expressing TLR4 and MD-2 that is a significant coreceptor for TLR4 signaling. Interestingly, OK-PSA induced cell-growth inhibition, while LPS enhanced the proliferation of the cancer cells. OK-PSA induced NF-κB activation more slowly than that induced by LPS. In addition, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by OK-PSA was only slight compared with that by LPS. OK-PSA also induced apoptosis of the cancer cells mediated by the activation of caspase 1, 3 and 8 in a p53-independent manner. These findings strongly suggest that active components of OK-432 may elicit anti-cancer effects via enhancing host immunity as well as via directly inducing the growth inhibition and apoptosis of head and neck cancer cells through TLR4 signal.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Is a Determinant of Respiratory Virus Entry and Tropism▿

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, David; Singhera, Gurpreet K.; Utokaparch, Soraya; Hackett, Tillie L.; Boyd, John H.; Luo, Zongshu; Si, Xiaoning; Dorscheid, Delbert R.; McManus, Bruce M.; Hegele, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory viruses exert a heavy toll of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this burden there are few specific treatments available for respiratory virus infections. Since many viruses utilize host cell enzymatic machinery such as protein kinases for replication, we determined whether pharmacological inhibition of kinases could, in principle, be used as a broad antiviral strategy for common human respiratory virus infections. A panel of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing recombinant respiratory viruses, including an isolate of H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1/Weiss/43), was used to represent a broad range of virus families responsible for common respiratory infections (Adenoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Orthomyxoviridae). Kinase inhibitors were screened in a high-throughput assay that detected virus infection in human airway epithelial cells (1HAEo-) using a fluorescent plate reader. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was able to significantly inhibit replication by all viruses tested. Therefore, the pathways involved in virus-mediated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK activation were investigated using bronchial epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts derived from MyD88 knockout mouse lungs. Influenza virus, which activated p38 MAPK to approximately 10-fold-greater levels than did respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 1HAEo- cells, was internalized about 8-fold faster and more completely than RSV. We show for the first time that p38 MAPK is a determinant of virus infection that is dependent upon MyD88 expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligation. Imaging of virus-TLR4 interactions showed significant clustering of TLR4 at the site of virus-cell interaction, triggering phosphorylation of downstream targets of p38 MAPK, suggesting the need for a signaling receptor to activate virus internalization. PMID:20702616

  9. Religiosity and the construction of death in Turkish death announcements, 1970-2009.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Murat

    2012-03-01

    Death and rituals performed after death reflect and reproduce social distinctions despite death's popular reputation as a great leveler. This study examines expressions of religiosity and constructions of death in Turkish death announcements, paying particular attention to gendered, ethnic, and temporal variations as well as markers of status and cultural distinction. Death announcements in Turkey occupy a liminal position between obituaries and death notices: Unlike obituaries, no editorial decisions are involved in their publications. However, unlike death notices, Turkish announcements are venues for expressions of culturally scripted individual decisions. These large and decentralized collections of private decisions display rigid genre characteristics involving formulaic phrases but also change over time to reflect social, cultural, and economic changes in Turkish society. The present study focuses on a sample (N = 2,812) of death announcements in a major Turkish daily newspaper (Hürriyet) from 1970 to 2009. Results show that death announcements in Turkey increasingly rely on an emotional tone of loss and bereavement that replace constructions of death in a more detached and distant language and that religious and secular preferences in the language of announcements are an important domain in which cultural battles are fought and the participation patterns of new middle classes are negotiated.

  10. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy. PMID:24212662

  11. Microenvironmental Regulation of Chemokine (C-X-C-motif) Receptor 4 in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Kim, Mijung; Liu, Yueying; Shepard, Jaclyn; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Miller, Richard J.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The majority of women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) succumb due to complications of metastatic disease, suggesting that anti-metastatic therapies may improve patient survival. EOC metastasis involves intra-peritoneal shedding of cells from the primary tumor, followed by adhesion and localized penetration of the submesothelial matrix to anchor metastatic implants. Accumulation of malignant ascites is also common. Thus, a unique microenvironmental niche is established, which includes malignant cells and a plethora of soluble factors secreted by – or in response to – tumor cells. As cells penetrating the sub-mesothelial surface encounter an interstitial collagen-rich ECM, we have used 3-dimensional type I collagen (3DCI) gels to model early events resulting from intra-peritoneal anchoring. In this study we demonstrate a novel pathway of CXCR4 upregulation through β1-integrin- and NFκB- dependent signaling pathways in response to 3DCI. We also demonstrate the involvement of CXCR4-SDF1 axis in collagen invasion and proliferation, relevant to the metastatic EOC. Our data show that CXCR4 expression in human EOCs, as well as SDF1 presence in the ascites, is correlated with disease progression and metastasis. These data emphasize the importance of CXCR4 – SDF1 axis in EOC metastasis and suggest that this mechanism should be accounted for when targeting EOC metastasis. PMID:20460402

  12. Protease-activated receptor 4 deficiency offers cardioprotection after acute ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kolpakov, Mikhail A; Rafiq, Khadija; Guo, Xinji; Hooshdaran, Bahman; Wang, Tao; Vlasenko, Liudmila; Bashkirova, Yulia V; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Xiongwen; Iftikhar, Sahar; Libonati, Joseph R; Kunapuli, Satya P; Sabri, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor (PAR)4 is a low affinity thrombin receptor with less understood function relative to PAR1. PAR4 is involved in platelet activation and hemostasis, but its specific actions on myocyte growth and cardiac function remain unknown. This study examined the role of PAR4 deficiency on cardioprotection after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. When challenged by in vivo or ex vivo IR, PAR4 knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased tolerance to injury, which was manifest as reduced infarct size and a more robust functional recovery compared to wild-type mice. PAR4 KO mice also showed reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and putative signaling shifts in survival pathways in response to IR. Inhibition of PAR4 expression in isolated cardiomyocytes by shRNA offered protection against thrombin and PAR4-agonist peptide-induced apoptosis, while overexpression of wild-type PAR4 significantly enhanced the susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis, even under low thrombin concentrations. Further studies implicate Src- and epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of JNK on the proapoptotic effect of PAR4 in cardiomyocytes. These findings reveal a pivotal role for PAR4 as a regulator of cardiomyocyte survival and point to PAR4 inhibition as a therapeutic target offering cardioprotection after acute IR injury. PMID:26643815

  13. Activation of macrophages stimulated by the bengkoang fiber extract through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kumalasari, Ika Dyah; Nishi, Kosuke; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Sugahara, Takuya

    2014-07-25

    Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) is an edible root tuber containing fairly large amounts of carbohydrates and crude fibers. Our previous studies showed that the bengkoang fiber extract (BFE) stimulates activation of macrophages, leading to induction of phagocytotic activity and cytokine production. In the present study we investigated the mechanism underlying activation of murine macrophages by BFE. BFE increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide by J774.1 cells. In addition BFE also facilitated the gene expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. We examined the effect of a TLR4 inhibitor on cytokine production to investigate the membrane receptor of macrophage activation by BFE. Treatment of J774.1 cells with the TLR4 inhibitor significantly inhibited production of IL-6 and TNF-α, suggesting that TLR4 is the target membrane receptor for BFE. The main signal molecules located downstream of TLR4 such as JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB were activated by BFE treatment. The immunostimulatory effect of BFE was cancelled by the pectinase treatment, suggesting that the active ingredient in BFE is pectin-like molecules. Overall results suggested that BFE activates J774.1 cells via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:24770453

  14. Toll-like receptor 4–mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Charlotte E.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Good, Misty; Lin, Joyce; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria F.; Weyandt, Samantha; Fulton, William B.; Niño, Diego F.; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for proinflammatory lymphocytes in NEC development via intestinal epithelial TLR4 that could be reversed through dietary modification. PMID:26690704

  15. Protease-activated receptor 4 deficiency offers cardioprotection after acute ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kolpakov, Mikhail A; Rafiq, Khadija; Guo, Xinji; Hooshdaran, Bahman; Wang, Tao; Vlasenko, Liudmila; Bashkirova, Yulia V; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Xiongwen; Iftikhar, Sahar; Libonati, Joseph R; Kunapuli, Satya P; Sabri, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor (PAR)4 is a low affinity thrombin receptor with less understood function relative to PAR1. PAR4 is involved in platelet activation and hemostasis, but its specific actions on myocyte growth and cardiac function remain unknown. This study examined the role of PAR4 deficiency on cardioprotection after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. When challenged by in vivo or ex vivo IR, PAR4 knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased tolerance to injury, which was manifest as reduced infarct size and a more robust functional recovery compared to wild-type mice. PAR4 KO mice also showed reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and putative signaling shifts in survival pathways in response to IR. Inhibition of PAR4 expression in isolated cardiomyocytes by shRNA offered protection against thrombin and PAR4-agonist peptide-induced apoptosis, while overexpression of wild-type PAR4 significantly enhanced the susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis, even under low thrombin concentrations. Further studies implicate Src- and epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of JNK on the proapoptotic effect of PAR4 in cardiomyocytes. These findings reveal a pivotal role for PAR4 as a regulator of cardiomyocyte survival and point to PAR4 inhibition as a therapeutic target offering cardioprotection after acute IR injury.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates the antitumor host response induced by Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Huang, Dan-Fei; Li, Wen-Juan; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-01-21

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1)-induced antitumor activity. In vitro, the apoptosis rate of S-180 cells was increased in PSG-1-induced peritoneal macrophage derived from C3H/HeN (wild-type) mice, but not from C3H/HeJ (TLR4-deficient) mice. In the S-180 tumor model, phagocytosis, NO and ROS release, phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt, and expression of NF-κB were increased by PSG-1 in peritoneal macrophage derived from C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, PSG-1 elevated Th1 cytokine production and enhanced the cytotoxic activity of CTL and NK cells in C3H/HeN mice. In addition, PSG-1 decreased the tumor weight and increased the apoptosis rate and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities of tumor derived from the C3H/HeN mice. However, none of these activities were observed in C3H/HeJ mice. In summary, these findings demonstrated that the antitumor activity of PSG-1 is mediated by TLR4.

  17. Identification of alkaline proteins that are differentially expressed in an overgrowth-mediated growth arrest and cell death of Escherichia coli by proteomic methodologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sanying; Zhu, Rui; Peng, Bo; Liu, Mingming; Lou, Yun; Ye, Xintai; Xu, Zhengzheng; Liu, Dong; Peng, Xuanxian

    2006-10-01

    The available Escherichia coli genome sequences offer an opportunity to further expand our understanding of this bacterium. In the current study, we present a rapid method for the isolation of bacterial alkaline proteins using acid incubation, purification and protein array by 2-DE, followed by protein identification using MS. Fifty-seven proteins were randomly chosen, in which 55 were identified by a database searching of MS data. The searching results showed that most of these alkaline proteins were involved in special functions within the cell, suggesting that alkaline proteome is an ideal fraction for an understanding of their special functions. Furthermore, alkaline proteomes were compared between the period of majority live bacteria (18-h culture), the period of similar amount of live and dead bacteria (30-h culture) and the period of majority dead bacteria (48-h culture). Six proteins were identified as differentially expressed targets, in which putative transcriptional regulator and superoxide dismutase genes were cloned and expressed for antiserum preparations. The antisera were applied for the confirmation of results obtained from 2-DE. The presented data clearly reveal that alkaline proteome analysis by 2-DE with MS plays an important role in the understanding of protein functions within the cell, and six alkaline proteins are determined as key ones in an overgrowth-mediated growth cycle of E. coli.

  18. Human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression in mice causes mitochondrial vacuolization, axonal degeneration, and premature motoneuron death and accelerates motoneuron disease in mice expressing a familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant SOD1.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, D; Haasdijk, E D; Grashorn, J A; Hawkins, R; van Duijn, W; Verspaget, H W; London, J; Holstege, J C

    2000-12-01

    Cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a ubiquitous small cytosolic metalloenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Mutations in the SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). The mechanism by which mutant SOD1s causes ALS is not understood. Transgenic mice expressing multiple copies of fALS-mutant SOD1s develop an ALS-like motoneuron disease resembling ALS. Here we report that transgenic mice expressing a high concentration of wild-type human SOD1 (hSOD1(WT)) develop an array of neurodegenerative changes consisting of (1) swelling and vacuolization of mitochondria, predominantly in axons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and subiculum; (2) axonal degeneration in a number of long fiber tracts, predominantly the spinocerebellar tracts; and (3) at 2 years of age, a moderate loss of spinal motoneurons. Parallel to the development of neurodegenerative changes, hSOD1(WT) mice also develop mild motor abnormalities. Interestingly, mitochondrial vacuolization was associated with accumulation of hSOD1 immunoreactivity, suggesting that the development of mitochondrial pathology is associated with disturbed SOD1 turnover. In this study we also crossed hSOD1(WT) mice with a line of fALS-mutant SOD1 mice (hSOD1(G93A)) to generate "double" transgenic mice that express high levels of both wild-type and G93A mutant hSOD1. The "double" transgenic mice show accelerated motoneuron death, earlier onset of paresis, and earlier death as compared with hSOD1(G93A) littermates. Thus in vivo expression of high levels of wild-type hSOD1 is not only harmful to neurons in itself, but also increases or facilitates the deleterious action of a fALS-mutant SOD1. Our data indicate that it is important for motoneurons to control the SOD1 concentration throughout their processes, and that events that lead to improper synthesis, transport, or breakdown of SOD1 causing its accumulation are potentially dangerous.

  19. Development of β-Amino Alcohol Derivatives that Inhibit Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediated Inflammatory Response as Potential Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Sherry A.; Martinko, Alexander J.; Lau, Corinna; Pham, Michael N.; Cheng, Kui; Bevan, Douglas E.; Mollnes, Tom E.; Yin, Hang

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) induced pro-inflammatory signaling has been directly implicated in severe sepsis and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Herein, we report our investigations into the structure-activity relationship and preliminary drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics study of β-amino alcohol derivatives that inhibit the TLR4 signaling pathway. Lead compounds were identified from in vitro cellular examination with µM potency for their inhibitory effects on TLR4 signaling and subsequently assessed for their ability to suppress the TLR4-induced inflammatory response in an ex vivo whole blood model. In addition the toxicology, specificity, solubility, brain-blood barrier permeability, and drug metabolism of several compounds were evaluated. Although further optimizations are needed, our findings lay the groundwork for the future drug development of this class of small molecule agents for the treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:21591694

  20. Tenascin-C Produced by Oxidized LDL-Stimulated Macrophages Increases Foam Cell Formation through Toll-like Receptor-4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; He, Yong; Li, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ren, Yingang; Han, Wei; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which both innate and adaptive immunity are involved. Although there have been major advances in the involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD36 in the initiation and development of this disease, detailed mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that tenascin-C (TN-C) can stimulate foam cell formation and this can be inhibited by a TLR4-blocking antibody or CD36 gene silencing. Our results identify TN-C-TLR4 activation as a common molecular mechanism in oxLDL-stimulated foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. In addition, CD36 is the major scavenger receptor responsible for the TN-C-mediated foam cell formation. Taken together, we have identified that TN-C produced by oxLDL-stimulated macrophages increases foam cell formation through TLR4 and scavenger receptor CD36. PMID:22699754

  1. Functional Polymorphisms in Toll-like Receptor 4 Are Associated With Worse Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Juliane; Lee, Richard V.; Phillips, Hunter; Zierath, Dannielle; Tanzi, Patricia; Shibata, Dean; Cain, Kevin C.; Becker, Kyra J.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in neuroinflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4, including 1063 A/G [Asp299Gly] and 1363 C/T [Thr399Ile], are associated with altered immune responses but their effect on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome is unknown. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic and genotype data on 113 AIS patients and performed multivariate analyses to assess associations between TLR4 SNP haplotype and either neurological outcome, infection or inflammatory markers. In adjusted analyses, TLR4 SNPs were associated with worse outcome as well as increases in circulating leukocytes, C-reactive protein and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. In AIS, variations in TLR4 may influence neurological outcome. PMID:24784586

  2. DAT isn't all that: cocaine reward and reinforcement require Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, A L; Hutchinson, M R; Wang, X; Baratta, M V; Hiranita, T; Cochran, T A; Pomrenze, M B; Galer, E L; Kopajtic, T A; Li, C M; Amat, J; Larson, G; Cooper, D C; Huang, Y; O'Neill, C E; Yin, H; Zahniser, N R; Katz, J L; Rice, K C; Maier, S F; Bachtell, R K; Watkins, L R

    2015-12-01

    The initial reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, are largely attributed to their ability to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. Resulting increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are traditionally thought to result from cocaine's ability to block dopamine transporters (DATs). Here we demonstrate that cocaine also interacts with the immunosurveillance receptor complex, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), on microglial cells to initiate central innate immune signaling. Disruption of cocaine signaling at TLR4 suppresses cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine in the NAc, as well as cocaine conditioned place preference and cocaine self-administration. These results provide a novel understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine reward/reinforcement that includes a critical role for central immune signaling, and offer a new target for medication development for cocaine abuse treatment.

  3. Local interleukin-1-driven joint pathology is dependent on toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Joosten, Leo A B; Koenders, Marije I; van den Brand, Ben T; van de Loo, Fons A J; van den Berg, Wim B

    2009-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory destructive diseases through the recognition of endogenous ligands produced on either inflammation or degeneration of the extracellular matrix. The presence of endogenous TLR agonists has been reported in rheumatoid joints. In the present study, we investigated the significance of TLR2 and TLR4 activation by locally- produced endogenous ligands in the severity of joint inflammation and destruction. Local joint pathology independent of systemic immune activation was induced by overexpression of interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF in naive joints using adenoviral gene transfer. Here, we report that at certain doses, IL-1-induced local joint inflammation, cartilage proteoglycan depletion, and bone erosion are dependent on TLR4 activation, whereas TLR2 activation is not significantly involved. In comparison, tumor necrosis factor alpha-driven joint pathology seemed to be less dependent on TLR2 and TLR4. The severity of IL-1-induced bone erosion and irreversible cartilage destruction was markedly reduced in TLR4(-/-) mice, even though the degree of inflammation was similar, suggesting uncoupled processes. Furthermore, the expression of cathepsin K, a marker for osteoclast activity, induced by IL-1beta was dependent on TLR4. Overexpression of IL-1beta in the joint as well as ex vivo IL-1 stimulation of patellae provoked the release of endogenous TLR4 agonists capable of inducing TLR4-mediated cytokine production. These data emphasize the potential relevance of TLR4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis, particularly with respect to IL-1-mediated joint pathology.

  4. Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan Activate Dendritic Cells via Toll-like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Termeer, Christian; Benedix, Frauke; Sleeman, Jonathon; Fieber, Christina; Voith, Ursula; Ahrens, Thomas; Miyake, Kensuke; Freudenberg, Marina; Galanos, Christopher; Simon, Jan Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Low molecular weight fragmentation products of the polysaccharide of Hyaluronic acid (sHA) produced during inflammation have been shown to be potent activators of immunocompetent cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Here we report that sHA induces maturation of DCs via the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, a receptor complex associated with innate immunity and host defense against bacterial infection. Bone marrow–derived DCs from C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice carrying mutant TLR-4 alleles were nonresponsive to sHA-induced phenotypic and functional maturation. Conversely, DCs from TLR-2–deficient mice were still susceptible to sHA. In accordance, addition of an anti–TLR-4 mAb to human monocyte–derived DCs blocked sHA-induced tumor necrosis factor α production. Western blot analysis revealed that sHA treatment resulted in distinct phosphorylation of p38/p42/44 MAP-kinases and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, all components of the TLR-4 signaling pathway. Blockade of this pathway by specific inhibitors completely abrogated the sHA-induced DC maturation. Finally, intravenous injection of sHA-induced DC emigration from the skin and their phenotypic and functional maturation in the spleen, again depending on the expression of TLR-4. In conclusion, this is the first report that polysaccharide degradation products of the extracellular matrix produced during inflammation might serve as an endogenous ligand for the TLR-4 complex on DCs. PMID:11781369

  5. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  7. Insertion of a knockout-first cassette in Ampd1 gene leads to neonatal death by disruption of neighboring genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongcheng; Zhang, Lusi; Liu, Qiong; Li, Ying; Guo, Hui; Peng, Yu; Peng, Hexiang; Tang, Beisha; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhao, Jingping; Xia, Kun; Li, Jia-Da

    2016-01-01

    AMPD1 is an adenosine monophosphate deaminase that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. To understand the physiological function of AMPD1, we obtained a strain of Ampd1 mutant mice from KOMP repository, which was generated by a knockout-first strategy. An elevated AMP level and almost complete lack of IMP was detected in the skeletal muscle of E18.5 Ampd1tm1a/tm1a mice. However, Ampd1tm1a/tm1a mice died in 2 days postnatally, which was contradicting to previous reports. After removal of the knockout-first cassette and critical exon, mice homozygous for the Ampd1tm1c/tm1c and Ampd1tm1d/tm1d alleles survived to adulthood. RNA-seq analysis indicated that the expression of two neighboring genes, Man1a2 and Nras, were disrupted in the Ampd1tm1a/tm1a mice, but normal in the Ampd1tm1c/tm1c and Ampd1tm1d/tm1d mice. The neonatal lethality phenotype in the Ampd1tm1a/tm1a mice was consistent with the Man1a2-deficient mice. Our results indicated the knockout-first cassette may cause off-target effect by influence the expression of neighboring genes. This study, together with other reports, strongly suggests that removal of targeting cassette by site-specific recombinases is very important for the accurate phenotypic interpretation on mice generated by target mutations. PMID:27775065

  8. Suicide on death row.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).

  9. No life without death.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Peter H; Kamiński, Marcin; Kiessling, Michael; Gülow, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis-programed cell death-is the most common form of death in the body. Once apoptosis is induced, proper execution of the cell death program requires the coordinated activation and execution of multiple molecular processes. Here, we describe the pathways and the basic components of the death-inducing machinery. Since apoptosis is a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, an imbalance of apoptosis results in severe diseases like cancer, autoimmunity, and AIDS.

  10. Expression of Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a Distinguishing Feature of Primary Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-cell Lymphoma and Associated with PDCD1LG2 Copy Gain

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Roemer, Margaretha GM; Chapuy, Bjoern; Liao, Xiaoyun; Sun, Heather; Pinkus, Geraldine S.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Rodig, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are tumors with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics that are difficult to distinguish by histopathological and phenotypic analyses alone. Programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a cell surface protein expressed by activated macrophages and dendritic cells that binds PD-1 on T-cells to inhibit immune responses. Amplification and/or translocations involving chromosome 9p24.1, a region that includes PDCD1LG2 encoding PD-L2, is a common event in PMBL but not DLBCL and suggests that PD-L2 expression might be a distinguishing feature of PMBL. We developed an assay for the immunohistochemical detection of PD-L2 protein in fixed biopsy specimens (PD-L2 IHC) which we applied to a cohort of PMBLs and DLBCLs. For a subset of cases, we correlated the results of PD-L2 IHC with PDCD1LG2 copy number as determined by qPCR. Twenty-three of 32 (72%) PMBLs but only 1 of 37 (3%) DLBCLs were positive by PD-L2 IHC. Among PMBLs with PDCD1LG2 copy number gain, all were positive by PD-L2 IHC. One PMBL without copy number gain was positive by PD-L2 IHC. When expressed in PMBL, PD-L2 was restricted to tumor cells and not detected on intra-tumoral macrophages. We conclude that PD-L2 protein is robustly expressed by the majority of PMBLs but only rare DLBCLs and often associated with PDCD1LG2 copy gain. PD-L2 IHC may serve as a useful ancillary test for distinguishing PMBL from DLBCL and for the rational selection of patients for therapeutic antibodies that inhibit PD-1 signaling. PMID:25025450

  11. Expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a distinguishing feature of primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma and associated with PDCD1LG2 copy gain.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Chapuy, Bjoern; Liao, Xiaoyun; Sun, Heather; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Shipp, Margaret A; Freeman, Gordon J; Rodig, Scott J

    2014-12-01

    Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are tumors with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics that are difficult to distinguish by histopathologic and phenotypic analyses alone. Programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a cell surface protein expressed by activated macrophages and dendritic cells that binds PD-1 on T cells to inhibit immune responses. Amplification and/or translocations involving chromosome 9p24.1, a region that includes PDCD1LG2-encoding PD-L2, is a common event in PMBL but not DLBCL and suggests that PD-L2 expression might be a distinguishing feature of PMBL. We developed an assay for the immunohistochemical detection of PD-L2 protein in fixed biopsy specimens (PD-L2 IHC), which we applied to a cohort of PMBLs and DLBCLs. For a subset of cases, we correlated the results of PD-L2 IHC with PDCD1LG2 copy number (CN) as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three of 32 (72%) PMBLs but only 1 of 37 (3%) DLBCLs were positive by PD-L2 IHC. Among PMBLs with PDCD1LG2 CN gain, all were positive by PD-L2 IHC. One PMBL without CN gain was positive by PD-L2 IHC. When expressed in PMBL, PD-L2 was restricted to tumor cells and not detected on intratumoral macrophages. We conclude that PD-L2 protein is robustly expressed by the majority of PMBLs but only rare DLBCLs and often associated with PDCD1LG2 copy gain. PD-L2 IHC may serve as a useful ancillary test for distinguishing PMBL from DLBCL and for the rational selection of patients for therapeutic antibodies that inhibit PD-1 signaling. PMID:25025450

  12. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  13. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  14. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-04-19

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental 'law of mortality' has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  15. Programmed Cell Death in the Leaves of the Arabidopsis Spontaneous Necrotic Spots (sns-D) Mutant Correlates with Increased Expression of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor eIF4B2

    PubMed Central

    Gaussand, Gwénaël M. D. J.-M.; Jia, Qi; van der Graaff, Eric; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; Fransz, Paul F.; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; de Pater, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    From a pool of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants harboring an activator T-DNA construct, one mutant was identified that developed spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D) on the rosette leaves under aseptic conditions. The sns-D mutation is dominant and homozygous plants are embryo lethal. The mutant produced smaller rosettes with a different number of stomata than the wild-type. DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of cells in the necrotic spots and a significant increase of caspase-3 and caspase-6 like activities in sns-D leaf extracts indicated that the sns-D mutation caused programmed cell death (PCD). The integration of the activator T-DNA caused an increase of the expression level of At1g13020, which encodes the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2. The expression level of eIF4B2 was positively correlated with the severity of sns-D mutant phenotype. Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is indeed caused by activation tagging of eIF4B2. Thus, incorrect regulation of translation initiation may result in PCD. PMID:22639576

  16. Cysteine (C)-X-C Receptor 4 Undergoes Transportin 1-Dependent Nuclear Localization and Remains Functional at the Nucleus of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Don-Salu-Hewage, Ayesha S.; Chan, Siu Yuen; McAndrews, Kathleen M.; Chetram, Mahandranauth A.; Dawson, Michelle R.; Bethea, Danaya A.; Hinton, Cimona V.

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), Cysteine (C)-X-C Receptor 4 (CXCR4), plays an important role in prostate cancer metastasis. CXCR4 is generally regarded as a plasma membrane receptor where it transmits signals that support transformation, progression and eventual metastasis. Due to the central role of CXCR4 in tumorigenesis, therapeutics approaches such as antagonist and monoclonal antibodies have focused on receptors that exist on the plasma membrane. An emerging concept for G-protein coupled receptors is that they may localize to and associate with the nucleus where they retain function and mediate nuclear signaling. Herein, we demonstrate that CXCR4 associated with the nucleus of malignant prostate cancer tissues. Likewise, expression of CXCR4 was detected in nuclear fractions among several prostate cancer cell lines, compared to normal prostate epithelial cells. Our studies identified a nuclear pool of CXCR4 and we defined a nuclear transport pathway for CXCR4. We reveal a putative nuclear localization sequence (NLS), ‘RPRK’, within CXCR4 that contributed to nuclear localization. Additionally, nuclear CXCR4 interacted with Transportinβ1 and Transportinβ1-binding to CXCR4 promoted its nuclear translocation. Importantly, Gαi immunoprecipitation and calcium mobilization studies indicated that nuclear CXCR4 was functional and participated in G-protein signaling, revealing that the nuclear pool of CXCR4 retained function. Given the suggestion that functional, nuclear CXCR4 may be a mechanism underlying prostate cancer recurrence, increased metastatic ability and poorer prognosis after tumors have been treated with therapy that targets plasma membrane CXCR4, these studies addresses a novel mechanism of nuclear signaling for CXCR4, a novel mechanism of clinical targeting, and demonstrate an active nuclear pool that provides important new information to illuminate what has been primarily clinical reports of nuclear CXCR4. PMID:23468933

  17. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate