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Sample records for death receptor-4 expression

  1. Expression of death receptor 4 induces caspase-independent cell death in MMS-treated yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Keun; Park, Chang-Shin; Kang, Ju-Hee; Bae, Sung-Ho; Yu, Sung-Lim

    2008-11-14

    DR4, a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, is a key element in the extrinsic pathway of TRAIL/TRAIL receptor-related apoptosis that exerts a preferential toxic effect against tumor cells. However, TRAIL and DR4 are expressed in various normal cells, and recent studies indicate that DR4 has a number of non-apoptotic functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of human DR4 expression in yeast to determine the function of DR4 in normal cells. The expression of DR4 in yeast caused G1 arrest, which resulted in transient growth inhibition. Moreover, treatment of DR4-expressing yeast with a DNA damaging agent, MMS, elicited drastic, and sustained cell growth inhibition accompanied with massive apoptotic cell death. Further analysis revealed that cell death in the presence of DNA damage and DR4 expression was not dependent on the yeast caspase, YCA1. Taken together, these results indicate that DR4 triggers caspase-independent programmed cell death during the response of normal cells to DNA damage.

  2. TRAIL Death Receptor-4 Expression Positively Correlates With the Tumor Grade in Breast Cancer Patients With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya; Korcum, Aylin F.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells, and a number of clinical trials have recently been initiated to test the safety and antitumoral potential of TRAIL in cancer patients. Four different receptors have been identified to interact with TRAIL: two are death-inducing receptors (TRAIL-R1 [DR4] and TRAIL-R2 [DR5]), whereas the other two (TRAIL-R3 [DcR1] and TRAIL-R4 [DcR2]) do not induce death upon ligation and are believed to counteract TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity. Because high levels of DcR2 expression have recently been correlated with carcinogenesis in the prostate and lung, thismore » study investigated the importance of TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, taking various prognostic markers into consideration. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 90 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma using TRAIL and TRAIL receptor-specific antibodies. Age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular tumor extension, presence of an extensive intraductal component, multicentricity, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and CerbB2 expression levels were analyzed with respect to TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression patterns. Results: The highest TRAIL receptor expressed in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma was DR4. Although progesterone receptor-positive patients exhibited lower DR5 expression, CerbB2-positive tissues displayed higher levels of both DR5 and TRAIL expressions. Conclusions: DR4 expression positively correlates with the tumor grade in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.« less

  3. HuR Contributes to TRAIL Resistance by Restricting Death Receptor 4 Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Carmella; Weber, Matthew C; Zarei, Mahsa; DeCicco, Danielle; Chand, Saswati N; Lobo, Angie D; Winter, Jordan M; Sawicki, Janet A; Sachs, Jonathan N; Meisner-Kober, Nicole; Yeo, Charles J; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Tykocinski, Mark L; Brody, Jonathan R

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal cancers, in part, due to resistance to both conventional and targeted therapeutics. TRAIL directly induces apoptosis through engagement of cell surface Death Receptors (DR4 and DR5), and has been explored as a molecular target for cancer treatment. Clinical trials with recombinant TRAIL and DR-targeting agents, however, have failed to show overall positive outcomes. Herein, we identify a novel TRAIL resistance mechanism governed by Hu antigen R (HuR, ELAV1), a stress-response protein abundant and functional in PDA cells. Exogenous HuR overexpression in TRAIL-sensitive PDA cell lines increases TRAIL resistance whereas silencing HuR in TRAIL-resistant PDA cells, by siRNA oligo-transfection, decreases TRAIL resistance. PDA cell exposure to soluble TRAIL induces HuR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that HuR interacts with the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of DR4 mRNA. Pre-treatment of PDA cells with MS-444 (Novartis), an established small molecule inhibitor of HuR, substantially increased DR4 and DR5 cell surface levels and enhanced TRAIL sensitivity, further validating HuR's role in affecting TRAIL apoptotic resistance. NanoString analyses on the transcriptome of TRAIL-exposed PDA cells identified global HuR-mediated increases in antiapoptotic processes. Taken together, these data extend HuR's role as a key regulator of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Discovery of an important new HuR-mediated TRAIL resistance mechanism suggests that tumor-targeted HuR inhibition increases sensitivity to TRAIL-based therapeutics and supports their re-evaluation as an effective treatment for PDA patients. Mol Cancer Res; 14(7); 599-611. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Accumulation of autophagosomes in breast cancer cells induces TRAIL resistance through downregulation of surface expression of death receptors 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Di, Xu; Zhang, Guofeng; Zhang, Yaqin; Takeda, Kazuyo; Rivera Rosado, Leslie A; Zhang, Baolin

    2013-09-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the surface of target cells. We have previously shown that deficiency of DR4 and DR5 on the surface membrane is a critical mechanism of cancer cell resistance to the recombinant human TRAIL and its receptor agonistic antibodies, which are being evaluated clinically for treating cancers. In certain cancer cells, DR4 and DR5 were found to be mislocalized in intracellular compartments yet to be characterized. Here, we report a novel role of autophagy in the regulation of dynamics of TRAIL death receptors. We first assessed basal levels of autophagosomes in a panel of 11 breast cancer cell lines using complementary approaches (LC3 immunoblotting, RFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy). We found high levels of basal autophagosomes in TRAIL resistant breast cancer cell lines (e.g. BT474 and AU565) and relevant mouse xenograft models under nutrition-rich conditions. Notably, DR4 and DR5 co-localized with LC3-II in the autophagosomes of TRAIL-resistant cells. Disruption of basal autophagosomes successfully restored the surface expression of the death receptors which was accompanied by sensitization of TRAIL-resistant cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis. By contrast, TRAIL-sensitive cell lines (MDA-MB-231) are characterized by high levels of surface DR4/DR5 and an absence of basal autophagosomes. Inhibition of lysosomal activity induced an accumulation of autophagosomes and a decrease in surface DR4 and DR5, and the cells became less sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate a novel role for the basal autophagosomes in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to explore the possibility of using autophagosome markers such as LC3-II/LC3-I ratios for prediction of tumor resistance to TRAIL related therapies. The results also provide a rationale for future non-clinical and clinical studies

  5. Agonistic Human Monoclonal Antibodies against Death Receptor 4 (DR4) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in licensing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to death receptor 4 ("DR4"). The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its functional receptors, DR4 and DR5, have been recognized as promising targets for cancer treatment.

  6. Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 4 (DCIR4) is preferentially expressed on inflammatory and patrolling monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yosuke; Hanayama, Motoki; Kishimoto, Atsushi; Kume, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Naoki

    2016-11-11

    Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 4 (DCIR4, Clec4a1) is a lectin receptor and a member of mouse dendritic cell immunoreceptor family. Due to the lack of antibodies against DCIR4, expression of DCIR4 protein remains unknown. In this study, we established a specific monoclonal antibody against DCIR4 and investigated the expression of DCIR4 among immune cells. We found that DCIR4 was expressed on non-granulocytic subsets of CD11b + cells in various immune organs including bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, skin-associated lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes. DCIR4 + CD11b + cells were dichotomized into DCIR4 High and DCIR4 Low cells distinguished by different levels of DCIR4 expression. By screening a panel of cell surface markers for expression, we found that in bone marrow, blood and spleen the DCIR4 Low and the DCIR4 High cells were Ly-6C + CD43 Low CD11c - inflammatory - monocytes and Ly-6C - CD43 HIgh CD11c + patrolling monocytes, respectively. Using in vitro differentiation system, we also found that differentiation of Ly-6C + monocytes into dendritic cells greatly diminished expression of DCIR4, while that into macrophages did not significantly affect DCIR4 expression. The establishment of the anti-DCIR4 antibody enables clearer definition of monocytes and provides a novel tool to investigate biology of monocytes and their progenies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in Human Breast Implant Capsules: Localization and Correlation with Estrogen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Segreto, Francesco; Carotti, Simone; Tosi, Daniele; Pendolino, Alfonso Luca; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Morini, Sergio; Persichetti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Capsular contracture is the most common complication following breast augmentation and reconstruction. Myofibroblasts, which are specialized fibroblasts with contractile activity, are involved in its pathogenesis. Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in fibroblasts induces transcription of genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue repair; furthermore, it enhances sensitivity to transforming growth factor-β1 and promotes transition to myofibroblasts. 17β-Estradiol, by binding to its main receptors, α and/or β, increases the expression of toll-like receptor 4 and the production of proinflammatory mediators by macrophages; moreover, it promotes extracellular matrix production and myofibroblasts contraction and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in breast implant capsules and its relationship with estrogen receptors. The study enrolled 30 women who underwent expander removal following breast reconstruction. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence for toll-like receptor 4, α-smooth muscle actin (a marker of myofibroblasts), estrogen receptor-α, and estrogen receptor-β. Toll-like receptor 4 was expressed by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts of capsular tissue. Its expression positively correlated with estrogen receptor-β expression (p = 0.012). A positive correlation was found between estrogen receptor-β and α-smooth muscle actin expression (p = 0.037). This study demonstrates the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in myofibroblasts of capsular tissue and its correlation with estrogen receptor-β positivity. Activation of toll-like receptor 4 and estrogen receptor-β, and their interplay, may be involved in myofibroblast differentiation and in the profibrotic pathogenic process underlying capsular contracture.

  8. Onbaekwon Suppresses Colon Cancer Cell Invasion by Inhibiting Expression of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Buyun; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yoon, Seong Woo; Park, Byoungduck

    2017-06-01

    Cysteine X cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) were originally identified as chemoattractants between immune cells and sites of inflammation. Since studies have validated an increased level of CXCL12 and its receptor in patients with colorectal cancers, CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been considered as a valuable marker of cancer metastasis. Therefore, identification of CXCR4 inhibitors has great potential to abrogate tumor metastasis. Onbaekwon (OBW) is a complex herbal formula that is derived from the literature of traditional Korean medicine Dongeuibogam. In this study, we demonstrated that OBW suppressed CXCR4 expression in various cancer cell types in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors had no effect to prevent the OBW-induced suppression of CXCR4, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of OBW was not due to proteolytic degradation but occurred at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further confirmed that OBW could block endogenous activation of nuclear factor kappa B, a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of CXCR4 in colon cancer cells. Consistent with the aforementioned molecular basis, OBW abolished cell invasion induced by CXCL12 in colon cancer cells. Together, our results suggest that OBW, as a novel inhibitor of CXCR4, could be a promising therapeutic agent contributing to cancer treatment.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 expression and cytokine responses in the human urinary tract mucosa.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Patrik; Hang, Long; Wullt, Björn; Irjala, Heikki; Svanborg, Catharina

    2004-06-01

    Mucosal pathogens trigger a local innate host response by activating epithelial cells. Bacterial adherence and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling have been implicated as key events in this process. This study addressed the molecular basis of the epithelial response to gram-negative infection in the human urinary tract. Mucosal biopsies were obtained from kidneys, ureters, and bladders of patients undergoing urinary tract surgery, and epithelial TLR4 and CD14 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 was detected in epithelial cells lining the entire urinary tract and in the renal tubular epithelium. CD14, in contrast, was completely absent from the epithelial tissue. The response of the epithelial cells to infection was studied by in vitro challenge of the biopsies with uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. A rapid cytokine response was observed, with production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and IL-8 but not of IL-4 or gamma interferon. Adhering, P- or type 1-fimbriated E. coli activated IL-6 and IL-8 production more efficiently than the nonfimbriated control, as shown by cellular staining and analysis of secreted cytokines. The results demonstrate that human uroepithelial cells possess the molecular machinery needed to respond to uropathogenic E. coli. This includes recognition receptors for fimbriae and TLR4 for transmembrane signaling. We speculate that the lack of membrane-bound CD14 allows the epithelium to regulate its sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide and to discriminate between more-virulent and less-virulent strains.

  10. High expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 is predictive of lymphovascular invasion and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhuangzhuang; Wu, Haiwei; Guo, Zhong; Qin, Tao; Xu, Yang; Jing, Hua; Wang, Yanqing; Shen, Yi

    2017-06-01

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 have been shown to play oncogenic role individually. This study aimed to determine the combinatorial role of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 was detected in resected tumor samples from 185 patients with lung adenocarcinoma at stage I-IIIa by immunohistochemistry. Correlations of their immunoscores with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survival were retrospectively investigated. A three-dimensional capillary-like sprouting model was established to assess the effects of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 on angiogenesis in vitro. The results revealed that expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 was elevated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. The high co-expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 was significantly correlated with tumor size, tumor status, nodal status, tumor stage, and lymphovascular invasion, as well as decreased disease-specific survival. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio: 0.205, 95% confidence interval: 0.086-0.491, p < 0.0001) and co-expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 (hazard ratio: 0.293, 95% confidence interval: 0.168-0.510, p < 0.0001) were independent indicators of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, Notch1 enhanced the effects of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 to promote angiogenesis by regulating Flt1 and Flt4 in vitro. In conclusion, co-expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 is associated with tumor progression and lymphovascular invasion and is an independent indicator of poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma. In lung adenocarcinoma patients with high C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 and Notch1 expression, simultaneous inhibition of both factors might be an effective treatment strategy.

  11. The structure of the death receptor 4–TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (DR4–TRAIL) complex

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Yamniuk, Aaron P.; Lawrence, Eric J.; Yong, Wei; Schneeweis, Lumelle A.; Cheng, Lin; Murdock, Melissa; Corbett, Martin J.; Doyle, Michael L.; Sheriff, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The structure of death receptor 4 (DR4) in complex with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been determined at 3 Å resolution and compared with those of previously determined DR5–TRAIL complexes. Consistent with the high sequence similarity between DR4 and DR5, the overall arrangement of the DR4–TRAIL complex does not differ substantially from that of the DR5–TRAIL complex. However, subtle differences are apparent. In addition, solution interaction studies were carried out that show differences in the thermodynamics of binding DR4 or DR5 with TRAIL. PMID:26457518

  12. Let-7i attenuates human brain microvascular endothelial cell damage in oxygen glucose deprivation model by decreasing toll-like receptor 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Tian, Canhui; Peng, Shunli; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Suyue; Deng, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    The let-7 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays an important role on endothelial cell function. However, there have been few studies on their role under ischemic conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that let-7i, belonging to the let-7 family, rescues human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Our data show that the expression of let-7 family miRNAs was downregulated after OGD. Overexpression of let-7i significantly alleviated cell death and improved survival of OGD-treated HBMECs. Let-7i also protected permeability in an in vitro blood brain barrier (BBB) model. Further, let-7i downregulated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an inflammation trigger. Moreover, overexpression of let-7i decreased matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression under OGD. Upon silencing TLR4 expression in HBMECs, the anti-inflammatory effect of let-7i was abolished. Our research suggests that let-7i promotes OGD-induced inflammation via downregulating TLR4 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Curcumin Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zou, Jun; Li, Peiyang; Zheng, Xiumei; Feng, Dan

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. In addition, aortic sinus sections revealed that curcumin treatment reduced the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited atherosclerosis development. In vitro, curcumin inhibited NF-κB activation in macrophages and reduced TLR4 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate that curcumin protects against atherosclerosis at least partially by inhibiting TLR4 expression and its related inflammatory reaction.

  14. Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 and Toll-like Receptor 4 in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingzhong; Feng, Tingmei; Lan, Jiao; Chen, Chunxia; Qin, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yanbin; Shi, Huanzhong; Ye, Jianbo; Wei, Caizhou; Wang, Wu; Huang, Luying

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) have been reported to play a crucial role in tuberculosis, however, little is known about their expression in tuberculous pleuritis. The goal of this work is to explore the expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in tuberculous pleuritis and their predominant expressions on cells. Levels of soluble TLR2 and TLR4 by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 58 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (PE) and 43 patients with malignant PE were determined. The related genes were analyzed by RT-PCR and the membrane expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 on CD3+, CD14+, and CD19+ monocytes were assessed by using flow cytometry in 20 of 58 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Our results showed that the levels of ADA, IL-27 and IFN-γ in tuberculous PE were obviously higher than in malignant PE. Moreover, the concentrations of soluble TLR2 and soluble TLR4 in PE were significantly higher than those in peripheral blood of the same patients, as well as the levels of soluble TLR2 in tuberculous PE were significantly higher than those in malignant effusions. Furthermore, the levels of TLR2, TLR4 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were marked increased in the tuberculous PE when compared with the correspondent serum. Importantly, we found that the predominant expressions of TLR2 in monocyte were on CD19 B cells, and the predominant expressions of TLR4 were on CD14 monocytes/macrophages. Our findings provided the evidence of a role for TLRs expression in tuberculous PE. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Characterization of Antibodies to Identify Cellular Expression of Dopamine Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Deming, Janise D; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Eom, Yun Sung; Lee, Eun-Jin; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) plays an important role in vision. In order to study the DRD4 expression in vivo, it is important to have antibodies that are specific for DRD4 for both immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) applications. In this study, six antibodies raised against DRD4 peptides were tested in vitro, using transfected mammalian cells, and in vivo, using mouse retinas. Three Santa Cruz (SC) antibodies, D-16, N-20, and R-20, were successful in IHC of transfected DRD4; however, N-20 was the only one effective on immunoblot analysis in DRD4 transfected cells and IHC of mouse retinal sections, while R-20, 2B9, and Antibody Verify AAS63631C were non-specific or below detection.

  16. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophsmore » taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of

  17. Ephrin-A1 expression induced by S100A8 is mediated by the toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Omori, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Akiko; Tomita, Takeshi; Deguchi, Atsuko; Maru, Yoshiro

    2013-11-01

    The deregulation of Eph/ephrin protein expression has been shown to lead to tumor development and progression. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses using clinical samples have demonstrated that ephrin-A1 is over-expressed in various cancers and positively correlates with a poor prognosis for cancer patients. The prognosis of cancer patients depends on metastasis to distant organs. We previously demonstrated that ADAM12 metalloproteinase cleaved ephrin-A1 and ADAM12-cleaved ephrin-A1 enhanced vascular permeability by degrading VE-cadherin and the EphA2 receptor at the plasma membrane. An increase of soluble ephrin-A1 levels in the serum facilitated tumor cell recruitment to the lungs, which resulted in lung metastasis. We also found that ephrin-A1 was overexpressed in 3LL tumors, a highly metastatic tumor, in mice and TNFα, an authentic positive regulator of ephrin-A1, was not elevated in the tumors, whereas S100A8 was. Moreover, S100A8 induced ephrin-A1 expression mediated by the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). S100A8 is known to be an endogenous ligand for TLR4 and its expression was shown to be increased in the lungs at the premetastatic phase. Thus, S100A8 and ephrin-A1 contribute to lung metastasis. Therefore, elucidating the regulation mechanism of ephrin-A1 overexpression is of importance and may lead to the development of therapeutic drugs against tumor growth and metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of fosinopril and losartan on the expression of Toll- like receptor 4 in renal tubular epithelia cells].

    PubMed

    Tang, Tian-feng; Zhou, Qiao-ling; Zhu, Li-li; Tang, Rong; Ao, Xiang

    2008-10-01

    To determine the mechanism of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) in hypertensive renal injury and the protective effect of fosinopril(Fos) and losartan(Los). NRK-52E was incubated into 5 groups: NRK-52E (normal control), NRK-52E+AngII, NRK-52E+AngII+Fos(10(-5) mmol/L),and NRK-52E+AngII+Los(10(-5) mmol/L), NRK-52E +AngII+Fos(10(-5) mmol/L)+Los(10(-5) mmol/L). TLR4-specific RNAi plasmids were stably transfected into NRK-52E. After 24 h, TLR4, IL-6, and TNF-alpha mRNAs were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). TLR4 proteins were detected by Western blot, NF-kappaB nuclear translocations were tested by immunocytochemistry,and IL-6 and TNF-alpha supernatant levels were tested by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay(ELISA). TLR4, NF-kappaB, IL-6,and TNF-alpha were highly expressed in AngII induced NRK-52E(P<0.01). In NRK-52E that was stably transfected TLR4-special RNAi plamids, TLR4 protein and mRNA expression were obviously inhibited(P<0.05). After stimulation by AngII, the TLR4, IL-6, TNF-alpha levels in the stabe transfection group were increased compared with the normal group(P<0.05). Fos or/and Los down-regulated TLR4, IL-6, and TNF-alpha expressions(P<0.05), but no cooperation was observed. TLR4 may lead to inflammatory reaction in hypertensive renal injury. Fos or/and Los can decrease the expressions of TLR4 and correlate inflammatory factors, which may be part of the renal protective mechanism.

  19. Retinoic Acid Facilitates Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression to Improve Intestinal Barrier Function through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Gao, Yuan; Cui, Ting; Yang, Ting; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by improving cell migration and proliferation. Our previous studies demonstrated that VA deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy suppresses the systemic and mucosal immune responses in the intestines of offspring and that VA supplementation (VAS) during early life can increase immune cell counts. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which VA regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function. Caco-2 cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 24 hours to determine the optimum ATRA concentration to which the cells in question respond. Caco-2 cells were infected with recombinant adenoviruses carrying retinoic acid receptor beta (Ad-RARβ) and small interfering RARβ(siRARβ) to assess the effects of RARβ signalling on the expression of specific proteins. A siTLR4 lentivirus was used to knockdown Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in Caco-2 cells to determine its role in the protective effects of VA on the intestinal epithelial barrier, and experiments involving TLR4-knock-out mice were performed to verify the effect of TLR4. VA normal (VAN), VAD and VAS rat models were established to confirm that changes in RARβ, TLR4 and ZO-2 expression levels that occurred following decreases or increases in retinol concentrations in vivo, and the permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer, as well as that of the epithelial barrier of the rat intestine was detected by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER) or performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Retinoic acid receptor (RAR), toll like receptor (TLR) and tight junction (TJ) mRNA and protein expression levels in Caco-2 cells and the colon monolayers in the rat and mouse models were measured by PCR and western blotting, respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and immunofluorescence staining were performed to assess the interactions among RARβ, TLR4 and zonula occluden-2 (ZO-2) in Caco-2 cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch

  20. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Okito, Asuka; Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo; Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain andmore » loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.« less

  1. Interleukin-4 Enhances the Sensitivity of Human Monocytes to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Through Upregulation of Death Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Zhuan; Huang, Wenxiang

    2018-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 is generally thought to promote tumor cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. However, its role in characteristics of monocytic leukemia cells was rarely reported. In this study, we assessed the role of IL-4 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) sensitivity of human monocytes. After incubation with IL-4 for 24 h, death receptor 4 (DR4) was significantly increased without downregulation of TRAIL decoy receptors and antiapoptotic proteins in THP-1 monocytes, and human primary monocytes and U-937 cells also exhibited increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis compared with control. Enhancement of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by IL-4 was blocked by anti-DR4-neutralizing antibodies. Both upregulation of DR4 and enhancement of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by IL-4 could be blocked by inhibitors of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase to varying degrees. Thus, our data demonstrated a novel effect on TRAIL sensitivity on monocytes and monocytic leukemia cells of IL-4 and suggested that it may be necessary to reconsider the impact of current therapies against IL-4, JAK/STAT, and PI3K/Akt pathways with regard to TRAIL sensitivity.

  2. Akt-phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-activating death domain protein (MADD) inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis by blocking Fas-associated death domain (FADD) association with death receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Li, Peifeng; Jayarama, Shankar; Ganesh, Lakshmy; Mordi, David; Carr, Ryan; Kanteti, Prasad; Hay, Nissim; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2010-07-16

    MADD plays an essential role in cancer cell survival. Abrogation of endogenous MADD expression results in significant spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of MADD function is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous MADD is phosphorylated at three highly conserved sites by Akt, and only the phosphorylated MADD can directly interact with the TRAIL receptor DR4 thereby preventing Fas-associated death domain recruitment. However, in cells susceptible to TRAIL treatment, TRAIL induces a reduction in MADD phosphorylation levels resulting in MADD dissociation from, and Fas-associated death domain association with DR4, which allows death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation leading to apoptosis. Thus, the pro-survival function of MADD is dependent upon its phosphorylation by Akt. Because Akt is active in most cancer cells and phosphorylated MADD confers resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, co-targeting Akt-MADD axis is likely to increase efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies.

  3. Akt-phosphorylated Mitogen-activated Kinase-activating Death Domain Protein (MADD) Inhibits TRAIL-induced Apoptosis by Blocking Fas-associated Death Domain (FADD) Association with Death Receptor 4*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peifeng; Jayarama, Shankar; Ganesh, Lakshmy; Mordi, David; Carr, Ryan; Kanteti, Prasad; Hay, Nissim; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2010-01-01

    MADD plays an essential role in cancer cell survival. Abrogation of endogenous MADD expression results in significant spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of MADD function is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous MADD is phosphorylated at three highly conserved sites by Akt, and only the phosphorylated MADD can directly interact with the TRAIL receptor DR4 thereby preventing Fas-associated death domain recruitment. However, in cells susceptible to TRAIL treatment, TRAIL induces a reduction in MADD phosphorylation levels resulting in MADD dissociation from, and Fas-associated death domain association with DR4, which allows death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation leading to apoptosis. Thus, the pro-survival function of MADD is dependent upon its phosphorylation by Akt. Because Akt is active in most cancer cells and phosphorylated MADD confers resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, co-targeting Akt-MADD axis is likely to increase efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. PMID:20484047

  4. Hypoxic stress up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages via hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Choi, Yong Jun; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates inflammatory processes. We have examined if hypoxic stress modulates the TLR activity of macrophages. Hypoxia and CoCl(2) (a hypoxia mimetic) enhanced the expression of TLR4 messenger RNA and protein in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), whereas the messenger RNA of other TLRs was not increased. To determine the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the regulation of TLR4 expression. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha expression by small interfering RNA inhibited hypoxia-induced and CoCl(2)-induced TLR4 expression in macrophages, while over-expression of HIF-1alpha potentiated TLR4 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HIF-1alpha binds to the TLR4 promoter region under hypoxic conditions. In addition, deletion or mutation of a putative HIF-1-binding motif in the TLR4 promoter greatly attenuated HIF-1alpha-induced TLR4 promoter reporter expression. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress enhanced the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide, resulting in increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and interferon-inducible protein-10. These results demonstrate that TLR4 expression in macrophages is up-regulated via HIF-1 in response to hypoxic stress, suggesting that hypoxic stress at sites of inflammation enhances susceptibility to subsequent infection and inflammatory signals by up-regulating TLR4.

  5. INVOLVEMENT OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 AND MAPK PATHWAYS IN LPS-INDUCED CD40 EXPRESSION IN MONOCYTIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD40 is a co-stimulatory surface molecule actively expressed on mature dendritic cells (DC). Recent studies suggest that endotoxin (LPS) inhalation induces DC maturation in the airways of healthy volunteers. To characterize the effect of LPS on CD40 expression and underlying mech...

  6. Statin treatment is associated with reduced toll-like receptor 4 immunohistochemical expression on carotid atherosclerotic plaques: a novel effect of statins.

    PubMed

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Klonaris, Chris; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Bastounis, Elias; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2011-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been recently implicated in inflammatory pathways involved in carotid plaque destabilization. Given that statins have plaque stabilization and inflammation reduction effects, we investigated whether TLR4 expression on carotid atherosclerotic plaques correlates with statin intake. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were obtained on 140 patients (preoperative statin intake, n = 70). TLR4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in endothelial cells (ECs), macrophages (MACs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of carotid atheroma. TLR4 positivity, over-expression and intensity of immunostaining were compared in statin versus no-statin users. The results of this study showed that statin users had a significantly lower expression of TLR4 in ECs (P = 0.02, 0.001, 0.006 for TLR4 positivity, increased intensity and over-expression, respectively). Similarly, TLR4 positivity was less pronounced in carotid plaque MACs of statin users (P = 0.03). No carotid specimen with increased EC TLR4 intensity or over-expression was observed among statin users. The prevalence of any cerebrovascular accident was 61.4% in the 'no statin' versus 18.6% in the 'statin' group (odds ratio for statin use: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07-0.31, P < 0.001). In conclusion, statin treatment is associated with attenuated TLR4 expression on human carotid atherosclerotic plaques and a reduced risk of carotid-related cerebrovascular events. TLR4 may potentially mediate statins' plaque stabilization effects. Further investigation is necessary.

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in trigeminal neurons is increased during ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vindiš, Bojan; Gašperšič, Rok; Skalerič, Uroš; Kovačič, Uroš

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis, activated by oral bacteria and orchestrated by innate immune response, is regulated by primary nociceptive neurons, which are generally considered to have small- to medium-sized perikaryons. Bacterial byproducts (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) activate primary nociceptive neurons directly through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Therefore, this study aims to morphometrically characterize rat trigeminal neurons, which express TLR4, and to investigate the changes in the TLR4 expression in neurons during periodontal inflammation. Trigeminal neurons innervating gingivomucosa were identified by application of the retrograde tracer hydroxystilbamidine into the gingival sulcus of the maxillary molar in 14 rats. Periodontitis was induced by ligature around the same molar in seven rats. TLR4 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Semiquantitative method was used to identify the intensity of TLR4 expression. In the control group without the ligatures, TLR4 was detected in 19% of the neurons in the maxillary region of TG and in 29% of neurons innervating gingivomucosa. Expression of TLR4 was more frequent and intensive in small- to medium-sized neurons than in large-sized neurons. One week after ligature-induced periodontitis, the percentage of TLR4-positive neurons in the maxillary region and among the neurons innervating inflamed gingivomucosa significantly increased statistically to 32% and 41%, respectively. TLR4 is predominantly, but not exclusively, expressed in smaller trigeminal nociceptive neurons in the rat. Experimental periodontitis upregulates TLR4 expression in the trigeminal neurons. The hypothesis that bacterial byproducts regulate the pathogenesis of periodontitis by activation of trigeminal nociceptors through TLR4 should be explored.

  8. Reduced Frizzled Receptor 4 Expression Prevents WNT/β-Catenin-driven Alveolar Lung Repair in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Skronska-Wasek, Wioletta; Mutze, Kathrin; Baarsma, Hoeke A; Bracke, Ken R; Alsafadi, Hani N; Lehmann, Mareike; Costa, Rita; Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Novellino, Ettore; Brusselle, Guy G; Wagner, Darcy E; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Königshoff, Melanie

    2017-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular emphysema, is characterized by loss of parenchymal alveolar tissue and impaired tissue repair. Wingless and INT-1 (WNT)/β-catenin signaling is reduced in COPD; however, the mechanisms thereof, specifically the role of the frizzled (FZD) family of WNT receptors, remain unexplored. To identify and functionally characterize specific FZD receptors that control downstream WNT signaling in impaired lung repair in COPD. FZD expression was analyzed in lung homogenates and alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells of never-smokers, smokers, patients with COPD, and two experimental COPD models by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. The functional effects of cigarette smoke on FZD4, WNT/β-catenin signaling, and elastogenic components were investigated in primary ATII cells in vitro and in three-dimensional lung tissue cultures ex vivo. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches were applied to determine the effects of FZD4 signaling on alveolar epithelial cell wound healing and repair, as well as on expression of elastogenic components. FZD4 expression was reduced in human and experimental COPD lung tissues as well as in primary human ATII cells from patients with COPD. Cigarette smoke exposure down-regulated FZD4 expression in vitro and in vivo, along with reduced WNT/β-catenin activity. Inhibition of FZD4 decreased WNT/β-catenin-driven epithelial cell proliferation and wound closure, and it interfered with ATII-to-ATI cell transdifferentiation and organoid formation, which were augmented by FZD4 overexpression. Moreover, FZD4 restoration by overexpression or pharmacological induction led to induction of WNT/β-catenin signaling and expression of elastogenic components in three-dimensional lung tissue cultures ex vivo. Reduced FZD4 expression in COPD contributes to impaired alveolar repair capacity.

  9. Whole-blood gene expression profiling in ankylosing spondylitis shows upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Assassi, Shervin; Reveille, John D; Arnett, Frank C; Weisman, Michael H; Ward, Michael M; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Gourh, Pravitt; Bhula, Jiten; Sharif, Roozbeh; Sampat, Keeran; Mayes, Maureen D; Tan, Filemon K

    2011-01-01

    to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood cells (PBC) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) relative to healthy controls and controls with systemic inflammation. we investigated PBC samples of 16 patients with AS and 14 matched controls, in addition to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) samples utilizing Illumina Human Ref-8 BeadChips. Candidate genes were confirmed using quantitative PCR. Subsequently, these genes were also validated in a separate sample of 27 patients with AS [before and after anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment] and 27 matched controls. we identified 83 differentially expressed transcripts between AS patients and controls. This gene list was filtered through the lists of differentially expressed transcripts in SLE and SSc, which resulted in identification of 52 uniquely dysregulated transcripts in AS. Many of the differentially expressed genes belonged to Toll-like receptor (TLR) and related pathways. TLR4 and TLR5 were the only dysregulated TLR subtypes among AS patients. We confirmed the overexpression of TLR4 and TLR5 in AS patients in comparison to controls (p = 0.012 and p = 0.006, respectively) and SLE (p = 0.002, p = 0.008) using quantitative PCR in the same sample. Similarly, TLR4 (p = 0.007) and TLR5 (p = 0.012) were significantly upregulated among the AS patients before anti-TNF treatment in the confirmatory sample. TLR4 (p = 0.002) and TLR5 (p = 0.025) decreased significantly after anti-TNF treatment. PBC gene expression profiling in AS shows an upregulation of TLR4 and TLR5. This supports the importance of TLR subtypes in the pathogenesis of AS that are responsible for the immune response to Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Involvement of L-type Ca²⁺ channel and toll-like receptor-4 in nickel-induced interleukin-8 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Chung, Chih-Ang; Wong, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Ben-Kuen; Chiu, Siou-Jin; Klahan, Sukhontip; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The metal nickel (Ni(2+)) is found everywhere in our daily lives, including coins, costume jewelry, and even nuts and chocolates. Nickel poisoning can cause inflammatory reactions, respiratory diseases, and allergic contact dermatitis. To clarify the mechanism by which nickel induces mediators of inflammation, we used the human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line as a model. Interleukin (IL)-8 promoter activity as well as gene expression were tested by luciferase assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The underlying mechanisms of nickel-induced IL-8 were investigated. We found that nickel induced IL-8 gene expression via the L-type Ca(2+) channel, Toll-like receptor-4 (TRL-4) and nuclear factor NF-κB signal transduction pathways. Nickel activated NF-κB expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and then increased IL-8 expression. Thus, the L-type Ca(2+) channel and TRL-4 play important roles in nickel-induced inflammatory gene expressions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Curcumin inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation by regulating the metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 expression on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangming; Liu, Ying; Yi, Xiaying; Wang, Yupeng; Qiao, Song; Li, Zhen; Ni, Jing; Song, Zhiqi

    2017-05-01

    Th17 cells have been categorized as a new lineage of CD4+ T cells, and played a crucial role in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune disorders. Type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR4), a member of group III mGluRs, recently has been found to be expressed in many types of immune cells and mediate adaptive immunity. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. For the past few years, it has gradually been regarded as an pluripotent immunomodulatory agent that can regulate the activation of immune cells. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of curcumin on Th17 cells. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-23 production by dendritic cells (DC). Additionally, it had a dramatic reduction in the proliferation of CD4+ T cells co-cultured with DC. Furthermore, expression of the Th17 cells related cytokine profiles (IL-17A and RORγt) was dramatically decreased in curcumin-treated groups. These findings indicated that curcumin inhibited the differentiation and development of Th17 cells. Besides, we found that mGluR4 was constitutively expressed in mouse bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) for the first time. In addition, mGluR4 siRNA-transfected BMDC tipped the balance of T cell differentiation in favor of the Th17 phenotype. We first reported that curcumin increased the mGluR4 expression in mouse BMDC activated with LPS, which likely contributed to the mechanism of inhibiting the Th17 cell differentiation. Our findings suggest that curcumin might be a potential candidate for Th17 related autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Inhibits Nuclear Factor κB and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in Rats with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Wang, Kun-Ning; Wu, Kai; Wang, Xing-Peng

    2015-05-23

    To investigate the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the pancreases of rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and any changes upon treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), as well as to determine the relationship between TLR4 and NF-κB in ANP pathogenesis. A total of 72 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely, the control (sham-operation), ANP, and ANP with PDTC pretreatment groups. The PDTC-pretreated group was intraperitoneally injected with PDTC at a dose of 100 mg/kg 1 hour before the induction of ANP. The expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB in pancreatic tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-β, and IL-6 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, and cytokine (NF-κB target) genes in the pancreatic tissue increased more significantly in the ANP groups than in the sham-operation group at 3, 6, and 12 hours. Pretreatment with PDTC alleviated the inflammatory activation in the pancreas with ANP, causing a significant decrease in the expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, and cytokine genes in the pancreatic tissue. The expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB were increased in the pancreases of rats with ANP. PDTC not only inhibits NF-κB but also suppresses the expression of TLR4 and downregulates the expression of the related cytokine genes.

  13. Pu-erh Tea Reduces Nitric Oxide Levels in Rats by Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Guan; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Hang; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We further demonstrate that this effect is mediated through reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus we find that the polysaccharide components in pu-erh tea reduce NO levels in an animal model by inhibiting the iNOS expression via signaling through TLR4. PMID:22837686

  14. Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Suppresses Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression via Up-regulation of E3 Ubiquitin-protein Ligase RNF216*

    PubMed Central

    Kumazoe, Motofumi; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamashita, Mai; Suzuki, Takashi; Takamatsu, Kanako; Huang, Yuhui; Bae, Jaehoon; Yamashita, Shuya; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Shuhei; Shinoda, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Toyoda, Yui; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an essential role in innate immunity through inflammatory cytokine induction. Recent studies demonstrated that the abnormal activation of TLR4 has a pivotal role in obesity-induced inflammation, which is associated with several diseases, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease. Here we demonstrate that (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, a natural agonist of the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), suppressed TLR4 expression through E3 ubiquitin-protein ring finger protein 216 (RNF216) up-regulation. Our data indicate cyclic GMP mediates 67LR agonist-dependent RNF216 up-regulation. Moreover, we show that the highly absorbent 67LR agonist (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) significantly attenuated TLR4 expression in the adipose tissue. EGCG3″Me completely inhibited the high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS)-induced up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor α in adipose tissue and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 increase. Furthermore, this agonist intake prevented HF/HS-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Taken together, 67LR presents an attractive target for the relief of obesity-induced inflammation. PMID:28154178

  15. Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Suppresses Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression via Up-regulation of E3 Ubiquitin-protein Ligase RNF216.

    PubMed

    Kumazoe, Motofumi; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamashita, Mai; Suzuki, Takashi; Takamatsu, Kanako; Huang, Yuhui; Bae, Jaehoon; Yamashita, Shuya; Murata, Motoki; Yamada, Shuhei; Shinoda, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Toyoda, Yui; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2017-03-10

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an essential role in innate immunity through inflammatory cytokine induction. Recent studies demonstrated that the abnormal activation of TLR4 has a pivotal role in obesity-induced inflammation, which is associated with several diseases, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease. Here we demonstrate that (-)-epigallocatechin-3- O -gallate, a natural agonist of the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), suppressed TLR4 expression through E3 ubiquitin-protein ring finger protein 216 (RNF216) up-regulation. Our data indicate cyclic GMP mediates 67LR agonist-dependent RNF216 up-regulation. Moreover, we show that the highly absorbent 67LR agonist (-)-epigallocatechin-3- O -(3- O -methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) significantly attenuated TLR4 expression in the adipose tissue. EGCG3″Me completely inhibited the high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS)-induced up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor α in adipose tissue and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 increase. Furthermore, this agonist intake prevented HF/HS-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Taken together, 67LR presents an attractive target for the relief of obesity-induced inflammation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Mutation at the folate receptor 4 locus modulates gene expression profiles in the mouse uterus in response to preconceptual folate supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Salbaum, J. michael; Kruger, Claudia; Kappen, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional supplementation of folic acid to the diet of women is considered a great success for a public health intervention. Higher folate status, either by supplementation, or via the mandatory fortification of grain products in the United States, has lead to significant reduction in the incidence of neural tube defects. Besides birth defects, folate deficiency has been linked to a variety of morbidities, most notably to increased risk for cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that excess folate may be detrimental - for birth defect incidence or in the progression of cancer. How folate mediates beneficial or detrimental effects is not well understood. It is also unknown what molecular responses are elicited in women taking folate supplements, and thus experience a bolus of folate on top of the status achieved by fortification. To characterize the response to a preconceptional regimen of supplementation with folinic acid, we performed gene expression profiling experiments on uterus tissue of pregnant mice with either wildtype alleles or targeted disruption at the folate receptor 4 locus. We observed that, depending on the genetic background, folinic acid supplementation affects expression of genes that contribute to lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, mitochondrial function, cell cycle, and cell activation. The extent of the response is strongly modulated by the genetic background. Finally, we provide evidence that folinic acid supplementation in the mutant paradigm affects histone methylation status, a potential mechanisms of gene regulation in this model. PMID:23651732

  17. Whole body hyperthermia treatment increases interleukin 10 and toll-like receptor 4 expression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zauner, Dorothea; Quehenberger, Franz; Hermann, Josef; Dejaco, Christian; Stradner, Martin H; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Angerer, Hannes; Rinner, Beate; Graninger, Winfried B

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to increased environmental temperatures is commonly used as a non-pharmacological treatment modality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We aimed to investigate systemic immunological effects of moderate whole body hyperthermia in patients with AS compared to healthy control subjects. Ten healthy control subjects and six AS patients underwent whole body hyperthermia treatment with 38.7-39 °C body core temperature over 60 min. Numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets, plasma concentrations of several acute phase reactants and cytokines, and gene expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) were determined during and up to 24 h after treatment. TLR-4, IL-10 and HSPB1 gene expression increased significantly up to 3 h post treatment, with an earlier, higher and more pronounced increase of IL-10 in patients with AS. An increase of natural killer cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes was noted during active heating, with a subsequent decrease up to 2 h after treatment. CD4+ T lymphocytes showed a short increase during active treatment in AS patients, while decreasing immediately after start of treatment in control subjects. Neutrophil granulocytes increased significantly up to 3 h after treatment, monocytes and B lymphocytes remained unchanged. Likewise, no significant changes were found concerning systemic cytokine concentrations and acute phase reactants. Our data support the concept of systemic immunological effects of moderate whole body hyperthermia in patients with AS.

  18. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation downregulates the increase of monocytes expressing toll-like receptor 4 in response to 6-day intensive training in kendo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kon, Michihiro; Tanimura, Yuko; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Kimura, Fuminori; Akama, Takao; Kono, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    This study examined changes in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-expressing monocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in response to continuous intensive exercise training in athletes, as well as the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on these changes. Eighteen male elite kendo athletes in Japan were randomly assigned to a CoQ10-supplementation group (n = 9) or a placebo-supplementation group (n = 9) using a double-blind method. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per day for 20 days. Subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of placebo. All subjects practiced kendo 5.5 h per day for 6 consecutive days during the study period. Blood samples were collected 2 weeks before training, on the first day (day 1), third day (day 3), and fifth day of training (day 5), and 1 week after the training period (post-training) to ascertain TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD28(+)/CD4(+), CD28(+)/CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells) using flow cytometry analysis. The group × time interaction for TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Within the CoQ10 group, the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells was significantly higher only at day 5. The placebo group showed a significant increase in the absolute number of TLR-4(+)/CD14(+) cells at day 3, day 5, and post-training (p < 0.05). There was no significant group × time interaction for any lymphocyte subpopulation. CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD56(+)/CD3(-) cells were significantly reduced at day 3 in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CoQ10 supplementation might downregulate the increase of TLR-4-expressing monocytes in response to continuous strenuous exercise training in kendo athletes.

  19. Treatment with glutamine is associated with down-regulation of Toll-like receptor-4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression and decrease in intestinal mucosal injury caused by lipopolysaccharide endotoxaemia in a rat

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, A; Toubi, E; Pavlotzky, E; Mogilner, J; Coran, A G; Lurie, M; Karry, R; Sukhotnik, I

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxaemia in a rat causes significant mucosal injury. Our objective was to determine the effects of glutamine (Gln) on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression in intestinal mucosa following LPS endotoxaemia in a rat. For this purpose, male Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups of 10 rats each: (i) control rats underwent intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sterile saline once a day; (ii) rats were treated with LPS given i.p. once a day at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 48 h (two doses); and (iii) rats were pretreated with oral Gln given in drinking water (2%) 48 h before and following injection of LPS. Intestinal mucosal parameters, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis were determined at death. TLR-4 and MyD88 mRNA expression was measured with reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). TLR-4 and MyD88 protein expression were analysed by Western immunoblotting. We observed a statistically significant (P < 0·05) decrease in mucosal weight, mucosal DNA and enterocyte proliferation and a significant increase in enterocyte apoptosis in rat intestine, following LPS administration. These changes were attenuated significantly by dietary Gln. Expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 mRNA in the mucosal ileum was significantly higher in LPS rats versus control rats (P = 0·0006, P = 0·0015, P = 0·03, respectively) as well as TLR-4 and MyD88 protein expression. The administration of Gln reduced significantly the expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 (P = 0·023, P = 0·014, P = 0·035, respectively) mRNA as well as TLR-4 and MyD88 protein expression in ileum compared to LPS animals. We did not find a significant change in the expression of TLR-4, MyD88 or TRAF6 in the jejunum of different groups. We conclude that treatment with Gln was associated with

  20. Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052) reduce the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in mice with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Meegun; Kim, Seung Woo; Han, Sang Hak; Kim, Dong Joon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Myong Jo; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo; Ham, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been widely established. We evaluated the biological effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052), KRG (Korea red ginseng), and urushiol (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) on ALD, including their effects on normal and high-fat diet in mice. One hundred C57BL/6 mice were classified into normal (N) and high-fat diet (H) groups. Each group was divided into 5 sub-groups: control, alcohol, alcohol+probiotics, alcohol+KRG, and alcohol+urushiol. A liver function test, histology, electron-microscopy, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-10, and TLR 4 were evaluated and compared. In the N group, probiotics, KRG, and urushiol significantly reduced levels of TNF-α (12.3±5.1, 13.4±3.9, and 12.1±4.3 vs. 27.9±15.2 pg/mL) and IL-1β (108.4±39.4, 75.0±51.0, and 101.1±26.8 vs. 162.4±37.5 pg/mL), which were increased by alcohol. Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics and urushiol (0.7±0.2, and 0.8±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.3, p<0.001). In the H group, IL-10 was significantly increased by probiotics and KRG, compared with alcohol (25.3±15.6 and 20.4±6.2 vs. 7.6±5.6 pg/mL) and TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics (0.8±0.2 vs. 1.0±0.3, p = 0.007). Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was down-regulated by probiotics in the normal and high-fat diet groups. Probiotics, KRG, and urushiol might be effective in the treatment of ALD by regulating the gut-liver axis.

  1. Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052) Reduce the Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Mice with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Meegun; Kim, Seung Woo; Han, Sang Hak; Kim, Dong Joon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Myong Jo; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo; Ham, Young Lim

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been widely established. We evaluated the biological effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052), KRG (Korea red ginseng), and urushiol (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) on ALD, including their effects on normal and high-fat diet in mice. Methods One hundred C57BL/6 mice were classified into normal (N) and high-fat diet (H) groups. Each group was divided into 5 sub-groups: control, alcohol, alcohol+probiotics, alcohol+KRG, and alcohol+urushiol. A liver function test, histology, electron-microscopy, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-10, and TLR 4 were evaluated and compared. Results In the N group, probiotics, KRG, and urushiol significantly reduced levels of TNF-α (12.3±5.1, 13.4±3.9, and 12.1±4.3 vs. 27.9±15.2 pg/mL) and IL-1β (108.4±39.4, 75.0±51.0, and 101.1±26.8 vs. 162.4±37.5 pg/mL), which were increased by alcohol. Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics and urushiol (0.7±0.2, and 0.8±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.3, p<0.001). In the H group, IL-10 was significantly increased by probiotics and KRG, compared with alcohol (25.3±15.6 and 20.4±6.2 vs. 7.6±5.6 pg/mL) and TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics (0.8±0.2 vs. 1.0±0.3, p = 0.007). Conclusions Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was down-regulated by probiotics in the normal and high-fat diet groups. Probiotics, KRG, and urushiol might be effective in the treatment of ALD by regulating the gut-liver axis. PMID:25692549

  2. Fibrinogen cleavage products and Toll-like receptor 4 promote the generation of programmed cell death 1 ligand 2-positive dendritic cells in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Minkyoung; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lim, Hoyong; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Khalmuratova, Roza; Choi, Garam; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Choi, Wahn Soo; Park, Young-Jun; Shim, Inbo; Kim, Byung-Seok; Kang, Chang-Yuil; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Tanaka, Shinya; Kubo, Masato; Chung, Yeonseok

    2017-10-14

    Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger T H 2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on induction of T H 2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce T H 2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear. We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for T H 2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway. Mice were challenged intranasally with protease allergens or fibrinogen cleavage products (FCPs) to induce allergic airway inflammation. DCs isolated from mediastinal lymph nodes were analyzed for surface phenotype and T-cell stimulatory function. Anti-Thy1.2 and Mas-TRECK mice were used to deplete innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, respectively. Adoptive cell transfer, bone marrow DC culture, anti-IL-13, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice were used for further mechanistic studies. Protease allergens induced a remarkable accumulation of T H 2-favorable programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) + DCs in mediastinal lymph nodes, which was significantly abolished in mice depleted of mast cells and, to a lesser extent, innate lymphoid cells. Mechanistically, FCPs generated by protease allergens triggered IL-13 production from wild-type mast cells but not from TLR4-deficient mast cells, which resulted in an increase in the number of PD-L2 + DCs. Intranasal administration of FCPs induced an increase in numbers of PD-L2 + DCs in the airway, which was significantly abolished in TLR4- and mast cell-deficient mice. Injection of IL-13 restored the PD-L2 + DC population in mice lacking mast cells. Our findings unveil the "protease-FCP-TLR4-mast cell-IL-13" axis as a molecular mechanism for generation of T H 2-favorable PD-L2 + DCs in allergic asthma and suggest that targeting the PD-L2 + DC pathway might be effective in suppressing allergic T-cell responses in the airway

  3. Campylobacter jejuni Increases Flagellar Expression and Adhesion of Noninvasive Escherichia coli: Effects on Enterocytic Toll-Like Receptor 4 and CXCL-8 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Kristen L.; Tymensen, Lisa D.; Davis, Shevaun P.; Amrein, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterium-induced gastroenteritis, and while typically self-limiting, C. jejuni infections are associated with postinfectious intestinal disorders, including flares in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), via mechanisms that remain obscure. Based on the hypothesis that acute campylobacteriosis may cause pathogenic microbiota dysbiosis, we investigated whether C. jejuni may activate dormant virulence genes in noninvasive Escherichia coli and examined the epithelial pathophysiological consequences of these alterations. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that E. coli adhesin, flagellum, and hemolysin gene expression were increased when E. coli was exposed to C. jejuni-conditioned medium. Increased development of bacterial flagella upon exposure to live C. jejuni or C. jejuni-conditioned medium was observed under transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the forces of bacterial adhesion to colonic T84 enterocytes, and the work required to rupture this adhesion, were significantly increased in E. coli exposed to C. jejuni-conditioned media. Finally, C. jejuni-modified E. coli disrupted TLR4 gene expression and induced proinflammatory CXCL-8 gene expression in colonic enterocytes. Together, these data suggest that exposure to live C. jejuni, and/or to its secretory-excretory products, may activate latent virulence genes in noninvasive E. coli and that these alterations may directly trigger proinflammatory signaling in intestinal epithelia. These observations shed new light on mechanisms that may contribute, at least in part, to postcampylobacteriosis inflammatory disorders. PMID:26371123

  4. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.-J.; Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    2008-04-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 {mu}M of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-{alpha}more » and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 {mu}M) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive

  5. A Cellular Micro-RNA, let-7i, Regulates Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression and Contributes to Cholangiocyte Immune Responses against Cryptosporidium parvum Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian-Ming; Splinter, Patrick L.; O'Hara, Steven P.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pathogen recognition molecules and are key to epithelial immune responses to microbial infection. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate TLR expression in epithelia are obscure. Micro-RNAs play important roles in a wide range of biological events through post-transcriptional suppression of target mRNAs. Here we report that human biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) express let-7 family members, micro-RNAs with complementarity to TLR4 mRNA. We found that let-7 regulates TLR4 expression via post-transcriptional suppression in cultured human cholangiocytes. Infection of cultured human cholangiocytes with Cryptosporidium parvum, a parasite that causes intestinal and biliary disease, results in decreased expression of primary let-7i and mature let-7 in a MyD88/NF-κB-dependent manner. The decreased let-7 expression is associated with C. parvum-induced up-regulation of TLR4 in infected cells. Moreover, experimentally induced suppression or forced expression of let-7i causes reciprocal alterations in C. parvum-induced TLR4 protein expression, and consequently, infection dynamics of C. parvum in vitro. These results indicate that let-7i regulates TLR4 expression in cholangiocytes and contributes to epithelial immune responses against C. parvum infection. Furthermore, the data raise the possibility that micro-RNA-mediated post-transcriptional pathways may be critical to host-cell regulatory responses to microbial infection in general. PMID:17660297

  6. Mincle suppresses Toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Ochi, Atsuo; Batel, Jennifer; Deutsch, Michael; Barilla, Rocky; Seifert, Lena; Pachter, H Leon; Daley, Donnele; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R; Miller, George

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of Toll-like receptor responses is critical for limiting tissue injury and autoimmunity in both sepsis and sterile inflammation. We found that Mincle, a C-type lectin receptor, regulates proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Specifically, Mincle ligation diminishes Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation, whereas Mincle deletion or knockdown results in marked hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, as well as overwhelming lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, Mincle deletion does not up-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression or reduce interleukin 10 production after Toll-like receptor 4 ligation; however, Mincle deletion decreases production of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibitory intermediate suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, A20, and ABIN3 and increases expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor CD14. Blockade of CD14 mitigates the increased sensitivity of Mincle(-/-) leukocytes to Toll-like receptor 4 ligation. Collectively, we describe a major role for Mincle in suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 responses and implicate its importance in nonmycobacterial models of inflammation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  7. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4, 7 and co-receptors in neurochemical sub-populations of rat trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Helley, M P; Abate, W; Jackson, S K; Bennett, J H; Thompson, S W N

    2015-12-03

    The recent discovery that mammalian nociceptors express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has raised the possibility that these cells directly detect and respond to pathogens with implications for either direct nociceptor activation or sensitization. A range of neuronal TLRs have been identified, however a detailed description regarding the distribution of expression of these receptors within sub-populations of sensory neurons is lacking. There is also some debate as to the composition of the TLR4 receptor complex on sensory neurons. Here we use a range of techniques to quantify the expression of TLR4, TLR7 and some associated molecules within neurochemically-identified sub-populations of trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root (DRG) ganglion sensory neurons. We also detail the pattern of expression and co-expression of two isoforms of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), a phospholipid remodeling enzyme previously shown to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide-dependent TLR4 response in monocytes, within sensory ganglia. Immunohistochemistry shows that both TLR4 and TLR7 preferentially co-localize with transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) and purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3), markers of nociceptor populations, within both TG and DRG. A gene expression profile shows that TG sensory neurons express a range of TLR-associated molecules. LPCAT1 is expressed by a proportion of both nociceptors and non-nociceptive neurons. LPCAT2 immunostaining is absent from neuronal profiles within both TG and DRG and is confined to non-neuronal cell types under naïve conditions. Together, our results show that nociceptors express the molecular machinery required to directly respond to pathogenic challenge independently from the innate immune system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PI3K/Akt contributes to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages exposed to hypoxic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Young; Jeong, Eunshil; Joung, Sun Myung

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression is mediated by PI3K/Akt in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI3K/Akt regulated HIF-1 activation leading to TLR4 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was not involved in TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia-mediated TLR4 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in triggering immune and inflammatory responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Increased expression of TLR4 is implicated in aggravated inflammatory symptoms in ischemic tissue injury and chronic diseases. Results from our previous study showed that TLR4 expression was upregulated by hypoxic stress mediated bymore » hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at a transcriptional level in macrophages. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling pathway that contributed to the increase of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Either treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of Akt expression by siRNA blocked the increase of TLR4 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages exposed to hypoxia and CoCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylation of Akt by hypoxic stress preceded nuclear accumulation of HIF-1{alpha}. A PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated CoCl{sub 2}-induced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. In addition, HIF-1{alpha}-mediated upregulation of TLR4 expression was blocked by LY294002. Furthermore, sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia- and CoCl{sub 2}-induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein by inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and the subsequent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. However, p38 was not involved in HIF-1{alpha} activation and TLR4 expression induced by hypoxic stress in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PI3K

  9. Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and 5 during progression of prostate transformation in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Ju-Hee; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Chang, Seo-Na; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Park, Jae-Hak; Kim, Dong-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been considered an important risk factor for development of prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial moieties or endogenous molecules and play an important role in the triggering and promotion of inflammation. In this study, we examined whether expression of TLR4 and TLR5 was associated with progression of prostate transformation in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The expression of TLR4 and TLR5 was evaluated by immunohistochemisty in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate tissue from wild-type (WT) and TRAMP mice. Normal prostate tissue from WT mice showed strong expression of TLR4 and TLR5. However, TLR4 expression in the prostate tissue from TRAMP mice gradually decreased as pathologic grade became more aggressive. TLR5 expression in the prostate tissue from TRAMP mice also decreased in low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), high-grade PIN and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Overall, our results suggest that decreased expression of TLR4 and TLR5 may contribute to prostate tumorigenesis.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-2 (TREM-2) Activation Balance Astrocyte Polarization into a Proinflammatory Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rosciszewski, Gerardo; Cadena, Vanesa; Murta, Veronica; Lukin, Jeronimo; Villarreal, Alejandro; Roger, Thierry; Ramos, Alberto Javier

    2018-05-01

    Astrocytes react to brain injury with a generic response known as reactive gliosis, which involves activation of multiple intracellular pathways including several that may be beneficial for neuronal survival. However, by unknown mechanisms, reactive astrocytes can polarize into a proinflammatory phenotype that induces neurodegeneration. In order to study reactive gliosis and astroglial polarization into a proinflammatory phenotype, we used cortical devascularization-induced brain ischemia in Wistar rats and primary astroglial cell cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We analyzed the profile of TLR4 expression and the consequences of its activation by gain- and loss-of-function studies, and the effects produced by the activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2), a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling. Both OGD exposure on primary astroglial cell cultures and cortical devascularization brain ischemia in rats induced TLR4 expression in astrocytes. In vivo, astroglial TLR4 expression was specifically observed in the ischemic penumbra surrounding necrotic core. Functional studies showed that OGD increased the astroglial response to the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and conversely, TLR4 knockout primary astrocytes had impaired nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation when exposed to LPS. In gain-of-function studies, plasmid-mediated TLR4 over-expression exacerbated astroglial response to LPS as shown by sustained NF-κB activation and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. TREM-2 expression, although present in naïve primary astrocytes, was induced by OGD, LPS, or high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1) exposure. TREM-2 activation by antibody cross-linking or the overexpression of TREM-2 intracellular adaptor, DAP12, partially suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation in purified astrocytic cultures. In vivo, TREM-2 expression was observed in macrophages and astrocytes located in the

  11. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressedmore » CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.« less

  12. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other type of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:23743303

  13. Mycobacterium leprae Activates Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling and Expression on Macrophages Depending on Previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Polycarpou, Anastasia; Holland, Martin J.; Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Walker, Stephen L.; Willcocks, Sam; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1 and TLR2 have been shown to be receptors for Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), yet it is unclear whether M. leprae can signal through alternative TLRs. Other mycobacterial species possess ligands for TLR4 and genetic association studies in human populations suggest that people with TLR4 polymorphisms may be protected against leprosy. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells co-transfected with TLR4, we demonstrate that M. leprae activates TLR4. We used human macrophages to show that M. leprae stimulation of cytokine production is diminished if pre-treated with TLR4 neutralizing antibody. TLR4 protein expression was up-regulated on macrophages derived from non-bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated healthy volunteers after incubation with M. leprae, whereas it was down-regulated in macrophages derived from BCG-vaccinated donors. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages derived from BCG-naive donors with BCG reversed the effect of M. leprae on TLR4 expression. This may be a newly described phenomenon by which BCG vaccination stimulates “non-specific” protection to the human immune system. PMID:27458573

  14. Mycobacterium leprae Activates Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling and Expression on Macrophages Depending on Previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Polycarpou, Anastasia; Holland, Martin J; Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Walker, Stephen L; Willcocks, Sam; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1 and TLR2 have been shown to be receptors for Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), yet it is unclear whether M. leprae can signal through alternative TLRs. Other mycobacterial species possess ligands for TLR4 and genetic association studies in human populations suggest that people with TLR4 polymorphisms may be protected against leprosy. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells co-transfected with TLR4, we demonstrate that M. leprae activates TLR4. We used human macrophages to show that M. leprae stimulation of cytokine production is diminished if pre-treated with TLR4 neutralizing antibody. TLR4 protein expression was up-regulated on macrophages derived from non-bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated healthy volunteers after incubation with M. leprae, whereas it was down-regulated in macrophages derived from BCG-vaccinated donors. Finally, pre-treatment of macrophages derived from BCG-naive donors with BCG reversed the effect of M. leprae on TLR4 expression. This may be a newly described phenomenon by which BCG vaccination stimulates "non-specific" protection to the human immune system.

  15. Soybean isoflavone alleviates β-amyloid 1-42 induced inflammatory response to improve learning and memory ability by down regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and nuclear factor-κB activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, B J; Ma, W W; He, L L; Zhou, X; Yuan, L H; Yu, H L; Feng, J F; Xiao, R

    2011-08-01

    β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42)-induced learning and memory impairment in rats is believed to be associated with inflammation. Cytokine production is a key pathologic event in the progression of inflammatory processes. In this rat study, soybean isoflavones (SIF) was used to investigate it's protective effects on inflammation caused by β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42), which is associated with learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer disease. We characterized the learning and memory ability. cytokine profiles of circulating interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum and the expression of Toll like receptor4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA and protein in the brain tissue following intracerebroventricular administration of Aβ1-42 by miniosmotic pump for 14 days. The results showed that functional deficits of learning and memory in SIF treatment groups were significantly improved compared to the control group without SIF treatment in water maze test. The serum IL-1β and TNF-α level were significantly increased, and the expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein in the brain were up-regulated, indicating inflammation response was initiated following administration of Aβ1-42. After intragastric pre-treatment with SIF, inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and also SIF reversed the Aβ1-42 induced up-regulation of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein expression in the brain and expression of NF-κB p65 in nuclei. These results suggested that SIF reduced the cytokine cascade and inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42 which could result in the improvement of spatial learning and memory ability impairment in the rats. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of Siglec-E Alters the Proteome of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Activated Macrophages but Does Not Affect LPS-Driven Cytokine Production or Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nagala, Manjula; McKenzie, Emma; Richards, Hannah; Sharma, Ritu; Thomson, Sarah; Mastroeni, Pietro; Crocker, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Siglec-E is a murine CD33-related siglec that functions as an inhibitory receptor and is expressed mainly on neutrophils and macrophage populations. Recent studies have suggested that siglec-E is an important negative regulator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and one report (1) claimed that siglec-E is required for TLR4 endocytosis following uptake of Escherichia coli by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Our attempts to reproduce these observations using cells from wild-type (WT) and siglec-E-deficient mice were unsuccessful. We used a variety of assays to determine if siglec-E expressed by different macrophage populations can regulate TLR4 signaling in response to LPS, but found no consistent differences in cytokine secretion in vitro and in vivo , comparing three different strains of siglec-E-deficient mice with matched WT controls. No evidence was found that the siglec-E deficiency was compensated by expression of siglecs-F and -G, the other murine inhibitory CD33-related siglecs. Quantitative proteomics was used as an unbiased approach and provided additional evidence that siglec-E does not suppress inflammatory TLR4 signaling. Interestingly, proteomics revealed a siglec-E-dependent alteration in macrophage protein composition that could be relevant to functional responses in host defense. In support of this, siglec-E-deficient mice exhibited enhanced growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver following intravenous infection, but macrophages lacking siglec-E did not show altered uptake or killing of bacteria in vitro . Using various cell types including bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), splenic DCs, and macrophages from WT and siglec-E-deficient mice, we showed that siglec-E is not required for TLR4 endocytosis following E. coli uptake or LPS challenge. We failed to see expression of siglec-E by BMDC even after LPS-induced maturation, but confirmed previous studies that splenic DCs express low levels of

  17. Role of toll-like receptor-4 in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Merry, Heather E; Phelan, Patrick; Doak, Mathew R; Zhao, Minqing; Hwang, Billanna; Mulligan, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 has been implicated in modulating ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiac, hepatic, renal, and cerebral models. However, its role in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is unknown. We hypothesize that toll-like receptor-4 has a key role in initiating the inflammatory cascade in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. We used toll-like receptor-4 specific short interference RNA to achieve toll-like receptor-4 knockdown in rats prior to undergoing ischemia and reperfusion. Lungs were explanted and studied for protein expression and markers of lung injury. Additional animals were evaluated for cellular uptake of toll-like receptor-4 short interference RNA. Toll-like receptor-4 short interference RNA localized to the alveolar macrophage. In animals pretreated with toll-like receptor-4 short interference RNA, toll-like receptor-4 expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation were suppressed. Markers of lung injury including permeability index, myeloperoxidase content, and bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cell counts were all reduced with toll-like receptor-4 knockdown. Toll-like receptor-4 is critical in the development of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and its activation in the alveolar macrophage may be the initiating step. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in inflammatory reactions of hippocampal neurons★

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yae; Mao, Jiahui; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Ailing

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide stimulates Toll-like receptor 4 on immune cells to produce immune mediators. Toll-like receptor 4 is also expressed by non-immune cells, which can be stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. However, whether Toll-like receptor 4 is expressed by primary cultured hippocampal neurons and its specific role in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation is currently undefined. In this study, Toll-like receptor 4 antibody blocking was used to analyze the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway and changes in inflammation of lipopolysaccharide stimulated hippocampal neurons. Immunofluorescence showed that Toll-like receptor 4 protein was mainly located in the membrane of hippocampal neurons. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay showed that after stimulation of lipopolysaccharide, the mRNA and protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 and the mRNA levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly increased. In addition, there was increased phosphorylation and degradation of kappa B α inhibitor in the cytosol and increased nuclear factor-κB p65 expression in the nuclei. Pretreatment with Toll-like receptor 4 antibody could almost completely block this increase. These experimental findings indicate that lipopolysaccharide participates in neuroinflammation by stimulating Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB pathway in hippocampal neurons, which may be both “passive victims” and “activators” of neuroinflammation. PMID:25206442

  19. Should a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) agonist or antagonist be designed to treat cancer? TLR-4: its expression and effects in the ten most common cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Chun Wai; Kang, Yew Beng; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is well known for its host innate immunity. Despite the fact that TLR-4 activation confers antitumor responses; emerging evidence suggests that TLR-4 is associated with tumor development and progression. It is now clear that overactivation of TLR-4, through various immune mediators, may cause immune response dysfunction, resulting in tumorigenesis. Different cancers could have different extents of TLR-4 involvement during tumorigenesis or tumor progression. In this review, we focus on infection- and inflammation-related TLR-4 activation in noncancer and cancer cells, as well as on the current evidence about the role of TLR-4 in ten of the most common cancers, viz, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer. PMID:24235843

  20. Casticin induced apoptotic cell death and altered associated gene expression in human colon cancer colo 205 cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hung-Sheng; Liu, Jia-You; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Lin, Chia-Hain; Chen, Ann; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-08-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, derived from natural plant Fructus Viticis exhibits biological activities including anti-cancer characteristics. The anti-cancer and alter gene expression of casticin on human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure viable cell, cell cycle and sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ productions, level of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and caspase activity. Western blotting assay was used to detect expression of protein level associated with cell death. Casticin induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and induced G2/M phase arrest in colo 205 cells. Casticin increased ROS production but decreased the levels of ΔΨ m , and Ca 2+ , increased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. The cDNA microarray indicated that some of the cell cycle associated genes were down-regulated such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) (p21, Cip1) and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3 (PAK3). TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), CREB1 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) (p27, Kip1) genes were increased but matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, bet), and CaMK4 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV) genes were inhibited. Results suggest that casticin induced cell apoptosis via the activation of the caspase- and/or mitochondria-dependent signaling cascade, the accumulation of ROS and altered associated gene expressions in colo 205 human colon cancer cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 antagonist (+)-naloxone protects mice from inflammation-induced preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Chin, Peck Yin; Dorian, Camilla L; Hutchinson, Mark R; Olson, David M; Rice, Kenner C; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Robertson, Sarah A

    2016-11-07

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by bacterial infection, or by sterile inflammatory insult is a primary trigger of spontaneous preterm birth. Here we utilize mouse models to investigate the efficacy of a novel small molecule TLR4 antagonist, (+)-naloxone, the non-opioid isomer of the opioid receptor antagonist (-)-naloxone, in infection-associated preterm birth. Treatment with (+)-naloxone prevented preterm delivery and alleviated fetal demise in utero elicited by i.p. LPS administration in late gestation. A similar effect with protection from preterm birth and perinatal death, and partial correction of reduced birth weight and postnatal mortality, was conferred by (+)-naloxone administration after intrauterine administration of heat-killed E. coli. Local induction by E. coli of inflammatory cytokine genes Il1b, Il6, Tnf and Il10 in fetal membranes was suppressed by (+)-naloxone, and cytokine expression in the placenta, and uterine myometrium and decidua, was also attenuated. These data demonstrate that inhibition of TLR4 signaling with the novel TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone can suppress the inflammatory cascade of preterm parturition, to prevent preterm birth and perinatal death. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of small molecule inhibition of TLR-driven inflammation as a component of strategies for fetal protection and delaying preterm birth in the clinical setting.

  2. Systematic analysis of gene expression in human brains before and after death

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Henriette; Ullmann, Claudia; Becker, Albert; Ryan, Margaret; Bahn, Sabine; Arendt, Thomas; Simon, Matthias; Pääbo, Svante; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have employed microarray techniques to study changes in gene expression in connection with human disease, aging and evolution. The vast majority of human samples available for research are obtained from deceased individuals. This raises questions about how well gene expression patterns in such samples reflect those of living individuals. Results Here, we compare gene expression patterns in two human brain regions in postmortem samples and in material collected during surgical intervention. We find that death induces significant expression changes in more than 10% of all expressed genes. These changes are non-randomly distributed with respect to their function. Moreover, we observe similar expression changes due to death in two distinct brain regions. Consequently, the pattern of gene expression differences between the two brain regions is largely unaffected by death, although the magnitude of differences is reduced by 50% in postmortem samples. Furthermore, death-induced changes do not contribute significantly to gene expression variation among postmortem human brain samples. Conclusion We conclude that postmortem human brain samples are suitable for investigating gene expression patterns in humans, but that caution is warranted in interpreting results for individual genes. PMID:16420671

  3. The Role of Calpain-Myosin 9-Rab7b Pathway in Mediating the Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Platelets: A Novel Mechanism Involved in α-Granules Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jui-Chi; Lin, Yi-Wen; Huang, Chun-Yao; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Shih, Chun-Min; Lee, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Nen-Chung; Lin, Feng-Yen; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a critical role in innate immunity. In 2004, Aslam R. and Shiraki R. first determined that murine and human platelets express functional TLRs. Additionally, Andonegui G. demonstrated that platelets express TLR4, which contributes to thrombocytopenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of TLR4 expression by platelets have been rarely explored until now. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of TLR4 expression underlying thrombin treatment. The human washed platelets were used in this study. According to flowcytometry and western blot analysis, the surface levels of TLR4 were significantly enhanced in thrombin-activated human platelets and decreased by TMB-8, calpeptin, and U73122, but not Y27632 (a Rho-associated protein kinase ROCK inhibitor) indicating that thrombin-mediated TLR4 expression was modulated by PAR/PLC pathway, calcium and calpain. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay demonstrated that the interaction between TLR4 and myosin-9 (a substrate of calpain) was regulated by calpain; cleavage of myosin-9 enhanced TLR4 expression in thrombin treated platelets. Transmission electron microscope data indicated that human platelets used α-granules to control TLR4 expression; the co-IP experiment suggested that myosin-9 did not coordinate with Rab7b to negatively regulate TLR4 trafficking in thrombin treated platelets. In summary, phospholipase Cγ-calpain-myosin 9-Rab7b axis was responsible for the mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR4 containing α-granules trafficking in thrombin-stimulated platelets, which was involved in coagulation. PMID:24489676

  4. [The correlation study between the changes of intestinal mucosa predominant bacteria and Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4 gene expressions in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients].

    PubMed

    Guo, W T; Liu, P; Dong, L N; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    Based on high throughput sequencing and PCR detection technology, this study has found out that intestinal microbial diversity was impaired and the quantities of two main bacteria flora (Bacteroidetes and Clostridium) were significantly reduced in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Meanwhile mucosal expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 were significantly enhanced, which was inversely correlated with the reduction of Bacteroidetes and Clostridium. Thus, it suggests that D-IBS may be associated with TLR signal transduction triggered by the intestinal dysbacteriosis.

  5. Avian TVB (DR5-like) death receptor expression in hen ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Bridgham, Jamie T; Johnson, Alan L

    2002-02-22

    TVB is an avian death domain-containing receptor belonging to the TNF receptor family and is proposed to be the ortholog to mammalian DR5. Although TVB receptor activation has been demonstrated to mediate apoptosis in chick embryo fibroblasts, there is essentially no information regarding TVB expression or regulation in the mature hen ovary, and in particular within the follicle granulosa layer where apoptosis is known to promote atresia. Significantly, the TVB receptor represents the fourth death domain-containing receptor (also including Fas, TNF-R1, and DR6) found to be expressed within hen granulosa cells. Levels of TVB expression are higher in prehierarchal follicles actively undergoing atresia compared to healthy follicles. However, increased TVB expression does not precede follicle death induced in vitro. Furthermore, TVB expression within granulosa cells is highest during the final stages of follicle development when follicles are not normally susceptible to undergoing atresia. These results provide evidence that TVB receptor signaling in the ovary may function in a capacity other than solely to mediate granulosa cell death and follicle atresia. ©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. Jasmonates induce nonapoptotic death in high-resistance mutant p53-expressing B-lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fingrut, Orit; Reischer, Dorit; Rotem, Ronit; Goldin, Natalia; Altboum, Irit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Flescher, Eliezer

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene, occur in more than half of human cancers. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that jasmonates (novel anticancer agents) can induce death in mutated p53-expressing cells. Two clones of B-lymphoma cells were studied, one expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and the other expressing mutated p53. Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate (0.25–3 mM) were each equally cytotoxic to both clones, whereas mutant p53-expressing cells were resistant to treatment with the radiomimetic agent neocarzinostatin and the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin. Neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced an elevation in the p53 levels in wt p53-expressing cells, whereas methyl jasmonate did not. Methyl jasmonate induced mostly apoptotic death in the wt p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in mutant p53-expressing cells. In contrast, neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced death only in wt p53-expressing cells, in an apoptotic mode. Methyl jasmonate induced a rapid depletion of ATP in both clones. In both clones, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) did not increase ATP depletion induced by methyl jasmonate, whereas inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose did. High glucose levels protected both clones from methyl jasmonate-induced ATP depletion (and reduced methyl jasmonate-induced cytotoxicity), whereas high levels of pyruvate did not. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate induces ATP depletion mostly by compromising oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In conclusion, jasmonates can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing a nonapoptotic cell death. PMID:16170329

  7. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression and Response to the Anti-Programmed Death 1 Antibody Pembrolizumab in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Daud, Adil I; Wolchok, Jedd D; Robert, Caroline; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Weber, Jeffrey S; Ribas, Antoni; Hodi, F Stephen; Joshua, Anthony M; Kefford, Richard; Hersey, Peter; Joseph, Richard; Gangadhar, Tara C; Dronca, Roxana; Patnaik, Amita; Zarour, Hassane; Roach, Charlotte; Toland, Grant; Lunceford, Jared K; Li, Xiaoyun Nicole; Emancipator, Kenneth; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Kang, S Peter; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Hamid, Omid

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a potential predictive marker for response and outcome after treatment with anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1). This study explored the relationship between anti-PD-1 activity and PD-L1 expression in patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with pembrolizumab in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 study (clinical trial information: NCT01295827). Patients and Methods Six hundred fifty-five patients received pembrolizumab10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks or once every 3 weeks, or 2 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Tumor response was assessed every 12 weeks per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 by independent central review. Primary outcome was objective response rate. Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Membranous PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was assessed by a clinical trial immunohistochemistry assay (22C3 antibody) and scored on a unique melanoma (MEL) scale of 0 to 5 by one of three pathologists who were blinded to clinical outcome; a score ≥ 2 (membranous staining in ≥ 1% of cells) was considered positive. Results Of 451 patients with evaluable PD-L1 expression, 344 (76%) had PD-L1-positive tumors. Demographic and staging variables were equally distributed among PD-L1-positive and -negative patients. An association between higher MEL score and higher response rate and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.82) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83) was observed ( P < .001 for each). Objective response rate was 8%, 12%, 22%, 43%, 57%, and 53% for MEL 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Conclusion PD-L1 expression in pretreatment tumor biopsy samples was correlated with response rate, PFS, and OS; however, patients with PD-L1-negative tumors may also achieve durable responses.

  8. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression and Response to the Anti–Programmed Death 1 Antibody Pembrolizumab in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wolchok, Jedd D.; Robert, Caroline; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Ribas, Antoni; Hodi, F. Stephen; Joshua, Anthony M.; Kefford, Richard; Hersey, Peter; Joseph, Richard; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Dronca, Roxana; Patnaik, Amita; Zarour, Hassane; Roach, Charlotte; Toland, Grant; Lunceford, Jared K.; Li, Xiaoyun Nicole; Emancipator, Kenneth; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Kang, S. Peter; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Hamid, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a potential predictive marker for response and outcome after treatment with anti–programmed death 1 (PD-1). This study explored the relationship between anti–PD-1 activity and PD-L1 expression in patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with pembrolizumab in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 study (clinical trial information: NCT01295827). Patients and Methods Six hundred fifty-five patients received pembrolizumab10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks or once every 3 weeks, or 2 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Tumor response was assessed every 12 weeks per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 by independent central review. Primary outcome was objective response rate. Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Membranous PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was assessed by a clinical trial immunohistochemistry assay (22C3 antibody) and scored on a unique melanoma (MEL) scale of 0 to 5 by one of three pathologists who were blinded to clinical outcome; a score ≥ 2 (membranous staining in ≥ 1% of cells) was considered positive. Results Of 451 patients with evaluable PD-L1 expression, 344 (76%) had PD-L1–positive tumors. Demographic and staging variables were equally distributed among PD-L1–positive and –negative patients. An association between higher MEL score and higher response rate and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.82) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83) was observed (P < .001 for each). Objective response rate was 8%, 12%, 22%, 43%, 57%, and 53% for MEL 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Conclusion PD-L1 expression in pretreatment tumor biopsy samples was correlated with response rate, PFS, and OS; however, patients with PD-L1–negative tumors may also achieve durable responses. PMID:27863197

  9. The Effects of Antidepressants “Fluoxetine and Imipramine” on Vascular Abnormalities and Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohamed; Shaker, Safaa; El-Gayar, Nesreen; Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reveal that diabetes doubles the odds of comorbid depression with evidence of a pro-inflammatory state underlying its vascular complications. Indeed, little information is available about vascular effects of antidepressant drugs in diabetes. Method: We investigated the effect of chronic administration of fluoxetine “FLU” and imipramine “IMIP” on behavioral, metabolic and vascular abnormalities in diabetic and non-diabetic rats exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS). Results: Both diabetes and CRS induced depressive-like behavior which was more prominent in diabetic/depressed rats; this was reversed by chronic treatment with FLU and IMIP in a comparable manner. Diabetic and non-diabetic rats exposed to CRS exhibited abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and vascular function, manifested by decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation, increased systolic blood pressure and histopathological atherosclerotic changes. Vascular and metabolic dysfunctions were associated with significant increase in aortic expression of TLR-4, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1ß). FLU ameliorated these metabolic, vascular and inflammatory abnormalities, while IMIP induced either no change or even worsening of some parameters. Conclusion: FLU has favorable effect over IMIP on metabolic, vascular and inflammatory aberrations associated with DM and CRS in Wistar rats, clarifying the preference of FLU over IMIP in management of comorbid depression in diabetic subjects. PMID:25826421

  10. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  11. Human Milk Fortification Increases Bnip3 Expression Associated With Intestinal Cell Death In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Diehl-Jones, William; Archibald, Alyssa; Gordon, Joseph W; Mughal, Wajihah; Hossain, Zakir; Friel, James K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effect(s) of a bovine-based human breast milk fortifier (HMF) on human intestinal cells. HMF increases the expression of BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein (Bnip3) and cell death; the prostaglandin analogue misoprostol will rescue this effect. Cultured intestinal cells were exposed to in vitro-digested human breast milk (BM) ± HMF. Intracellular oxidation, cell damage/cell death, and BNIP3 expression were measured after exposure. In vitro-digested BM + HMF significantly increased intracellular oxidation, cell damage, and cell death in enterocyte cell cultures compared with either saline or BM controls, an effect that was rescued by the prostaglandin analogue, misoprostol. Bnip3 transcript and Bnip3 protein levels were significantly increased in vitro after treatment with BM + HMF. We also provide evidence that transfection of enterocytes with Bnip3 increases cell death, an effect that is rescued by a nonfunctional Bnip3 splice variant. Our data support the hypothesis that HMF increases intestinal Bnip3 in vitro, and that the gene product triggers cell death. We suggest that misoprostol is a promising therapy, which may reduce intestinal cell death.

  12. Myocardial Cx43 expression in the cases of sudden death due to dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinshan; Zhang, Yigu

    2006-10-16

    Probing into myocardial connexin (Cx) 43 expression in the cases of sudden death due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and relationship between Cx43 expression and sudden death. Myocardial Cx43 was detected with immunohistochemical staining in the cases of 11 sudden death caused by DCM and 14 cases of control group who died of violent reasons and other diseases, which were autopsied in our department from 1997 to 2003. Of 11 cases of DCM, there were 10 men and 1 woman with ranging in age from 7 to 49 years old (x (37.8) years old for 9 adult cases). Of 14 cases in the control group, there were 10 men and 4 women with ranging in age from 11 to 53 years old (x (29.9) years old for 11 adult cases). Myocardial Cx43 expression was obviously decreased in DCM group. Positive dyeing spots were different in size, distribution, color and disparity, some of them were distributed in the form of particle. Obvious change had not been observed in the cases of control group or with only slight changes in coloring degree and expressive area. The quantitative data showed that there was significant difference between two groups (p=0.0075) about Cx43 expressive area, but there was no difference between the left and right ventricles (p>0.05) in each group itself. And there was not difference between the two groups about average optical density of expression. Myocardial Cx43 expression is obviously reduced in the patients with DCM who die suddenly. The alteration of quantity and distribution of myocardial Cx43 expression is probably related to sudden death of the patients with DCM.

  13. Expression of pituitary tumour-derived, N-terminally truncated isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (ptd-FGFR4) correlates with tumour invasiveness but not with G-protein alpha subunit (gsp) mutation in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Morita, Koji; Takano, Koji; Yasufuku-Takano, Junko; Yamada, Shozo; Teramoto, Akira; Takei, Mao; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki; Sano, Toshiaki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2008-03-01

    Apart from the constitutively activating mutation of the G-protein alpha subunit (Gsalpha) (gsp mutation), factors involved in tumorigenesis or those in tumour behaviour remain elusive in sporadic GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Recently, the N-terminally truncated form of fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (ptd-FGFR4) was identified in pituitary adenomas. This aberrant receptor has transforming activity, and causes pituitary adenomas in transgenic mice. The clinical relevance of this receptor warrants investigation. Our objective was twofold: first, to examine how the expression of ptd-FGFR4 relates to gsp mutations; and second, to see whether patients with this receptor have unique clinical characteristics. mRNA was extracted from excised adenomas of 45 Japanese acromegalic patients. ptd-FGFR4 expression and gsp mutations were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing. Preoperative clinical data were collected by reviewing medical charts and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. ptd-FGFR4 mRNA expression was detected in 19 out of 45 tumours (42.2%) while gsp mutations were detected in 25 out of 45 tumours (55.6%). The prevalence of ptd-FGFR4 expression did not differ between gsp-positive (44.0%) and gsp-negative (40.0%) tumours (P = 1.00). ptd-FGFR4-positive tumours invaded the cavernous sinus more frequently (P = 0.0098) than did the ptd-FGFR4-negative tumours. Tumour size was not statistically different between ptd-FGFR4-positive and -negative tumours (P = 0.198). The presence of ptd-FGFR4 did not correlate with age at operation, sex, preoperative serum GH or IGF-1 levels. We found that ptd-FGFR4 expression and gsp mutations occur independently of each other, and that ptd-FGFR4 expression is associated with more invasive tumours in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

  14. Kaempferol Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells-OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-Induced Apoptosis via JNK/ERK-CHOP Pathway and Up-Regulation of Death Receptors 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingmei; Tian, Binqiang; Wang, Yong; Ding, Haiying

    2017-10-26

    BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the most common gynecological malignancies in women, with high mortality rates worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily which preferentially induces apoptosis of cancer cells. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL hampers its therapeutic application. Identification of compounds that sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL is vital in combating resistance to TRAIL. The effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, was investigated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cytotoxic effects of TRAIL (25 ng/mL) and kaempferol (20-100 µM) on human ovarian cancer cells OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 were assessed. Effect of kaempferol on the expression patterns of cell survival proteins (Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP, c-FLIP) and apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax) were studied. The influence of kaempferol on expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors on the cell surface and protein and mRNA levels was also analyzed. Apoptosis following silencing of DR5 and CHOP by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and activation of MAP kinases were analyzed as well. RESULTS Kaempferol enhanced apoptosis and drastically up-regulated DR4, DR5, CHOP, JNK, ERK1/2, p38 and apoptotic protein expression with decline in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Further transfection with siRNA specific to CHOP and DR5 indicated the involvement of CHOP in DR5 up-regulation and also the contribution of DR5 in kaempferol-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Kaempferol sensitized ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 through ERK/JNK/CHOP pathways.

  15. Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: A Clinicopathological Study.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Azusa; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Yasuo; Takeya, Hiroto; Homma, Jumpei; Fukai, Junya; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kajiwara, Koji; Ishizawa, Shin; Hondoh, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-10-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have been shown to predict response to PD-L1/PD-1-targeted therapy. We analyzed PD-L1 expression in primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs). PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression were evaluated in 64 PCNSL tissue samples. IFN-γ, IL-10, CD4, and CD8 mRNA expression was also evaluated. PD-L1 protein was detected in tumor cells in 2 (4.1%) cases and in tumor microenvironments in 25 (52%) cases. PD-L1 mRNA positively correlated with IFN-γ (p=0.0024) and CD4 (p=0.0005) mRNA expression. IFN-γ mRNA positively correlated with CD8 mRNA expression (p=0.0001). Furthermore, tumor cell PD-L1 expression correlated positively with overall survival (p=0.0177), whereas microenvironmental PD-L1 expression exhibited an insignificant negative trend with overall survival (p=0.188). PD-L1 was expressed on both tumor and/or tumor-infiltrating immune cells in PCNSL. The biological roles of this marker warrant further investigation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Prognostic value of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in patients with stage III colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Koganemaru, Shigehiro; Inoshita, Naoko; Miura, Yuji; Miyama, Yu; Fukui, Yudai; Ozaki, Yukinori; Tomizawa, Kenji; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Toda, Shigeo; Suyama, Koichi; Tanabe, Yuko; Moriyama, Jin; Fujii, Takeshi; Matoba, Shuichiro; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Takano, Toshimi

    2017-05-01

    The programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is a negative feedback pathway that suppresses the activity of T cells. Previous studies reported that high PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) was associated with poor survival in patients with colorectal cancer; however, the prognostic evaluation of these studies was limited because they included patients at various disease stages. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PD-L1 status in the immune microenvironment and the clinicopathological features of stage III colorectal cancer. Two hundred and thirty-five patients were included in the analysis. PD-L1 expression on TC and tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMC) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The median follow-up of thisi study was 52.9 months. A total of 8.1% of stage III colorectal cancer showed high PD-L1 expression on TC and 15.3% showed high PD-L1 expression on TIMC. Patients with high PD-L1 expression on TC had significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) than patients with low expression (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.62; P = 0.012). In addition, patients with high PD-L1 expression on TIMC were associated with longer DFS than patients with low expression (HR 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16-0.98; P = 0.046). These findings suggest that PD-L1 expression status may be a new predictor of recurrence for stage III colorectal cancer patients and highlight the necessity of evaluating PD-L1 expression on TC and TIMC separately in the tumor microenvironment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Retinal neuroinflammatory induced neuronal degeneration - Role of toll-like receptor-4 and relationship with gliosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Fredrik; Abdshill, Hodan; Arnér, Karin; Voss, Ulrikke; Taylor, Linnéa

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore retina-intrinsic neuroinflammatory reactions, effects on neuronal survival, relationship with classic gliosis, and possible role of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To isolate the adult retina from the systemic immune system, a previously described large animal explant culture model was used in which full-thickness porcine retinal sheets can be kept in vitro for extended time periods. Explants were kept for 5 days in vitro (DIV) and were treated with either; lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) inhibitor (CLI-095), LPS + CLI-095, or solvent vehicle throughout the culture period after which retinal sections were examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining and extensive immunohistochemistry. In addition, the culture medium of all explants was assayed for a panel of cytokines at 2 and 5DIV. Compared with in vivo controls, vehicle controls (CT) as well as CLI-095 explants displayed moderate reduction of total thickness and number of retinal neurons with upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) throughout the Müller cells. In contrast, LPS and LPS + CLI-095 treated counterparts showed extensive overall thinning with widespread neuronal degeneration but only minimal signs of classical Müller cell gliosis (limited upregulation of GFAP and no downregulation of glutamine synthetase (GS). These specimens also displayed a significantly increased expression of galectin-3 and TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Multiplex proteomic analysis of culture medium at 2DIV revealed elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-12 in LPS-treated explants compared to CLI-095 and CT counterparts. LPS stimulation of the isolated adult retina results in substantial neuronal cell death despite only minimal signs of gliosis indicating a retina-intrinsic neuroinflammatory response directly related to the degenerative process. This response is characterized by early upregulation of several inflammatory related

  18. Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) 27 and 70 in various organ systems in cases of death due to fire.

    PubMed

    Doberentz, E; Genneper, L; Böker, D; Lignitz, E; Madea, B

    2014-11-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) increases in case of variable types of endogenous and exogenous cellular stress, as for example thermal stress. Immunohistochemical staining with hsp antibodies can visualize these stress proteins. Fifty-three cases of death due to heat and a control group of 100 deaths without any antemortem thermic stress were examined regarding hsp27 and hsp70 expression in myocardial, pulmonary, and renal tissues. The results revealed a correlation between hsp expression, survival time, and cause of death. In cases of death due to fire, the expression of hsp is more extensive than in the control group, especially in pulmonary and renal tissues. The immunohistochemical investigation of an hsp expression can support the proof of vitality in cases of death related to fire.

  19. Programmed death-ligand 1, 2 expressions are decreased in the psoriatic epidermis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Suk; Je, Jung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hee; Shin, Dongyun; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Soo Min; Lee, Min-Geol

    2015-08-01

    Psoriatic keratinocytes are one of the key components that amplify and maintain chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that lack of proper regulatory functions of keratinocytes can be responsible for chronic inflammation in psoriasis. Programmed death-ligands (PD-L) 1, 2 are expressed on keratinocytes, and expressions by nonlymphoid cells are important for mediating peripheral T cell tolerance. In our study, we investigated whether PD-L1, 2 expressions are altered in keratinocytes of psoriatic epidermis compared to normal epidermis. Epidermis was separated and analyzed for PD-L1, 2 expressions in mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemical stainings were done in skin biopsy samples from psoriasis, normal skin, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), pityriasis rosea (PR) and lichen planus (LP). Expressions of PD-L1, 2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in psoriatic epidermis compared to normal epidermis. In protein levels, PD-L1 expression was significantly decreased in psoriatic epidermis. However, PD-L2 expression was not detected in both normal and psoriatic epidermis. Immunohistochemical stainings revealed significantly less PD-L1 expression in psoriatic epidermis compared to normal epidermis. Even compared to other cutaneous inflammatory diseases, psoriatic epidermis showed less expression than ACD, PR and LP. PD-L2 expression was minimally detected in normal epidermis and not in psoriatic epidermis, but its expression was increased in ACD, PR and LP. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PD-L1, 2 are decreased in psoriatic epidermis in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, we showed that their expression was significantly lower than other inflammatory skin diseases. We suggest that decreased expression of PD-L1, 2 on psoriatic epidermis can contribute to its chronic unregulated inflammatory characteristics.

  20. Expression analysis of KDEL-CysEPs programmed cell death markers during reproduction in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang-Zi; Höwing, Timo; Müller, Benedikt; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Gietl, Christine; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    CEP cell death markers. Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper plant growth and development. Plant-specific papain-type KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEPs or CEPs) have been shown to be involved in PCD during vegetative development as executors for the last step in the process. The Arabidopsis genome encodes three KDEL-CysEPs: AtCEP1, AtCEP2 and AtCEP3. With the help of fluorescent fusion reporter lines, we report here a detailed expression analysis of KDEL-CysEP (pro)proteins during reproductive processes, including flower organ and germline development, fertilization and seed development. AtCEP1 is highly expressed in different reproductive tissues including nucellus cells of mature ovule and the connecting edge of anther and filament. After fertilization, AtCEP1 marks integument cell layers of the seeds coat as well as suspensor and columella cells of the developing embryo. Promoter activity of AtCEP2 is detected in the style of immature and mature pistils, in other floral organs including anther, sepal and petal. AtCEP2 mainly localizes to parenchyma cells next to xylem vessels. Although there is no experimental evidence to demonstrate that KDEL-CysEPs are involved in PCD during fertilization, the expression pattern of AtCEPs, which were previously shown to represent cell death markers during vegetative development, opens up new avenues to investigate PCD in plant reproduction.

  1. CD200 restrains macrophage attack on oligodendrocyte precursors via toll-like receptor 4 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Pham, Loc-Duyen D; Seo, Ji Hae; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Maki, Takakuni; Terasaki, Yasukazu; Sakadžić, Sava; Boas, David; van Leyen, Klaus; Waeber, Christian; Kim, Kyu-Won; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous barriers to white matter repair after central nervous system injury and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. In this study, we propose the hypothesis that inflammatory macrophages in damaged white matter attack oligodendrocyte precursor cells via toll-like receptor 4 signaling thus interfering with this endogenous progenitor recovery mechanism. Primary cell culture experiments demonstrate that peritoneal macrophages can attack and digest oligodendrocyte precursor cells via toll-like receptor 4 signaling, and this phagocytosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells can be inhibited by using CD200-Fc to downregulate toll-like receptor 4. In an in vivo model of white matter ischemia induced by endothelin-1, treatment with CD200-Fc suppressed toll-like receptor 4 expression in peripherally circulating macrophages, thus restraining macrophage phagocytosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and leading to improved myelination. Taken together, these findings suggest that deleterious macrophage effects may occur after white matter ischemia, whereby macrophages attack oligodendrocyte precursor cells and interfere with endogenous recovery responses. Targeting this pathway with CD200 may offer a novel therapeutic approach to amplify endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell-mediated repair of white matter damage in mammalian brain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Clinicopathologic and Prognostic Implications of Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression in Thymoma.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shintaro; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Nishi, Tatsuya; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Mitsuoka, Masahiro; Takamori, Shinzo; Akagi, Yoshito; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been reported to be expressed in various malignancies and is considered to be a prognostic factor and an immunotherapeutic target. The aim of this study was to characterize PD-L1 expression in thymoma and determine statistical associations between this expression and clinical features. We reviewed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 82 thymoma cases accumulated at Kurume University, the majority of which achieved surgical complete resection. Expression of PD-L1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Statistical associations between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathologic features were evaluated by using χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. Disease-free survival and overall survival curves were established by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. Predictive factors for disease-free survival after complete resection were analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards model in univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall, 44 thymoma cases (54%) revealed high PD-L1 expression. High PD-L1 expression was statistically associated with Masaoka stage III/IV disease (p = 0.043) and World Health Organization type B2 or B3 thymoma (p = 0.044). Disease-free survival after complete resection in high PD-L1 expression was significantly worse than that in low PD-L1 expression (p = 0.021), although there was no significant difference in overall survival (p = 0.957). Multivariate analysis also revealed high PD-L1 expression as an independent risk factor for recurrence (p = 0.008). Characterization of PD-L1 expression in thymoma should enable more effective clinical approaches, including prognostic stratification of patients and potential use of anti-PD-L1 antibody immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic impact of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in correlation with human leukocyte antigen class I expression status in stage I adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Ayako; Yoneda, Kazue; Shimajiri, Shohei; Kuroda, Koji; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2018-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the prognostic impact of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in correlation with human leukocyte antigen class I expression on tumor cells in early-stage adenocarcinoma of the lung, because both programmed death-ligand 1 and human leukocyte antigen class I molecules play important roles in cancer immunity. Ninety-four patients with completely resected pathologic stage I lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. Programmed death-ligand 1 expression on tumor cells was evaluated with immunohistochemistry in correlation with several clinicopathologic and molecular features, including human leukocyte antigen class I expression on tumor cells. Fifteen patients (16.0%) had tumor with positive programmed death-ligand 1 expression (percentage of tumor cells expressing programmed death-ligand 1, ≥5%), and the incidence was significantly higher in poorly differentiated tumors. There was no significant correlation between human leukocyte antigen class I expression and programmed death-ligand 1 expression. Programmed death-ligand 1 positivity was a significant factor to predict a poor survival (5-year survival, 66.7% vs 85.9%; P = .049), which was enhanced in tumors with normal human leukocyte antigen class I expression (P = .029) but was not evident in tumors with reduced human leukocyte antigen class I expression (P = .552). The prognostic impact of programmed death-ligand 1 expression on tumor cells in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma may be distinct according to concurrent human leukocyte antigen class I expression. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.more » Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.« less

  5. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R.; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H.; Madrid, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1G93A) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PCNa), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1G93A. These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1G93A on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes proliferation and apoptosis resistance in human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer cells through the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ninghong; Xie, Feng; Guo, Qisang; Li, Ming-Qing; Xiao, Jingjing; Sui, Long

    2017-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is overexpressed in various tumors, including cervical carcinoma. However, the role of Toll-like receptor 4 in cervical cancer remains controversial, and the underlying mechanisms are largely elusive. Therefore, Toll-like receptor 4 in cervical cancer and related mechanisms were investigated in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to detect messenger RNA and protein levels in HeLa, Caski, and C33A cells with different treatments. Proliferation was quantified using Cell Counting Kit-8. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Higher levels of Toll-like receptor 4 expression were found in human papillomavirus-positive cells compared to human papillomavirus-negative cells. Proliferation of HeLa and Caski cells was promoted in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups but suppressed in short hairpin RNA-transfected groups. Apoptosis rates were lower in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups relative to short hairpin RNA-transfected groups. In addition, G2-phase distribution was enhanced when Toll-like receptor 4 was downregulated. Moreover, the pNF-κBp65 level was positively correlated with the Toll-like receptor 4 level in HeLa and Caski cells, though when an nuclear factor-κB inhibitor was applied to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups, the patterns of proliferation and apoptosis were opposite to those of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups without inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that Toll-like receptor 4 promotes proliferation and apoptosis resistance in human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer cells at least in part through the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB pathway, which may be correlated with the occurrence and development of cervical carcinoma.

  7. Decrease in doublecortin expression without neuronal cell death in rat retrosplenial cortex after stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Nobuo; Suma, Takeshi; Takada, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Akiko; Oshima, Hideki; Sakatani, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Katayama, Yoichi

    2012-03-07

    Exposure to acute stress by forced swim impairs spatial learning and memory in rats. The retrosplenial cortex plays an important role in spatial learning and memory. A cell population that expresses immature neuronal markers, including doublecortin (DCX), plays a key role in plasticity of the adult brain through formation of new neurons. Here, we aimed to determine whether rats exposed to acute stress showed changes in DCX expression in retrosplenial cortex cells. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Six were subjected to acute stress by forced swim (group S), and the remaining six served as controls (group C). Immunohistochemical staining was performed for DCX, neuron-specific nuclear protein, parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin. Newly generated cells were immunohistochemically detected by daily administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine for 1 week. Fluoro-Jade B staining was performed to detect cell death. Group S showed lower number of DCX-expressing cells than group C (P<0.001). The proportion of DCX-expressing cells showing neuron-specific nuclear protein co-localization (24% in group S; 27% in group C) or parvalbumin co-localization (65% in group S; 61% in group C) remained unchanged after acute stress exposure. Neither 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive nor Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells were found in the retrosplenial cortex of groups S and C. DCX-expressing cells in the retrosplenial cortex decreases markedly without cell death after acute stress exposure. Neuronal differentiation of these cells toward gamma aminobutyric acidergic interneurons appears to be unaltered. The decrease in DCX expression may reduce plasticity potential within the retrosplenial cortex and attenuate spatial learning and memory function.

  8. Therapeutic implications of continuing bonds expressions following the death of a pet.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Carmack, Betty J; Ronen, Rama

    Through the exploration of 12 continuing bonds expressions (CBE), this current study investigated the grief reaction and continuing impact of the death of a pet. Thirty-three individuals were interviewed to determine the degree of connection maintained with the deceased pet and how that affects their coping. Findings emphasize that the majority of respondents frequently maintain ongoing meaningful ties with their deceased pet through the use of CBE such as fond memories, rituals, dreams. The findings suggest that it is not the number of CBE but the degree of adaptability that is significant. The importance of recognizing the unique, total experience of those grieving the death of a pet is addressed. Implications for those working with and supporting those in grief are included. Future directions for research are described.

  9. High mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling promotes progression of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yanqiu; Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yanjing; Zhang, Zongli; Li, Li; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wenna; Su, Lihui; Cheng, Baoquan

    2017-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 and toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway have been indicated to have oncogenic effects in many cancers. However, the role of high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that high mobility group box 1, toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 were overexpressed in gastric cancer tumors compared with the adjacent non-tumor tissues. The overexpression of high mobility group box 1, toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 were correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage (p = 0.0068, p = 0.0063, p = 0.0173) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0272, p = 0.0382, and p = 0.0495). Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of high mobility group box 1 by high mobility group box 1-small interfering RNA suppressed the expression of toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88. Blockage of high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling by high mobility group box 1-small interfering RNA resulted in elevation of apoptotic ratio and inhibition of cell growth, migration, and invasion by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2, nuclear factor kappa B/p65 expression, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B/p65 in gastric cancer cells. Our findings suggest that high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway may contribute to the development and progression of gastric cancer via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and it also represents a novel potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  10. Platelets Toll-like receptor-4 in Crohns disease.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Werner; Novacek, Gottfried; Vogelsang, Harald; Papay, Pavol; Primas, Christian; Eser, Alexander; Panzer, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Platelets are activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and interplay with leukocytes. Engagement of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), which is expressed in human platelets, may be involved in crosstalks between platelets and leukocytes leading to their mutual activation for host defense. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), lipoprotein binding peptides, and sCD14 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 42 patients with active CD, in 43 patients with CD in remission, and in 30 healthy individuals. Neutrophil-platelet aggregates and binding of the TLR-4 monoclonal antibody to platelets were determined by flow cytometry. Levels of HNPs were higher in patients with CD than in controls (P = 0.0003 vs. active CD and P = 0.01 vs. CD in remission). Likewise, neutrophils with adhering platelets were higher in patients with active CD than in controls (P = 0.004). Binding of the TLR-4 antibody in patients with active CD was similar to that in controls, while patients in remission had significantly higher binding capacities (P = 0.59 and P = 0.003). Incubation of plasma from patients with active disease or patients in remission with platelets from healthy controls confirmed lower binding of the TLR-4 antibody in the presence of plasma from active diseased patients compared to controls (P = 0.039), possibly due to high levels of lipopolysaccharides, as suggested by high levels of sCD14 and lipoprotein binding protein. Our study indicates involvement of platelet TLR-4 in enhancing the secretion of antimicrobial peptides from neutrophils. While platelet aggregation can be due to a variety of mechanisms in inflammatory disease, the mutual activation of platelets and neutrophils may augment host defense. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Wild Type Homozygozity of Polymorphisms +896 and +1196 Is Associated with High Gastrin Serum Levels and Peptic Ulcer Risk.

    PubMed

    Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Mäkinen, Johanna M; Karhukorpi, Jari M; Joensuu, Tapio; Koistinen, Pentti O; Valtonen, Jarno M; Niemelä, Seppo E; Karttunen, Riitta A; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is a part of the innate immune system and recognizes Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms +896 (rs4986790) and +1196 (rs4986791) in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastroduodenal diseases in relation to gastric secretion and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms, serum gastrin-17 and pepsinogen I and II concentrations were determined, and gastroscopies with histopathological analyses were performed to 216 dyspeptic patients. As genotype controls, 179 controls and 61 gastric cancer patients were studied. In our study, the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 polymorphisms were in total linkage disequilibrium. The homozygous wild types displayed higher gastrin-17 serum concentrations than the mutants (p = 0.001) and this effect was independent of Helicobacter pylori. The homozygous wild types also displayed an increased risk for peptic ulcers (OR: 4.390). Toll-like receptor 4 genotypes did not show any association with Helicobacter pylori positivity or the features of gastric inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was seen in gastrin and somatostatin expressing cells of antral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion.

  12. Vitamin D increases programmed death receptor-1 expression in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bendix, Mia; Greisen, Stinne; Dige, Anders; Hvas, Christian L.; Bak, Nina; Jørgensen, Søren P.; Dahlerup, Jens F.; Deleuran, Bent; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D modulates inflammation in Crohns disease (CD). Programmed death (PD)-1 receptor contributes to the maintenance of immune tolerance. Vitamin D might modulate PD-1 signalling in CD. Aim: To investigate PD-1 expression on T cell subsets in CD patients treated with vitamin D or placebo. Methods: We included 40 CD patients who received 1200 IU vitamin D3 for 26 weeks or placebo and eight healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma were isolated at baseline and week 26. The expressions of PD-1, PD-L1, and surface activation markers were analysed by flow cytometry. Soluble PD-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA. Results: PD-1 expression upon T cell stimulation was increased in CD4+CD25+int T cells in vitamin D treated CD patients from 19% (range 10 39%) to 29% (11 79%)(p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. Vitamin D treatment, but not placebo, decreased the expression of the T cell activation marker CD69 from 42% (31 62%) to 33% (19 - 54%)(p = 0.01). Soluble PD-1 levels were not influenced by vitamin D treatment. Conclusions: Vitamin D treatment increases CD4+CD25+int T cells ability to up-regulate PD-1 in response to activation and reduces the CD69 expression in CD patients. PMID:28412753

  13. Expression of the human tumor suppressor p53 induces cell death in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Mabrouk, Imed; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2012-02-01

    The human tumor suppressor p53 is known as guardian of genome because of its involvement in many signals related to cell life or death. In this work, we report that human p53 induces cell death in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We showed a growth inhibition effect, which increased with the p53 protein expression level in recombinant Mut(s) (methanol utilization slow) strain of Pichia. However, no effect of p53 was observed in recombinant strain of Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) phenotype. Interestingly, human p53 induces cell death in recombinant strains Mut(s) with characteristic markers of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine, and reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human p53 is biologically active in this heterologous context. Thus, we propose that P. pastoris could be a useful tool to better understand the biological function of human p53. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression times for hsp27 and hsp70 as an indicator of thermal stress during death due to fire.

    PubMed

    Doberentz, E; Genneper, L; Wagner, R; Madea, B

    2017-11-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (hsps) increases in cases of hyperthermal cellular stress in order to protect cellular structures. Hsps can be visualized with immunohistochemical staining. We examined 48 cases of death from fire and excessive heat and a control group of 100 deaths without any perimortem thermal stress, measuring both the hsp27 and hsp70 expressions in myocardial, pulmonary, and renal tissues. The results revealed a correlation between hsp expression and survival time. Hsps are expressed rapidly within seconds or minutes after exposure to heat stress. In particular, hsp27 is expressed fast in high levels, whereas hsp70 expression is higher in the pulmonary and renal tissue of long-term survivors. In the myocardial tissue, hsp27 expression dominated in both short- and long-term survival. The expression pattern is strongly dependent on the organ structure and the survival time, which should be considered in future postmortem studies on hsps.

  15. Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb L.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Rivest, Benjamin D.; Horn, Christopher B.; Bernhard, Joshua; Roberson, Dawnlee; Roach, William P.

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, numerous security, military, and medical applications have been developed which use Terahertz (THz) radiation. These developments have heightened concerns in regards to the potential health risks that are associated with this type of radiation. To determine the cellular and molecular effects caused by THz radiation, we exposed several human cell lines to high-power THz radiation, and then we determined death thresholds and gene expression profiles. Necrotic and apoptotic death thresholds were determined for Jurkat cells using an optically-pumped molecular gas THz source (υ = 2.52 THz, H = 227 mW/cm2), MTT viability assays, and flow cytometric techniques. In addition, we used confocal microscopic techniques to demarcate lethal spatial regions in a monolayer of dermal fibroblasts exposed to THz radiation. Then, to determine if cells exhibit a THz-specific gene expression signature, we exposed dermal fibroblasts to THz radiation and analyzed their transcriptional response using microarray gene chips. We found that 60% of the Jurkat cells survived the 30-minute THz exposure, whereas only 20% survived the 40-minute exposure. The flow data confirmed these results and provided evidence that THz-induced cell death was mediated using both nectrotic and apoptotic processes. The preliminary microscopy studies provided convincing evidence warranting future efforts using these techniques. Lastly, we found that dermal fibroblasts up-regulated several genes when exposed to THz radiation. Overall, these results provide evidence for the cellular and molecular effects associated with THz radiation, and we speculate that the identified up-regulated genes may serve as excellent candidate biomarkers for THz exposures.

  16. Influence of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on different modes of cell death and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Port, M; Abend, M; Römer, B; Van Beuningen, D

    2003-09-01

    International thresholds for exposure to non-ionizing radiation leading to non-thermal effects were conservatively set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The aim of this study was to examine whether biological effects such as different modes of cell death and gene expression modifications related to tumorgenesis are detectable above the threshold defined. Human leukaemia cells (HL-60) grown in vitro were exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF; t 1/2(r) about 1 ns; field strength about 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure) leading to non-thermal effects using a high-voltage-improved GTEM cell 5302 (EMCO) connected to a pulse generator NP20 (C = 1 nF, U(Load) = 20kV). HL-60 cells were harvested at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after radiation exposure. Micronuclei, apoptosis and abnormal cells (e.g. necrosis) were determined using morphological criteria. In parallel, the expression of 1176 genes was measured using Atlas Human 1.2. Array. Based on high data reproducibility calculated from two independent experiments (> 99%), array analysis was performed. No significant change in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal cells and differential gene expression was found. Exposure of HL-60 cells to EMFs 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure failed to induce any changes in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal morphologies and gene expression. Further experiments using EMFs above the conservatively defined reference level set by the ICNIRP may be desirable.

  17. Reduced expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 and collapsin response mediator protein 1 promotes death of spinal cord neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurnellas, M P; Li, H; Jain, M R; Giraud, S N; Nicot, A B; Ratnayake, A; Heary, R F; Elkabes, S

    2010-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying neuronal pathology and death in the spinal cord (SC) during inflammation remain elusive. We previously showed the important role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) in the survival of SC neurons, in vitro. We also postulated that a decrease in PMCA2 expression could cause neuronal death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The current studies were undertaken to define the specific contribution of PMCA2 to degeneration of SC neurons, the effectors downstream to PMCA2 mediating neuronal death and the triggers that reduce PMCA2 expression. We report that knockdown of PMCA2 in SC neurons decreases collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) levels. This is followed by cell death. Silencing of CRMP1 expression also leads to neuronal loss. Kainic acid reduces both PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels and induces neuronal death. Administration of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist, at onset or peak of EAE, restores the decreased PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels to control values and ameliorates clinical deficits. Thus, our data link the reduction in PMCA2 expression with perturbations in the expression of CRMP1 and the ensuing death of SC neurons. This represents an additional mechanism underlying AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity with relevance to neurodegeneration in EAE.

  18. Expression level of P2X7 receptor is a determinant of ATP-induced death of mouse cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, A; Keno, Y; Marumiya, A; Sudo, Y; Uda, Y; Matsuda, K; Morita, Y; Furuta, T; Nishida, K; Nagasawa, K

    2016-04-05

    Activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a purinergic receptor, expressed by neurons is well-known to induce their death, but whether or not their sensitivity to ATP depends on its expression levels remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of the expression level of P2X7Rs on cell viability using pure neuron cultures, co-cultures with astrocytes derived from SJL- and ddY-strain mice, and mouse P2X7R-expressing HEK293T cell systems. Treatment of pure neuron cultures with 5mM ATP for 2h, followed by 3-h incubation in fresh medium, resulted in death of both types of neurons, and their death was prevented by administration of P2X7R-specific antagonists. In both SJL- and ddY-neurons, ATP-induced neuronal death was inhibited by a mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A, mitochondrial dysfunction being involved in their death. The ATP-induced neuronal death was greater for SJL-neurons than for ddY-ones, this being correlated with the expression level of P2X7R in them, and the same results were obtained for the HEK293T cell systems. Co-culture of neurons with astrocytes increased the ATP-induced neuronal death compared to the case of pure neuron cultures. Overall, we reveal that neuronal vulnerability to ATP depends on the expression level of P2X7R, and co-existence of astrocytes exacerbates ATP-induced neuronal death. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aesthetic expressions illuminating the lived experience of Thai ICU nurses caring for persons who had a peaceful death.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Waraporn; Locsin, Rozzano C

    2010-01-01

    This article, through art and aesthetic expression, illustrates and illuminates the experiences of persons caring for those who had peaceful deaths in intensive care units (ICUs) in southern Thailand. Aesthetic expression, categorized as a descriptive thematic experience, enhanced the appreciation of the experiences, which has implications for holistic end-of-life care.

  20. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions, dysregulation of cytokine expression and cell death in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

    PubMed

    Evert, B O; Schelhaas, J; Fleischer, H; de Vos, R A I; Brunt, E R; Stenzel, W; Klockgether, T; Wüllner, U

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of the inflammatory mediators IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6 and the transcription factors IRF-1 and C/EBPdelta (previously identified in a transgenic model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) by gene expression profiling) in the central nervous system of SCA3 patients in relation to neuronal cell loss and ataxin-3-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NI), to identify a putative upregulation of cytokines or microglia in SCA3 brains and to investigate whether enhanced cytokine expression was a generalized event mediating neuronal dysfunction in SCA3. Light- and electronmicroscopic immunohistochemistry was performed on SCA3 tissues derived from five patients from unrelated families with genetically confirmed diagnosis, and six individuals without a history of neurological or inflammatory disease. NI were found almost exclusively in brain regions that also showed neuronal cell loss, i.e. in pons and dentate nucleus neurons, rarely in putamen and thalamus, but not in cerebral or cerebellar cortex. NI displayed an irregular surface and were mostly attached to the nucleoli. Quantitative analysis of NI in the pons revealed an inverse relation of NI and cell loss, i.e. patients with more severe neuronal cell loss had a smaller proportion of neurons with NI. Thus, formation of NI is not necessarily an indicator of cell death but could exert a protective effect. We found increased expression of IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6 and C/EBPdelta only in pons and dentate nucleus neurons and both in neurons with and without NI, suggesting that NI are not a prerequisite for transcriptional changes. Our data suggest that the selectively affected neuronal populations in SCA3 undergo a complex alteration of gene expression independent from the formation of NI.

  1. Altered sensitivity to excitotoxic cell death and glutamate receptor expression between two commonly studied mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Rozzy; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in glutamatergic synapse function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many different neurological disorders including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. While studying glutamate receptor function in juvenile Batten disease on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds, we noticed differences unlikely to be due to mutation difference alone. We report here that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures from C57BL/6J mice are more sensitive to NMDA-mediated cell death. Moreover, sensitivity to AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity is more variable and is dependent upon the treatment conditions and age of the cultures. Glutamate receptor surface expression levels examined in vitro by in situ ELISA and in vivo by Western blot in surface cross-linked cerebellar samples indicated that these differences in sensitivity are likely due to strain-dependent differences in cell surface receptor expression levels. We propose that differences in glutamate receptor expression and in excitotoxic vulnerability should be taken into consideration in the context of characterizing disease models on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds. PMID:20544821

  2. Microglia modulate brainstem serotonergic expression following neonatal sustained hypoxia exposure: implications for sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, P M; Mayer, C A; Litvin, D G

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal sustained hypoxia exposure modifies brainstem microglia and serotonin expression. The altered brainstem neurochemistry is associated with impaired ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia and mortality. The deleterious effects of sustained hypoxia exposure can be prevented by an inhibitor of activated microglia. These observations demonstrate a potential cause of the brainstem serotonin abnormalities thought to be involved in sudden infant death syndrome. We showed previously that the end of the second postnatal week (days P11-15) represents a period of development during which the respiratory neural control system exhibits a heightened vulnerability to sustained hypoxia (SH, 11% O2 , 5 days) exposure. In the current study, we investigated whether the vulnerability to SH during the same developmental time period is associated with changes in brainstem serotonin (5-HT) expression and whether it can be prevented by the microglia inhibitor minocycline. Using whole-body plethysmography, SH attenuated the acute (5 min) hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and caused a high incidence of mortality compared to normoxia rats. SH also increased microglia cell numbers and decreased 5-HT immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The attenuated HVR, mortality, and changes in nTS and DMNV immunoreactivity was prevented by minocycline (25 mg kg(-1) /2 days during SH). These data demonstrate that the 5-HT abnormalities in distinct respiratory neural control regions can be initiated by prolonged hypoxia exposure and may be modulated by microglia activity. These observations share several commonalities with the risk factors thought to underlie the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome, including: (1) a vulnerable neonate; (2) a critical period of development; (3) evidence of hypoxia; (4) brainstem gliosis (particularly the nTS and DMNV); and (5) 5-HT abnormalities. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of

  3. Inflammation promotes oral squamous carcinoma immune evasion via induced programmed death ligand-1 surface expression

    PubMed Central

    LU, WANLU; LU, LIBING; FENG, YUN; CHEN, JIAO; LI, YAN; KONG, XIANGLI; CHEN, SIXIU; LI, XIAOYU; CHEN, QIANMING; ZHANG, PING

    2013-01-01

    The association between inflammation and cancer provides a new target for tumor biotherapy. The inflammatory cells and molecules within the tumor microenvironment have decisive dual roles in antitumor immunity and immune evasion. In the present study, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to simulate the tumor inflammatory microenvironment. The effect of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines on the surface expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor immune evasion was investigated using flow cytometry (FCM) and an in vivo xenotransplantation model. Based on the data, PHA-activated, but not resting, immune cells were able to promote the surface expression of PD-L1 in Tca8113 oral squamous carcinoma cells via the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, but not by cell-cell contact. The majority of the inflammatory cytokines had no significant effect on the proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of the Tca8113 cells, although they each induced the expression of PD-L1 in a dose-dependent manner. In total, 99% of the Tca8113 cells expressed PD-L1 following treatment with the supernatant of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The PHA-supernatant pretreated Tca8113 cells unusually induced Tca8113 antigen-specific CD8+ T cell apoptosis in vitro and the evasion of antigen-specific T cell attraction in a nude mouse tumor-bearing model. These results indicate a new mechanism for the promotion of tumor immune evasion by the tumor inflammatory microenvironment PMID:23761816

  4. Inflammation promotes oral squamous carcinoma immune evasion via induced programmed death ligand-1 surface expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wanlu; Lu, Libing; Feng, Yun; Chen, Jiao; Li, Yan; Kong, Xiangli; Chen, Sixiu; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qianming; Zhang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The association between inflammation and cancer provides a new target for tumor biotherapy. The inflammatory cells and molecules within the tumor microenvironment have decisive dual roles in antitumor immunity and immune evasion. In the present study, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to simulate the tumor inflammatory microenvironment. The effect of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines on the surface expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor immune evasion was investigated using flow cytometry (FCM) and an in vivo xenotransplantation model. Based on the data, PHA-activated, but not resting, immune cells were able to promote the surface expression of PD-L1 in Tca8113 oral squamous carcinoma cells via the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, but not by cell-cell contact. The majority of the inflammatory cytokines had no significant effect on the proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of the Tca8113 cells, although they each induced the expression of PD-L1 in a dose-dependent manner. In total, 99% of the Tca8113 cells expressed PD-L1 following treatment with the supernatant of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The PHA-supernatant pretreated Tca8113 cells unusually induced Tca8113 antigen-specific CD8 + T cell apoptosis in vitro and the evasion of antigen-specific T cell attraction in a nude mouse tumor-bearing model. These results indicate a new mechanism for the promotion of tumor immune evasion by the tumor inflammatory microenvironment.

  5. RIP1 expression is necessary for CD30-mediated cell death induction in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Burkhard; von der Wall, Edda; Hummel, Michael; Dürkop, Horst

    2013-06-01

    CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is consistently expressed by tumor cells of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). CD30 stimulation induces massive caspase-dependent cell death of ALCL cells in case of canonical NFκB inhibition or proteasome inhibition. However, CD30, a TNFR lacking a death domain (DD), is unable to recruit a death inducing complex containing TRADD (TNFR1-associated DD-protein) or FADD (FAS-associated DD-domain protein) together with the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and caspase-8. Thus, the mechanism explaining CD30-induced cell death of lymphocytes remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that blockage of RIP1 by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 by Necrostatin-1 almost completely prevented CD30-induced cell death. In addition, we revealed CD30-induced accumulation of RIP1 at the cytoplasma membrane of NFκB-inhibited ALCL cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Finally, primary ALCL cases can be subdivided into two groups based on the presence or absence of RIP1 as revealed by immunohistology. Taken together, our study identified RIP1 as a crucial mediator of CD30-induced cell death that bears features of apoptosis as well as necroptosis. RIP1 expression in ALCL tumor cells might eligible for the therapeutic application of CD30 antibodies in combination with NFκB/proteasome inhibitors that should result in CD30-induced cell death.

  6. Transient Expression of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Effector Induces Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M.; Cano, Liliana M.; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus “Las” is a phloem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Although, the complete sequence of the Las genome provides the basis for studying functional genomics of Las and molecular mechanisms of Las-plant interactions, the functional characterization of Las effectors remains a slow process since remains to be cultured. Like other plant pathogens, Las may deliver effector proteins into host cells and modulate a variety of host cellular functions for their infection progression. In this study, we identified 16 putative Las effectors via bioinformatics, and transiently expressed them in Nicotiana benthamiana. Diverse subcellular localization with different shapes and aggregation patterns of the effector candidates were revealed by UV- microscopy after transient expression in leaf tissue. Intriguingly, one of the 16 candidates, Las5315mp (mature protein), was localized in the chloroplast and induced cell death at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) in N. benthamiana. Moreover, Las5315mp induced strong callose deposition in plant cells. This study provides new insights into the localizations and potential roles of these Las effectors in planta. PMID:27458468

  7. Antioxidant Dietary Supplementation in Mice Exposed to Proton Radiation Attenuates Expression of Programmed Cell Death-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, J. K.; Wambi, C.; Lewis-Wambi, J. S.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants have radioprotective effects after ionizing radiation exposure that limit hematopoietic cell depletion. We sought to determine the mechanism of proton-induced hematopoietic cell death in animals receiving a moderate dose of whole-body proton radiation. In addition, animals were maintained on diets supplemented with or without dietary antioxidants. In the presence of the dietary antioxidants, total bone marrow mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis-related genes were decreased compared to the expression profiles in the irradiated mice not receiving the antioxidant formulation. These data confirm high-energy proton-induced gene expression of classical apoptosis markers including BAX, caspase-3 and PARP-1. Antioxidant supplementation resulted in decreased expression of these genes in addition to increased protein expression of the anti-apoptosis markers Bcl2 and Bcl-xL. In conclusion, oral supplementation with antioxidants appears to be an effective approach for radioprotection against hematopoietic cell death. PMID:21443425

  8. [Expression of proBNP and NT-proBNP in Sudden Death of Coronary Heart Disease].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q; Sun, R F; Li, Z; Zhai, L Q; Liu, M Z; Guo, X J; Gao, C R

    2017-10-01

    To study the expression change of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, and to explore its application in forensic diagnosis. Myocardial and blood samples were collected from normal control group, sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group and single coronary stenosis group (20 cases in each group). The expression of proBNP in myocardial samples were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting, and that of BNP mRNA were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The content of NT-proBNP in plasma were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining showed positive expression of proBNP in both sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group and single coronary stenosis group. There was no positive expression in normal control group. For sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group and single coronary stenosis group, the relative expression of proBNP protein and BNP mRNA in myocardial tissue and the NT-proBNP content in plasma were higher than that of normal control group ( P <0.05). The NT-proBNP content in plasma of sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group was higher than that of single coronary stenosis group ( P <0.05). In myocardial ischemia condition, the higher expression of proBNP in cardiac muscle cell shows that the detection of NT-proBNP in plasma can be useful to differentially diagnose the degree of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and determine whether the sudden death due to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  9. Immune cell Toll-like receptor 4 mediates the development of obesity- and endotoxemia-associated adipose tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vila, Isabelle K; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Monbrun, Laurent; Lefort, Corinne; Mir, Lucile; Louche, Katie; Bourlier, Virginie; Roussel, Balbine; Gui, Philippe; Grober, Jacques; Štich, Vladimír; Rossmeislová, Lenka; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Bouloumié, Anne; Viguerie, Nathalie; Moro, Cedric; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique

    2014-05-22

    Adipose tissue fibrosis development blocks adipocyte hypertrophy and favors ectopic lipid accumulation. Here, we show that adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans and mice. Kinetic studies in C3H mice fed a high-fat diet show activation of macrophages and progression of fibrosis along with adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and death. Adipose tissue fibrosis is attenuated by macrophage depletion. Impairment of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling protects mice from obesity-induced fibrosis. The presence of a functional Toll-like receptor 4 on adipose tissue hematopoietic cells is necessary for the initiation of adipose tissue fibrosis. Continuous low-dose infusion of the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide, promotes adipose tissue fibrosis. Ex vivo, lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of fibrosis is prevented by antibodies against the profibrotic factor TGFβ1. Together, these results indicate that obesity and endotoxemia favor the development of adipose tissue fibrosis, a condition associated with insulin resistance, through immune cell Toll-like receptor 4. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Time course of programmed cell death, which included autophagic features, in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Naoya; Nihei, Saori; Miyakawa, Naoto; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Marubashi, Wataru; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    PCD with features of vacuolar cell death including autophagy-related features were detected in hybrid tobacco cells, and detailed time course of features of vacuolar cell death were established. A type of interspecific Nicotiana hybrid, Nicotiana suaveolens × N. tabacum exhibits temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality results from programmed cell death (PCD) in hybrid seedlings, but this PCD occurs only in seedlings and suspension-cultured cells grown at 28 °C, not those grown at 36 °C. Plant PCD can be classified as vacuolar cell death or necrotic cell death. Induction of autophagy, vacuolar membrane collapse and actin disorganization are each known features of vacuolar cell death, but observed cases of PCD showing all these features simultaneously are rare. In this study, these features of vacuolar cell death were evident in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality. Ion leakage, plasma membrane disruption, increased activity of vacuolar processing enzyme, vacuolar membrane collapse, and formation of punctate F-actin foci were each evident in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that macroautophagic structures formed and tonoplasts ruptured in these cells. The number of cells that contained monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-stained structures and the abundance of nine autophagy-related gene transcripts increased just before cell death at 28 °C; these features were not evident at 36 °C. We assessed whether an autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin (WM), influenced lethality in hybrid cells. After the hybrid cell began to die, WM suppressed increases in ion leakage and cell deaths, and it decreased the number of cells containing MDC-stained structures. These results showed that several features indicative of autophagy and vacuolar cell death were evident in the hybrid tobacco cells subject to lethality. In addition, we documented a detailed time course of these vacuolar cell death features.

  11. Estimates of exposure to cold before death from immunohistochemical expression patterns of HSP70 in glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Makoto; Asano, Migiwa; Takahashi, Motonori; Kuse, Azumi; Morichika, Mai; Nakagawa, Kanako; Kondo, Takeshi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as outside temperature at the time of death are very important for forensic diagnoses and police investigations. In particular, death in a cold environment is associated with factors of forensic interest, including hypothermia, drowning in cold water, or postmortem body movement by a suspect. Hypothermia raises a special problem because of the difficulty of evaluation during autopsy. We describe here a unique method of estimating antemortem environmental temperature, involving the immunohistochemical analysis of HSP70 expression patterns in glomerular podocytes. Using this method, we found that HSP70 was present in glomerular podocytes at autopsy and that HSP70 was highly expressed, mainly in the nucleus of podocytes, in deaths associated with exposure to cold. Interestingly, this expression pattern was specific to death in a cold environment, including hypothermia and drowning in cold water. Analysis of the pattern of HSP70 expression in glomeruli may therefore be very useful in forensic diagnosis, for determining whether the antemortem environmental temperature was low. Moreover, immunohistochemical and real-time PCR assays of the molecular mechanism of HSP70 and HSF1 expression in glomeruli following exposure to cold indicated that HSP70 was rapidly translocated to the nucleus of podocytes following exposure to cold, but without new protein synthesis.

  12. Programmed Cell Death-1 is Expressed in Large Retinal Ganglion Cells And is Upregulated After Optic Nerve Crush

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chan, Ann; Qin, Yu; Kwong, Jacky M. K.; Caprioli, Joseph; Levinson, Ralph; Chen, Ling; Gordon, Lynn K

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a key negative receptor inducibly expressed on T cells, B cells and dendritic cells. It was discovered on T cells undergoing classical programmed cell death. Studies showed that PD-1 ligation promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death during retinal development. The purpose of this present study is to characterize PD-1 regulation in the retina after optic nerve crush (ONC). C57BL/6 mice were subjected to ONC and RGC loss was monitored by immunolabelling with RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms). Time course of PD-1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. PD-1 expression was detected with anti-PD-1 antibody on whole mount retinas. PD-1 staining intensity was quantitated. Colocalization of PD-1 and cleaved-caspase-3 after ONC was analyzed. Real-time PCR results demonstrated that PD-1 gene expression was significantly upregulated at day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after ONC. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a dramatic increase of PD-1 expression following ONC. In both control and injured retinas, PD-1 tended to be up-expressed in a subtype of RGCs, whose somata size were significantly larger than others. Compared to control, PD-1 intensity in large RGCs was increased by 82% in the injured retina. None of the large RGCs expressed cleaved-caspase-3 at day 5 after ONC. Our work presents the first evidence of PD-1 induction in RGCs after ONC. This observation supports further investigation into the role of PD-1 expression during RGC death or survival following injury. PMID:26277582

  13. LITHIUM INCREASES Bcl-2 EXPRESSION IN CHICK COCHLEAR NUCLEUS AND PROTECTS AGAINST DEAFFERENTATION-INDUCED CELL DEATH

    PubMed Central

    BUSH, A. L.; HYSON, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 20–30% of neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus (nucleus magnocellularis) die following deafferentation (i.e. deafness produced by cochlea removal) and the remaining neurons show a decrease in soma size. Cell death is generally accepted to be a highly regulated process involving various pro-survival and pro-death molecules. One treatment that has been shown to modify the expression of these molecules is chronic administration of lithium. The present experiments examined whether lithium treatment can protect neurons from deafferentation-induced cell death. Post-hatch chicks were treated with LiCl or saline for 17 consecutive days, beginning on the day of hatching. On the 17th day, a unilateral cochlea ablation was performed. Five days following surgery, the nucleus magnocellularis neurons were counted stereologically on opposite sides of the same brains. Lithium reduced deafferentation-induced cell death by more than 50% (9.8% cell death as compared with 22.4% in saline-treated subjects). Lithium did not affect cell number on the intact side of the brain. Lithium also did not prevent the deafferentation-induced decrease in soma size, suggesting a dissociation between the mechanisms involved in the afferent control of soma size and those involved in the afferent control of cell viability. A possible mechanism for lithium’s neuroprotective influence was examined in a second set of subjects. Previous studies suggest that the pro-survival molecule, bcl-2, may play a role in regulating cell death following deafferentation. Tissues from lithium- and saline-treated subjects were examined using immunocytochemistry. Chronic administration of lithium dramatically increased the expression of bcl-2 protein in nucleus magnocellularis neurons. These data suggest that lithium may impart its neuroprotective effect by altering the expression of molecules that regulate cell death. PMID:16413133

  14. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II and Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression Predict Outcome After Programmed Death 1 Blockade in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Margaretha G M; Redd, Robert A; Cader, Fathima Zumla; Pak, Christine J; Abdelrahman, Sara; Ouyang, Jing; Sasse, Stephanie; Younes, Anas; Fanale, Michelle; Santoro, Armando; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Timmerman, John; Collins, Graham P; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Cohen, Jonathon B; De Boer, Jan Paul; Kuruvilla, John; Savage, Kerry J; Trneny, Marek; Ansell, Stephen; Kato, Kazunobu; Farsaci, Benedetto; Sumbul, Anne; Armand, Philippe; Neuberg, Donna S; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Ligon, Azra H; Rodig, Scott J; Shipp, Margaret A

    2018-02-02

    Purpose Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells evade antitumor immunity by multiple means, including gains of 9p24.1/ CD274(PD-L1)/ PDCD1LG2(PD-L2) and perturbed antigen presentation. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor blockade is active in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) despite reported deficiencies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression on HRS cells. Herein, we assess bases of sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL who were treated with nivolumab (anti-PD-1) in the CheckMate 205 trial. Methods HRS cells from archival tumor biopsies were evaluated for 9p24.1 alterations by fluorescence in situ hybridization and for expression of PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) and the antigen presentation pathway components-β2-microglobulin, MHC class I, and MHC class II-by immunohistochemistry. These parameters were correlated with clinical responses and progression-free survival (PFS) after PD-1 blockade. Results Patients with higher-level 9p24.1 copy gain and increased PD-L1 expression on HRS cells had superior PFS. HRS cell expression of β2-microglobulin/MHC class I was not predictive for complete remission or PFS after nivolumab therapy. In contrast, HRS cell expression of MHC class II was predictive for complete remission. In patients with a > 12-month interval between myeloablative autologous stem-cell transplantation and nivolumab therapy, HRS cell expression of MHC class II was associated with prolonged PFS. Conclusion Genetically driven PD-L1 expression and MHC class II positivity on HRS cells are potential predictors of favorable outcome after PD-1 blockade. In cHL, clinical responses to nivolumab were not dependent on HRS cell expression of MHC class I.

  15. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30–60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity. PMID:24570655

  16. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. PMID:25910782

  17. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on

  18. Increased expression of interleukin-1β in triglyceride-induced macrophage cell death is mediated by p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ho Joong; Son, Sin Jee; Yang, Seung-ju; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2012-07-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are implicated in the development of atherosclerosis through formation of foam cells and induction of macrophage cell death. In this study, we report that addition of exogenous TG induced cell death in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 human macrophages. TG treatment induced a dramatic decrease in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule remained unchanged. To identify signaling pathways involved in TG-induced downregulation of IL-1β, we added p38 MAPK, protein kinase C (PKC) or c-Raf1 specific inhibitors. We found that inhibition of p38 MAPK alleviated the TG-induced downregulation of IL-1β, whereas inhibition of PKC and c-Raf1 had no effect. This is the first report showing decreased IL-1β expression during TG-induced cell death in a human macrophage line. Our results suggest that downregulation of IL-1β expression by TG-treated macrophages may play a role during atherogenesis.

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid differentially limits the activation and expression of cell death markers in human platelets exposed to Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Chabert, Adrien; Damien, Pauline; Verhoeven, Paul O; Grattard, Florence; Berthelot, Philippe; Zeni, Fabrice; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Robert, Stéphane; Dignat-George, Françoise; Eyraud, Marie-Ange; Pozzetto, Bruno; Payrastre, Bernard; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind

    2017-07-17

    Beyond their hemostatic functions, platelets alter their inflammatory response according to the bacterial stimulus. Staphylococcus aureus is associated with exacerbated inflammation and thrombocytopenia, which is associated with poor prognosis during sepsis. Acetylsalicylic acid and statins prevent platelet aggregation and decrease the mortality rate during sepsis. Therefore, we assessed whether these two molecules could reduce in vitro platelet activation and the inflammatory response to S. aureus. Platelets were exposed to clinical strains of S. aureus in the presence or absence of acetylsalicylic acid or fluvastatin. Platelet activation, aggregation, and release of soluble sCD62P, sCD40 Ligand, RANTES and GROα were assessed. Platelet cell death was evaluated by analyzing the mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine exposure, platelet microparticle release and caspase-3 activation. All S. aureus strains induced platelet activation but not aggregation and decreased the platelet count, the expression of cell death markers and the release of RANTES and GROα. Acetylsalicylic acid but not fluvastatin limited platelet activation and inflammatory factor release and restored the platelet count by protecting platelets from Staphylococcus-induced expression of cell death markers. This study demonstrates that acetylsalicylic acid limits S. aureus-induced effects on platelets by reducing cell death, revealing new strategies to reduce the platelet contribution to bacteremia-associated inflammation.

  20. Systems analysis of apoptosis protein expression allows the case-specific prediction of cell death responsiveness of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Passante, E; Würstle, M L; Hellwig, C T; Leverkus, M; Rehm, M

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer entities and their associated cell line models are highly heterogeneous in their responsiveness to apoptosis inducers and, despite a detailed understanding of the underlying signaling networks, cell death susceptibility currently cannot be predicted reliably from protein expression profiles. Here, we demonstrate that an integration of quantitative apoptosis protein expression data with pathway knowledge can predict the cell death responsiveness of melanoma cell lines. By a total of 612 measurements, we determined the absolute expression (nM) of 17 core apoptosis regulators in a panel of 11 melanoma cell lines, and enriched these data with systems-level information on apoptosis pathway topology. By applying multivariate statistical analysis and multi-dimensional pattern recognition algorithms, the responsiveness of individual cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or dacarbazine (DTIC) could be predicted with very high accuracy (91 and 82% correct predictions), and the most effective treatment option for individual cell lines could be pre-determined in silico. In contrast, cell death responsiveness was poorly predicted when not taking knowledge on protein–protein interactions into account (55 and 36% correct predictions). We also generated mathematical predictions on whether anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members or x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) can be targeted to enhance TRAIL responsiveness in individual cell lines. Subsequent experiments, making use of pharmacological Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibition or siRNA-based XIAP depletion, confirmed the accuracy of these predictions. We therefore demonstrate that cell death responsiveness to TRAIL or DTIC can be predicted reliably in a large number of melanoma cell lines when investigating expression patterns of apoptosis regulators in the context of their network-level interplay. The capacity to predict responsiveness at the cellular level may contribute to

  1. Assessment of programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells in pediatric cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Majzner, Robbie G; Simon, Jason S; Grosso, Joseph F; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce R; Santi, Mariarita; Merchant, Melinda S; Geoerger, Birgit; Hezam, Imene; Marty, Virginie; Vielh, Phillippe; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H; Mackall, Crystal L; Maris, John M

    2017-10-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling in the tumor microenvironment dampens immune responses to cancer, and blocking this axis induces antitumor effects in several malignancies. Clinical studies of PD-1 blockade are only now being initiated in pediatric patients, and little is known regarding programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in common childhood cancers. The authors characterized PD-L1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) (lymphocytes and macrophages) in common pediatric cancers. Whole slide sections and tissue microarrays were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression and for the presence of TAICs. TAICs were also screened for PD-L1 expression. Thirty-nine of 451 evaluable tumors (9%) expressed PD-L1 in at least 1% of tumor cells. The highest frequency histotypes comprised Burkitt lymphoma (80%; 8 of 10 tumors), glioblastoma multiforme (36%; 5 of 14 tumors), and neuroblastoma (14%; 17 of 118 tumors). PD-L1 staining was associated with inferior survival among patients with neuroblastoma (P = .004). Seventy-four percent of tumors contained lymphocytes and/or macrophages. Macrophages were significantly more likely to be identified in PD-L1-positive versus PD-L1-negative tumors (P < .001). A subset of diagnostic pediatric cancers exhibit PD-L1 expression, whereas a much larger fraction demonstrates infiltration with tumor-associated lymphocytes. PD-L1 expression may be a biomarker for poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Further preclinical and clinical investigation will define the predictive nature of PD-L1 expression in childhood cancers both at diagnosis and after exposure to chemoradiotherapy. Cancer 2017;123:3807-3815. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1(G93A) contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Na v ) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1(G93A) and ACM-SOD1(G86R)) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43(A315T)) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30-60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Na v channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Na v channel activity.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4-interacting SPA4 peptide suppresses the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to LPS and ATP stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Vijay; Awasthi, Shanjana

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation is induced because of interplay among multiple signaling pathways and molecules during infectious and noninfectious tissue injuries. Crosstalk between Toll-like receptor-4 signaling and the neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, major histocompatibility class 2 transcription activator, incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina, and telomerase-associated protein (NACHT), leucine-rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome against pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns can cause exaggerated inflammation. We previously established that the Toll-like receptor-4-interacting SPA4 peptide suppresses gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (Toll-like receptor-4 ligand)-induced nuclear factor-κB and inflammatory response. In the present study, we hypothesized that the SPA4 peptide exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the crosstalk between Toll-like receptor-4 signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome. We evaluated binding of the lipopolysaccharide-ligand to cell-surface Toll-like receptor-4 in the presence or absence of adenosine triphosphate (an NLRP3 inflammasome inducer) by flow cytometry. The expression and activity of NLRP3 inflammasome-related parameters were studied in cells challenged with lipopolysaccharide and adenosine triphosphate using molecular and immunologic methods. The cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and treated with SPA4 peptide before (pre-adenosine triphosphate) or after (post-adenosine triphosphate) secondary challenge with adenosine triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that the Toll-like receptor-4-interacting SPA4 peptide does not affect the binding of lipopolysaccharide to Toll-like receptor-4 in the presence or absence of adenosine triphosphate. We also found that the SPA4 peptide inhibits mRNA and cellular protein levels of pro-interleukin-1β and NLRP3, formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, caspase activity, and release of interleukin-1β. Furthermore

  4. Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Calder, Philip C

    2018-03-30

    Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is acknowledged as one of the main triggers of the obesity-induced inflammatory response. The aim of the present review is to describe the role that is played by the TLR4 signaling pathway in the inflammatory response and its modulation by saturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies indicate that saturated fatty acids can induce inflammation by activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, exert anti-inflammatory actions through the attenuation of the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by either lipopolysaccharides or saturated fatty acids.

  5. Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediates Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Woodruff, Michael; Zhang, Ying; Miao, Junying; Hanley, Gregory; Stuart, Charles; Zeng, Xiao; Sprabhakar, Saviat; Moorman, Jonathan; Zhao, Baoxiang; Yin, Deling

    2009-01-01

    Stress, either physical or psychological, can have a dramatic impact on the immune system. Little progress, however, has been made in understanding stress-induced immune suppression. We report here that mice subjected to chronic 12-hour daily physical restraint for two days significantly increased the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Interestingly, TLR4-deficient mice are resistant to stress-induced lymphocyte reduction. In addition, restraint stress caused dramatic decrease in T help 1 (Th1) cytokine IFN-γ and IL-2 levels but increase in Th2 cytokine IL-4 in wild type mice. Moreover, the restraint stress significantly inhibits changes of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in TLR4-deficient mice compared with the wild type mice. Therefore, stress modulates the immune system through a TLR4-dependent mechanism. PMID:18192029

  6. Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is not a predominant feature in Ewing sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Spurny, Christian; Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Jamitzky, Silke; Altvater, Bianca; Wardelmann, Eva; Dirksen, Uta; Hardes, Jendrik; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Rossig, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor engagement on T cells by its ligand programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a key mechanism of immune escape, and antibody blockade of the interaction has emerged as an effective immunotherapeutic strategy in some cancers. The role and relevance of the PD-1 checkpoint in Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is not yet understood. Here, we investigated expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 in EwS by immunohistochemistry analysis of pretherapeutic tumor biopsies and in tumor xenografts following treatment with human T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) against the tumor-associated antigen G D2 . PD-L1 surface expression in EwS cell lines was assessed by flow cytometry. PD-L1 expression was not detectable on tumor cells in any of the 60 EwS biopsies. Infiltrating PD-L1 positive T cells were found in one tumor, and four biopsies contained PD-1-positive T cells. Of 13 EwS cell lines, none constitutively expressed PD-L1 on the cell surface. Interferon-γ cytokine stimulation induced upregulation of the ligand on all cell lines. Adoptive therapy with CAR gene-modified T cells in a mouse model did not induce PD-L1 expression in EwS xenografts despite tumor infiltration with PD-1+ CD3+ T cells. EwS cells can upregulate PD-L1 under inflammatory conditions, but do not express the ligand in the pretherapeutic tumor microenvironment or postexposure to CAR T cells. PD-1 checkpoint blockade alone is thus unlikely to evoke potent immune responses against EwS. Identification of the relevant immune evasion strategies in EwS will be vital for the development of effective immune targeting strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Entamoeba histolytica: differential gene expression during programmed cell death and identification of early pro- and anti-apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Ma Olivia Medel; Villalba-Magdaleno, José D'Artagnan; Garcia, Consuelo Gómez; Ishiwara, David Guillermo Pérez

    2010-12-01

    We have demonstrated that programmed cell death (PCD) in Entamoeba histolytica is induced in vitro by G418 aminoglycoside antibiotic. To ascertain if biochemical and morphological changes previously observed are paired to molecular changes that reflect a genetic program, we looked here for early differential gene expression during the induction of PCD. Using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and in silico derived analysis we showed in E. histolytica a differential gene expression during PCD induced by G418. The genes identified encoded for proteins homologous to Glutaminyl-tRNA synthase, Ribosomal Subunit Proteins 40S and 18S, Saposin-like, Silent Information Regulator-2 (Sir-2), and Grainins 1 and 2. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT Q-PCR), we found that glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2, grainins and saposin-like genes were strongly overexpressed after 30min of PCD induction, while its expression dramatically decreased up to 60min. On the other hand, overexpression of ribosomal genes increased only 7-fold of basal expression, showing a progressive down-regulation up to 90min. glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2 and grainins could act as negative regulators of PCD, trying to control the biochemical changes related to PCD activation. Overexpression of saposin-like gene could act as up-regulator of some cell death pathways. Our results give evidence of the first genes identified during the early stage of PCD in E. histolytica that could be implicated in regulation of apoptotic pathways.

  8. Attitudes of Children towards Aging, the Elderly, and Death & Dying as Expressed through the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptions, feelings and attitudes of elementary and junior high school students toward the topics of aging, the elderly, death, and dying. To gather data, an announcement was made to all schools within the state that the Rhode Island Gerontology Center would sponsor a contest for all school children…

  9. The Pekin duck programmed death ligand-2: cDNA cloning, genomic structure, molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingxia; Fischer, Karl P; Lorne Tyrrell, D; Gutfreund, Klaus S

    2018-03-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1), upon engagement by its ligands, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2), provides signals that attenuate adaptive immune responses. Here we describe the identification of the Pekin duck PD-L2 (duPD-L2) and its gene structure. The duPD-L2 cDNA encodes a 321 amino acid protein that has an amino acid identity of 76% and 35% with chicken and human PD-L2, respectively. Mapping of the duPD-L2 cDNA with duck genomic sequences revealed an exonic structure similar to that of the human P dcd1lg2 gene. Homology modelling of the duPD-L2 protein was compatible with the murine PD-L2 ectodomain structure. Residues known to be important for PD-1 receptor binding of murine PD-L2 were mostly conserved in duPD-L2 within sheets A and G and partially conserved within sheets C and F. DuPD-L2 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined with highest expression levels in lung, spleen, cloaca, bursa, cecal tonsil, duodenum and very low levels of expression in muscle, kidney and brain. Lipopolysaccharide treatment of adherent duck PBMC upregulated duPD-L2 mRNA expression. Our work shows evolutionary conservation of the PD-L2 ectodomain structure and residues important for PD-1 binding in vertebrates including fish. The information provided will be useful for further investigation of the role of duPD-L2 in the regulation of duck adaptive immunity and exploration of PD-1-targeted immunotherapies in the duck hepatitis B infection model.

  10. Combating Drug Abuse by Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0345 TITLE: Combating Drug Abuse by Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4...30 Sept 2013 - 29 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Combating Drug Abuse by Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) 5b...to date are clearly supportive that TLR4 is an important drug abuse target. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) continues to present as a

  11. Programmed death-ligand 1 expression in gastric cancer: correlation with mismatch repair deficiency and HER2-negative status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qiongyan; Ni, Shujuan; Tan, Cong; Cai, Xu; Huang, Dan; Sheng, Weiqi

    2018-04-19

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies. Immunotherapy is a promising targeted treatment. The immune regulatory programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has been used as a checkpoint target for immunotherapy. Currently, considerable discrepancies exist concerning the expression status of PD-L1 and its prognostic value in GC. We aimed to evaluate the expression rates of PD-L1 in GC, and further assess its relationship with mismatch repair (MMR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. We retrospectively collected 550 consecutive cases of GC in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from 2010 to 2012. PD-L1, MMR protein, and HER2 status were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Fluorescence in situ hybridization was further used in HER2 IHC 2+ cases. Cases with at least 1% membranous and/or cytoplasmic PD-L1 staining in either tumor cells (TCs) or tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) were considered as PD-L1 positive. The correlation between clinicopathological parameters, HER2, MMR, and PD-L1 expression status was determined using chi-squared tests. About 37.3% cases (205/550) showed PD-L1 expression in TCs and/or TIICs. 17.3% cases (95/550) showed PD-L1 expression in TCs, 34.5% (190/550) cases showed PD-L1 expression in TIICs. There were 45 deficient MMR (dMMR) cases (8.2%), which showed higher rates of PD-L1 expression compared with MMR-proficient carcinomas (60.0% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.001). HER2 was positive in 66 (12.0%) cases. The expression of PD-L1 occurred more frequently in HER2-negative group than HER2-positive cohorts (39.0% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.020). The survival analysis revealed that PD-L1 was not associated with prognosis. This study evaluated the association between the PD-L1 expression and a specific subgroup (dMMR and HER2-negative) in a large Asian cohort of GC. GC patients with dMMR and HER2-negative status exhibited higher PD-L1 expression rates. Our finding indicated that MMR and

  12. A Greek perspective on concepts of death and expression of grief, with implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Parpa, Efi; Katsouda, Emmanuela; Vlahos, Lambros

    2003-12-01

    Death has been conceptualised in different ways by different cultures and civilizations. It is increasingly entering into the public consciousness and society is now more ready to discuss and lessen the fear of dying and grief than it has been in the past few decades. In Greece, by Classical times there was an increase in burial rituals and commemorative practices compared to earlier periods. When Christianity was introduced into Greece it attempted to change the way the dead were mourned, preaching immortality of the soul and resurrection of the dead. Nevertheless, the way people grieve and bury their dead in Greece has not changed greatly since before the introduction of Christianity, except for the difficulty experienced in witnessing burial procedures observed in the large cities. Burial and bereavement traditions were introduced to help Greeks cope with death and bereavement. In Greece today beliefs about grief and death are based both on the ancient and the Christian Orthodox traditions. Healthcare professionals need to develop cultural competence to improve nursing and future health care. If care is culturally informed and tailored its quality is improved.

  13. Expression of Death Receptor 6 by Ovarian Tumors in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Edassery, Seby L; Basu, Sanjib; Rotmensch, Jacob; Bitterman, Pincas

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-associated neoangiogenesis and suppression of antitumor immunity are hallmarks of tumor development and progression. Death receptor 6 (DR6) has been reported to be associated with suppression of antitumor immunity and tumor progression in several malignancies. However, expression of DR6 by malignant ovarian epithelial tumors at an early stage is unknown. The goals of this study were to determine whether DR6 is expressed by malignant ovarian epithelial tumors at an early stage and to examine whether DR6 expression is associated with ovarian cancer (OVCA) progression in a laying hen model of spontaneous OVCA. Expression of DR6 was examined in normal and malignant ovaries, normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells, or malignant epithelial cells and in serum of 3-year-old hens. The population of microvessels expressing DR6 was significantly higher in hens with early-stage OVCA than hens with normal ovaries (P < .01) and increased further in late-stage OVCA. The results of this study showed that, in addition to microvessels, tumor cells in the ovary also express DR6 with a significantly higher intensity than normal OSE cells. Similar patterns of DR6 expression were also observed by immunoblot analysis and gene expression studies. Furthermore, DR6 was also detected in the serum of hens. In conclusion, DR6 expression is associated with OVCA development and progression in laying hens. This study may be helpful to examine the feasibility of DR6 as a useful surrogate marker of OVCA, a target for antitumor immunotherapy and molecular imaging and thus provide a foundation for clinical studies. PMID:22937178

  14. Astrocytes expressing ALS‐linked mutant FUS induce motor neuron death through release of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Azadeh; McAvoy, Kevin; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Trotti, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. While it is established that astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons in ALS, the specific contribution of mutant FUS (mutFUS) through astrocytes has not yet been studied. Here, we used primary astrocytes expressing a N‐terminally GFP tagged R521G mutant or wild‐type FUS (WTFUS) and show that mutFUS‐expressing astrocytes undergo astrogliosis, damage co‐cultured motor neurons via activation of an inflammatory response and produce conditioned medium (ACM) that is toxic to motor neurons in isolation. Time lapse imaging shows that motor neuron cultures exposed to mutFUS ACM, but not WTFUS ACM, undergo significant cell loss, which is preceded by progressive degeneration of neurites. We found that Tumor Necrosis Factor‐Alpha (TNFα) is secreted into ACM of mutFUS‐expressing astrocytes. Accordingly, mutFUS astrocyte‐mediated motor neuron toxicity is blocked by targeting soluble TNFα with neutralizing antibodies. We also found that mutant astrocytes trigger changes to motor neuron AMPA receptors (AMPAR) that render them susceptible to excitotoxicity and AMPAR‐mediated cell death. Our data provide the first evidence of astrocytic involvement in FUS‐ALS, identify TNFα as a mediator of this toxicity, and provide several potential therapeutic targets to protect motor neurons in FUS‐linked ALS. PMID:29380416

  15. Death associated protein kinase 2 is expressed in cortical interstitial cells of the mouse kidney

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DAPK2 is a pro-apoptotic protein kinase that associates with TGFβ receptors. The homolog DAPK1 has been shown to mediate apoptosis in kidney injury. Expression databases indicate that DAPK2 is expressed in the kidney, and in this work we investigate the localization of renal DAPK2 expression and its role in the kidney. Results Immunostaining demonstrates DAPK2 expression in interstitial cells of the renal cortex including PDGFRβ-positive pericytes and the CD73-positive erythropoietin-expressing fibroblast population. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis in experimental CKD arises directly from resident interstitial cells, and we therefore evaluated the expression of DAPK2 in the expanded interstitium of mice with kidney disease induced by chronic cisplatin administration. Expanded renal interstitium in these animals was negative for DAPK2 expression, but healthy areas of the kidney in which the tubular interstitium had not expanded expressed DAPK2 at levels similar to the uninjured control. Dapk2 null mice were generated to evaluate if DAPK2 is required for formation of the kidney, or its maintenance in the adult. Kidneys of Dapk2 null mice did not show overt malformations or age-related degeneration, but did show a slight increase in the number of interstitial fibroblasts. Differences were seen between Dapk2 null mice and wild type controls in the response to tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by chronic cisplatin administration. Although mutant and wild type mice displayed comparable levels of alpha smooth muscle actin, interstitial proliferation and SMAD2 signaling, Dapk2 null mice showed reduced interstitial collagen accumulation. Conclusions In the kidney, DAPK2 is strongly and specifically expressed in interstitial cells of the cortex, providing a useful marker for this important cell population. Dapk2 null mice are phenotypically normal under steady state conditions, but display some resistance to extracellular matrix deposition in experimental renal

  16. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated apoptosis of pancreatic cells in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Si-Qin; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Wang, Cun; Zhan, Lan; Zhou, Bin

    2010-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in the occurrence and development of acute pancreatitis (AP). Apoptosis of pancreatic cells is closely related to the severity of AP. TLR4 is known to induce apoptosis in some cell types and therefore it is of importance to investigate potential associations between TLR4 activity and apoptosis in the setting of AP. A total of 50 wild-type (C57BL/10J) and TLR4-deficient (C57BL/10ScNJ) mice were divided into three groups: 2-hour, 4-hour, and control groups. Each group was divided into two equal subgroups: TLR4-wild-type mice and TLR4-deficient mice. AP was experimentally induced by 7 intraperitoneal injections of 50 μg/kg cerulein at hourly intervals. Control mice received 7 injections of equal volumes of saline. The severity of pancreatic injury during AP was assessed by serum amylase concentration and histopathology. The level of apoptosis of pancreatic cells in response to AP was evaluated by calculating the apoptotic index (AI) and comparing the expression levels of cytochrome C and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) between TLR4-wild-type and TLR4-deficient mice at 2 time points. The AI was found to be significantly lower in the pancreas of TLR4-deficient mice with AP compared to TLR4-wild-type mice at two hours after the last treatment injection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also revealed significantly lower expression of cytochrome C and FADD in the pancreas of TLR4-deficient mice than in TLR4-wild-type animals at the same time point. Serum amylase concentration and morphological severity of AP in pancreatic tissue were found to be similar in the two strains of mice at both time points. We postulate that TLR4 can mediate apoptosis of pancreatic cells during the early stages of AP, via the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways.

  17. Apigenin inhibits the inducible expression of programmed death ligand 1 by human and mouse mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Melanie R Power; Harrison, Megan E; Hoskin, David W

    2016-10-01

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed by many cancer cell types, as well as by activated T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Constitutive and inducible PD-L1 expression contributes to immune evasion by breast cancer (BC) cells. We show here that the dietary phytochemical apigenin inhibited interferon (IFN)-γ-induced PD-L1 upregulation by triple-negative MDA-MB-468 BC cells, HER2(+) SK-BR-3 BC cells, and 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells, as well as human mammary epithelial cells, but did not affect constitutive PD-L1 expression by triple-negative MDA-MB-231 BC cells. IFN-β-induced expression of PD-L1 by MDA-MB-468 cells was also inhibited by apigenin. In addition, luteolin, the major metabolite of apigenin, inhibited IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by MDA-MB-468 cells. Apigenin-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by MDA-MB-468 and 4T1 cells was associated with reduced phosphorylation of STAT1, which was early and transient at Tyr701 and sustained at Ser727. Apigenin-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression by MDA-MB-468 cells also increased proliferation and interleukin-2 synthesis by PD-1-expressing Jurkat T cells that were co-cultured with MDA-MB-468 cells. Apigenin therefore has the potential to increase the vulnerability of BC cells to T cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Reduces Oxidative Injury via Glutathione Activity in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shoulong; Yu, Kun; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Baolu; Liu, Guoshi; Liu, Yixun; Lian, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important sensor of Gram-negative bacteria and can trigger activation of the innate immune system. Increased activation of TLR4 can lead to the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, the pathway whereby TLR4 affects antioxidant activity was studied. In TLR4-overexpressing sheep, TLR4 expression was found to be related to the integration copy number when monocytes were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Consequently, production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased, which could increase the activation of prooxidative stress enzymes. Meanwhile, activation of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), was increased. Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) were reduced. In transgenic sheep, glutathione (GSH) levels were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, transgenic sheep were intradermally injected with LPS in each ear. The amounts of inflammatory infiltrates were correlated with the number of TLR4 copies that were integrated in the genome. Additionally, the translation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) was increased. Our findings indicated that overexpression of TLR4 in sheep could ameliorate oxidative injury through GSH secretion that was induced by LPS stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ-GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis.

  19. An electrochemical lipopolysaccharide sensor based on an immobilized Toll-Like Receptor-4.

    PubMed

    Mayall, R M; Renaud-Young, M; Chan, N W C; Birss, V I

    2017-01-15

    Infections affect millions of people each year and yet methods to ascertain their cause can take more than 24h to be effective. This delay between the presentation with symptoms and the ability to make an informed decision about treatment can have adverse consequences, including death in severe cases. Additionally, pathogen identification is a concern for public safety amid the growing threat of bioterrorism. Developing a detection system based on the immune system offers the advantage of broad specificity, while still remaining pertinent to human health. In this work, human Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4), a protein responsible for detecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, was immobilized on both a large area and micro gold electrode via the tethering interaction of a modified Self-Assembled Monolayer (mSAM). In response to varying concentrations of its target, the protein-electrode combination showed a logarithmically proportional increased resistance to charge transfer from a solution-based redox probe, due to the formation of TLR-4 protein dimers. It also demonstrated excellent sensitivity to trace levels of Gram-negative bacteria, while remaining insensitive to both Gram-positive and viral challenges. Further characterization of our mSAM revealed that maintaining the appropriate receptor orientation on the electrode surface, mimicking TLR-4's role in a cellular context, was essential in producing a responsive sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Posttranslational Modification of HOIP Blocks Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Linear-Ubiquitin-Chain Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, James; Rodgers, Mary A.; Shi, Mude; Amatya, Rina; Hostager, Bruce; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Linear ubiquitination is an atypical posttranslational modification catalyzed by the linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex (LUBAC), containing HOIP, HOIL-1L, and Sharpin. LUBAC facilitates NF-κB activation and inflammation upon receptor stimulation by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to critical signaling molecules. Indeed, linear-ubiquitination-dependent signaling is essential to prevent pyogenic bacterial infections that can lead to death. While linear ubiquitination is essential for intracellular receptor signaling upon microbial infection, this response must be measured and stopped to avoid tissue damage and autoimmunity. While LUBAC is activated upon bacterial stimulation, the mechanisms regulating LUBAC activity in response to bacterial stimuli have remained elusive. We demonstrate that LUBAC activity itself is downregulated through ubiquitination, specifically, ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit HOIP at the carboxyl-terminal lysine 1056. Ubiquitination of Lys1056 dynamically altered HOIP conformation, resulting in the suppression of its catalytic activity. Consequently, HOIP Lys1056-to-Arg mutation led not only to persistent LUBAC activity but also to prolonged NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation, whereas it showed no effect on NF-κB activation induced by CD40 stimulation. This study describes a novel posttranslational regulation of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination that is critical for specifically directing TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation. PMID:26578682

  1. Cytotoxic Vibrio T3SS1 Rewires Host Gene Expression to Subvert Cell Death Signaling and Activate Cell Survival Networks

    PubMed Central

    De Nisco, Nicole J.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial effectors are potent manipulators of host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para), delivers effectors into host cells through two type three secretion systems (T3SS). The ubiquitous T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate non-apoptotic cell death. Much is known about how T3SS1 effectors function in isolation, but we wanted to understand how their concerted action globally affects host cell signaling. To assess the host response to T3SS1, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1+) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1−). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1+ and T3SS1− V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 re-wired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors target host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, network analysis indicated that V. para T3SS1 also precipitates a host transcriptional response that initially activates cell survival and represses cell death networks. The increased expression of several key pro-survival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 was dependent on a host signaling pathway that is silenced later in infection by the posttranslational action of T3SS1. Taken together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. PMID:28512145

  2. Attenuation of dexamethasone-induced cell death in multiple myeloma is mediated by miR-125b expression

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Megan Y.; Rushworth, Stuart A.; Zaitseva, Lyubov; Bowles, Kristian M.; MacEwan, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a key front-line chemotherapeutic for B-cell malignant multiple myeloma (MM). Dexamethasone modulates MM cell survival signaling but fails to induce marked cytotoxicity when used as a monotherapy. We demonstrate here the mechanism behind this insufficient responsiveness of MM cells toward dexamethasone, revealing in MM a dramatic anti-apoptotic role for microRNA (miRNA)-125b in the insensitivity toward dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. MM cells responding to dexamethasone exhibited enhanced expression of oncogenic miR-125b. Dexamethasone also induced expression of miR-34a, which acts to suppress SIRT1 deacetylase, and thus allows maintained acetylation and inactivation of p53. p53 mRNA is also suppressed by miR-125b targeting. Reporter assays showed that both these dexamethasone-induced miRNAs act downstream of their target genes to prevent p53 tumor suppressor actions and, ultimately, resist cytotoxic responses in MM. Use of antisense miR-125b transcripts enhanced expression of pro-apoptotic p53, repressed expression of anti-apoptotic SIRT1 and, importantly, significantly enhanced dexamethasone-induced cell death responses in MM. Pharmacological manipulations showed that the key regulation enabling complete dexamethasone sensitivity in MM cells lies with miR-125b. In summary, dexamethasone-induced miR-125b induces cell death resistance mechanisms in MM cells via the p53/miR-34a/SIRT1 signaling network and provides these cells with an enhanced level of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. Clearly, such anti-apoptotic mechanisms will need to be overcome to more effectively treat nascent, refractory and relapsed MM patients. These mechanisms provide insight into the role of miRNA regulation of apoptosis and their promotion of MM cell proliferative mechanisms. PMID:23759586

  3. Vma3p protects cells from programmed cell death through the regulation of Hxk2p expression.

    PubMed

    Konarzewska, Paulina; Sherr, Goldie Libby; Ahmed, Suzanne; Ursomanno, Brendon; Shen, Chang-Hui

    2017-11-04

    In yeast, the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) acidifies vacuoles to maintain pH of cytoplasm. Yeast cells lacking V-ATPase activity, due to a disruption of any VMA (vacuolar membrane ATPase) gene, remain viable but demonstrate growth defects. Although it has been suggested that VMA genes are critical for phospholipid biosynthesis, the link between VMA genes and phospholipid biosynthesis is still uncertain. Here, we found that cells lacking Vma3p, one of the major V-ATPase assembly genes, had a growth defect in the absence of inositol, suggesting that Vma3p is important in phospholipid biosynthesis. Through real-time PCR, we found that cells lacking Vma3p down-regulated HXK2 expression. Furthermore, acetic acid sensitivity assay showed that cells lacking Vma3p were more sensitive to acetic acid than WT cells. HXK2 encodes hexokinase 2 which can phosphorylate glucose during phospholipid biosynthesis. Since cells lacking HXK2 are sensitive to acetic acid and this is an indicator of programmed cell death, our observations suggest that Vma3p plays an important role in programmed cell death. Taken together, we have proposed a working model to describe how Vma3p protects cells against apoptosis through the regulation of HXK2 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The expression of MDP-1, a component of Drosophila embryonic basement membranes, is modulated by apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Hortsch, M; Olson, A; Fishman, S; Soneral, S N; Marikar, Y; Dong, R; Jacobs, J R

    1998-01-01

    Using a novel monoclonal antibody we have studied the expression of a large proteoglycan-type molecule in Drosophila embryos. This molecule is secreted exclusively by migratory, embryonic hemocytes/macrophages and was therefore named MDP-1 for Macrophage-Derived Proteoglycan-1. Expression of MDP-1 begins late during hemocyte differentiation, after these cells have left their birthplace in the head mesoderm. At this time, macrophages are engaged in extracellular matrix deposition and the phagocytosis of cell debris generated by apoptotic events in various parts of the embryo, in particular from the developing central nervous system. Embryos deficient for programmed cell death display a greatly reduced amount of MDP-1 deposition in tissues that normally undergo morphogenetic cell death. This suggests a regulatory role for apoptosis in the terminal differentiation of Drosophila hemocytes. MDP-1 is initially deposited around the developing central nervous system and is later found in basement membrane structures surrounding various other organs, such as the gut, Malpighian tubules and part of the tracheal system. The temporal and localized deposition of MDP-1 suggests that it may play a role in delineating the central nervous system structure during axonogenesis and may participate in the formation of a functional 'blood-brain barrier' in Drosophila.

  5. On the reception of the concept of the death drive in Germany: expressing and resisting an 'evil principle'?

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    With Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud attempted 'to describe and to account for the facts of daily observation in our field of study' (1920, p. 7), in particular concerning destructive clinical phenomena that confront us in the analytic situation: traumatic neuroses, melancholic states, negative-therapeutic reactions, masochism, repetition compulsion and so on. The author demonstrates in the first section how Freud's own resistance - later self-diagnosed - to recognizing these unwelcome facts was expressed in the terminological and conceptual ambiguities of the death drive hypothesis then introduced, ambiguities that to some extent continue to impede the reception of its clinical usefulness to this day. As soon as Freud had demonstrated the connection with clinical practice more directly in The Ego and the Id (1923), some contemporaries adopted it as a helpful clinical concept, while others believed that they could (and must) refute it. The second part outlines its reception in the 1920s and 1930s, which was part of an international discussion that was, of course, initially conducted mainly in German. The beginnings of an important further development of the death drive hypothesis are described in a separate section because it originated from Melanie Klein's earliest experiences in analysing children in Berlin in the early to mid-1920s. She referred at that time to an 'evil principle', and in 1932 published her view of the death drive hypothesis, which was further developed in subsequent decades by her and her followers in London. In this period, conditions changed dramatically: in Germany Freud's books (among others) were burnt, crimes against humanity were instigated and psychoanalysis ceased to exist in this country. Almost all the analysts who published on the death drive had to emigrate. From then on, entirely different discourses took place in the various regions. In Germany, the death drive hypothesis was (largely) disregarded or rejected for decades

  6. Granulysin expressed in a humanized mouse model induces apoptotic cell death and suppresses tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Su, Chia-Yi; Lee, Jih-Jong; Liao, Albert Taiching; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Wu, Alexander T.H.; Hsiao, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytolytic and proinflammatory protein expressed in activated human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Conventional mouse models cannot adequately address the triggering mechanism and immunopathological pathways in GNLY-associated diseases due to lack of the GNLY gene in the mouse genome. Therefore, we generated a humanized immune system (HIS) mouse model by transplanting human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells into NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) mice after sublethally irradiation. We examined the GNLY expression and its effects on tumor growth using this system. Our HIS mice expressed human CD45+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD56+ cells in the peripheral blood and spleen. A high expression level of human Th1/Th2 and NK cytokines was detected, indicating the activation of both T and NK cells. Importantly, we found an elevated level of GNLY in the serum and it was produced by human CTLs and NK cells obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and spleen cells in the HIS mice. The serum level of GNLY was negatively correlated with the proliferation of transplanted tumor cells in HIS mice. Collectively, our findings strongly supported that HIS mouse as a valuable model for studying human cancer under an intact immune system and the role of GNLY in tumorigenesis. PMID:29137359

  7. Nitric oxide synthase expression correlates with death in an experimental mouse model of dengue with CNS involvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical presentation of dengue is classified by the World Health Organization into dengue without warning signs, dengue with warning signs and severe dengue. Reports of neurological disease caused by Dengue virus (DENV) are becoming frequent, with symptoms that include reduced consciousness, severe headache, neck stiffness, focal neurological signs, tense fontanelle and convulsions. However, the immune mechanisms involved in neurovirulence remain poorly understood. Here we present a mouse model in which one genotype of DENV is inoculated by the intracranial route and infects C57/BL6 mice and replicates in the brain, causing death of mice. Methods Mice were infected with different serotypes/genotypes of DENV by the intracranial route to evaluate viral replication, host cytokine and nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) expression in the brain via real-time PCR. Histological analysis of the brain tissues was also performed. An analysis of which cells were responsible for the expression of cytokines and Nos2 was performed using flow cytometry. Survival curves of infected animals were also generated Results DENV 3 genotype I infected mice and replicated in the brain, causing death in our murine model. The increased levels of NOS2 could be the cause of the death of infected mice, as viral replication correlates with increased Nos2 and cytokine expression in the brain of C57BL/6 mice. In Nos2−/− mice that were infected with DENV, no clinical signs of infection were observed and cytokines were expressed at low levels, with the exception of interferon gamma (Ifng). Additionally, the Ifng−/− mice infected with DENV exhibited a severe and lethal disease, similar to the disease observed in C57BL/6 mice, while the DENV- infected Nos2−/− mice did not display increased mortality. Analyses of the brains from infected C57BL/6 mice revealed neuronal degeneration and necrosis during histopathologic examination. IFNg and NOS2 were produced in the brains of

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Fei

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41more » distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.« less

  9. Expressions of Mast Cell Tryptase and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Myocardium of Sudden Death due to Hypersensitivity and Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, J R; Tian, C J; Zeng, Q; Guo, X J; Lu, J; Gao, C R

    2016-06-01

    To explore the value of mast cell tryptase and brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) in the differential diagnostic of sudden death due to hypersensitivity and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Totally 30 myocardial samples were collected from the autopsy cases in the Department of Forensic Pathology, Shanxi Medical University during 2010-2015. All samples were divided into three groups: death of craniocerebral injury group, sudden death of hypersensitivity group and sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group, 10 cases in each group. Mast cell tryptase and BNP in myocardium were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western Blotting. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the positive staining mast cell tryptase appeared in myocardium of sudden death of hypersensitivity group and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group. Among the three groups, the expression of mast cell tryptase showed significantly differences through pairwise comparison ( P <0.05); The expression level of BNP in sudden death of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease group were significantly higher than the sudden death of hypersensitivity group and death of craniocerebral injury group ( P <0.05). The difference of the expression level of BNP between the sudden death of hypersensitivity group and the death of craniocerebral injury group had no statistical significance ( P >0.05). The combined detection of the mast cell tryptase and BNP in myocardium is expected to provide help for the forensic differential diagnosis of sudden death due to hypersensitivity and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  10. Phenotypic expression is a prerequisite for malignant arrhythmic events and sudden cardiac death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Rigato, Ilaria; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Migliore, Federico; Mazzotti, Elisa; Gregori, Dario; Thiene, Gaetano; Daliento, Luciano; Iliceto, Sabino; Rampazzo, Alessandra; Basso, Cristina; Bauce, Barbara; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    Whether a desmosomal (DS)-gene defect may in itself induce life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias regardless of phenotypic expression of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is still debated. This prospective study evaluated the long-term outcome of DS-gene mutation carriers in relation to the ARVC phenotypic expression. The study population included 116 DS-gene mutation carriers [49% males; median age 33 years (16-48 years)] without prior sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). The incidence of the arrhythmic endpoint, including sudden cardiac death (SCD), aborted SCD, sustained VT, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) intervention was evaluated prospectively and stratified by the presence of ARVC phenotype and risk factors (syncope, ventricular dysfunction, and non-sustained VT). At enrolment, 40 of 116 (34%) subjects fulfilled the criteria for definite ARVC while the remaining were either borderline or phenotype negatives. During a median follow-up of 8.5 (5-12) years, 10 patients (9%) had arrhythmic events (0.9%/year). The event rate was 2.3%/year among patients with definite ARVC and 0.2%/year among borderline or phenotype negative patients (P = 0.002). In patients with definite ARVC, the incidence of arrhythmias was higher in those with ≥1 risk factors (4.1%/year) than in those with no risk factors (0.4%/year, P = 0.02). Mortality was 0.2%/year (1 heart failure death and 1 SCD). The ARVC phenotypic expression is a prerequisite for the occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias in DS-gene mutation carriers. The vast majority of malignant arrhythmic events occurred in patients with an overt disease phenotype and major risk factors suggesting that this subgroup most benefits from ICD therapy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A high soy diet reduces programmed cell death and enhances bcl-xL expression in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Lovekamp-Swan, T; Glendenning, M; Schreihofer, D A

    2007-09-07

    Soy phytoestrogens have been proposed as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy and have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in the brain. We have shown that a high soy diet significantly reduces infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we tested the hypothesis that a high soy diet would attenuate programmed cell death after stroke. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and fed either an isoflavone-reduced diet (IFP) or a high soy diet (SP) for 2 weeks before undergoing 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) followed by 22.5 h reperfusion. Infarct size, as assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, was significantly reduced by a high soy diet (P<0.05). Apoptosis in the ischemic cortex, measured by TUNEL staining, was significantly reduced by the high soy diet. The number of active caspase-3 positive cells and caspase-mediated alpha-spectrin cleavage were also significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex of SP rats. Furthermore, nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was significantly reduced in the ischemic cortex of SP rats. Soy significantly increased bcl-x(L) mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic cortex compared with IFP rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased neuronal expression of bcl-2 and bcl-x(L) in the ischemic cortex of both IFP and SP rats following tMCAO. These results suggest that a high soy diet decreases both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent programmed cell death following tMCAO. Further, a high soy diet enhances expression of the cell survival factor bcl-x(L) following tMCAO, contributing to the neuroprotective effects of soy in the ischemic cortex.

  12. Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Kenichi; Gotoh, Akito; Eguchi, Takanori; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP. PMID:23492901

  13. Programmed death ligand 1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and improved outcome.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Rhiannon K; Selinger, Christina I; Vilain, Ricardo; Madore, Jason; Wilmott, James S; Harvey, Kate; Holliday, Anne; Cooper, Caroline L; Robbins, Elizabeth; Gillett, David; Kennedy, Catherine W; Gluch, Laurence; Carmalt, Hugh; Mak, Cindy; Warrier, Sanjay; Gee, Harriet E; Chan, Charles; McLean, Anna; Walker, Emily; McNeil, Catriona M; Beith, Jane M; Swarbrick, Alexander; Scolyer, Richard A; O'Toole, Sandra A

    2016-07-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients generally have a poor outcome; there is a pressing need to identify more effective therapeutic strategies. Clinical trials targeting programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1/PDL1) in melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer have reported high response rates, and tumoral PDL1 expression has been suggested as a potential biomarker to enrich for patient response to these treatments. There are only very limited data to date reporting the expression of PDL1 in TNBC. PDL1 immunohistochemistry was performed on 161 primary TNBCs and assessed in the tumour as well as immune cells in the stromal compartment. PDL1 expression was very common in TNBC, expressed in the tumour cell membrane (64%), cytoplasm (80%) and stromal (93%) cellular compartments. Cytoplasmic tumoral expression of PDL1 was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer-specific death [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, P = 0.035] while stromal PDL1 expression was associated with a lower rate of deaths from all causes (HR 0.305, P = 0.0042). Membranous expression of PDL1 was not associated with outcome. While both PDL1 expression and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes were associated with a better outcome, only lymphovascular invasion and high tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes were independently prognostic for breast cancer-specific death. While PDL1 expression is frequent in TNBC, it was not independently prognostic. There were differences in outcome depending on the cellular compartment of PDL1 expression. These data provide further impetus for investigating the utility of immune checkpoint therapies in TNBC, given the clinical significance of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PDL1 expression in this cohort. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lactobacillus zeae Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Caused Death by Inhibiting Enterotoxin Gene Expression of the Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mengzhou; Yu, Hai; Yin, Xianhua; Sabour, Parviz M.; Chen, Wei; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. Methodology/Principal Findings Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB). Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%). The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt) did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5α was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5α in-vitro. Conclusions/Significance The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies). Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the mechanism of protection

  15. FOXP3 renders activated human regulatory T cells resistant to restimulation-induced cell death by suppressing SAP expression.

    PubMed

    Katz, Gil; Voss, Kelsey; Yan, Toria F; Kim, Yong Chan; Kortum, Robert L; Scott, David W; Snow, Andrew L

    2018-05-01

    Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD. Here we demonstrate that normal Tregs express very low levels of SAP compared to conventional T cells. FOXP3 reduces SAP expression by directly binding to and repressing the SH2D1A (SAP) promoter. Indeed, ectopic SAP expression restores RICD sensitivity in human FOXP3 + Tregs. Our findings illuminate the mechanism behind FOXP3-mediated RICD resistance in Tregs, providing new insight into their long-term persistence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Impairs Motor Coordination.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and motor coordination. Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and are critical for the execution of its functions, including motor coordination. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is involved in the innate immune response and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its role in cerebellum-related motor functions. To address this question, we evaluated motor behavior in TLR4 deficient mice. We found that TLR4(-∕-) mice showed impaired motor coordination. Morphological analyses revealed that TLR4 deficiency was associated with a reduction in the thickness of the molecular layer of the cerebellum. TLR4 was highly expressed in PCs but not in Bergmann glia or cerebellar granule cells; however, loss of TLR4 decreased the number of PCs. These findings suggest a novel role for TLR4 in cerebellum-related motor coordination through maintenance of the PC population.

  17. Neonatal transection of the infraorbital nerve increases the expression of proteins related to neuronal death in the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve.

    PubMed

    Miller, M W; Kuhn, P E

    1997-09-26

    Neonatal lesion of the primary afferents in the infraorbital nerve causes the death of one-third of the neurons in the second-order target, the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PSN). We examined the expression of two candidate 'death' proteins, p53 and the antigen recognized by the antibody ALZ-50, in the normal and deafferented PSN. In addition, the effect of neonatal transection of the infraorbital nerve (a major component of the trigeminal nerve) on protein expression was examined. The expression of c-fos in the developing PSN was also studied as an index of metabolic activity. Protein expression was measured using quantitative analyses of immunoblots and immunohistochemical preparations. The expression of p53- and ALZ-50-immunoreactivity in the normal PSN peaked during the first postnatal week. Transection of the infraorbital nerve directly affected the expression of p53 and the ALZ-50-positive antigen. The immunoblots showed that whereas p53 amounts were unaffected by the lesion, ALZ-50 expression was significantly upregulated in the ipsilateral PSN 2 h and 2 days postlesion. The density of p53- and ALZ-50-immunoreactive neurons was significantly higher in the ventral ipsilateral PSN (i.e., the target of the transected infraorbital nerve) than in the contralateral PSN. c-fos expression selectively and transiently rose in the ventral ipsilateral PSN within 2 h of the lesion. Thus, both p53 and the ALZ-50-positive antigen are involved in neuronal death. In light of data suggesting that ALZ-50 recognizes a phosphorylated form of p53, we conclude that neuronal death in the developing nervous system involves the post-translational modification of an existing protein, p53. The increase in ALZ-50 expression apparently occurs during a catabolic phase of neuronal death, as indicated by the increase in c-fos expression.

  18. Expression of the kil gene of the ColE1 plasmid in Escherichia coli Kilr mutants causes release of periplasmic enzymes and of colicin without cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Suit, J L; Luria, S E

    1988-01-01

    Expression of the kil gene of the ColE1 plasmid in certain classes of Escherichia coli mutants (Kilr) resistant to kil-caused cell death brought about release of periplasmic enzymes and of colicin. Phospholipase A was present but was not activated by kil expression in any of the mutants. This indicates that in these mutants the various effects of kil gene expression have become dissociated. Images PMID:3139642

  19. Postmortem mRNA expression patterns in left ventricular myocardial tissues and their implications for forensic diagnosis of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Son, Gi Hoon; Park, Seong Hwan; Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Hyun; Hwang, Juck-Joon; Seo, Joong-Seok

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is primarily caused by lethal heart disorders resulting in structural and arrhythmogenic abnormalities, is one of the prevalent modes of death in most developed countries. Myocardial ischemia, mainly due to coronary artery disease, is the most common type of heart disease leading to SCD. However, postmortem diagnosis of SCD is frequently complicated by obscure histological evidence. Here, we show that certain mRNA species, namely those encoding hemoglobin A1/2 and B (Hba1/2 and Hbb, respectively) as well as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (Pdk4), exhibit distinct postmortem expression patterns in the left ventricular free wall of SCD subjects when compared with their expression patterns in the corresponding tissues from control subjects with non-cardiac causes of death. Hba1/2 and Hbb mRNA expression levels were higher in ischemic SCD cases with acute myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease without recent infarction, and even in cardiac death subjects without apparent pathological signs of heart injuries, than control subjects. By contrast, Pdk4 mRNA was expressed at lower levels in SCD subjects. In conclusion, we found that altered myocardial Hba1/2, Hbb, and Pdk4 mRNA expression patterns can be employed as molecular signatures of fatal cardiac dysfunction to forensically implicate SCD as the primary cause of death.

  20. Ectopic Expression of BnaC.CP20.1 Results in Premature Tapetal Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Liping; Zhou, Zhengfu; Tang, Shan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Shengqian; Qin, Maomao; Li, Bao; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-09-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is essential in pollen grain development, and cysteine proteases are ubiquitous enzymes participating in plant PCD. Although the major papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) have been investigated, the exact functions of many PLCPs are still poorly understood in PCD. Here, we identified a PLCP gene, BnaC.CP20.1, which was closely related to XP_013596648.1 from Brassica oleracea. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BnaC.CP20.1 expression was down-regulated in male-sterile lines in oilseed rape, suggesting a connection between this gene and male sterility. BnaC.CP20.1 is especially active in the tapetum and microspores in Brassica napus from the uninucleate stage until formation of mature pollen grains during anther development. On expression of BnaC.CP20.1 prior to the tetrad stage, BnA9::BnaC.CP20.1 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis thaliana showed a male-sterile phenotype with shortened siliques containing fewer or no seeds by self-crossing. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the reticulate exine was defective in aborted microspores. Callose degradation was delayed and microspores were not released from the tetrad in a timely fashion. Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that BnaC.CP20.1 ectopic expression led to premature tapetal PCD. Transmission electron microscopy analyses further demonstrated that the pollen abortion was due to the absence of tectum connections to the bacula in the transgenic anthers. These findings suggest that timely expression of BnaC.CP20.1 is necessary for tapetal degeneration and pollen wall formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingsong; Li, Gang; Xu, Li; Li, Qian; Wang, Qianyan; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation mediates renal injury in regional ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) models generated by clamping renal pedicles. However, it remains unclear whether TLR4 is causal in the kidney injury following global I/R induced by cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study used wild-type (C3H/HeN) and TLR4-mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice to produce the CA/CPR model. CA was induced by injection of cold KCl and left untreated for different time periods. After resuscitation (72 h), the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), as well as histological changes in renal tissue were assessed to evaluate the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and growth-regulated oncogene-β (GRO-β) in kidney tissues was detected. The results demonstrated that the levels of Scr and BUN increased significantly in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice after CPR. CPR also resulted in increased expression of TLR4, ICAM-1, GRO-β and MPO in a CA-duration dependent manner. However, there was decreased expression of ICAM-1, GRO-β and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice compared with that in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeJ mice were resistant to AKI as demonstrated by the minor changes in renal histology and function following CPR. In conclusion, mice suffered from AKI after successful CPR and severe AKI occurred in mice with prolonged CA duration. TLR4 and its downstream signaling events that promote neutrophil infiltration via ICAM-1 and GRO-β may be important in mediating inflammatory responses to renal injury after CPR. PMID:27510583

  2. Expression of the fetal Alz-50 clone 1 protein induces apoptotic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Gordon D.; Ostrow, Liya Avshalumov; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L.

    2005-10-21

    The fetal Alz-50 clone 1 (FAC1) protein exhibits altered expression patterns in neurodegenerative disease. Though it has been shown to bind DNA in a site-specific, phosphorylation-dependent manner, its cellular function remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of FAC1 in PT67 fibroblasts induces nuclear condensation and cleavage of caspase 3 to its active form indicating induction of apoptosis. The amino-terminal domain of FAC1 is necessary and sufficient to induce both nuclear condensation and activation of caspase 3. Disruption of FAC1 interaction with a known binding partner, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), enhances activation of caspase 3. Keap1 is known tomore » block activation of the antioxidant response gene products by direct interaction with the transcriptional activator, Nrf2. Disruption of the Keap1:Nrf2 interaction enhances FAC1 induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a role for FAC1 in apoptosis following release of Nrf2 from Keap1 in response to oxidative stress.« less

  3. Expression of the fetal Alz-50 clone 1 protein induces apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Gordon D; Ostrow, Liya Avshalumov; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L

    2005-10-21

    The fetal Alz-50 clone 1 (FAC1) protein exhibits altered expression patterns in neurodegenerative disease. Though it has been shown to bind DNA in a site-specific, phosphorylation-dependent manner, its cellular function remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of FAC1 in PT67 fibroblasts induces nuclear condensation and cleavage of caspase 3 to its active form indicating induction of apoptosis. The amino-terminal domain of FAC1 is necessary and sufficient to induce both nuclear condensation and activation of caspase 3. Disruption of FAC1 interaction with a known binding partner, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), enhances activation of caspase 3. Keap1 is known to block activation of the antioxidant response gene products by direct interaction with the transcriptional activator, Nrf2. Disruption of the Keap1:Nrf2 interaction enhances FAC1 induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a role for FAC1 in apoptosis following release of Nrf2 from Keap1 in response to oxidative stress.

  4. Endotoxin recognition molecules, Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensuke

    2004-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate pathogen recognition molecules for microbial products. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most potent microbial products. LPS is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2. TLR4 is a transmembrane protein, the extracellular domain of which is composed of a protein motif called leucine-rich repeats (LRR). MD-2 is an extracellular molecule that is associated with the extracellular LRR of TLR4. MD-2 has a role in cell surface expression of TLR4 and interaction with LPS. TLR4-MD-2 contributes to containment of infections by Gram-negative bacteria by activating immune responses.

  5. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Vianna, Claudia R; Fukuda, Makoto; Berglund, Eric D; Liu, Chen; Tao, Caroline; Sun, Kai; Liu, Tiemin; Harper, Matthew J; Lee, Charlotte E; Lee, Syann; Scherer, Philipp E; Elmquist, Joel K

    2014-05-12

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation; however, which Tlr4-expressing cells mediate this effect is unknown. Here we show that mice deficient in hepatocyte Tlr4 (Tlr4LKO) exhibit improved glucose tolerance, enhanced insulin sensitivity and ameliorated hepatic steatosis despite the development of obesity after a high-fat diet (HFD) challenge. Furthermore, Tlr4LKO mice have reduced macrophage content in white adipose tissue, as well as decreased tissue and circulating inflammatory markers. In contrast, the loss of Tlr4 activity in myeloid cells has little effect on insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these data indicate that the activation of Tlr4 on hepatocytes contributes to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, and suggest that targeting hepatocyte Tlr4 might be a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency alters nucleus accumbens synaptic physiology and drug reward behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Daniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral manifestations of drug-seeking behavior are causally linked to alterations of synaptic strength onto nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSN). Although neuron-driven changes in physiology and behavior are well characterized, there is a lack of knowledge of the role of the immune system in mediating such effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system, and evidence suggests that it modulates drug-related behavior. Using TLR4 knockout (TLR4.KO) mice, we show that TLR4 plays a role in NAc synaptic physiology and behavior. In addition to differences in the pharmacological profile of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in the NAc core, TLR4.KO animals exhibit a deficit in low-frequency stimulation-induced NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (LTD). Interestingly, the synaptic difference is region specific as no differences were found in excitatory synaptic properties in the NAc shell. Consistent with altered NAc LTD, TLR4.KO animals exhibit an attenuation in drug reward learning. Finally, we show that TLR4 in the NAc core is primarily expressed on microglia. These results suggest that TLR4 influences NAc MSN synaptic physiology and drug reward learning and behavior. PMID:28760987

  7. Hepatocyte Toll-like Receptor 4 Regulates Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lin; Vianna, Claudia; Fukuda, Makoto; Berglund, Eric; Liu, Chen; Tao, Caroline; Sun, Kai; Liu, Tiemin; Harper, Matthew; Lee, Charlotte E.; Lee, Syann; Scherer, Philipp E.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation; however which Tlr4 expressing cells mediate this effect is unknown. Here we show that mice deficient in hepatocyte Tlr4 (Tlr4LKO) exhibit improved glucose tolerance, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis despite the development of obesity after a high fat diet (HFD) challenge. Furthermore, Tlr4LKO mice have reduced macrophage content in white adipose tissue, as well as decreased tissue and circulating inflammatory markers. In contrast, the loss of Tlr4 activity in myeloid cells has little effect on insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these data indicate that the activation of Tlr4 on hepatocytes contributes to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, and suggest that targeting hepatocyte Tlr4 might be a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24815961

  8. Expression of programmed death 1 and its ligands in the liver of autoimmune hepatitis C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Liu, Feng-Xia; Yu, Meng-xue

    2009-08-20

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease with unknown etiology. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2), B7-H1/PD-L1 and B7-DC/PD-L2, are new CD28-B7 family members that are involved in the regulation of immune responses. Previous observation suggests that PD-1 system plays an inhibitory role in regulating peripheral blood T cells, B cells and myeloid cells, thus their abnormality may be related to autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to explore the role of PD-1/PD-L1, L2 system in the pathogenesis of AIH. The mice model of experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) was established in C57BL/6 mice and the expression levels of PD-1 and PD-L1, L2 in the murine liver and the cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 in the spleen were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the results were compared with those of normal controls. The expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 mRNA were higher in EAH compared with normal controls (P < 0.05), the PD-L2/PD-1 ratio was relatively lower in EAH (EAH -0.08 +/- 0.35, normal controls 0.52 +/- 0.07, P = 0.009). In the EAH, the expression of the three cytokines were all upregulated compared with normal controls. PD-L1 had a positive correlation with the expression of IFN-gamma (r = 0.289, P < 0.05), while PD-L2 showed a positive correlation with both expressions of IL-4 (r = 0.378, P< 0.01) and IFN-gamma (r = 0.261, P < 0.05). While TNF-alpha showed no correlation with PD-L1 (r = 0.044, P = 0.736) or PD-L2 (r = 0.127, P = 0.335). The expression of PD-1/PD-L1, L2 is upregulated in EAH and regulated by IFN-gamma and IL-4. PD-1 system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIH.

  9. Aspirin Use and Colorectal Cancer Survival According to Tumor CD274 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1) Expression Status.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Cao, Yin; Qian, Zhi Rong; Masugi, Yohei; Nowak, Jonathan A; Yang, Juhong; Song, Mingyang; Mima, Kosuke; Kosumi, Keisuke; Liu, Li; Shi, Yan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Giannakis, Marios; Rodig, Scott J; Freeman, Gordon J; Nevo, Daniel; Wang, Molin; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-06-01

    Purpose Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway can improve clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Evidence suggests that aspirin (a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) not only prolongs colorectal cancer survival, but can also activate T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and synergize with immunotherapy through inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. We hypothesized that the survival benefit associated with aspirin might be stronger in colorectal carcinoma with a lower CD274 (PDCD1 ligand 1, PD-L1) expression level that resulted in lower signaling of the immune checkpoint pathway. Patients and Methods Using data from 617 patients with rectal and colon cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we examined the association of postdiagnosis aspirin use with patient survival in strata of tumor CD274 expression status measured by immunohistochemistry. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to control for potential confounders, including disease stage, microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element-1 methylation, cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2), and CDX2 expression, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results The association of postdiagnosis aspirin use with colorectal cancer-specific survival differed by CD274 expression status ( P interaction < .001); compared with aspirin nonusers; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for regular aspirin users were 0.16 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.41) in patients with low CD274 and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.67) in patients with high CD274. This differential association seemed consistent in patients with microsatellite-stable or PIK3CA wild-type disease and in strata of PTGS2 expression, CDX2 expression, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or prediagnosis aspirin use status. Conclusion The association of aspirin use with colorectal cancer survival is stronger in patients with

  10. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  11. Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Program Genes and Comet DNA Damage Assay Induced by Escherichia coli in Layer Hens

    PubMed Central

    Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Eshak, Mariam G.; El Sabry, M. I.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods of industrial poultry and egg production systems involve stressful practices that stimulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) activity causing endotoxic shock. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death program genes and DNA damage induced by E. coli in the brain and liver tissues of laying hens. A total of two hundred and ten H&N brown layer hens with 20 week age, were used in this research. First, preliminary experiments were designed (60 hens in total) to establish the optimal exposure dose of E. coli and to determine the nearest time of notable response to be used in the remainder studies of this research. At 35-wk of age, 150 hens were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 25 birds each; the first group was injected in the brachial wing vein with 107 E. coli colony/hen, while the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. The body temperature and plasma corticosterone concentration were measured 3 hr after injection. Specimens of liver and brain were obtained from each group and the gene expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, interlukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Bax, and caspase-3 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. DNA damage in the brain and liver tissues were also measured by comet assay. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P<0.05) increase of body temperature and plasma corticosterone (42.6°C and 14.5 ng/ml, respectively) compared to the control group (41.1°C and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively). Additional remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of p38, IL-1β and TNF-α.genes were also detected in the brain (2.2-fold, 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively) and the liver (2.1-fold, 1.9-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively) tissues of the infected chickens. It is also important to note that hens injected with E. coli showed an increase in DNA damage in the brain and liver cells (P<0.05). These

  12. Endogenous DUX4 expression in FSHD myotubes is sufficient to cause cell death and disrupts RNA splicing and cell migration pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rickard, Amanda M.; Petek, Lisa M.; Miller, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by chromatin relaxation that results in aberrant expression of the transcription factor Double Homeobox 4 (DUX4). DUX4 protein is present in a small subset of FSHD muscle cells, making its detection and analysis of its effects historically difficult. Using a DUX4-activated reporter, we demonstrate the burst expression pattern of endogenous DUX4, its method of signal amplification in the unique shared cytoplasm of the myotube, and FSHD cell death that depends on its activation. Transcriptome analysis of DUX4-expressing cells revealed that DUX4 activation disrupts RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, surveillance and transport pathways. Cell signaling, polarity and migration pathways were also disrupted. Thus, DUX4 expression is sufficient for myocyte death, and these findings suggest mechanistic links between DUX4 expression and cell migration, supporting recent descriptions of phenotypic similarities between FSHD and an FSHD-like condition caused by FAT1 mutations. PMID:26246499

  13. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Nicolas, E-mail: simplissimus@gmx.de; Goeke, Friederike, E-mail: Friederike.goeke@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Splittstoesser, Vera, E-mail: Veri.sp@web.de

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma,more » stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.« less

  14. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophagecell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved. PMID:26840091

  15. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved.

  16. Toll-like Receptor 4-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intestinal Crypts Induces Necrotizing Enterocolitis*

    PubMed Central

    Afrazi, Amin; Branca, Maria F.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Good, Misty; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Egan, Charlotte E.; Lu, Peng; Jia, Hongpeng; Shaffiey, Shahab; Lin, Joyce; Ma, Congrong; Vincent, Garrett; Prindle, Thomas; Weyandt, Samantha; Neal, Matthew D.; Ozolek, John A.; Wiersch, John; Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Shiota, Chiyo; Gittes, George K.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Mollen, Kevin; Kaser, Arthur; Blumberg, Richard; Hackam, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular cues that regulate the apoptosis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) remain incompletely understood, yet may play a role in diseases characterized by ISC loss including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) was recently found to be expressed on ISCs, where its activation leads to ISC apoptosis through mechanisms that remain incompletely explained. We now hypothesize that TLR4 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress within ISCs, leading to their apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis, and that high ER stress within the premature intestine predisposes to NEC development. Using transgenic mice and cultured enteroids, we now demonstrate that TLR4 induces ER stress within Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5)-positive ISCs, resulting in crypt apoptosis. TLR4 signaling within crypts was required, because crypt ER stress and apoptosis occurred in TLR4ΔIEC-OVER mice expressing TLR4 only within intestinal crypts and epithelium, but not TLR4ΔIEC mice lacking intestinal TLR4. TLR4-mediated ER stress and apoptosis of ISCs required PERK (protein kinase-related PKR-like ER kinase), CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), but not ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) or XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Human and mouse NEC showed high crypt ER stress and apoptosis, whereas genetic inhibition of PERK or CHOP attenuated ER stress, crypt apoptosis, and NEC severity. Strikingly, using intragastric delivery into fetal mouse intestine, prevention of ER stress reduced TLR4-mediated ISC apoptosis and mucosal disruption. These findings identify a novel link between TLR4-induced ER stress and ISC apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis and suggest that increased ER stress within the premature bowel predisposes to NEC development. PMID:24519940

  17. Toll-like receptor 4 regulates chronic stress-induced visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Tramullas, Monica; Finger, Beate C; Moloney, Rachel D; Golubeva, Anna V; Moloney, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2014-08-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders, which have visceral hypersensitivity as a core symptom, are frequently comorbid with stress-related psychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence points to a key role for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in chronic pain states of somatic origin. However, the central contribution of TLR4 in visceral pain sensation remains elusive. With pharmacological and genetic approaches, we investigated the involvement of TLR4 in the modulation of visceral pain. The TLR4-deficient and wild-type mice were exposed to chronic stress. Visceral pain was evaluated with colorectal distension. Protein expression levels for TLR4, Cd11b, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cells markers) were quantified in the lumbar region of the spinal cord, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus. To evaluate the effect of blocking TLR4 on visceral nociception, TAK-242, a selective TLR4 antagonist, was administered peripherally (intravenous) and centrally (intracerebroventricular and intra-PFC) (n = 10-12/experimental group). The TLR4 deficiency reduced visceral pain and prevented the development of chronic psychosocial stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Increased expression of TLR4 coupled with enhanced glia activation in the PFC and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed after chronic stress in wild-type mice. Administration of a TLR4 specific antagonist, TAK-242, attenuated visceral pain sensation in animals with functional TLR4 when administrated centrally and peripherally. Moreover, intra-PFC TAK-242 administration also counteracted chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Our results reveal a novel role for TLR4 within the PFC in the modulation of visceral nociception and point to TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat visceral hypersensitivity. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of T-Cell Infiltration and Programmed Death Ligand 2 Expression by Adeno-Associated Virus in Rhesus Macaque Skeletal Muscle and Modulation by Prednisone.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Megan L; Shao, Guohong; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R; Chicoine, Louis G; Martin, Paul T

    2017-06-01

    Use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to transduce genes into skeletal muscles can be associated with T-cell responses to viral capsid and/or to transgenic protein. Intramuscular mononuclear cell infiltrates primarily consisting of CD8+ T cells and also containing FOXP3+ regulatory T cells were present in rhesus macaque skeletal muscle treated with rAAVrh74.MCK.GALGT2 by vascular delivery. Administration of oral prednisone prior to AAV gene delivery and throughout the study reduced such infiltrates by 60% at 24 weeks post AAV delivery compared with AAV-treated animals not receiving prednisone, regardless of the presence of pre-existing AAV serum antibodies at the time of treatment. The majority of CD8+ T cells in AAV-treated muscles expressed activated caspase 3 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), suggesting ongoing programmed cell death. AAV-transduced skeletal muscles also had elevated expression of programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2) on skeletal myofibers, and this increase in expression extended to muscles where transgene was not overexpressed. These data demonstrate that prednisone can reduce the extent of intramuscular T-cell infiltrates in AAV-treated muscles, which may aid in achieving long-term transgene expression, as may the induction of PDL2 expression on skeletal myofibers to promote PD1-mediated programmed T-cell death.

  19. Nuclear expression of E2F4 induces cell death via multiple pathways in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells but not in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Hugo; Alvarez, Laetitia; Paquin, Marie-Christine; Lussier, Carine; Rancourt, Claudine; Tremblay, Eric; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois; Rivard, Nathalie

    2007-10-01

    E2F transcription factors control cell cycle progression. The localization of E2F4 in intestinal epithelial cells is cell cycle dependent, being cytoplasmic in quiescent differentiated cells but nuclear in proliferative cells. However, whether nuclear translocation of E2F4 alone is sufficient to trigger intestinal epithelial cell proliferation remains to be established. Adenoviruses expressing fusion proteins between green fluorescent protein (GFP) and wild-type (wt)E2F4 or GFP and nuclear localization signal (NLS)-tagged E2F4 were used to infect normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells (HIEC). In contrast to expression of wtE2F4, persistent expression of E2F4 into the nucleus of HIEC triggered phosphatidylserine exposure, cytoplasmic shrinkage, zeiosis, formation of apoptotic bodies, and activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3. Inhibition of caspase activities by zVAD-fmk partially inhibited cell death induced by E2F4-NLS. An induction of p53, phosphorylated Ser15-p53, PUMA, FAS, BAX, RIP, and phosphorylated JNK1 was also observed in HIEC expressing E2F4-NLS compared with wtE2F4-expressing cells. E2F1 and p14ARF expression remained unaltered. Downregulation of p53 expression by RNA interference attenuated cell death induced by E2F4-NLS. By contrast, the level of cell death was negligible in colon cancer cells despite the strong expression of E2F4 into the nucleus. In conclusion, deregulated nuclear E2F4 expression induces apoptosis via multiple pathways in normal intestinal epithelial cells but not in colon cancer cells. Hence, mutations that deregulate E2F4 localization may provide an initial proliferative advantage but at the same time accelerate cell death. However, intestinal cells acquiring mutations (e.g., p53, Bax loci, etc.) may escape apoptosis, thereby revealing the full mitogenic potential of the E2F4 transcription factor.

  20. Phorbol esters induce death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with altered expression of protein kinase C isoforms. Role for p53-independent induction of gadd-45 in initiating death.

    PubMed Central

    de Vente, J E; Kukoly, C A; Bryant, W O; Posekany, K J; Chen, J; Fletcher, D J; Parker, P J; Pettit, G J; Lozano, G; Cook, P P

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulates growth, differentiation and apoptosis in a cell-specific fashion. Overexpression of PKC-alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7-PKC-alpha cell) leads to expression of a more transformed phenotype. The response of MCF-7 and MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells to phorbol esters (TPA) was examined. TPA-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated a modest cytostatic response associated with a G1 arrest that was accompanied by Cip1 expression and retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. While p53 was detected in MCF-7 cells, evidence for TPA-induced stimulation of p53 transcriptional activity was not evident. In contrast, TPA treatment induced death of MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells. Bryostatin 1, another PKC activator, exerted modest cytostatic effects on MCF-7 cells while producing a cytotoxic response at low doses in MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells that waned at higher concentrations. TPA-treated MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells accumulated in G2/M, did not express p53, displayed decreased Cip1 expression, and demonstrated a reduction in retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. TPA-treated MCF-7-PKC-alpha cells expressed gadd-45 which occurred before the onset of apoptosis. Thus, alterations in the PKC pathway can modulate the decision of a breast cancer cell to undergo death or differentiation. In addition, these data show that PKC activation can induce expression of gadd45 in a p53-independent fashion. Images PMID:7560079

  1. Global analysis of gene expression in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons identifies molecular pathways associated with cell death

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing sympathetic neurons depend on nerve growth factor (NGF) for survival and die by apoptosis after NGF withdrawal. This process requires de novo gene expression but only a small number of genes induced by NGF deprivation have been identified so far, either by a candidate gene approach or in mRNA differential display experiments. This is partly because it is difficult to obtain large numbers of sympathetic neurons for in vitro studies. Here, we describe for the first time, how advances in gene microarray technology have allowed us to investigate the expression of all known genes in sympathetic neurons cultured in the presence and absence of NGF. Results We have used Affymetrix Exon arrays to study the pattern of expression of all known genes in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons. We identified 415 up- and 813 down-regulated genes, including most of the genes previously known to be regulated in this system. NGF withdrawal activates the mixed lineage kinase (MLK)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-c-Jun pathway which is required for NGF deprivation-induced death. By including a mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitor, CEP-11004, in our experimental design we identified which of the genes induced after NGF withdrawal are potential targets of the MLK-JNK-c-Jun pathway. A detailed Gene Ontology and functional enrichment analysis also identified genetic pathways that are highly enriched and overrepresented amongst the genes expressed after NGF withdrawal. Five genes not previously studied in sympathetic neurons - trib3, ddit3, txnip, ndrg1 and mxi1 - were validated by real time-PCR. The proteins encoded by these genes also increased in level after NGF withdrawal and this increase was prevented by CEP-11004, suggesting that these genes are potential targets of the MLK-JNK-c-Jun pathway. Conclusions The sympathetic neuron model is one of the best studied models of neuronal apoptosis. Overall, our microarray data gives a comprehensive overview of, and provides new

  2. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor microenvironment: Implications for patients with oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Yagyuu, Takahiro; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Imada, Mitsuhiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Matsusue, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Obayashi, Chiho; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2017-05-01

    Cancer immunoediting represents a relatively novel concept attempting to explain the process of tumor escape from the host immune system response. Here, we attempted to elucidate the role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the tumor microenvironment, and tumor escape mechanisms that allow malignant transformation of oral precancerous lesions. Patients with oral precancerous lesions managed at the Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan, (n=120) were enrolled in this study. Epithelial dysplasias were graded by experienced pathologists, and subepithelial PD-L1-, CD163-, and CD8-positive cells were counted in the superficial lamina propria of oral mucosa. Epithelial PD-L1 expression was evaluated according to the staining intensity. The association of clinicopathological factors with epithelial dysplasia, malignant-free survival time, and significance of risk factors for malignant transformation were determined. Multivariate analysis showed that the subepithelial CD163-positive cell count was the only significant risk factor for high-grade epithelial dysplasia (P<0.001), while subepithelial CD163- and PD-L1-positive cell counts, and epithelial PD-L1 positivity were significantly associated with malignant-free survival (P=0.004, 0.04, and <0.001, respectively). Subepithelial PD-L1-positive cell count and epithelial PD-L1 positivity were significantly associated with malignant transformation (P=0.01 and 0.04, respectively). Our results indicate that PD-L1-expressing dysplastic epithelial and recruited subepithelial cells in oral precancerous legions may evade the host immune system, and that the inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may potentially prevent malignant transformation of oral precancerous legions as well as can treat advanced cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Relation between expression of cerebral beta-APP in the chronic alcoholism rats and death caused by TSAH].

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Lei, Huai-Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Qian, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Fang-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    By observing the cerebral beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) expression in the chronic alcoholism rats with slight cerebral injury, to discuss the correlation of chronic alcoholism and death caused by traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (TSAH). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into watering group, watering group with strike, alcoholism group and alcoholism group with strike. Among them, the alcohol was used for continuous 4 weeks in alcoholism groups and the concussion was made in groups with strike. In each group, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral tissues were done and the results were analyzed by the histopathologic image system. In watering group, there was no abnormal. In watering group with strike, mild neuronic congestion was found. In alcoholism group, vascular texture on cerebral surface was found. And the neurons arranged in disorder with dilated intercellular space. In alcoholism group with strike, diffuse congestion on cerebral surface was found. And there was TSAH with thick-layer patches around brainstem following irregular axonotmesis. The quantity of beta-APP IOD in alcoholism group was significantly higher in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, cerebellum, brainstem than those in watering group with strike and alcoholism group with strike. The cerebral tissues with chronic alcoholism, due to the decreasing tolerance, could cause fatal TSAH and pathological changes in cerebral tissues of rats under slight cerebral injury.

  4. Regulation of CD95 expression and CD95-mediated cell death by interferon-gamma in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(4;11).

    PubMed

    Dörrie, J; Schuh, W; Keil, A; Bongards, E; Greil, J; Fey, G H; Zunino, S J

    1999-10-01

    The regulatory effects of IFNgamma on CD95 expression and CD95-mediated cell death were investigated in three high-risk pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines that carry the chromosomal translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23). These leukemias are characteristically refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic treatments operating through the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms leading to increased cell survival and resistance to cell death in these leukemias are largely unknown. Interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), a potent inhibitor of hematopoiesis, acts in part by upregulating CD95 and sensitizing cells to CD95-induced apoptosis. The t(4;11) lines SEM, RS4;11, and MV4;11 expressed low levels of CD95, but were completely resistant to CD95-mediated death. Addition of IFNgamma markedly upregulated CD95 expression in SEM (8-9-fold), RS4;11 (2-3-fold), and MV4;11 (2-3-fold) lines. However, after treatment with IFNgamma, only an 11% increase in sensitivity to CD95-mediated cell death was observed in SEM cells, whereas RS4;11 and MV4;11 cells remained resistant. Cycloheximide, but not actinomycin D or brefeldin A, increased CD95-specific cell death only in IFNgamma-treated RS4;11 cells by approximately 12%. Abundant levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, known to inhibit CD95-signaling in some cells, were present suggesting a possible role for both molecules in the resistance to CD95-mediated cell death. Resistance of the leukemic blasts to CD95-mediated cell death and the failure of IFNgamma to substantially sensitize the CD95-signaling pathway may contribute to the highly malignant phenotype of pro-B ALL with translocation t(4;11).

  5. Faces in the face of death: effects of exposure to life-threatening events and mortality salience on facial expression recognition in combat and noncombat military veterans.

    PubMed

    Anaki, David; Brezniak, Tamar; Shalom, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Soldiers in war zones often experience life-threatening events that put their lives at stake. The present study examined how these exposures shape soldiers' social behavior, manifested by recognition of facial expressions. In addition, we investigated how explicit awareness of one's eventual death affects sensitivity to facial expressions. Veterans of elite military combat units were exposed to conditions of mortality or pain salience and later requested to label the emotions depicted in threatening and nonthreatening faces. Combat veterans were more accurate than noncombat veterans in identifying threatening expressions, both in mortality or pain salience induction (experiment 1) or under no induction at all (experiment 2). In addition, noncombat veterans primed with mortality salience identified fear expressions more accurately than those primed with pain salience. Finally, mortality salience improved accuracy for nonthreatening expressions for all veterans. The present results demonstrate that fear of death, resulting from exposure to concrete life-endangering perils or from thoughts on human's inevitable death, influences perception of facial expressions, which is critical for successful interpersonal communication.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced FasL expression in human monocytic cells and its implications for cell death, viral replication, and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Iannello, Alexandre; Debbeche, Olfa; El Arabi, Raoudha; Samarani, Suzanne; Hamel, David; Rozenberg, Flore; Heveker, Nikolaus; Ahmad, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitously occurring pathogen that infects humans early in childhood. The virus persists as a latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, especially of the trigeminal nerve, and frequently becomes reactivated in humans under conditions of stress. Monocytic cells constitute an important component of the innate and adaptive immune responses. We show here for the first time that HSV-1 stimulates human FasL promoter and induces de novo expression of FasL on the surface of human monocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages. This virus-induced FasL expression causes death of monocytic cells growing in suspension, but not in monolayers (e.g., macrophages). The addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, as well as anti-FasL antibodies, reduced cell death but increased viral replication in the virus-infected cell cultures. We also show here for the first time that the virus-induced de novo expression of FasL on the cell surface acts as an immune evasion mechanism by causing the death of interacting human CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Our study provides novel insights on FasL expression and cell death in HSV-infected human monocytic cells and their impact on interacting immune cells.

  7. Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) attenuates adaptive thermogenesis via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Okla, Meshail; Wang, Wei; Kang, Inhae; Pashaj, Anjeza; Carr, Timothy; Chung, Soonkyu

    2015-10-30

    Adaptive thermogenesis is the cellular process transforming chemical energy into heat in response to cold. A decrease in adaptive thermogenesis is a contributing factor to obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the compromised adaptive thermogenesis in obese subjects have not yet been elucidated. In this study we hypothesized that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation and subsequent inflammatory responses are key regulators to suppress adaptive thermogenesis. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were either fed a palmitate-enriched high fat diet or administered with chronic low-dose LPS before cold acclimation. TLR4 stimulation by a high fat diet or LPS were both associated with reduced core body temperature and heat release. Impairment of thermogenic activation was correlated with diminished expression of brown-specific markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). Defective sWAT browning was concomitant with elevated levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. Consistently, TLR4 activation by LPS abolished cAMP-induced up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in primary human adipocytes, which was reversed by silencing of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Moreover, the inactivation of ER stress by genetic deletion of CHOP or chemical chaperone conferred a resistance to the LPS-induced suppression of adaptive thermogenesis. Collectively, our data indicate the existence of a novel signaling network that links TLR4 activation, ER stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby antagonizing thermogenic activation of sWAT. Our results also suggest that TLR4/ER stress axis activation may be a responsible mechanism for obesity-mediated defective brown adipose tissue activation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Activation of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Attenuates Adaptive Thermogenesis via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Okla, Meshail; Wang, Wei; Kang, Inhae; Pashaj, Anjeza; Carr, Timothy; Chung, Soonkyu

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis is the cellular process transforming chemical energy into heat in response to cold. A decrease in adaptive thermogenesis is a contributing factor to obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the compromised adaptive thermogenesis in obese subjects have not yet been elucidated. In this study we hypothesized that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation and subsequent inflammatory responses are key regulators to suppress adaptive thermogenesis. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were either fed a palmitate-enriched high fat diet or administered with chronic low-dose LPS before cold acclimation. TLR4 stimulation by a high fat diet or LPS were both associated with reduced core body temperature and heat release. Impairment of thermogenic activation was correlated with diminished expression of brown-specific markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). Defective sWAT browning was concomitant with elevated levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. Consistently, TLR4 activation by LPS abolished cAMP-induced up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in primary human adipocytes, which was reversed by silencing of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Moreover, the inactivation of ER stress by genetic deletion of CHOP or chemical chaperone conferred a resistance to the LPS-induced suppression of adaptive thermogenesis. Collectively, our data indicate the existence of a novel signaling network that links TLR4 activation, ER stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby antagonizing thermogenic activation of sWAT. Our results also suggest that TLR4/ER stress axis activation may be a responsible mechanism for obesity-mediated defective brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:26370079

  9. Toll-like receptor-4 mediates vascular inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Francis; Pham, Matilda; Luttrell, Ian; Bannerman, Douglas D; Tupper, Joan; Thaler, Joshua; Hawn, Thomas R; Raines, Elaine W; Schwartz, Michael W

    2007-06-08

    Vascular dysfunction is a major complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The current studies were undertaken to determine whether inflammatory responses are activated in the vasculature of mice with diet-induced obesity, and if so, whether Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), a key mediator of innate immunity, contributes to these responses. Mice lacking TLR4 (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) controls were fed either a low fat (LF) control diet or a diet high in saturated fat (HF) for 8 weeks. In response to HF feeding, both genotypes displayed similar increases of body weight, body fat content, and serum insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels compared with mice on a LF diet. In lysates of thoracic aorta from WT mice maintained on a HF diet, markers of vascular inflammation both upstream (IKKbeta activity) and downstream of the transcriptional regulator, NF-kappaB (ICAM protein and IL-6 mRNA expression), were increased and this effect was associated with cellular insulin resistance and impaired insulin stimulation of eNOS. In contrast, vascular inflammation and impaired insulin responsiveness were not evident in aortic samples taken from TLR4(-/-) mice fed the same HF diet, despite comparable increases of body fat mass. Incubation of either aortic explants from WT mice or cultured human microvascular endothelial cells with the saturated FFA, palmitate (100 micromol/L), similarly activated IKKbeta, inhibited insulin signal transduction and blocked insulin-stimulated NO production. Each of these effects was subsequently shown to be dependent on both TLR4 and NF-kappaB activation. These findings identify the TLR4 signaling pathway as a key mediator of the deleterious effects of palmitate on endothelial NO signaling, and are the first to document a key role for TLR4 in the mechanism whereby diet-induced obesity induces vascular inflammation and insulin resistance.

  10. CXC chemokine receptor-4 signaling limits hepatocyte proliferation after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gregory C.; Freeman, Christopher M.; Kuethe, Joshua W.; Quillin, Ralph C.; Nojima, Hiroyuki; Schuster, Rebecca; Blanchard, John; Edwards, Michael J.; Caldwell, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) in ischemic liver injury and recovery has not been studied. Some reports suggest that this chemokine may aid in liver regeneration, but others suggest that it may be profibrotic through its activation of hepatic stellate cells. In this study we sought to elucidate the role of SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 during liver injury, recovery, and regeneration after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A murine model of partial (70%) I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative and regenerative response. CXCR4 was expressed constitutively in the liver, and hepatic levels of SDF-1 peaked 8 h after reperfusion but remained significantly increased for 96 h. Treatment of mice with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or agonist SDF-1 had no effect on acute liver injury assessed 8 h after I/R. However, treatment with AMD3100 increased hepatocyte proliferation after 72 and 96 h of reperfusion and reduced the amount of liver necrosis. In contrast, treatment with SDF-1 significantly decreased hepatocyte proliferation. These effects appeared to be dependent on the presence of liver injury, as AMD3100 and SDF-1 had no effect on hepatocyte proliferation or liver mass in mice undergoing 70% partial hepatectomy. The data suggest that signaling through CXCR4 is detrimental to liver recovery and regeneration after I/R and that clinical therapy with a CXCR4 antagonist may improve hepatic recovery following acute liver injury. PMID:25721302

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 induction in macrophages is modulated by docosahexaenoic acid via interactions with free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4).

    PubMed

    Li, Xinzhi; Yu, Ying; Funk, Colin D

    2013-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandins are implicated in numerous inflammatory disorders. The purpose of these studies was to examine previously unexplored interactions between COX-2 induction and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) via the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) signaling pathway in murine RAW 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). DHA dose (IC50=18 μM)- and time-dependently reduced COX-2 expression, without affecting COX-1. DHA (25 μM for 24 h) decreased LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by 81%, primarily through reducing COX-2 (60%), as well as down-regulating microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (46%), but independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. FFA4 knockdown abrogated DHA effects on COX-2 induction, PGE2 production, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene expression. In the presence of inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism via COX-2, 12/15-lipoxygenase and CYP450s (rofecoxib (1 μM), PD146176 (2 μM), or MS-PPOH (20 μM)), DHA was still effective in attenuating COX-2 induction. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 signaling via Akt/JNK phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation was repressed by DHA-activated FFA4 coupling with β-arrestin 2, which was reversed by FFA4 knockdown. These data support DHA modulation of COX-2 expression and activity, in part, via FFA4, which provides a new mechanistic explanation for some of the anti-inflammatory effects of DHA.

  12. Lymphatic endothelial progenitors originate from plastic myeloid cells activated by toll-like receptor-4

    PubMed Central

    Wilber, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Myeloid-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (M-LECP) are induced by inflammation and play an important role in adult lymphangiogenesis. However, the mechanisms driving M-LECP differentiation are currently unclear. We previously showed that activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) induces myeloid-lymphatic transition (MLT) of immortalized mouse myeloid cells. Here the goals were to assess the potential of different TLR4 ligands to induce pro-lymphatic reprogramming in human and mouse primary myeloid cells and to identify transcriptional changes regulating this process. Methodology/Principal findings Human and mouse myeloid cells were reprogrammed to the lymphatic phenotype by TLR4 ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and paclitaxel. TLR4 induced similar MLT in cells from mice of different strains and immune status. Commonly induced genes were detected by transcriptional profiling in human and mouse myeloid cells from either immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. Shared trends included: (1) novel expression of lymphatic-specific markers vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) and podoplanin (PDPN) largely absent prior to induction; (2) lack of notable changes in blood vessel-specific markers; (3) transient expression of VEGFR-3, but sustained increase of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and a variety of inflammatory cytokines; (4) dependency of VEGFR-3 upregulation and other LEC genes on NF-κB; and (5) novel expression of lymphatic-specific (e.g., PROX1) and stem/progenitor (e.g., E2F1) transcription factors known for their roles in adult and embryonic vascular formation. M-LECP generated by TLR4 ligands in vitro were functional in vivo as demonstrated by significantly increased lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic metastasis detected in orthotopic breast cancer models. Conclusions/Significance We

  13. Synergistic roles of granzymes A and B in mediating target cell death by rat basophilic leukemia mast cell tumors also expressing cytolysin/perforin

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the cytotoxic activity of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells transfected with cDNAs for the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) granule components, cytolysin (perforin), granzyme A, and granzyme B. With red cell targets, cytolysin expression conferred potent hemolytic activity, which was not influenced by coexpression of granzymes. With tumor targets, RBL cells expressing cytolysin alone were weakly cytotoxic, but both cytolytic and nucleolytic activity were enhanced by coexpression of granzyme B. RBL cells expressing all three CTL granule components showed still higher cytotoxic activities, with apoptotic target death. Analysis of the cytotoxic activity of individual transfectant clones showed that cytolytic and nucleolytic activity correlated with granzyme expression but was independent of cytolysin expression within the range examined. A synergism between granzymes A and B was apparent when the triple transfectant was compared with RBL cells expressing cytolysin and one granzyme. These data implicate granzymes as the major mediators of tumor target damage by cytotoxic lymphocytes. PMID:7869027

  14. Investigating the potential influence of cause of death and cocaine levels on the differential expression of genes associated with cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Michael J; Savonen, Candace L; Hartley, Zachary J; Johnson, Magen M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed.

  15. Isoflurane Exposure Induces Cell Death, Microglial Activation and Modifies the Expression of Genes Supporting Neurodevelopment and Cognitive Function in the Male Newborn Piglet Brain.

    PubMed

    Broad, Kevin D; Hassell, Jane; Fleiss, Bobbi; Kawano, Go; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Bennett, Kate; Fierens, Igor; Burnett, Ryan; Chaban, Badr; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Tachsidis, Ilias; Rostami, Jamshid; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D; Robertson, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to general anesthesia during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex, incompletely understood and may be sexually dimorphic, but include developmentally inappropriate apoptosis, inflammation and a disruption to cognitively salient gene expression. We investigated the effects of a 6h isoflurane exposure on cell death, microglial activation and gene expression in the male neonatal piglet brain. Piglets (n = 6) were randomised to: (i) naive controls or (ii) 6h isoflurane. Cell death (TUNEL and caspase-3) and microglial activation were recorded in 7 brain regions. Changes in gene expression (microarray and qPCR) were assessed in the cingulate cortex. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. Isoflurane anesthesia induced significant increases in cell death in the cingulate and insular cortices, caudate nucleus, thalamus, putamen, internal capsule, periventricular white matter and hippocampus. Dying cells included both neurons and oligodendrocytes. Significantly, microglial activation was observed in the insula, pyriform, hippocampus, internal capsule, caudate and thalamus. Isoflurane induced significant disruption to the expression of 79 gene transcripts, of these 26 are important for the control of transcription and 23 are important for the mediation of neural plasticity, memory formation and recall. Our observations confirm that isoflurane increases apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the neonatal piglet brain but also suggests novel additional mechanisms by which isoflurane may induce adverse neural and cognitive development by disrupting the expression of genes mediating activity dependent development of neural circuits, the predictive adaptive responses of the brain, memory formation and recall.

  16. Toll-like Receptor 4 Polymorphisms and Aspergillosis in Stem-Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Chien, Jason W.; Marr, Kieren A.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Upton, Arlo; Janer, Marta; Rodrigues, Stephanie D.; Li, Sarah; Hansen, John A.; Zhao, Lue Ping; Aderem, Alan; Boeckh, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the immune response to fungal pathogens. We examined the role of TLR polymorphisms in conferring a risk of invasive aspergillosis among recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplants. METHODS We analyzed 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2), the toll-like receptor 3 gene (TLR3), the toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4), and the toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9) in a cohort of 336 recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants and their unrelated donors. The risk of invasive aspergillosis was assessed with the use of multivariate Cox regression analysis. The analysis was replicated in a validation study involving 103 case patients and 263 matched controls who received hematopoietic-cell transplants from related and unrelated donors. RESULTS In the discovery study, two donor TLR4 haplotypes (S3 and S4) increased the risk of invasive aspergillosis (adjusted hazard ratio for S3, 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 4.25; P = 0.02; adjusted hazard ratio for S4, 6.16; 95% CI, 1.97 to 19.26; P = 0.002). The haplotype S4 was present in carriers of two SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (1063 A/G [D299G] and 1363 C/T [T399I]) that influence TLR4 function. In the validation study, donor haplotype S4 also increased the risk of invasive aspergillosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.15 to 5.41; P = 0.02); the association was present in unrelated recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants (odds ratio, 5.00; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.01; P = 0.04) but not in related recipients (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.93 to 5.68; P = 0.07). In the discovery study, seropositivity for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in donors or recipients, donor positivity for S4, or both, as compared with negative results for CMV and S4, were associated with an increase in the 3-year probability of invasive aspergillosis (12% vs. 1%, P = 0.02) and death that was not related to relapse (35% vs. 22

  17. The glucagon like peptide 1 analogue, exendin-4, attenuates oxidative stress-induced retinal cell death in early diabetic rats through promoting Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying; Yang, Ke; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Liping; Hu, Yong; Tang, Meiling; Zhang, Shijia; Jin, Shuqing; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Juan; Li, Weiye; Lu, Lixia; Xu, Guo-Tong

    2016-10-01

    This study was aimed to further investigate the possible mechanisms by which the glucagon like peptide 1 analogue, exendin-4 (EX4), protects rat retinal cells at the early stage of diabetes. EX4 was injected intravitreally into normal and early-stage streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and electroretinogram (ERG) were measured. Sirtuin (Sirt) mRNA and protein were analyzed. In retinas of diabetic rats 1 month after diabetes onset, cell death and ROS level increased significantly, and the b-wave amplitudes and OPs were significantly reduced. Four days after intravitreal EX4 treatment, retinal cell death and ROS level in retinas reduced significantly, and visual function was recovered. In the retinas of early-stage diabetic rats, the expressions of Sirt1 and Sirt3 were also found to be significantly decreased, and both were back to normal levels after intravitreal injection of EX4. In R28 cells, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment increased ROS and cell death and decreased Sirt1 and Sirt3. With the addition of EX4 into the culture system, the expressions of Sirt1 and Sirt3 were increased, and the H2O2-induced ROS and cell death were significantly reduced. These results confirm a mechanism for EX4 to protect retinal cells from diabetic damage and oxidative injury. EX4 reduces retinal cell death and ROS generation by upregulating Sirt1 and Sirt3 expressions in the retina of early-stage diabetic rats as well as in H2O2-treated R28 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Crucial role for human Toll-like receptor 4 in the development of contact allergy to nickel.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marc; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Müller, Verena; Vogl, Thomas; Fejer, György; Tchaptchet, Sandrine; Keck, Simone; Kalis, Christoph; Nielsen, Peter J; Galanos, Chris; Roth, Johannes; Skerra, Arne; Martin, Stefan F; Freudenberg, Marina A; Goebeler, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Allergies to nickel (Ni(2+)) are the most frequent cause of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in industrialized countries. The efficient development of CHS requires both a T lymphocyte-specific signal and a proinflammatory signal. Here we show that Ni(2+) triggered an inflammatory response by directly activating human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Ni(2+)-induced TLR4 activation was species-specific, as mouse TLR4 could not generate this response. Studies with mutant TLR4 proteins revealed that the non-conserved histidines 456 and 458 of human TLR4 are required for activation by Ni(2+) but not by the natural ligand lipopolysaccharide. Accordingly, transgenic expression of human TLR4 in TLR4-deficient mice allowed efficient sensitization to Ni(2+) and elicitation of CHS. Our data implicate site-specific human TLR4 inhibition as a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention in CHS that would not affect vital immune responses.

  20. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A expression in developing Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toomey, B.H.; Bello, S.; Hahn, M.E.; Cantrell, S.; Wright, P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early development using nanoinjection or water bath exposure. TCDD caused developmental abnormalities that included hemorrhaging, loss of vascular integrity, edema, stunted development and death. The LC50 and LD50 of TCDD for Fundulus embryos were ???19.7??9.5 pg TCDD/??l (water bath) and 0.25??0.09 ng TCDD/g embryo (nanoinjection). To identify a possible cause for these developmental abnormalities we analyzed the effects of TCDD on apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the embryos. TCDD exposure increased apoptotic cell death in several tissues including brain, eye, gill, kidney, tail, intestine, heart, and vascular tissue. CYP1A expression was also increased in the TCDD-exposed embryos predominantly in liver, kidney, gill, heart, intestine, and in vascular tissues throughout the embryo. There was co-occurrence of TCDD-induced apoptosis and CYP1A expression in some, but not all, cell types. In addition the dose response relationships for apoptosis and mortality were similar, while CYP1A expression appeared more sensitive to TCDD induction. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Regulation of the expression of death receptors and their ligands by melatonin in haematological cancer cell lines and in leukaemia cells from patients.

    PubMed

    Casado-Zapico, Sara; Martín, Vanesa; García-Santos, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Sánchez-Sánchez, Ana M; Luño, Elisa; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana M; Menendez, Sofía T; Antolín, Isaac; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2011-04-01

    Incorporation of new therapeutic agents remains as a major challenge for treatment of patients with malignant haematological disorders. Melatonin is an indolamine without relevant side effects. It has been shown previously to exhibit synergism with several chemotherapeutic drugs in Ewing sarcoma cells by potentiating the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. It also sensitizes human glioma cells against TRAIL by increasing DR5 expression. Here, we report the induction of cell death by melatonin in several human malignant haematological cell lines through the activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Such activation was mediated by the increase in the expression of the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 and their ligands Fas L and TRAIL, with a remarkable rise in the expression of Fas and Fas L. The cytotoxic effect and the increase in Fas and Fas L were dependent on Akt activation. Results were corroborated in blasts from bone marrow and peripheral blood of acute myeloid leukaemia patients, where melatonin induced cell death and increased both Fas and Fas L expressions. We conclude that melatonin may be considered as a potential antileukaemic agent and its therapeutic use, either alone or in combination with current chemotherapeutic drugs, should be taken into consideration for further research. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Hepatocyte Toll-like receptor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammat...

  3. Pneumococal Surface Protein A (PspA) Regulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression on Dendritic Cells in a Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Calcium Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Vashishta, Mohit; Khan, Naeem; Mehto, Subhash; Sehgal, Devinder; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia leads to high mortality in children under the age of five years worldwide, resulting in close to 20 percent of all deaths in this age group. Therefore, investigations into host-pathogen interactions during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection are key in devising strategies towards the development of better vaccines and drugs. To that end, in this study we investigated the role of S. pneumoniae and its surface antigen Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) in modulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecule Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on dendritic cells (DCs) and the subsequent effects of increased PD-L1 on key defence responses. Our data indicate that stimulation of DCs with PspA increases the surface expression of PD-L1 in a time and dose dependent manner. Characterization of mechanisms involved in PspA induced expression of PD-L1 indicate the involvement of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and calcium homeostasis. While calcium release from intracellular stores positively regulated PD-L1 expression, calcium influx from external milieu negatively regulated PD-L1 expression. Increase in PD-L1 expression, when costimulated with PspA and through TLR2 was higher than when stimulated with PspA or through TLR2. Further, knockdown of TLR2 and the intermediates in the TLR signaling machinery pointed towards the involvement of a MyD88 dependent pathway in PspA induced PD-L1 expression. Incubation of DCs with S. pneumoniae resulted in the up-regulation of PD-L1 expression, while infection with a strain lacking surface PspA failed to do so. Our data also suggests the role of PspA in ROS generation. These results suggest a novel and specific role for PspA in modulating immune responses against S. pneumoniae by regulating PD-L1 expression. PMID:26214513

  4. Pneumococal Surface Protein A (PspA) Regulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression on Dendritic Cells in a Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Calcium Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Vashishta, Mohit; Khan, Naeem; Mehto, Subhash; Sehgal, Devinder; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia leads to high mortality in children under the age of five years worldwide, resulting in close to 20 percent of all deaths in this age group. Therefore, investigations into host-pathogen interactions during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection are key in devising strategies towards the development of better vaccines and drugs. To that end, in this study we investigated the role of S. pneumoniae and its surface antigen Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) in modulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecule Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on dendritic cells (DCs) and the subsequent effects of increased PD-L1 on key defence responses. Our data indicate that stimulation of DCs with PspA increases the surface expression of PD-L1 in a time and dose dependent manner. Characterization of mechanisms involved in PspA induced expression of PD-L1 indicate the involvement of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and calcium homeostasis. While calcium release from intracellular stores positively regulated PD-L1 expression, calcium influx from external milieu negatively regulated PD-L1 expression. Increase in PD-L1 expression, when costimulated with PspA and through TLR2 was higher than when stimulated with PspA or through TLR2. Further, knockdown of TLR2 and the intermediates in the TLR signaling machinery pointed towards the involvement of a MyD88 dependent pathway in PspA induced PD-L1 expression. Incubation of DCs with S. pneumoniae resulted in the up-regulation of PD-L1 expression, while infection with a strain lacking surface PspA failed to do so. Our data also suggests the role of PspA in ROS generation. These results suggest a novel and specific role for PspA in modulating immune responses against S. pneumoniae by regulating PD-L1 expression.

  5. Targeted inactivation of testicular nuclear orphan receptor 4 delays and disrupts late meiotic prophase and subsequent meiotic divisions of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaomin; Lee, Yi-Fen; Liu, Ning-Chun; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Kim, Eungseok; Shyr, Chih-Rong; Chang, Chawnshang

    2004-07-01

    Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is specifically and stage-dependently expressed in late-stage pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. In the developing mouse testis, the highest expression of TR4 can be detected at postnatal days 16 to 21 when the first wave of spermatogenesis progresses to late meiotic prophase. Using a knockout strategy to delete TR4 in mice, we found that sperm production in TR4(-/-) mice is reduced. The comparison of testes from developing TR4(+/+) and TR4(-/-) mice shows that spermatogenesis in TR4(-/-) mice is delayed. Analysis of the first wave of spermatogenesis shows that the delay can be due to delay and disruption of spermatogenesis at the end of late meiotic prophase and subsequent meiotic divisions. Seminiferous tubule staging shows that stages X to XII, where late meiotic prophase and meiotic divisions take place, are delayed and disrupted in TR4(-/-) mice. Histological examination of testis sections from TR4(-/-) mice shows degenerated primary spermatocytes and some necrotic tubules. Testis-specific gene analyses show that the expression of sperm 1 and cyclin A1, which are genes expressed at the end of meiotic prophase, was delayed and decreased in TR4(-/-) mouse testes. Taken together, results from TR4(+/+) and TR4(-/-) mice indicate that TR4 is essential for normal spermatogenesis in mice.

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Hemorrhagic Transformation After Delayed Tissue Plasminogen Activator Administration in In Situ Thromboembolic Stroke.

    PubMed

    García-Culebras, Alicia; Palma-Tortosa, Sara; Moraga, Ana; García-Yébenes, Isaac; Durán-Laforet, Violeta; Cuartero, Maria I; de la Parra, Juan; Barrios-Muñoz, Ana L; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Pradillo, Jesús M; Moro, María A; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation is the main complication of revascularization therapies after stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in cerebral damage and inflammation in stroke. This study was designed to determine the role of TLR4 in hemorrhagic transformation development after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. Mice expressing (TLR4 +/+ ) or lacking functional TLR4 (TLR4 - /- ) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion using an in situ thromboembolic model by thrombin injection into the middle cerebral artery, and tPA (10 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes or 3 hours after ischemia. Infarct size, hemorrhages, IgG extravasation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression, and neutrophil infiltration were assessed 24 hours after ischemia. In TLR4 +/+ , early reperfusion (tPA at 20 minutes) resulted infarct volume, whereas late recanalization (tPA at 3 hours) did not modify lesion size and increased the rate of the most severe hemorrhages. In TLR4 - /- mice, both early and late reperfusion did not modify lesion size. Importantly, late tPA administration did not result in worse hemorrhages and in an increased bleeding area as occurred in TLR4 +/+ group. In TLR4 - /- animals, late reperfusion produced a lesser increase in matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression when compared with TLR4 +/+ animals. Our results demonstrate TLR4 involvement in hemorrhagic transformation induced by delayed tPA administration, very likely by increasing matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Angiopoietin-1 inhibits doxorubicin-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell death by modulating fas expression and via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Deling; Li, Chuanfu; Kao, Race L; Ha, Tuanzhu; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Fitzgerald, Matthew; Stuart, Charles A

    2004-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is essential for the maturation of blood vessels during vasculogenesis. Besides angiogenesis, recent publications indicate that Ang-1 is also a potent survival factor for endothelial cells; however, the mechanisms by which pathways remain elusive. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a powerful anticancer drug, but its use is severely restricted by its cardiotoxicity. The authors report here that Ang-1 inhibits DOX-induced cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Interestingly, the DOX-induced up-regulation in Fas (CD95/APO-1) and Fas ligand expression could be blocked by Ang-1, indicating a pivotal role of Ang-1 in DOX-induced Fas and Fas ligand expression. In addition, the prevention of cell death in this model system seems to be dependent on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, as Ang-1 fails to inhibit DOX-induced cell death while PI3K/Akt pathway was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, Ang-1 inhibits DOX-induced up-regulation of p53 through PI3K/Akt. Therefore, Ang-1 is a potent inhibitor for DOX-induced cell death through Fas and PI3K/Akt-mediated pathways.

  8. Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wen-Lan; Liu, Ke-Jian

    2013-07-01

    Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study tests the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia. Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-h hypoxic treatment. Although 3-h hypoxia or 100 μM of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc-concentration-dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3 h remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1α protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably, HIF-1α knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1α and reduced the cell death rate. Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1α via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Endogenous DUX4 expression in FSHD myotubes is sufficient to cause cell death and disrupts RNA splicing and cell migration pathways.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Amanda M; Petek, Lisa M; Miller, Daniel G

    2015-10-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by chromatin relaxation that results in aberrant expression of the transcription factor Double Homeobox 4 (DUX4). DUX4 protein is present in a small subset of FSHD muscle cells, making its detection and analysis of its effects historically difficult. Using a DUX4-activated reporter, we demonstrate the burst expression pattern of endogenous DUX4, its method of signal amplification in the unique shared cytoplasm of the myotube, and FSHD cell death that depends on its activation. Transcriptome analysis of DUX4-expressing cells revealed that DUX4 activation disrupts RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, surveillance and transport pathways. Cell signaling, polarity and migration pathways were also disrupted. Thus, DUX4 expression is sufficient for myocyte death, and these findings suggest mechanistic links between DUX4 expression and cell migration, supporting recent descriptions of phenotypic similarities between FSHD and an FSHD-like condition caused by FAT1 mutations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Activated Müller Cells Involved in ATP-Induced Upregulation of P2X7 Receptor Expression and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ying; Xie, Yuting; Xue, Bo; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Guowei; Guan, Huaijin; Ji, Min

    2016-01-01

    P2X 7 receptor (P2X 7 R), an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptotic death, in which activated retinal Müller glial cells may be involved by releasing ATP. In the present study, we investigated whether and how activated Müller cells may induce changes in P2X 7 R expression in RGCs by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Intravitreal injection of DHPG, a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) agonist, induced upregulation of GFAP expression, suggestive of Müller cell activation (gliosis), as we previously reported. Accompanying Müller cell activation, P2X 7 R protein expression was upregulated, especially in the cells of ganglion cell layer (GCL), which was reversed by coinjection of brilliant blue G (BBG), a P2X 7 R blocker. In addition, intravitreal injection of ATP also induced upregulation of P2X 7 R protein expression. Similar results were observed in cultured retinal neurons by ATP treatment. Moreover, both DHPG and ATP intravitreal injection induced a reduction in the number of fluorogold retrogradely labeled RGCs, and the DHPG effect was partially rescued by coinjection of BBG. All these results suggest that activated Müller cells may release ATP and, in turn, induce upregulation of P2X 7 R expression in the cells of GCL, thus contributing to RGC death.

  11. Prenatal auditory enrichment with species-specific calls and sitar music modulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bax to alter programmed cell death in developing chick auditory nuclei.

    PubMed

    Alladi, Phalguni Anand; Roy, Tarashankar; Singh, Neeta; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2005-06-01

    Postnatal auditory stimulation influences early perceptual learning. Previously we reported morphological effects of prenatal auditory stimulation by species-specific and sitar musical sounds on the chick brainstem auditory nuclei-nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris. At hatching, these two nuclei of auditory enriched embryos showed higher neuronal numbers, amongst other morphological changes. There were also increases in synaptophysin and syntaxin1 expressions in the sound enriched groups and modulation of the developmental expression of transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun. We hypothesized that prenatal auditory enrichment may have reduced embryonic apoptosis in these nuclei with possible alteration of molecular mechanisms enhancing the postsynaptic neuron's ability to survive. In the present study, therefore, we examined apoptotic cell death by TUNEL technique and Bcl-2 expression using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. In the controls, a peak percentage in the TUNEL-positive cells was noted in the auditory nuclei at embryonic day 12, which was reduced at embryonic day 16. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity decreased from embryonic day 8 to embryonic day 12 overlapping the period of embryonic cell death in these nuclei. The stimulated groups, however, showed fewer apoptotic neurons and higher Bcl-2 level than that in the controls. On the other hand, Bax immunohistochemistry showed correlated reverse changes compared to Bcl-2 expression. Thus prenatal extra-acoustic stimulation appears to alter Bcl-2 and Bax expression to support cell survival and differentiation, thereby augmenting the development of auditory nuclei.

  12. Metabolic characteristics of programmed cell death-ligand 1-expressing lung cancer on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuki; Toyokawa, Gouji; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Baba, Shingo; Kozuma, Yuka; Matsubara, Taichi; Haratake, Naoki; Akamine, Takaki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Katsura, Masakazu; Shoji, Fumihiro; Honda, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-11-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been identified as novel targets of immunotherapy of lung cancer. In present study, we evaluated the metabolic characteristics of lung cancer by using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) with regard to PD-L1 protein expression. PD-L1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with the antibody clone SP142 in 579 surgically resected primary lung cancer patients. Cases with less than 5% tumor membrane staining were considered negative. We examined the association between the frequency of PD-L1 protein expression and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The cut-off values for SUVmax were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The SUVmax was significantly higher in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with PD-L1 protein expression compared with those without PD-L1 protein expression (P < 0.0001). However, there was no correlation between SUVmax and PD-L1 protein expression in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (P = 0.6545). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking, the presence of pleural invasion, and high SUVmax were independent predictors of PD-L1 positivity. PD-L1-expressing NSCLC had a high glucose metabolism. The SUVmax in preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT was a predictor of PD-L1 protein expression in patients with NSCLC. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Regulation of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression in Breast Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro and in Immunodeficient and Humanized Tumor Mice.

    PubMed

    Rom-Jurek, Eva-Maria; Kirchhammer, Nicole; Ugocsai, Peter; Ortmann, Olaf; Wege, Anja K; Brockhoff, Gero

    2018-02-13

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is an efficient strategy of tumor cells to escape immunological eradiation. However, only little is known about the factors that affect the cellular expression levels. Here we assessed the PD-L1 expression on different breast cancer cell lines under standard in vitro culture conditions and as a function of Epirubicin or Paclitaxel treatment. Moreover, we evaluated the expression in immunodeficient tumor mice as well as in humanized tumor mice (i.e., in the presence of a human immune system). We found highest PD-L1 levels in JIMT-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Epirubicin treatment caused a decrease and Paclitaxel treatment an increased PD-L1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, we identified nuclear PD-L1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. All in vivo transplanted breast cancer cell lines downregulated PD-L1 expression compared to their in vitro counterpart. Neither the gene copy number nor the presence of human immune system in humanized tumor mice had an effect on the PD-L1 content. We demonstrate that the degree of PD-L1 expression amongst breast cancer cell lines varies considerably. In addition, cytotoxic treatments and other extrinsic parameters differentially affect the expression. Hence, further investigations including in vivo evaluations are necessary to understand PD-L1 regulation for advanced breast cancer stratification.

  14. Crosstalk Between Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 in the Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Humberto; Medina-Ortiz, Wanda E.; Luan, Tomi; Clark, Abbot F.; McDowell, Colleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The trabecular meshwork (TM) is involved in the outflow of aqueous humor and intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by TGFβ2 signaling pathways in the TM has been extensively studied. Recent evidence has implicated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the regulation of ECM and fibrogenesis in liver, kidney, lung, and skin. Here, we investigated the role of TGFβ2–TLR4 signaling crosstalk in the regulation of the ECM in the TM and ocular hypertension. Methods Cross sections of human donor eyes, primary human TM cells in culture, and dissected mouse TM rings were used to determine Tlr4 expression in the TM. Trabecular meshwork cells in culture were treated with TGFβ2 (5 ng/mL), TLR4 inhibitor (TAK-242, 15 μM), and a TLR4 ligand (cellular fibronectin isoform [cFN]-EDA). A/J (n = 13), AKR/J (n = 7), BALBc/J (n = 8), C3H/HeJ (n = 20), and C3H/HeOuJ (n = 10) mice were injected intravitreally with adenovirus 5 (Ad5).hTGFβ2c226s/c228s in one eye, with the uninjected contralateral eye serving as a control. Conscious IOP measurements were taken using a TonoLab rebound tonometer. Results Toll-like receptor 4 is expressed in the human and mouse TM. Inhibition of TLR4 signaling in the presence of TGFβ2 decreases fibronectin expression. Activation of TLR4 by cFN-EDA in the presence of TGFβ2 further increases fibronectin, laminin, and collagen-1 expression, and TLR4 signaling inhibition blocks this effect. Ad5.hTGFβ2c226s/c228s induces ocular hypertension in wild-type mice but has no effect in Tlr4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice. Conclusions These studies identify TGFβ2–TLR4 crosstalk as a novel pathway involved in ECM regulation in the TM and ocular hypertension. These data further explain the complex mechanisms involved in the development of glaucomatous TM damage. PMID:28346614

  15. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.

    2009-07-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidativemore » stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.« less

  16. Improved Survival and Neurological Outcomes after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Toll-like Receptor 4-mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Qing-Song; Li, Qian; Han, Ji-Yuan; Sun, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system and noninfectious immune responses. It has been reported that TLR4 participates in the pathological course of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of TLR4 in the process of I/R injury after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TLR4 mutation on survival and neurological outcome in a mouse model of CA/CPR. Methods: A model of potassium-induced CA was performed on TLR4-mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild-type mice (C3H/HeN). After 3 min of untreated CA, resuscitation was attempted with chest compression, ventilation, and intravenous epinephrine. Behavioral tests were performed on mice on day 3 after CPR. The morphological changes in hippocampal neurons were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Expressions of TLR4 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were detected by Western blot. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On day 3 after resuscitation the overall mortality was 33.33% in C3H/HeJ group compared with 53.33% in C3H/HeN group (P < 0.05). And there was much higher central tendency in C3H/HeJ group than C3H/HeN group during open field test (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of nonviable neurons was 21.16% in C3H/HeJ group compared with 53.11% in C3H/HeN group (P < 0.05). And there were significantly lower levels of hippocampal TNF-α and MPO in C3H/HeJ mice (TNF-α: 6.85±1.19 ng/mL, MPO: 0.33±0.11 U/g) than C3H/HeN mice (TNF-α: 11.36±2.12 ng/mL, MPO: 0.54±0.17 U/g) (all P < 0.01). CPR also significantly increased the expressions of TLR4 and ICAM-1 in C3H/HeN group. However, the expression of ICAM-1 was much lower in C3H/HeJ group than in C3H/HeN group after CPR (P < 0.01). Conclusion: TLR4 signaling is involved in brain damage and in inflammation

  17. Whither brain death?

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2014-01-01

    The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human death but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain death are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain death is equivalent to human death. Brain death remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public.

  18. TRPV4 regulates insulin mRNA expression and INS-1E cell death via ERK1/2 and NO-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Billert, M; Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Szczepankiewicz, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Mergler, S; Strowski, M Z; Nowak, K W

    2017-07-01

    TRPV4 is a Ca 2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel. Recently, TRPV4 was implicated in controlling peripheral insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Here, we characterize the role and potential mechanisms of TRPV4 in regulating insulin mRNA expression and cell death in insulin producing INS-1E cells and rat pancreatic islets. TRPV4 protein production was downregulated by siRNA. Intracellular calcium level was measured using Fluo-3 AM. Gene expression was studied by real-time PCR. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) was detected by Western blot. Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed by chemiluminescent reaction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was analysed using a fluorogenic dye (DCFDA). Cell death was evaluated by determination of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments. Downregulation of TRPV4 neither affected insulin mRNA expression nor INS-1E cell growth. By contrast, pharmacological TRPV4 activation by 100nmol/l GSK1016790A increased Ca 2+ levels in INS-1E cells and enhanced insulin mRNA expression after 1 and 3h, whereas a suppression of insulin mRNA expression was detected after 24h incubation. GSK1016790A increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NO production but not ROS production. Pharmacological blockade of ERK1/2 attenuated GSK1016790A-induced insulin mRNA expression. Inhibition of NO synthesis by l-NAME failed to affect insulin mRNA expression in GSK1016790A treated INS-1E cells. Furthermore, inhibition of NO production attenuated GSK1016790A-induced INS-1E cell death. In pancreatic islets, 100nmol/l GSK1016790A increased insulin mRNA levels after 3h without inducing cytotoxicity after 24h. In conclusion, TRPV4 differently regulates insulin mRNA expression in INS-1E cells via ERK1/2 and NO-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. miR-homoHSV of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV) Inhibits Expression of the SGIV Pro-apoptotic Factor LITAF and Attenuates Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Huachun; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that various large DNA viruses could encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate host and viral genes to achieve immune evasion. In this study, we report that miR-homoHSV, an miRNA encoded by Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), can attenuate SGIV-induced cell death. Mechanistically, SGIV miR-homoHSV targets SGIV ORF136R, a viral gene that encodes the pro-apoptotic lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (LITAF)-like factor. miR-homoHSV suppressed exogenous and endogenous SGIV LITAF expression, and thus inhibited SGIV LITAF-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, miR-homoHSV expression was able to attenuate cell death induced by viral infection, presumably facilitating viral replication through the down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene SGIV LITAF. Together, our data suggest miR-homoHSV may serve as a feedback regulator of cell death during viral infection. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of SGIV replication and pathogenesis. PMID:24312676

  20. Osmotic Stress Induced Cell Death in Wheat Is Alleviated by Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and Involves Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liting; Xin, Zeyu; Yu, Xing; Ma, Chao; Liang, Weiwei; Zhu, Meichen; Cheng, Qiwei; Li, Zongzhen; Niu, Yanan; Ren, Yongzhe; Wang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Tongbao

    2017-01-01

    Although, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been widely studied in mammalian cells because of its role in inhibiting apoptosis, its effects on plants remain almost unknown, especially in the case of crops such as wheat. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the effects and mechanisms of action of TUDCA on wheat growth and cell death induced by osmotic stress. Our results show that TUDCA: (1) ameliorates the impact of osmotic stress on wheat height, fresh weight, and water content; (2) alleviates the decrease in chlorophyll content as well as membrane damage caused by osmotic stress; (3) decreases the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes under osmotic stress; and (4) to some extent alleviates osmotic stress–induced cell death probably by regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress–related gene expression, for example expression of the basic leucine zipper genes bZIP60B and bZIP60D, the binding proteins BiP1 and BiP2, the protein disulfide isomerase PDIL8-1, and the glucose-regulated protein GRP94. We also propose a model that illustrates how TUDCA alleviates osmotic stress–related wheat cell death, which provides an important theoretical basis for improving plant stress adaptation and elucidates the mechanisms of ER stress–related plant osmotic stress resistance. PMID:28515732

  1. Aging and amyloid β oligomers enhance TLR4 expression, LPS-induced Ca2+ responses, and neuron cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Rodríguez, María; de la Fuente, Carmen; García-Durillo, Mónica; García-Rodríguez, Carmen; Villalobos, Carlos; Núñez, Lucía

    2017-01-31

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system recognizing diverse pathogen-derived and tissue damage-related ligands. It has been suggested that TLR signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related, neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is associated to oligomers of the amyloid β peptide (Aβo) that cause intracellular Ca 2+ dishomeostasis and neuron cell death in rat hippocampal neurons. Here we assessed the interplay between inflammation and Aβo in long-term cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an in vitro model of neuron aging and/or senescence. Ca 2+ imaging and immunofluorescence against annexin V and TLR4 were applied in short- and long-term cultures of rat hippocampal neurons to test the effects of TLR4-agonist LPS and Aβo on cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and on apoptosis as well as on expression of TLR4. LPS increases cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] and promotes apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons in long-term culture considered aged and/or senescent neurons, but not in short-term cultured neurons considered young neurons. TLR4 antagonist CAY10614 prevents both effects. TLR4 expression in rat hippocampal neurons is significantly larger in aged hippocampal cultures. Treatment of aged hippocampal cultures with Aβo increases TLR4 expression and enhances LPS-induced Ca 2+ responses and neuron cell death. Aging and amyloid β oligomers, the neurotoxin involved in Alzheimer's disease, enhance TLR4 expression as well as LPS-induced Ca 2+ responses and neuron cell death in rat hippocampal neurons aged in vitro.

  2. Neuroexcitatory effects of morphine-3-glucuronide are dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Due, Michael R; Piekarz, Andrew D; Wilson, Natalie; Feldman, Polina; Ripsch, Matthew S; Chavez, Sherry; Yin, Hang; Khanna, Rajesh; White, Fletcher A

    2012-08-16

    Multiple adverse events are associated with the use of morphine for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain, including opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Mechanisms of OIH are independent of opioid tolerance and may involve the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G). M3G exhibits limited affinity for opioid receptors and no analgesic effect. Previous reports suggest that M3G can act via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) heterodimer in the central nervous system to elicit pain. Immunoblot and immunocytochemistry methods were used to characterize the protein expression of TLR4 present in lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Using in vitro intracellular calcium and current clamp techniques, we determined whether TLR4 activation as elicited by the prototypical agonists of TLR4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and M3G, contributed to changes in intracellular calcium and increased excitation. Rodents were also injected with M3G to determine the degree to which M3G-induced tactile hyperalgesia could be diminished using either a small molecule inhibitor of the MD-2/TLR4 complex in rats or TLR4 knockout mice. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from small- and medium-diameter DRG neurons (25 μm < DRG diameter <45 μm) for both control and M3G-treated neurons to determine the potential influence on voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs). We observed that TLR4 immunoreactivity was present in peptidergic and non-peptidergic sensory neurons in the DRG. Non-neuronal cells in the DRG lacked evidence of TLR4 expression. Approximately 15% of assayed small- and medium-diameter sensory neurons exhibited a change in intracellular calcium following LPS administration. Both nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons were observed to respond, and approximately 40% of these cells were capsaicin-insensitive. Increased excitability observed in sensory neurons following LPS or M3G could be eliminated using Compound 15, a small molecule inhibitor

  3. Primary sensory neurons regulate Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activity of glial cells in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Tse, K-H; Chow, K B S; Leung, W K; Wong, Y H; Wise, H

    2014-10-24

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) has been identified in primary sensory neurons, both in vivo and in vitro, but is reportedly absent from satellite glial cells (SGCs). Herein we reveal that, in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG), SGCs do express TLR4 but this expression is inhibited by direct contact with neurons. Thus, TLR4 mRNA and protein is strongly up-regulated in isolated DRG glial cells in the absence of neurons. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) mRNA expression with greater efficacy in DRG glial cell cultures than in mixed DRG cell cultures containing TLR4-positive neurons. Using an insert co-culture system, we have shown that neuronal inhibition of glial cell TLR4 is likely to be dependent on cell-cell contact rather than diffusible factors from neurons. LPS stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production from DRG glial cells in a TLR4- and COX-2-dependent manner. In addition, exogenous PGE2 potentiated LPS-stimulated COX-2 mRNA while inhibiting TNFα mRNA expression by DRG cells, suggestive of a complex regulatory system to control inflammation within the DRG. In addition to LPS, conditioned medium from heat-shocked DRG neurons also increased COX-2 mRNA expression in DRG glial cells in a partially TLR4-dependent manner. We therefore hypothesize that neuronal suppression of glial TLR4 activity is a protective mechanism to prevent uncontrolled inflammation within the DRG. Under conditions where DRG neuronal viability is compromised, DRG glial cells become responsive to PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns) and generate a range of classical inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and functional analysis of toll-like receptor 4 in Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingshan; Liang, Quan; Li, Weifen; Gu, Yuanxing; Liao, Xun; Fang, Weihuan; Li, Xiaoliang

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in initiating the innate immune responses. Early studies indicate that turtles are more resistant to LPS challenge than mammals. It remains unknown if turtles express TLR4 and why they are more resistant to LPS. In this study, TLR4 gene from Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, was cloned and characterized. The full length cDNA of turtle TLR4 (tTLR4) consists of 3396 base pairs with an 2499-bp open reading frame, encoding 833 amino acids. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses suggest that tTLR4 is to be orthologous to human TLR4. Its mRNA expression was up-regulated in spleen and blood of turtles upon Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Stimulation of turtle peripheral blood monocytes with LPS significantly upregulated tTLR4 mRNA and inflammation-related gene expression, such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In tTLR4-expressing HEK293 cells, higher concentration of LPS exposure could enhance the activity of the NF-κB promoter, but not the INF-β promoter. Such activity required co-expression of turtle myeloid differentiation factor 2 (tMD2) and cluster of differentiation 14 (tCD14). These results provide evidence for a functional TLR4 in reptiles and, together with the syntenic analysis, support the idea that the TLR4 receptor for LPS recognition may have arisen after reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of a subset of human natural killer cells expressing high levels of programmed death 1: A phenotypic and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Silvia; Greppi, Marco; Tabellini, Giovanna; Rampinelli, Fabio; Parolini, Silvia; Olive, Daniel; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro; Marcenaro, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an immunologic checkpoint that limits immune responses by delivering potent inhibitory signals to T cells on interaction with specific ligands expressed on tumor/virus-infected cells, thus contributing to immune escape mechanisms. Therapeutic PD-1 blockade has been shown to mediate tumor eradication with impressive clinical results. Little is known about the expression/function of PD-1 on human natural killer (NK) cells. We sought to clarify whether human NK cells can express PD-1 and analyze their phenotypic/functional features. We performed multiparametric cytofluorimetric analysis of PD-1 + NK cells and their functional characterization using degranulation, cytokine production, and proliferation assays. We provide unequivocal evidence that PD-1 is highly expressed (PD-1 bright ) on an NK cell subset detectable in the peripheral blood of approximately one fourth of healthy subjects. These donors are always serologically positive for human cytomegalovirus. PD-1 is expressed by CD56 dim but not CD56 bright NK cells and is confined to fully mature NK cells characterized by the NKG2A - KIR + CD57 + phenotype. Proportions of PD-1 bright NK cells were higher in the ascites of a cohort of patients with ovarian carcinoma, suggesting their possible induction/expansion in tumor environments. Functional analysis revealed a reduced proliferative capability in response to cytokines, low degranulation, and impaired cytokine production on interaction with tumor targets. We have identified and characterized a novel subpopulation of human NK cells expressing high levels of PD-1. These cells have the phenotypic characteristics of fully mature NK cells and are increased in patients with ovarian carcinoma. They display low proliferative responses and impaired antitumor activity that can be partially restored by antibody-mediated disruption of PD-1/programmed death ligand interaction. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor protects against retinal ganglion cell damage induced by optic nerve crush in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yukimichi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ojino, Kazuki; Izawa, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hiroto; Inoue, Yuki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-03-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays key roles in innate immune responses and inflammatory reactions. TAK-242 (resatorvid) is a small-molecule cyclohexene derivative that selectively inhibits TLR4 signaling pathways and suppresses inflammatory reactions. Here we investigated the protective effects of TAK-242 against optic nerve crush (ONC) which induces axonal injury like glaucoma in mice. TAK-242 was injected intravitreally immediately after ONC. The effect of TAK-242 was evaluated by measuring the number of fluorogold-labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at 10 days after ONC. Furthermore, the expression levels of phosphorylated-nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB) and phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) were measured by Western blotting. In addition, we examined activated astrocytes by immunostaining. TAK-242 significantly abrogated the loss of RGCs associated with ONC. Moreover, the expression levels of p-NF-κB and p-p38 were significantly reduced by TAK-242 treatment. Furthermore, TAK-242 and C34, a TLR4 inhibitor, significantly reduced astrocyte activation in the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers, compared with vehicle treatment. These findings indicate that TAK-242 inhibits not only the TLR4 signaling pathway but also astrocyte activation downstream of this pathway, suggesting that the inhibition of TLR4 signaling is a promising candidate for the treatment of glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular fibronectin containing extra domain A promotes arterial thrombosis in mice through platelet Toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Prem; Kulkarni, Paresh P.; Lentz, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular fibronectin containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA+), which is produced in response to tissue injury in several disease states, has prothrombotic activity and is known to interact with Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4). The underlying mechanism and cell types involved in mediating the prothrombotic effect of Fn-EDA+ still remain unknown. Using intravital microscopy, we evaluated susceptibility to carotid artery thrombosis after FeCl3-induced injury in mice expressing Fn lacking EDA (Fn-EDA−/− mice) or Fn containing EDA (Fn-EDA+/+ mice). Fn-EDA−/− mice exhibited prolonged times to first thrombus formation and complete occlusion and a significant decrease in the rate of thrombus growth (P < .05 vs Fn-EDA+/+ mice). Genetic deletion of TLR4 reversed the accelerated thrombosis in Fn-EDA+/+ mice (P < .05) but had no effect in Fn-EDA−/− mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments revealed that TLR4 expressed on hematopoietic cells contributes to accelerated thrombosis in Fn-EDA+/+ mice. In vitro studies showed that cellular Fn-EDA+ interacts with platelet TLR4 and promotes agonist-induced platelet aggregation. Finally, Fn-EDA+/+ mice specifically lacking platelet TLR4 exhibited prolonged times to first thrombus formation and complete occlusion (P < .05 vs Fn-EDA+/+ mice containing platelet TLR4). We conclude that platelet TLR4 contributes to the prothrombotic effect of cellular Fn-EDA+, suggesting another link between thrombosis and innate immunity. PMID:25700433

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) autocrine enhance breast cancer cells survival.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Kai Hung; Tan, Boon Shing; Choo, Heng Lungh; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Tan, Si Hoey; Khor, Nelson Tze Woei; Wong, Shew Fung; See, Sze-Jia; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Rosli, Rozita; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2016-09-06

    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with poor prognosis. The discovery of underlying mechanisms mediating tumor cell survival, and the development of novel agents to target these pathways, is a priority for patients with basal-like breast cancer. From a functional screen to identify key drivers of basal-like breast cancer cell growth, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as a potential mediator of cell survival. We found that FGFR4 mediates cancer cell survival predominantly via activation of PI3K/AKT. Importantly, a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells also secrete fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a canonical ligand specific for FGFR4. siRNA-mediated silencing of FGF19 or neutralization of extracellular FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) decreases AKT phosphorylation, suppresses cancer cell growth and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity only in the FGFR4+/FGF19+ breast cancer cells. Consistently, FGFR4/FGF19 co-expression was also observed in 82 out of 287 (28.6%) primary breast tumors, and their expression is strongly associated with AKT phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining, higher tumor stage and basal-like phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of an FGFR4/FGF19 autocrine signaling that mediates the survival of a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of this autocrine loop may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for future treatment of breast cancers.

  9. BCR-ABL regulates death receptor expression for TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, I; Inukai, T; Zhang, X; Kikuchi, J; Furukawa, Y; Nemoto, A; Akahane, K; Hirose, K; Honna-Oshiro, H; Goi, K; Kagami, K; Yagita, H; Tauchi, T; Maeda, Y; Sugita, K

    2013-03-28

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and the graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effect can eradicate residual leukemia after allo-SCT. Ph(+) leukemia cells frequently express death-inducing receptors (DR4 and DR5) for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is one of the cytotoxic ligands expressed on cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells mediating the GVL effect. Here we demonstrate that imatinib specifically downregulated DR4 and DR5 expression in cell lines and clinical samples of Ph(+) leukemia. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (dasatinib and nilotinib) and short hairpin RNA against bcr-abl also downregulated DR4 and DR5 expression in Ph(+) leukemia cells, and transfection of bcr-abl into a Ph(-) leukemia cell line induced DR4 and DR5 expression, which was abrogated by imatinib treatment. Accordingly, Ph(+) leukemia cells that had been pretreated with imatinib showed resistance to the pro-apoptotic activity of recombinant human soluble TRAIL. These observations demonstrate that BCR-ABL is critically involved in the leukemia-specific expression of DR4 and DR5 and in the susceptibility of Ph(+) leukemia to TRAIL-mediated anti-leukemic activity, providing new insight into the mechanisms of the tumor-specific cytotoxic activities of TRAIL.

  10. Changes in the expression level of MAPK pathway components induced by monosodium glutamate-administration produce neuronal death in the hippocampus from neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Carvantes, Martha Catalina; Jarero-Basulto, José Jaime; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo Ignacio; Beas-Zárate, Carlos; Navarro-Meza, Mónica; González-López, Mariana Berenice; Gudiño-Cabrera, Graciela; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar

    2017-12-04

    Excessive Glutamate (Glu) release may trigger excitotoxic cellular death by the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that transduce extracellular signals to the cell nucleus, which determines the onset of a death program. One such signaling pathway is the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which is involved in both survival and cell death. Experimental evidences from the use of specific inhibitors supports the participation of some MAPK pathway components in the excitotoxicity mechanism, but the complete process of this activation, which terminates in cell damage and death, is not clearly understood. The present work, we investigated the changes in the expression level of some MAPK-pathway components in hippocampal excitotoxic cell death in the neonatal rats using an experimental model of subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration on postnatal days (PD) 1, 3, 5 and 7. Data were collected at different ages through PD 14. Cell viability was evaluated using fluorescein diacetate mixed with propidium iodide (FDA-PI), and the Nissl-staining technique was used to evaluate histological damage. Transcriptional changes were also investigated in 98 components of the MAPK pathway that are associated with cell damage. These results are an evidence of that repetitive use of MSG, in neonatal rats, induces cell damage-associated transcriptional changes of MAPK components, that might reflect a differential stage of both biochemical and molecular brain maturation. This work also suggests that some of the proteins evaluated such as phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) protein, which was up-regulated, could regulate the response to excitotoxic through modulation of the process of re-entry into the cell cycle in the hippocampus of rats treated with MSG. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic value of stromal and epithelial periostin expression in human prostate cancer: correlation with clinical pathological features and the risk of biochemical relapse or death.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Zinoli, Linda; Ricci, Francesco; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Boccardo, Francesco

    2012-12-28

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of POSTN expression following prostatectomy. Periostin (POSTN) expression in prostate cancer (PCa) and in normal specimens was evaluated in 90 patients by an immuno-reactive score(IRS) based on the intensity of immunostaining and on the quantity of stained cells. The t-test was applied to compare IRS values in cancer specimens to values in normal specimens. Pearson's test was used to correlate POSTN expression to clinical pathologic features. PSA progression-free and survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Multi-parametric models were constructed according to the Cox technique adding all the covariates predicting for either PSA progression or death into the models after univariate analysis. Both stromal and epithelial POSTN expression were significantly increased in tumor tissues. In particular, we found stromal expression to be significantly higher than epithelial expression as compared to normal tissues (p<0.000 and p=0.001).A significant correlation between POSTN epithelial expression and extra-prostatic extension was found (p=0.03). While high stromal expression was significantly associated with shorter survival (p=0.008), a low epithelial score significantly correlated with shorter PSA-free survival (p=0.04), suggesting that POSTN plays an apparently opposing biological role depending on its compartmentalization.Regardless of the mechanism that is involved, patients showing both high stromal and low epithelial expression made up a subgroup with a very bleak prognosis. Although requiring further validation through larger studies, our findings show that POSTN might represent a novel prognostic marker for PCa.

  12. Expression of programmed death ligand-1 on bladder tissues is detected in a clinically and histologically well-defined interstitial cystitis cohort.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuke; Yu, Wei; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Yunxiang; Cui, Yun; Duan, Jihong; He, Qun; Jin, Jie; Wu, Shiliang

    2017-12-26

    To investigate the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in interstitial cystitis (IC). We reviewed the data of IC patients underwent hydrodistension plus bladder biopsy. Follow-ups were performed. We assessed the degree of inflammation of the bladder wall on slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). We performed immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression detection and for counting T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. The present study included eight men and 32 women. With H&E staining, we detected 13, 15, and 12 patients with mild, moderate, and severe inflammation. The degree of inflammation was negatively correlated with disease course (P = 0.018) and positively correlated with bladder pain (P < 0.001). Hydrodistension was found effective at postoperative 3-month for 19 patients. Overall, 17, 15, 7, and 1 subject had no, mild, moderate, and high PD-L1 expression, that correlated positively with the degree of inflammation. Compared with patients with no and mild PD-L1 expression, patients with moderate and high PD-L1 expression tended to have more effective hydrodistension outcomes (12 of 32 vs 7 of 8; P = 0.017). In the subset of 12 patients with severe inflammation, there were five of six patients (83.3%) with moderate or high PD-L1 expression and one of six patients (16.7%) with no and mild PD-L1 expression with an effective hydrodistension outcome. Expression of PD-L1 on bladder is detected in a cohort of IC patients presented with diffuse global glomerulation or Hunner ulcer. PD-L1 expression is more common in IC patients with severe bladder inflammation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases 1A2 Expression and Distribution are Potentially Associated with Neuron Death in Spinal Cord of Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur Mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huiting; Wu, Chengsi; Deng, Youqing; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Weiming; Tang, Chunyan; Xu, Renshi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been unclear yet, it might be associated with the abnormal expression and distribution of certain proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenases 1A2 (ALDH1A2) was thought to be one of potential candidates. Therefore, in this study we observed and analyzed the alteration of the expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the spinal cord of wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. We compared the expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the different segments, anatomic regions and neural cells of spinal cord at the different stages of WT and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice applied the methods of fluorescent immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results revealed that ALDH1A2 extensively expressed and distributed in the spinal cord of adult WT and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. The expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the white matter including the anterior, posterior and lateral funiculus were more than that in the gray matter including the central canal, the anterior and dorsal horn. ALDH1A2 majorly expressed and distributed in the astrocyte, microglial, oligodendrocyte and neuron cells. The ALDH1A2 expression significantly decreased and redistributed in some anatomic regions of spinal cord at the onset and progression stages of Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. The expression decrease of ALDH1A2 followed with the increase of neuron cells death. This study suggested that the alteration of expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 was potentially associated with the pathogenesis of ALS.

  14. Transmembrane TNF-α promotes activation-induced cell death by forward and reverse signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lingwei; Huang, Jin; He, Cheng; Hu, Fuqing; Yuan, Lifei; Wang, Guihua; Yu, Mingxia; Li, Zhuoya

    2017-01-01

    Secretory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (sTNF-α) is known to mediate activation- induced cell death (AICD). However, the role of tmTNF-α in AICD is still obscure. Here, we demonstrated that tmTNF-α expression significantly increased accompanied with enhanced apoptosis during AICD in Jurkat and primary human T cells. Knockdown or enhancement of tmTNF-α expression in activated T cells suppressed or promoted AICD, respectively. Treatment of activated T cells with exogenous tmTNF-α significantly augmented AICD, indicating that tmTNF-α as an effector molecule mediates AICD. As tmTNF-α can function as a receptor, an anti-TNF-α polyclonal antibody was used to trigger reverse signaling of tmTNF-α. This antibody treatment upregulated the expression of Fas ligand, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and tmTNF-α to amplify AICD, and promoted activated T cells expressing death receptor 4, TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 to enhance their sensitivity to AICD. Knockdown of TNFR1 or TNFR2 expression totally blocked tmTNF-α reverse signaling increased sensitivity to sTNF-α- or tmTNF-α-mediated AICD, respectively. Our results indicate that tmTNF-α functions as a death ligand in mediation of AICD and as a receptor in sensitization of activated T cells to AICD. Targeting tmTNF-α in activated T cells may be helpful in facilitating AICD for treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:28969030

  15. Sophocarpine attenuates toll-like receptor 4 in steatotic hepatocytes to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-Yan; Zeng, Xin; Wang, Yang; Shi, Jian; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Jia-Qing; Sheng, Xia; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Chen, Yue-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Sophocarpine, a tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L., has been documented that it can suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis in alleviating nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in vivo. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition receptor whose activation results in the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that TLR4 is upregulated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH. This study aimed to examine the changes of TLR4 and its signaling pathways in sophocarpine's anti-inflammatory process on experimental NASH in vitro. Primary hepatocytes were isolated, and oleic acid-induced steatosis model was established. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to detect the number of metabolically active mitochondria and viable cells. Immunocytochemistry analysis was applied to evaluating pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis. Total RNA and protein were extracted for real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot detection. Enhanced expression of TLR4 was observed in oleic acid-induced steatotic hepatocytes. Sophocarpine suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis and reduced the expression of TLR4 in steatotic hepatocytes. Expression of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines recovered after sophocarpine was removed. Moreover, sophocarpine restrained the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathways in the anti-inflammatory process. Sophocarpine could decrease the expression of TLR4 in steatotic hepatocytes and suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis. NF-κB, JNK, and ERK signaling pathways were important workable downstream pathways. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Intracellular Heat Shock Protein-70 Negatively Regulates Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling in the Newborn Intestinal Epithelium1

    PubMed Central

    Afrazi, Amin; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Good, Misty; Jia, Hongpeng; Siggers, Richard; Yazji, Ibrahim; Neal, Matthew D.; Prindle, Thomas; Grant, Zachary; Branca, Maria F.; Ozolek, John; Chang, Eugene; Hackam, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related mortality in premature infants, and develops under conditions of exaggerated Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling in the newborn intestinal epithelium. Since NEC does not develop spontaneously despite the presence of seemingly tonic stimulation of intestinal TLR4, we hypothesized that mechanisms must exist to constrain TLR4 signaling that become diminished during NEC pathogenesis, and focused on the intracellular stress response protein and chaperone Heat Shock Protein-70 (Hsp70). We now demonstrate that the induction of intracellular Hsp70 in enterocytes dramatically reduced TLR4 signaling as assessed by LPS-induced NFkB translocation, cytokine expression and apoptosis. These findings were confirmed in vivo, using mice that either globally lacked Hsp70 or which over-expressed Hsp70 within the intestinal epithelium. TLR4 activation itself significantly increased Hsp70 expression in enterocytes, which provided a mechanism of auto-inhibition of TLR4 signaling in enterocytes. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, intracellular Hsp70-mediated inhibition of TLR4 signaling required both its substrate-binding EEVD-domain and association with the co-chaperone CHIP, resulting in ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation of TLR4. The expression of Hsp70 in the intestinal epithelium was significantly decreased in murine and human NEC compared to healthy controls, suggesting loss of Hsp70 protection from TLR4 could lead to NEC. In support of this, intestinal-Hsp70 overexpression in mice and pharmacologic upregulation of Hsp70 reversed TLR4-induced cytokines and enterocyte apoptosis, and prevented and treated experimental NEC. Thus, a novel TLR4 regulatory pathway exists within the newborn gut involving Hsp70 that may be pharmacologically activated to limit NEC severity. PMID:22461698

  17. Role of Kupffer cells and toll-like receptor 4 in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James E; McKenzie, Travis J; Lillegard, Joseph B; Yu, Yue; Juskewitch, Justin E; Nedredal, Geir I; Brunn, Gregory J; Yi, Eunhee S; Malhi, Harmeet; Smyrk, Thomas C; Nyberg, Scott L

    2013-03-01

    Significant morbidity associated with acute liver failure (ALF) is from the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of SIRS. However, little is known about the mechanistic role of TLR4 in ALF. Also, no cell type has been identified as the key mediator of the TLR4 pathway in ALF. This study examines the role of TLR4 and Kupffer cells (KCs) in the development of the SIRS following acetaminophen (APAP)-induced ALF. Five groups of mice were established: untreated wild-type, E5564-treated (a TLR4 antagonist), gadolinium chloride -treated (KC-depleted), clodronate-treated (KC-depleted), and TLR4-mutant. Following APAP administration, 72-h survival, biochemical and histologic liver injury, extent of lung injury and edema, and proinflammatory gene expression were studied. Additionally, TLR4 expression was determined in livers of wild-type and KC-depleted mice. Following APAP administration, wild-type, TLR4-mutant, E5564-treated, and KC-depleted mice had significant liver injury. However, wild-type mice had markedly worse survival compared with the other four treatment groups. TLR4-mutant, E5564-treated, and KC-depleted mice had less lung inflammation and edema than wild-type mice. Selected proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor) in TLR4-mutant, E5564-treated, and KC-depleted mice was significantly lower compared with wild-type mice after acute liver injury. This study demonstrates that survival in APAP-induced ALF potentially correlates with the level of proinflammatory gene expression. This study points to a link between TLR4 and KCs in the APAP model of ALF and, more importantly, demonstrates benefits of TLR4 antagonism in ALF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is an Essential Upstream Regulator of On-Time Parturition and Perinatal Viability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Hanan H; Dorian, Camilla L; Chin, Peck Yin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Rice, Kenner C; Olson, David M; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-10-01

    An inflammatory response is instrumental in the physiological process of parturition but the upstream signals initiating inflammation are undefined. Because endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are released in late gestation, we hypothesized that on-time labor requires TLR4 signaling, to trigger a cytokine and leukocyte response and accelerate the parturition cascade. In pregnant TLR4-deficient (Tlr4-/-) mice, average gestation length was extended by 13 hours and increased perinatal mortality was seen compared with wild-type controls. Quantification of cytokine and uterine activation gene expression showed that late gestation induction of Il1b, Il6, Il12b, and Tnf expression seen in control placenta and fetal membranes was disrupted in Tlr4-/- mice, and accompanied by a transient delay in expression of uterine activation genes, including prostaglandin F receptor, oxytocin receptor, and connexin-43. Leukocyte populations were altered before birth in TLR4-deficient females, with fewer neutrophils and macrophages in the placenta, and fewer dendritic cells and more regulatory T cells in the myometrium. Administration of TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide to pregnant wild-type mice induced cytokine expression and fetal loss, whereas Tlr4-/- pregnancies were protected. The small molecule TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone increased mean duration of gestation by 16 hours in wild-type mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TLR4 is a key upstream regulator of the inflammatory response acting to drive uterine activation and control the timing of labor. Because causal pathways for term and preterm labor converge with TLR4, interventions to manipulate TLR4 signaling may have therapeutic utility for women at risk of preterm labor, or in postterm pregnancy.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is an Essential Upstream Regulator of On-Time Parturition and Perinatal Viability in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wahid, Hanan H.; Dorian, Camilla L.; Chin, Peck Yin; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Olson, David M.; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M.

    2015-01-01

    An inflammatory response is instrumental in the physiological process of parturition but the upstream signals initiating inflammation are undefined. Because endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are released in late gestation, we hypothesized that on-time labor requires TLR4 signaling, to trigger a cytokine and leukocyte response and accelerate the parturition cascade. In pregnant TLR4-deficient (Tlr4−/−) mice, average gestation length was extended by 13 hours and increased perinatal mortality was seen compared with wild-type controls. Quantification of cytokine and uterine activation gene expression showed that late gestation induction of Il1b, Il6, Il12b, and Tnf expression seen in control placenta and fetal membranes was disrupted in Tlr4−/− mice, and accompanied by a transient delay in expression of uterine activation genes, including prostaglandin F receptor, oxytocin receptor, and connexin-43. Leukocyte populations were altered before birth in TLR4-deficient females, with fewer neutrophils and macrophages in the placenta, and fewer dendritic cells and more regulatory T cells in the myometrium. Administration of TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide to pregnant wild-type mice induced cytokine expression and fetal loss, whereas Tlr4−/− pregnancies were protected. The small molecule TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone increased mean duration of gestation by 16 hours in wild-type mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TLR4 is a key upstream regulator of the inflammatory response acting to drive uterine activation and control the timing of labor. Because causal pathways for term and preterm labor converge with TLR4, interventions to manipulate TLR4 signaling may have therapeutic utility for women at risk of preterm labor, or in postterm pregnancy. PMID:26151355

  20. Effect of baicalin on toll-like receptor 4-mediated ischemia/reperfusion inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver condition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee, E-mail: sunmee@skku.edu

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is susceptible to secondary stresses such as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Baicalin is an active component extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, which is widely used in herbal preparations for treatment of hepatic diseases and inflammatory disorders. This study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of baicalin on I/R injury in alcoholic fatty liver. Rats were fed an alcohol liquid diet or a control isocaloric diet for 5 weeks, and then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion. Baicalin (200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 24 and 1 h before ischemia. After reperfusion, baicalin attenuated the increases inmore » serum alanine aminotransferase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in alcoholic fatty liver. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expressions increased after reperfusion, which were higher in ethanol-fed animals, were attenuated by baicalin. In ethanol-fed animals, baicalin attenuated the increases in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein expressions and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB after reperfusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that baicalin ameliorates I/R-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in alcoholic fatty liver. -- Highlights: ► Baicalin attenuates hepatic I/R-induced inflammation in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin downregulates TLR4, MyD88 expression during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver. ► Baicalin attenuates NF-κB nuclear translocation during I/R in alcoholic fatty liver.« less

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 imparts ligand-specific recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Egil; Means, Terry K.; Heine, Holger; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Kusumoto, Shoichi; Fukase, Koichi; Fenton, Matthew J.; Oikawa, Masato; Qureshi, Nilofer; Monks, Brian; Finberg, Robert W.; Ingalls, Robin R.; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2000-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both compounds inhibit the effects of LPS in human cells but display LPS-mimetic activity in hamster cells. We transfected human TLR4 or human TLR2 into hamster fibroblasts to determine if either of these LPS signal transducers is responsible for the species-specific pharmacology. RSLA and lipid IVa strongly induced NF-κB activity and IL-6 release in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts expressing CD14 (CHO/CD14), but these compounds antagonized LPS antagonists in CHO/CD14 fibroblasts that overexpressed human TLR4. No such antagonism occurred in cells overexpressing human TLR2. We cloned TLR4 from hamster macrophages and found that human THP-1 cells expressing the hamster TLR4 responded to lipid IVa as an LPS mimetic, as if they were hamster in origin. Hence, cells heterologously overexpressing TLR4 from different species acquired a pharmacological phenotype with respect to recognition of lipid A substructures that corresponded to the species from which the TLR4 transgene originated. These data suggest that TLR4 is the central lipid A–recognition protein in the LPS receptor complex. PMID:10683379

  2. Transient expression of Alz-50 immunoreactivity in developing rat neocortex: a marker for naturally occurring neuronal death?

    PubMed

    Al-Ghoul, W M; Miller, M W

    1989-03-06

    Alz-50-immunoreactive neurons were evident in the subplate and cortical plate of the neonatal rat, but immunoreactivity was lost by the beginning of the second postnatal week. Many of these neurons were double-labeled by an injection of [3H]thymidine on gestational day (G) 12. Moreover, subplate neurons that were generated on G12 were eliminated from cortex by the end of the third postnatal week. Thus, Alz-50 immunoreactivity may be an early indicator of naturally occurring neuronal death.

  3. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields modulate the expression of Fas/CD95 death receptor pathway regulators in U937 and Jurkat Cells.

    PubMed

    Estlack, Larry E; Roth, Caleb C; Thompson, Gary L; Lambert, William A; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    In this publication, we demonstrate that exposure of Jurkat and U937 cells to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEF) can modulate the extrinsic-mediated apoptotic pathway via the Fas/CD95 death receptor. An inherent difference in survival between these two cell lines in response to 10 ns exposures has been previously reported (Jurkat being more sensitive to nsPEF than U937), but the reason for this sensitivity difference remains unknown. We found that exposure of each cell line to 100, 10 ns pulses at 50 kV/cm caused a marked increase in expression of cFLIP (extrinsic apoptosis inhibitor) in U937 and FasL (extrinsic apoptosis activator) in Jurkat, respectively. Measurement of basal expression levels revealed an inherent difference between U937 cells, having a higher expression of cFLIP, and Jurkat cells, having a higher expression of FasL. From these data, we hypothesize that the sensitivity difference between the cells to nsPEF exposure may be directly related to expression of extrinsic apoptotic regulators. To validate this hypothesis, we used siRNA to knockdown cFLAR (coding for cFLIP protein) expression in U937, and FasL expression in Jurkat and challenged them to 100, 10 ns pulses at 150 kV/cm, a typical lethal dose. We observed that U937 survival was reduced nearly 60% in the knockdown population while Jurkat survival improved ~40%. These findings support the hypothesis that cell survival following 10 ns pulse exposures depends on extrinsic apoptotic regulators. Interestingly, pretreatment of U937 with a 100-pulse, 50 kV/cm exposure (to amplify cFLAR expression) significantly reduced the lethality of a 150 kV/cm, 100-pulse exposure applied 24 h later. From these data, we conclude that the observed survival differences between cells, exposed to 10 ns pulsed electric fields, is due to inherent cell biochemistry rather than the biophysics of the exposure itself. Understanding cell sensitivity to nsPEF may provide researchers/clinicians with a predicable way

  4. Acute kidney injury: a conspiracy of Toll-like receptor 4 on endothelia, leukocytes, and tubules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Christopher Y; Winterberg, Pamela D; Chen, Jianlin; Hartono, John R

    2012-10-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to considerable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and can contribute to rejection during kidney transplantation. Maladaptive immune responses can exacerbate injury, and targeting these responses holds promise as therapy for AKI. In the last decade, a number of molecules and receptors were identified in the innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This review primarily focuses on one pathway that leads to maladaptive inflammation: toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and one of its ligands, high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1). The temporal-spatial roles and potential therapeutics targeting this particular receptor-ligand interaction are also explored.

  5. A novel quinone-based derivative (DTNQ-Pro) induces apoptotic death via modulation of heat shock protein expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel; Campiglia, Pietro; Bertamino, Alessia; Aquino, Claudio; Sala, Marina; Grieco, Paolo; Dicitore, Alessandra; Vanacore, Daniela; Porta, Amalia; Maresca, Bruno; Novellino, Ettore; Stiuso, Paola

    2010-06-01

    The resistance of human colon adenocarcinoma cells to antineoplastic agents may be related to the high endogenous expression of stress proteins, including the family of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Recently, a quinone-based pentacyclic derivative, DTNQ-Pro, showed high cytotoxic activity in human colon carcinoma cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the precise cellular mechanisms of this cytotoxic action of DTNQ-Pro. Using human colorectal carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells as a model, we studied the effects of DTNQ-Pro on cellular viability and oxidative stress; HSP70 and HSP27 accumulation; and cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with DTNQ-Pro reduced cell growth and increased the levels of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. After 48 h of treatment, cells surviving showed an increased expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide production and membrane lipid peroxidation. Treatment with DTNQ-Pro decreased HSP70 expression, and redistributed HSP27 and vimentin within the cell. DTNQ-Pro down-regulated the expression of A and B cyclins with arrest of the cell cycle in S phase and increased cellular differentiation. A second treatment of Caco-2 cells with DTNQ-Pro induced cellular death by activation of the apoptotic pathway. DTNQ-Pro causes Caco-2 cell death by induction of apoptosis via inhibition of HSP70 accumulation and the intracellular redistribution of HSP27. These findings suggest the potential use of DTNQ-Pro in combination chemotherapy for colon cancer.

  6. The cytotoxic type 3 secretion system 1 of Vibrio rewires host gene expression to subvert cell death and activate cell survival pathways.

    PubMed

    De Nisco, Nicole J; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-05-16

    Bacterial effectors potently manipulate host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus ( V. para ) delivers effectors into host cells through two type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate nonapoptotic cell death. To understand how the concerted action of T3SS1 effectors globally affects host cell signaling, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1 + ) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1 - ). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1 + and T3SS1 - V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 rewired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors targeted host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, V. para T3SS1 also precipitated a host transcriptional response that initially activated cell survival and repressed cell death networks. The increased expression of several key prosurvival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 depended on a host signaling pathway that is silenced posttranslationally later in infection. Together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between the roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. PPARγ Ligand-induced Annexin A1 Expression Determines Chemotherapy Response via Deubiquitination of Death Domain Kinase RIP in Triple-negative Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luxi; Yuan, Yi; Kar, Shreya; Kanchi, Madhu M; Arora, Suruchi; Kim, Ji E; Koh, Pei F; Yousef, Einas; Samy, Ramar P; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Tan, Tuan Z; Shin, Sung W; Arfuso, Frank; Shen, Han M; Yang, Henry; Goh, Boon C; Park, Joo I; Gaboury, Louis; Lobie, Peter E; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K; Kumar, Alan P

    2017-11-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is still incurable so far; new specifically targeted and more effective therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are required in the clinic. In this study, our clinical data have established that basal and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC types) express significantly higher levels of Annexin A1 (ANXA1) with poor survival outcomes. Using human cancer cell lines that model the TNBC subtype, we observed a strong positive correlation between expression of ANXA1 and PPARγ. A similar correlation between these two markers was also established in our clinical breast cancer patients' specimens. To establish a link between these two markers in TNBC, we show de novo expression of ANXA1 is induced by activation of PPARγ both in vitro and in vivo and it has a predictive value in determining chemosensitivity to PPARγ ligands. Mechanistically, we show for the first time PPARγ-induced ANXA1 protein directly interacts with receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1), promoting its deubiquitination and thereby activating the caspase-8-dependent death pathway. We further identified this underlying mechanism also involved a PPARγ-induced ANXA1-dependent autoubiquitination of cIAP1, the direct E3 ligase of RIP1, shifting cIAP1 toward proteosomal degradation. Collectively, our study provides first insight for the suitability of using drug-induced expression of ANXA1 as a new player in RIP1-induced death machinery in TNBCs, presenting itself both as an inclusion criterion for patient selection and surrogate marker for drug response in future PPARγ chemotherapy trials. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2528-42. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of microRNA-128a expression contributes to the apoptosis-resistance of human T-cell leukaemia jurkat cells by modulating expression of fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nami; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Kumazaki, Minami; Shinohara, Haruka; Miki, Kohei; Naoe, Tomoki; Akao, Yukihiro

    2014-03-01

    Increased expression of miR-128a is often observed in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) compared with its expression in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of miR-128a, especially that in the Fas-signalling pathway, in T-cell leukaemia cells. The role of miR-128a in Fas-mediated apoptosis was examined by using Fas-activating antibody (CH-11)-susceptible Jurkat cells and -resistant Jurkat/R cells. Whereas ectopic expression of miR-128a conferred Fas-resistance on Jurkat cells by directly targeting Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), antagonizing miR-128a expression sensitized Jurkat/R cells to the Fas-mediated apoptosis through derepression of FADD expression. Myeloid leukaemia HL60 and K562 cells were also CH-11-resistant, sharing a similar resistant mechanism with Jurkat/R cells. Furthermore, CH-11 induced demethylation of the promoter region of miR-128a with resultant up-regulation of miR-128a expression in Jurkat/R cells, which was shown to be a mechanism for the resistance ofJurkat/R cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Our results indicate that the induction of miR-128a expression by DNA demethylation is a novel mechanism of resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

  9. Expression and potential role of apolipoprotein D on the death-survival balance of human colorectal cancer cells under oxidative stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Bajo-Grañeras, Raquel; Crespo-Sanjuan, Jesús; García-Centeno, Rosa M; Garrote-Adrados, José Antonio; Gutierrez, Gabriel; García-Tejeiro, Manuel; Aguirre-Gervás, Beatriz; Calvo-Nieves, María D; Bustamante, Rosa; Ganfornina, Maria D; Sanchez, Diego

    2013-06-01

    Inverse correlations of apolipoprotein D (ApoD) expression with tumor growth have been shown, therefore proposing ApoD as a good prognostic marker for diverse cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Besides, ApoD expression is boosted upon oxidative stress (OS) in many pathological situations. This study aims at understanding the role of ApoD in the progression of human CRC. Samples of CRC and distant normal tissue (n = 51) were assayed for levels of lipid peroxidation, expression profile of OS-dependent genes, and protein expression. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ApoD gene were analyzed (n = 139), with no significant associations found. Finally, we assayed the effect of ApoD in proliferation and apoptosis in the CRC HT-29 cell line. In CRC, lipid peroxides increase while ApoD messenger RNA and protein decrease through tumor progression, with a prominent decrease in stage I. In normal mucosa, ApoD protein is present in lamina propia and enteroendocrine cells. In CRC, ApoD expression is heterogeneous, with low expression in stromal cells commonly associated with high expression in the dysplastic epithelium. ApoD promoter is basally methylated in HT-29 cells but retains the ability to respond to OS. Exogenous addition of ApoD to HT-29 cells does not modify proliferation or apoptosis levels in control conditions, but it promotes apoptosis upon paraquat-induced OS. Our results show ApoD as a gene responding to OS in the tumor microenvironment. Besides using ApoD as marker of initial stages of tumor progression, it can become a therapeutic tool promoting death of proliferating tumor cells suffering OS.

  10. Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Differential Gene Expression of Immune and Cell Death Pathways in the Brains of Mice Infected with West Nile Virus and Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Stephanie M.; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Oduber, Minoushka; Martina, Eurydice; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Roose, Jeroen M.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Andeweg, Arno C.; Koraka, Penelope; Martina, Byron E. E.

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are arboviruses that are constantly (re-)emerging and expanding their territory. Both viruses often cause a mild form of disease, but severe forms of the disease can consist of neurological symptoms, most often observed in the elderly and young children, respectively, for which the mechanisms are poorly understood. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for end-stage WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease, we used transcriptomics to compare the induction of effector pathways in the brain during the early and late stage of disease in young mice. In addition to the more commonly described cell death pathways such as apoptosis and autophagy, we also found evidence for the differential expression of pyroptosis and necroptosis cell death markers during both WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease. In contrast, no evidence of cell dysfunction was observed, indicating that cell death may be the most important mechanism of disease. Interestingly, there was overlap when comparing immune markers involved in neuroinvasive disease to those seen in neurodegenerative diseases. Nonetheless, further validation studies are needed to determine the activation and involvement of these effector pathways at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, evidence for a strong inflammatory response was found in mice infected with WNV and CHIKV. The transcriptomics profile measured in mice with WNV and CHIKV neuroinvasive disease in our study showed strong overlap with the mRNA profile described in the literature for other viral neuroinvasive diseases. More studies are warranted to decipher the role of cell inflammation and cell death in viral neuroinvasive disease and whether common mechanisms are active in both neurodegenerative and brain infectious diseases. PMID:28861067

  11. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Holly A., E-mail: hport001@umaryland.edu; Molecular Medicine Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201; Carey, Gregory B., E-mail: gcarey@som.umaryland.edu

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression ofmore » IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.« less

  12. Death Cafe.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lizzy; Corr, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    This article explains the meaning of the phrase Death Cafe and describes what typically occurs at a Death Cafe gathering. The article traces the history of the Death Cafe movement, explores some reasons why people take part in a Death Cafe gathering, and gives examples of what individuals think they might derive from their participation. In addition, this article notes similarities between the Death Cafe movement and three other developments in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. Finally, this article identifies two provisional lessons that can be drawn from Death Cafe gatherings and the Death Cafe movement itself.

  13. EML4-ALK enhances programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jaemoon; Jang, Ji-Young; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Sehui; Kim, Moon-Young; Go, Heounjeong; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Chul-Woo; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Programmed cell death (PD)-1/PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1)-targeted therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. However, whether EML4-ALK regulates PD-L1 expression in lung cancer remains unknown. A total of 532 pulmonary adenocarcinomas (pADCs), including 58 ALK-translocated tumors, were immunohistochemically evaluated for PD-L1 and PD-1. H23 (EGFRWild-typeEML4-ALK−PD-L1Low) and H2228 (EGFRWild-typeEML4-ALK+PD-L1High) cells were transfected with EML4-ALK or ALK short interfering RNAs and used to investigate the alterations in PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 expression was detected in 81% of ALK-translocated pADCs; this value was significantly higher than those of pADCs with EGFR mutation, KRAS mutation or lacking ALK, EGFR or KRAS mutation (p <0.005 for all). Moreover, ALK-translocated pADC with PD-L1 expression showed significantly higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating PD-1+ cells. ALK knockdown or inhibition (crizotinib treatment) in H2228 cells downregulated PD-L1 expression. Transfection of H23 cells with EML4-ALK enhanced PD-L1 expression, which was compromised by crizotinib treatment. This ALK-dependent upregulation of PD-L1 expression was mediated by STAT3 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α under normoxia and hypoxia. Furthermore, EML4-ALK enhanced HIF-1α expression through increasing transcription and decreasing ubiquitination of HIF-1α. In ALK-translocated pADC tissues, significant positive correlations between PD-L1 and nuclear HIF-1α (p < 0.05) or pSTAT3 expression levels (p<0.005) were observed. Among patients with ALK-translocated pADC, strong PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with shorter progression-free (p = 0.001) and overall survival (p = 0.002) after crizotinib treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that ALK-derived pADCs increase PD-L1 expression via HIF-1α and/or STAT3, thus providing a rationale for PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-targeted therapy in ALK-translocated lung cancer. PMID:27141364

  14. Exogenous p53 and ASPP2 expression enhances rAdV-TK/GCV-induced death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells lacking functional p53

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xianghua; Wei, Feili; Yin, Jiming; Zang, Yunjin; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) in combination with ganciclovir (GCV) has emerged as a potential new method for treating cancer. We hypothesize that the efficacy of HSV-TK/GCV therapy is at least partially dependent on p53 status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Using recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAdV), TK, p53, and ASPP2 were overexpressed individually and in combination in Hep3B (p53 null) and HepG2 (p53 wild-type) cell lines and in primary HCC tumor cells. p53 overexpression induced death in Hep3B cells, but not HepG2 cells. ASPP2 overexpression increased rAdV-TK/GCV-induced HepG2 cell death by interacting with endogenous p53. Similarly, ASPP2 reduced survival in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated primary HCC cells expressing p53 wild-type but not a p53 R249S mutant. Mutated p53 was unable to bind to ASPP2, suggesting that the increase in rAdV-TK/GCV-induced cell death resulting from ASPP2 overexpression was dependent on its interaction with p53. Additionally, γ-H2AX foci, ATM phosphorylation, Bax, and p21 expression increased in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated HepG2 cells as compared to Hep3B cells. This suggests that the combined use of HSV-TK, GCV, rAdV-p53 and rAdV-ASPP2 may improve therapeutic efficacy in HCC patients lacking functional p53. PMID:26934443

  15. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates fat, sugar, and umami taste preference and food intake and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium. The role of TLR4 in food intake and weight gain was investigated in TLR4 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for 12 weeks. Compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice showed reduced preference for lipids, sugars, and umami in a two-bottle preference test. The altered taste perception was associated with decreased levels of key taste regulatory molecules in the tongue epithelium. TLR4 KO mice on a high-fat and high-sugar diet consumed less food and drink, resulting in diminished weight gain. TLR4 signaling promotes ingestion of sugar and fat by a mechanism involving increased preference for such obesogenic foods. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Toll-like Receptor 4 Mediates Morphine-Induced Neuroinflammation and Tolerance via Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, Lori N; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J; Tansey, Malu G; Murphy, Anne Z

    2017-01-01

    Opioid tolerance and the potential for addiction is a significant burden associated with pain management, yet its precise underlying mechanism and prevention remain elusive. Immune signaling contributes to the decreased efficacy of opioids, and we recently demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated neuroinflammation in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) drives tolerance. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a product of TLR4 signaling, promotes inflammation and facilitates glutamatergic signaling, key components of opioid tolerance. Therefore, we hypothesize that TLR4-mediated opioid tolerance requires TNF signaling. By expression of a dominant-negative TNF peptide via lentiviral vector injection in rat PAG to sequester soluble TNF (solTNF), we demonstrate that solTNF mediates morphine tolerance induced by TLR4 signaling, stimulates neuroinflammation (increased IL-1β and TLR4 mRNA), and disrupts glutamate reuptake (decreased GLT-1 and GLAST mRNA). We further demonstrate the efficacy of the brain-permeant PEGylated version of the anti-solTNF peptide, XPro1595, injected systemically, to normalize morphine-induced CNS neuroinflammation and morphine- and endotoxin-induced changes in glutamate transport, effectively preserving the efficacy of morphine analgesia and eliminating tolerance. Our findings provide a novel pharmacological target for the prevention of opioid-induced immune signaling, tolerance, and addiction. PMID:27461080

  17. Morphine enhances IL-1β release through toll-like receptor 4-mediated endocytic pathway in microglia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongxin; Chu, Haichen; Jiang, Yanan; Yuan, Li

    2016-12-01

    Morphine creates a neuroinflammatory response and enhances release of the proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which compromises morphine analgesia as well as induces morphine tolerance. In this study, we attempted to investigate the mechanisms of morphine induced IL-1β synthesis and release. Microglial cells were treated with morphine (100 μM) once daily for 3 days. Control groups underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of morphine. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) signaling were analyzed using Western blot; immunofluorescence was used to detect the signaling of CD68; real-time RT-PCR and ELISA kit was used to measure the messenger RNA and protein synthesis and release level of IL-1β. Morphine enhanced IL-1β synthesis and P2X4R protein expression. TLR4 were responsible for morphine-induced IL-1β synthesis, while morphine-induced IL-1β release was via P2X4R. Morphine-induced IL-1β release is mediated by endocytosis of TLR4. These results indicated that TLR4 and P2X4R pathways mediated IL-1β synthesis and release in microglia followed chronic morphine. TLR4 internalization is the main mechanism of morphine-induced microglia activation and IL-1β release.

  18. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in neurons of trigeminal ganglion contributes to nociception induced by acute pulpitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Du, Yi; Cai, Wen-Ke; Kuang, Rong; Chang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Kuang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Pain caused by acute pulpitis (AP) is a common symptom in clinical settings. However, its underlying mechanisms have largely remained unknown. Using AP model, we demonstrated that dental injury caused severe pulp inflammation with up-regulated serum IL-1β. Assessment from head-withdrawal reflex thresholds (HWTs) and open-field test demonstrated nociceptive response at 1 day post injury. A consistent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) ipsilateral to the injured pulp was found; and downstream signaling components of TLR4, including MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB, and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, were also increased. Retrograde labeling indicated that most TLR4 positve neuron in the TG innnervated the pulp and TLR4 immunoreactivity was mainly in the medium and small neurons. Double labeling showed that the TLR4 expressing neurons in the ipsilateral TG were TRPV1 and CGRP positive, but IB4 negative. Furthermore, blocking TLR4 by eritoran (TLR4 antagonist) in TGs of the AP model significantly down-regulated MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β production and behavior of nociceptive response. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling in TG cells, particularly the peptidergic TRPV1 neurons, plays a key role in AP-induced nociception, and indicate that TLR4 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for orofacial pain. PMID:26224622

  19. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in neurons of trigeminal ganglion contributes to nociception induced by acute pulpitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Du, Yi; Cai, Wen-Ke; Kuang, Rong; Chang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Kuang, Fang

    2015-07-30

    Pain caused by acute pulpitis (AP) is a common symptom in clinical settings. However, its underlying mechanisms have largely remained unknown. Using AP model, we demonstrated that dental injury caused severe pulp inflammation with up-regulated serum IL-1β. Assessment from head-withdrawal reflex thresholds (HWTs) and open-field test demonstrated nociceptive response at 1 day post injury. A consistent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) ipsilateral to the injured pulp was found; and downstream signaling components of TLR4, including MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB, and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, were also increased. Retrograde labeling indicated that most TLR4 positve neuron in the TG innnervated the pulp and TLR4 immunoreactivity was mainly in the medium and small neurons. Double labeling showed that the TLR4 expressing neurons in the ipsilateral TG were TRPV1 and CGRP positive, but IB4 negative. Furthermore, blocking TLR4 by eritoran (TLR4 antagonist) in TGs of the AP model significantly down-regulated MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β production and behavior of nociceptive response. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling in TG cells, particularly the peptidergic TRPV1 neurons, plays a key role in AP-induced nociception, and indicate that TLR4 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for orofacial pain.

  20. δ-opioid receptor and somatostatin receptor-4 heterodimerization: possible implications in modulation of pain associated signaling.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Rishi K; Kumar, Ujendra

    2014-01-01

    Pain relief is the principal action of opioids. Somatostatin (SST), a growth hormone inhibitory peptide is also known to alleviate pain even in cases when opioids fail. Recent studies have shown that mice are prone to sustained pain and devoid of analgesic effect in the absence of somatostatin receptor 4 (SSTR4). In the present study, using brain slices, cultured neurons and HEK-293 cells, we showed that SSTR4 and δ-Opioid receptor (δOR) exist in a heteromeric complex and function in synergistic manner. SSTR4 and δOR co-expressed in cortical/striatal brain regions and spinal cord. Using cultured neuronal cells, we describe the heterogeneous complex formation of SSTR4 and δOR at neuronal cell body and processes. Cotransfected cells display inhibition of cAMP/PKA and co-activation of SSTR4 and δOR oppose receptor trafficking induced by individual receptor activation. Furthermore, downstream signaling pathways either associated with withdrawal or pain relief are modulated synergistically with a predominant role of SSTR4. Inhibition of cAMP/PKA and activation of ERK1/2 are the possible cellular adaptations to prevent withdrawal induced by chronic morphine use. Our results reveal direct intra-membrane interaction between SSTR4 and δOR and provide insights for the molecular mechanism for the anti-nociceptive property of SST in combination with opioids as a potential therapeutic approach to avoid undesirable withdrawal symptoms.

  1. Galangin induces cell death by modulating the expression of glyoxalase-1 and Nrf-2 in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Tiku, A B

    2018-01-05

    The present study was designed to understand the anticancer property and molecular mechanisms associated with chemo preventive effects of galangin. The anticancer effect was evaluated in vitro using human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Galangin was found to be effective in inducing cell death and inhibiting proliferation & migration significantly. The inhibitory effect of galangin could be correlated with the increase in ROS production & induction of apoptosis. Besides this the activity of glyoxalase-1, an enzyme important for the detoxification of cytotoxic metabolite methy glyoxal and Nrf-2 (a trascription factor), involved in redox signalling were found to be decreased. We concluded that galangin exerts its chemo preventive effect via redox signalling by inhibiting glyoxalase-1 & increasing oxidative & carbonyl stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered expression of long non-coding RNAs during genotoxic stress-induced cell death in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Sun, Shanquan; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Jin; Zhuo, Fei; Qiu, Guoping; Xu, Shiye; Jiang, Xuli

    2015-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a recently discovered class of non-coding genes, are transcribed throughout the genome. Emerging evidence suggests that lncRNAs may be involved in modulating various aspects of tumor biology, including regulating gene activity in response to external stimuli or DNA damage. No data are available regarding the expression of lncRNAs during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in human glioma cells. In this study, we detected a change in the expression of specific candidate lncRNAs (neat1, GAS5, TUG1, BC200, Malat1, MEG3, MIR155HG, PAR5, and ST7OT1) during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in human glioma cell lines (U251 and U87) using doxorubicin (DOX) and resveratrol (RES). We also detected the expression pattern of these lncRNAs in human glioma cell lines under necrosis induced using an increased dose of DOX. Our results reveal that the lncRNA expression patterns are distinct between genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human glioma cells. The sets of lncRNA expressed during genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis were DNA-damaging agent-specific. Generally, MEG3 and ST7OT1 are up-regulated in both cell lines under apoptosis induced using both agents. The induction of GAS5 is only clearly detected during DOX-induced apoptosis, whereas the up-regulation of neat1 and MIR155HG is only found during RES-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. However, TUG1, BC200 and MIR155HG are down regulated when necrosis is induced using a high dose of DOX in both cell lines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the distinct regulation of lncRNAs may possibly involve in the process of cellular defense against genotoxic agents.

  3. In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity of a Synthetic Glycolipid as Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Activator*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Shiang; Huang, Li-De; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Huang, Po-Hsiung; Chen, Yu-Jen; Wong, Fen-Hwa; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Fu, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) triggers the innate immune response and leads to the induction of adaptive immunity. TLR4 agonists are known to function as immunostimulants and exhibit promising therapeutic potential for cancer immunotherapy. We have previously developed a synthetic serine-based glycolipid (designated as CCL-34) that can activate TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. In this study, the anticancer immunity of CCL-34 was further demonstrated. CCL-34-activated macrophages induced cancer cell death via the apoptotic pathway, and this cytotoxicity was significantly inhibited by NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (an inducible NOS inhibitor). Notably, conditioned medium collected from CCL-34-treated splenocytes also induced cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL-34 treatment suppressed tumor growth and increased the survival rate in TLR4-functional C3H/HeN mice but not in TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. Increased apoptosis, the induction of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and chemokines (CXCL9 and CXCL10), and the elevation of leukocyte markers (CD11b, CD11c, CD4, and CD8) were detected at tumor sites in C3H/HeN mice but not in C3H/HeJ mice. Structure-and-activity relationship analysis of CCL-34 and its structural analogs revealed that a sugar moiety is essential for its activity. However, the substitution of the galactose in CCL-34 with glucose or fucose did not reduce its activity. Altogether, this study reveals the anticancer activity of a new synthetic TLR4 agonist and broadens the molecular basis of TLR4-activating glycolipids. PMID:21949133

  4. Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase III, a Nucleus Pulposus Phenotypic Marker, is Hypoxia-responsive and Confers Protection from Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Silagi, Elizabeth S; Batista, Philip; Shapiro, Irving M; Risbud, Makarand V

    2018-03-20

    The integrity of the avascular nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intervertebral disc health. While advances have been made to define the molecular phenotype of healthy NP cells, the functional relevance of several of these markers remains unknown. In this study, we test the hypothesis that expression of Carbonic Anhydrase III (CAIII), a marker of the notochordal NP, is hypoxia-responsive and functions as a potent antioxidant without a significant contribution to pH homeostasis. NP, but not annulus fibrosus or end-plate cells, robustly expressed CAIII protein in skeletally mature animals. Although CAIII expression was hypoxia-inducible, we did not observe binding of HIF-1α to select hypoxia-responsive-elements on Car3 promoter using genomic chromatin-immunoprecipitation. Similarly, analysis of discs from NP-specific HIF-1α null mice suggested that CAIII expression was independent of HIF-1α. Noteworthy, silencing CAIII in NP cells had no effect on extracellular acidification rate, CO 2 oxidation rate, or intracellular pH, but rather sensitized cells to oxidative stress-induced death mediated through caspase-3. Our data clearly suggests that CAIII serves as an important antioxidant critical in protecting NP cells against oxidative stress-induced injury.

  5. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 ameliorates experimental postischemic injury in the cholestatic liver through inhibition of high-mobility group box protein b1 (HMGB1) signaling.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Kokuryo, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Nagino, Masato

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate whether the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 attenuates liver injury ischemia/reperfusion in the cholestatic liver. Rats were assigned into sham, bile duct ligation, sham ischemia/reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion after laparotomy), and bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion after bile duct ligation) groups. In some rats, TAK-242, an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4, was administered 15 minutes before ischemia/reperfusion. We measured intrahepatic Toll-like receptor 4 expression, serum hepatic marker expression, liver necrosis, gene expression of inflammation-associated factors, and serum high-mobility group box protein b1 levels. Intrahepatic Toll-like receptor 4 expression was significantly greater in the bile duct ligation group than in the sham group. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was further increased after ischemia/reperfusion in bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion groups. The levels of serum hepatic markers were significantly greater in both the sham ischemia/reperfusion and bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion groups than in the groups without ischemia/reperfusion. Liver necrosis was greater in the bile duct ligation group than in the sham group and was further increased in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group. Genomic expression of inflammation-associated factors was also significantly greater in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group than in the sham group. Serum high-mobility groups box protein b1 levels were greater in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group than in the sham group (28.1 ng/ml versus 9.2 ng/ml, P = .011) and the bile duct ligation group (28.1 ng/ml versus 10.6 ng/ml, P = .017). These changes in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly attenuated by preconditioning with TAK242. Toll-like receptor 4 inhibition has a potential to minimize severe injury after ischemia/reperfusion in the

  6. Expression of human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis and apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Athwal, T; Huang, W; Mukherjee, R; Latawiec, D; Chvanov, M; Clarke, R; Smith, K; Campbell, F; Merriman, C; Criddle, D; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Vlatković, N

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal dominant disease that displays the features of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Mutations in human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) are associated with HP and have provided some insight into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but mechanisms responsible for the initiation of pancreatitis have not been elucidated and the role of apoptosis and necrosis has been much debated. However, it has been generally accepted that trypsinogen, prematurely activated within the pancreatic acinar cell, has a major role in the initiation process. Functional studies of HP have been limited by the absence of an experimental system that authentically mimics disease development. We therefore developed a novel transgenic murine model system using wild-type (WT) human PRSS1 or two HP-associated mutants (R122H and N29I) to determine whether expression of human cationic trypsinogen in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis. The rat elastase promoter was used to target transgene expression to pancreatic acinar cells in three transgenic strains that were generated: Tg(Ela-PRSS1)NV, Tg(Ela-PRSS1*R122H)NV and Tg(Ela-PRSS1*N29I)NV. Mice were analysed histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. We found that transgene expression is restricted to pancreatic acinar cells and transgenic PRSS1 proteins are targeted to the pancreatic secretory pathway. Animals from all transgenic strains developed pancreatitis characterised by acinar cell vacuolisation, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis. Transgenic animals also developed more severe pancreatitis upon treatment with low-dose cerulein than controls, displaying significantly higher scores for oedema, inflammation and overall histopathology. Expression of PRSS1, WT or mutant, in acinar cells increased apoptosis in pancreatic tissues and isolated acinar cells. Moreover, studies of isolated acinar cells demonstrated that transgene expression promotes apoptosis rather than necrosis. We therefore

  7. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is associated with RAS/TP53 mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Serra, Pierre; Petat, Arthur; Maury, Jean-Michel; Thivolet-Bejui, Françoise; Chalabreysse, Lara; Barritault, Marc; Ebran, Nathalie; Milano, Gérard; Girard, Nicolas; Brevet, Marie

    2018-04-01

    The systematic assessment of anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in lung adenocarcinomas is becoming standard practice. However, the assessment of PD-L1 expression on small tissue specimens needs to be evaluated and the association with other features more thoroughly analyzed. This retrospective single center study evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the SP263 anti-PD-L1 antibody on tissue microarrays (TMA) of 152 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas, using a 25% positivity threshold. The positive cases and 50 randomly chosen negative cases in tissue microarray (TMA) were reassessed on whole tissue sections. The results were correlated to clinical, histopathological and to molecular data obtained through the screening of 214 mutations in 26 genes (LungCarta panel, Agena Biosciences). Among 152 primary lung adenocarcinomas, 19 cases (13%) showed PD-L1 expression. The agreement between TMA and whole tissue sections was 89%, specificity was 97%. PD-L1 expression was correlated to RAS mutations (p = .04), RAS/TP53 co-mutations (p = .01) and to the solid or acinar subtype (p = .048). With the SP263 PD-L1 antibody, small samples appear as a reliable means to evaluate the PD-L1 status in lung adenocarcinoma. The association between PD-L1 expression and RAS/TP53 mutations may have clinical relevance to predict the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly electronegative low-density lipoprotein L5 evokes microglial activation and creates a neuroinflammatory stress via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang-En; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Lee, Ching-Tien; Wang, Jiz-Yuh

    2017-07-01

    Atherogenic risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, are associated with increased risk of neurodegeneration, especially Alzheimer's dementia. Human plasma electronegative low-density lipoprotein [LDL(-)], especially L5, may serve as an important contributing factor. L5 promoting an inflammatory action in atherosclerosis has been extensively studied. However, the role of L5 in inducing neuroinflammation remains unknown. Here, we examined the impact of L5 on immune activation and cell viability in cultured BV-2 microglia. BV-2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide or human LDLs (L1, L5, or oxLDL) were subjected to molecular/biochemical assays for measuring microglial activation, levels of inflammatory factors, and cell survival. A transwell BV-2/N2a co-culture was used to assess N2a cell viability following BV-2 cell exposure to L5. We found that L5 enables the activation of microglia and elicits an inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased oxygen/nitrogen free radicals (nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and peroxides), elevated tumor necrosis factor-α levels, decreased basal interleukin-10 levels, and augmented production of pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2). L5 also triggered BV-2 cell death primarily via apoptosis. These effects were markedly disrupted by the application of signaling pathway inhibitors, thus demonstrating that L5 interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 to modulate multiple pathways, including MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and NF-κB. Decreased N2a cell viability in a transwell co-culture was mainly ascribed to L5-induced BV-2 cell activation. Together, our data suggest that L5 creates a neuroinflammatory stress via microglial Toll-like receptor 4, thereby leading to the death of BV-2 microglia and coexistent N2a cells. Atherogenic L5 possibly contributes to neuroinflammation-related neurodegeneration. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Effects of the knockdown of death-associated protein 3 expression on cell adhesion, growth and migration in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Umar; Sanders, Andrew J; Wazir, Ahmad M A; Ye, Lin; Jiang, Wen G; Ster, Irina C; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah

    2015-05-01

    The death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) is a highly conserved phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of autophagy. A previous clinical study by our group suggested an association between low DAP3 expression and clinicopathological parameters of human breast cancer. In the present study, we intended to determine the role of DAP3 in cancer cell behaviour in the context of human breast cancer. We developed knockdown sub-lines of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and performed growth, adhesion, invasion assays and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) studies of post-wound migration of the cells. In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of caspase 8 and 9, death ligand signal enhancer (DELE), IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS1), cyclin D1 and p21 in the control and knockdown sub-lines. The knockdown sub-lines of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 had significantly increased adhesion and decreased growth when compared to the controls. Furthermore, invasion and migration were significantly increased in the MDA-MB-231DAP3kd cells vs. the controls. The expression of caspase 9 and IPS1, known components of the apoptosis pathway, were significantly reduced in the MCF7DAP3kd cells (p=0.05 and p=0.003, respectively). We conclude that DAP3 silencing contributes to breast carcinogenesis by increasing cell adhesion, migration and invasion. It is possible that this may be due to the activity of focal adhesion kinase further downstream of the anoikis pathway. Further research in this direction would be beneficial in increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying human breast cancer.

  10. Prognostic value of programmed death-1, programmed death-ligand 1, programmed death-ligand 2 expression, and CD8(+) T cell density in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Su; Xu, Dazhi; Chen, Shangxiang; Cai, Yuchen; Jiang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xinke; Sun, Jin; Wang, Kefeng; Chang, Boyang; Wang, Fenghua; Hong, Minghuang

    2017-07-29

    Anti-programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy has been proved to be effective on gastric cancer in ongoing clinical trials. However, the value of PD-L1 in predicting responses of patients with gastric cancer to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy is controversial. Some studies suggested that intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression might explain the controversy. This study aimed to analyze the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 as well as CD8(+) T-cell density in primary tumors and lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma to explore the heterogeneity of PD-1 signaling pathway molecules. In primary tumors and metastatic as well as non-metastatic lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma, we detected PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression with immunohistochemistry. CD8(+) T-cell density in primary tumors and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells were detected with immunofluorescence. Univariate analysis was used to determine the prognostic values of them. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify independent risk factors that affect patients' overall survival and disease-free survival. Among 119 eligible patients who had undergone surgical resection, the positive rate of PD-L1 was higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in primary tumors (45.4% vs. 38.7%, P = 0.005); the positive rate of PD-1 on CD8(+) T cells was significantly higher in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes than in tumor-free lymph nodes (both P < 0.001). The intensity of PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors and in metastatic lymph nodes were stronger than that in tumor-free lymph nodes from the same patient. Beside, the positive rate of PD-L2 did not show any differences between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression, PD-L2 expression, a low density of CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors, and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells in

  11. Evidence of activation of the Toll-like receptor-4 proinflammatory pathway in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    García-Bueno, Borja; Gassó, Patricia; MacDowell, Karina S.; Callado, Luis F.; Mas, Sergi; Bernardo, Miguel; Lafuente, Amalia; Meana, J. Javier; Leza, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in the innate immune/inflammatory system may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but we do not understand the mechanisms involved. The main agents of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which detect molecular patterns associated with damage and pathogens. The TLR first reported was TLR4, and it is still the most studied one. Methods We aimed to describe putative modifications to the TLR4 proinflammatory pathway using 2 different strategies in 2 cohorts of patients with schizophrenia and matched controls: 1) quantification of protein and mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal cortex samples from 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 controls, and 2) identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the risk of schizophrenia using whole blood samples from 214 patients with schizophrenia and 216 controls. Results We found evidence of alterations in the expression of the initial elements of the TLR4 signalling pathway (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 [MyD88] and nuclear factor-κ B [NF-κB]) in the PFC of patients with schizophrenia. These alterations seem to depend on the presence/absence of antipsychotic treatment at death. Moreover, a polymorphism within the MyD88 gene was significantly associated with schizophrenia risk. Limitations The use of 2 different approaches in 2 different cohorts, the lack of a complementary neuropsychiatric group, the possible confounding effects of antipsychotic treatment and suicide are the main limitations of our study. Conclusion The evidence from this dual approach suggests there is an altered innate immune response in patients with chronic schizophrenia in which the TLR4 proinflammatory pathway could be affected. Improved understanding of the stimuli and mechanisms responsible for this response could lead to improved schizophrenia treatment and better control of the side effects of current antipsychotics. PMID:27070349

  12. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  13. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  14. Pulmonary contusion is associated with toll-like receptor 4 upregulation and decreased susceptibility to pseudomonas pneumonia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Southard, Robert; Ghosh, Sarbani; Hilliard, Julia; Davis, Chris; Mazuski, Cristina; Walton, Andrew; Hotchkiss, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Pulmonary contusion is a major cause of respiratory failure in trauma patients. This injury frequently leads to immune suppression and infectious complications such as pneumonia. The mechanism whereby trauma leads to an immune-suppressed state is poorly understood. To further study this phenomenon, we developed an animal model of pulmonary contusion (PC) complicated by pneumonia and assessed the effect of PC and pneumonia on toll-like receptor expression in alveolar macrophages. Using a mouse model, PC was induced on the right lung, and pneumonia was induced with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) injected intratracheally 48 h after injury. Susceptibility to pneumonia was assessed by mortality at 7 days. Uninjured animals were used as controls. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood were assayed 48 h after injury and 24 h after Pa instillation to look at markers of systemic inflammation. Toll-like receptor expression in the initial inflammatory response was analyzed by flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, injured animals subjected to intratracheal injection of Pa at 48 h after PC demonstrated increased survival compared with uninjured animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytokine expression was increased significantly after Pa administration but not after PC alone. Toll-like receptor 4 expression on alveolar macrophages was significantly elevated in the injured group compared with sham but not in neutrophils. Animals subjected to PC are more resistant to mortality from infection with Pa and display an enhanced cytokine response when subsequently subjected to Pa. Increased expression of toll-like receptor 4 on alveolar macrophages and enhanced innate immunity are a possible mechanism of increased cytokine production and decreased susceptibility to pneumonia.

  15. Frequencies and expression levels of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in various cancer types.

    PubMed

    Ishiba, Toshiyuki; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Usher, Joshua; Elshimali, Yahya; Sturdevant, Todd; Dang, Mai; Jaimes, Yolanda; Tyagi, Rama; Gonzalez, Ronald; Grino, Mary; Pinski, Jacek K; Barzi, Afsaneh; Raez, Luis E; Eberhardt, Wilfried E; Theegarten, Dirk; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Danenberg, Peter V; Danenberg, Kathleen

    2018-04-18

    Precision medicine and prediction of therapeutic response requires monitoring potential biomarkers before and after treatment. Liquid biopsies provide noninvasive prognostic markers such as circulating tumor DNA and RNA. Circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in blood is also used to identify mutations in genes of interest, but additionally, provides information about relative expression levels of important genes. In this study, we analyzed PD-L1 expression in ctRNA isolated from various cancer types. Tumors inhibit antitumor response by modulating the immune checkpoint proteins programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its cognate receptor PD1. The expression of these genes has been implicated in evasion of immune response and resistance to targeted therapies. Blood samples were collected from gastric (GC), colorectal (CRC), lung (NSCLC), breast (BC), prostate cancer (PC) patients, and a healthy control group. ctRNA was purified from fractionated plasma, and following reverse transcription, levels of PD-L1 expression were analyzed using qPCR. PD-L1 expression was detected in the plasma ctRNA of all cancer types at varying frequencies but no PD-L1 mRNA was detected in cancer-free individuals. The frequencies of PD-L1 expression were significantly different among the various cancer types but the median relative PD-L1 expression values were not significantly different. In 12 cases where plasma and tumor tissue were available from the same patients, there was a high degree of concordance between expression of PD-L1 protein in tumor tissues and PD-L1 gene expression in plasma, and both methods were equally predictive of response to nivolumab. PD-L1 mRNA can be detected and quantitated in ctRNA of cancer patients. These results pave the way for further studies aimed at determining whether monitoring the levels of PD-L1 mRNA in blood can identify patients who are most likely to benefit from the conventional treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer via PI3K/AKT signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yunliang; Wu, Congshan; Ma, Jianxia, E-mail: yz_mjx@163.com

    2016-10-01

    Deregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is closely associated with the progression of various types of cancers, but its role in pancreatic carcinogenesis is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of TLR4 in the angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The culture supernatant (conditioned medium) of PANC-1 cells after appropriate treatment was used for the treatment of HUVECs. The proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs were assessed by MTT, Transwell and Matrigel, respectively. In pancreatic cancer tissues, TLR4, VEGF and CD31 were upregulated as determined by immunohistochemistry and the expression of TLR4 and VEGFmore » was positively correlated with microvessel density as detected by CD31 staining. Activation of TLR4 signaling by LPS in PANC-1 cells resulted in increased VEGF and phosphorylation of AKT, which were abolished by TLR4 silencing with siRNA and PI3K/AKT signaling inhibitor LY294002. The conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells treated with LY294002 or transfected with TRL4 siRNA reduced the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. In contrast, the conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells treated with LPS stimulated the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs, which was however significantly inhibited by pretreatment of PANC-1 cells with LY294002 or transfection with TRL4 siRNA. Our findings suggest TLR4 may promote angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to induce VEGF expression.« less

  17. Blockade of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Facilitates the Pain Relieving Properties of Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, Lori N.

    2013-01-01

    The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an integral locus for morphine action. Although it is clear that glia contribute to the development of morphine tolerance, to date, the investigation of their role has been limited to spinal and medullary loci. Opioids induce a neuroinflammatory response that opposes acute and long-term analgesia, thereby limiting their efficacy as therapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), along with its coreceptor myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), mediates these effects. To date, the brain loci through which TLR4 modulates morphine tolerance have not been identified. We have previously demonstrated that chronic subcutaneous morphine results in tolerance that is accompanied by increases in vlPAG glial cell activity. Using in vivo pharmacological manipulations of vlPAG glia and TLR4 in the adult male rat, we show that intra-vlPAG administration of the general glial cell metabolic inhibitor propentofylline or the astrocyte activity inhibitor fluorocitrate attenuate tolerance to morphine. Characterization of MD-2 expression within the PAG revealed dense MD-2 expression throughout the vlPAG. Further, antagonizing vlPAG TLR4 dose dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance, and vlPAG microinjections of TLR4 agonists dose dependently produced a “naive” tolerance to subsequent challenge doses of morphine. Finally, using a model of persistent inflammatory pain and pharmacological manipulation of TLR4 we demonstrate that systemic antagonism of TLR4 potentiated acute morphine antihyperalgesia. These results, together, indicate that vlPAG glia regulate morphine tolerance development via TLR4 signaling, and implicate TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. PMID:24089500

  18. Blockade of Toll-like receptor 4 attenuates morphine tolerance and facilitates the pain relieving properties of morphine.

    PubMed

    Eidson, Lori N; Murphy, Anne Z

    2013-10-02

    The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an integral locus for morphine action. Although it is clear that glia contribute to the development of morphine tolerance, to date, the investigation of their role has been limited to spinal and medullary loci. Opioids induce a neuroinflammatory response that opposes acute and long-term analgesia, thereby limiting their efficacy as therapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), along with its coreceptor myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), mediates these effects. To date, the brain loci through which TLR4 modulates morphine tolerance have not been identified. We have previously demonstrated that chronic subcutaneous morphine results in tolerance that is accompanied by increases in vlPAG glial cell activity. Using in vivo pharmacological manipulations of vlPAG glia and TLR4 in the adult male rat, we show that intra-vlPAG administration of the general glial cell metabolic inhibitor propentofylline or the astrocyte activity inhibitor fluorocitrate attenuate tolerance to morphine. Characterization of MD-2 expression within the PAG revealed dense MD-2 expression throughout the vlPAG. Further, antagonizing vlPAG TLR4 dose dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance, and vlPAG microinjections of TLR4 agonists dose dependently produced a "naive" tolerance to subsequent challenge doses of morphine. Finally, using a model of persistent inflammatory pain and pharmacological manipulation of TLR4 we demonstrate that systemic antagonism of TLR4 potentiated acute morphine antihyperalgesia. These results, together, indicate that vlPAG glia regulate morphine tolerance development via TLR4 signaling, and implicate TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain.

  19. Toll-like receptor 4 in glial inflammatory responses to air pollution in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Nicholas C; Levine, Morgan C; Haghani, Amin; Shirmohammadi, Farimah; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Morgan, Todd E; Finch, Caleb E

    2017-04-14

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with accelerated cognitive aging and higher dementia risk in human populations. Rodent brains respond to TRAP with activation of astrocytes and microglia, increased inflammatory cytokines, and neurite atrophy. A role for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was suggested in mouse TLR4-knockouts, which had attenuated lung macrophage responses to air pollution. To further analyze these mechanisms, we examined mixed glial cultures (astrocytes and microglia) for RNA responses to nanoscale particulate matter (nPM; diameter <0.2 μm), a well-characterized nanoscale particulate matter subfraction of TRAP collected from a local freeway (Morgan et al. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119,1003-1009, 2011). The nPM was compared with responses to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classic TLR4 ligand, using Affymetrix whole genome microarray in rats. Expression patterns were analyzed by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) for fold change and by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify modules of shared responses between nPM and LPS. Finally, we examined TLR4 activation in hippocampal tissue from mice chronically exposed to nPM. SAM and WGCNA analyses showed strong activation of TLR4 and NF-κB by both nPM and LPS. TLR4 siRNA attenuated TNFα and other inflammatory responses to nPM in vitro, via the MyD88-dependent pathway. In vivo, mice chronically exposed to nPM showed increased TLR4, MyD88, TNFα, and TNFR2 RNA, and decreased NF-κB and TRAF6 RNA TLR4 and NF-κB responses in the hippocampus. These results show TLR4 activation is integral in brain inflammatory responses to air pollution, and warrant further study of TLR4 in accelerated cognitive aging by air pollution.

  20. [The effect of Toll-like receptor 4 in nicotine suppressing the osteogenic potential of periodontal ligament stem cells].

    PubMed

    Luan, Yan; Deqin, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Objective To explore the impact of nicotine on proliferation and osteogenic capability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in nicotine, suppressing the osteogenic capability of PDLSCs. Methods PDLSCs were cultured in vitro, and the flow cytometer was used to identify the surface antigen markers of PDLSCs. WST-1 was used to detect the proliferation ability of PDLSCs, which were stimulated by different concentrations of nicotine. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the formation of mineralized nodules after PDLSCs stimulation with different concentrations of nicotine. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the change in osteogenic potential of PDLSCs stimulated by nicotine, after TAK-242, and with the inhibitor of TLR4. Results PDLSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell-associated markers CD90 and CD105. When the concentration of nicotine was 10⁻⁴ mol·L⁻¹, the PDLSC proliferation could be suppressed after 3 d compared with the control group (P<0.05). The amount of mineralized nodules reduced after osteogenic differentiation at 21 d by alizarin red staining. RT-PCR and Western blot showed the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN), and the Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2) were lower than in the control group when nicotine suppressed the PDLSCs (P<0.05). This effect was attenuated after TAK-242 was added. Conclusion Nicotine suppresses the proliferation and osteogenic capability of PDLSCs, which may be regulated by TLR4.

  1. Growth performance, reproductive traits and offspring survivability of genetically modified rams overexpressing toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu-Chang; Han, Hong-Bing; Song, Xu-Ting; Deng, Shou-Long; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Ming-Hai; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Qi, Mei-Yu; He, Hai-Juan; Wang, Su-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shi; Li, Wu; Lian, Zheng-Xing

    2017-07-01

    Genetic modification provides a means to enhancing disease resistance in animals. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the TLR family, is critical for the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria by host immune cells, which initiates cell activation and subsequently triggers a proinflammatory response to the invading pathogens. In this study, the first generation of genetically modified (GM) sheep overexpressing TLR4 was produced by microinjection for better disease resistance. Compared with wild-type (WT) rams, the GM rams have similar growth performance, basic semen quality and spermatozoon ultrastructure. The offspring birth rates after cervical artificial insemination were also similar between GM (90.32%) and WT (92.38%) rams. Overall, the presence and expression of the TLR4 transgene in the genome did not appear to interfere with normal semen production, reproductive traits and the ability of transgene transmission to offspring. The expression levels of TLR4, tumor necrosis factor and interferon gamma genes in monocyte/macrophages from GM sheep were significantly higher than that from WT sheep at early stages after LPS stimulation. The GM offspring born from the founder transgenic ram inseminated ewes had similar survival rate with WT offspring (88.89% vs 84.86%) at weaning. The TLR4 transgene showed no deleterious effects on growth performance, reproductive traits and offspring survivability of GM rams. Therefore, the GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 provide a powerful experimental model for analyzing function of TLR4 in vivo during infection and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulmonary Epithelial Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation leads to Lung Injury in Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis1

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hongpeng; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Martin, Laura Y.; Good, Misty; Zhou, Qinjie; Sung, Jungeun; Fulton, William B.; Nino, Diego F.; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We seek to define the mechanisms leading to the development of lung disease in the setting of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease of premature infants characterized by the sudden onset of intestinal necrosis. NEC development in mice requires activation of the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) on the intestinal epithelium, through its effects on modulating epithelial injury and repair. Although NEC-associated lung injury is more severe than the lung injury that occurs in premature infants without NEC, the mechanisms leading to its development remain unknown. We now show that the TLR4 expression in the lung gradually increases during postnatal development, and that mice and humans with NEC-associated lung inflammation express higher levels of pulmonary TLR4 than age-matched controls. NEC in wild-type newborn mice resulted in significant pulmonary injury that was prevented by deletion of TLR4 from the pulmonary epithelium, indicating a role for pulmonary TLR4 in lung injury development. Mechanistically, intestinal epithelial TLR4 activation induced high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) release from the intestine which activated pulmonary epithelial TLR4, leading to the induction of the neutrophil recruiting C-X-C motif chemokine-5 (CXCL5) and the influx of pro-inflammatory neutrophils to the lung. Strikingly, the aerosolized administration of a novel carbohydrate TLR4 inhibitor prevented CXCL5 upregulation and blocked NEC-induced lung injury in mice. These findings illustrate the critical role of pulmonary TLR4 in the development of NEC-associated lung injury, and suggest that inhibition of this innate immune receptor in the neonatal lung may prevent this devastating complication of NEC. PMID:27307558

  3. Association of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway with steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Kun-Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Zhi-Bin; Fan, Li-Hong; Sun, Shui

    2014-10-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is frequently observed in patients treated with excessive corticosteroids. However, the pathogenesis of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg/kg methylprednisolone (MP) for 8 weeks, twice per week. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after the last MP injection, respectively, and then allocated to the 2-, 4- and 8-week model groups (n=24 each). Rats in the control group (n=12) were not given any treatment. Histopathological analysis was performed and the concentration of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in plasma was determined. The activation of osteoclasts in the femoral head was assessed by TRAP staining. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6 and NF-κB p65 that are involved in TLR4 signaling, and MCP-1 production were detected by using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that the osteonecrosis in the femoral head was clearly observed and the concentration of TRAP in the plasma was increased in the model rats. The femoral head tissues in MP-treated rats were positive for TRAP and the intensity of TRAP staining was greater in MP-treated rats than in control rats. As compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of TLR4 signaling-related factors was enhanced significantly at 4 and 8 weeks, and the protein levels of these factors increased significantly with time. It was concluded that MP could induce the femoral head osteonecrosis in rats, which was associated with osteoclast activation via the TLR4 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that TLR4 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis.

  4. Smad8 is expressed in the anterior necrotic zone: evidence for a role of bone morphogenetic proteins/SMAD signaling in the activation of a molecular cascade that culminates in cell death.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Buis, René F; Bustamante, Marcia; Cuervo, Rodrigo; Aguilar-Fernández-de-Lara, Dante; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a crucial role in programmed cell death (PCD), a biological process required for the sculpturing of the embryonic limbs. However, it is unknown if BMP signaling directly promotes cell death, or if it induces a molecular cascade that culminates in cell death. Given that Smad8, which encodes one component of BMP signaling, is expressed during the regression of interdigital tissue and responds to BMPs, we presumed that it may be expressed in other cell death areas during chick limb development such as the anterior and posterior necrotic zones (ANZ and PNZ). The present study found that the Smad8 expression pattern in the anterior mesoderm of the hindlimb is very similar to that observed in limbs stained to detect cell death. Also, BMPs and retinoic acid, which act as apoptosis-promoting factors, induced expression of Smad8 before the onset of cell death, while sonic hedgehog protein, acting as a survival factor, inhibited Smad8 expression in the ANZ. However, although there was correlation between Smad8 expression patterns and PCD in the ANZ, phosphorylated forms of SMAD1/5/8 and TUNEL staining did not co-localize in dying cells. Interestingly, a short pulse of BMP was sufficient to trigger cell death. On the other hand, most dying cells were located in the avascular region, while many cells expressing Smad8 were located in the vascular region of the ANZ. These results suggest that BMPs mediated by SMAD signaling activate a molecular cascade that culminates in PCD. © 2011 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2011 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  5. Increased Amyloid Precursor Protein and Tau Expression Manifests as Key Secondary Cell Death in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Sandra A.; Tajiri, Naoki; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    In testing the hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD)‐like pathology in late stage traumatic brain injury (TBI), we evaluated AD pathological markers in late stage TBI model. Sprague–Dawley male rats were subjected to moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, and 6 months later euthanized and brain tissues harvested. Results from H&E staining revealed significant 33% and 10% reduction in the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampal CA3 interneurons, increased MHCII‐activated inflammatory cells in many gray matter (8–20‐fold increase) and white matter (6–30‐fold increased) regions of both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres, decreased cell cycle regulating protein marker by 1.6‐ and 1‐fold in the SVZ and a 2.3‐ and 1.5‐fold reductions in the ipsilateral and contralateral dentate gyrus, diminution of immature neuronal marker by two‐ and onefold in both the ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ and dentate gyrus, and amplified amyloid precursor protein (APP) distribution volumes in white matter including corpus callosum, fornix, and internal capsule (4–38‐fold increase), as well as in the cortical gray matter, such as the striatum hilus, SVZ, and dentate gyrus (6–40‐fold increase) in TBI animals compared to controls (P's < 0.001). Surrogate AD‐like phenotypic markers revealed a significant accumulation of phosphorylated tau (AT8) and oligomeric tau (T22) within the neuronal cell bodies in ipsilateral and contralateral cortex, and dentate gyrus relative to sham control, further supporting the rampant neurodegenerative pathology in TBI secondary cell death. These findings indicate that AD‐like pathological features may prove to be valuable markers and therapeutic targets for late stage TBI. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 665–677, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27699791

  6. Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25405743

  7. DAT isn’t all that: cocaine reward and reinforcement requires Toll Like Receptor 4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Northcutt, A.L.; Hutchinson, M.R.; Wang, X.; Baratta, M.V.; Hiranita, T.; Cochran, T.A.; Pomrenze, M.B.; Galer, E.L.; Kopajtic, T.A.; Li, C.M.; Amat, J.; Larson, G.; Cooper, D.C.; Huang, Y.; O’Neill, C.E.; Yin, H.; Zahniser, N.R.; Katz, J.L.; Rice, K.C.; Maier, S.F.; Bachtell, R.K.; Watkins, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, are largely attributed to their ability to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. Resulting increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are traditionally thought to result from cocaine’s ability to block dopamine transporters (DATs). Here we demonstrate that cocaine also interacts with the immunosurveillance receptor complex, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), on microglial cells to initiate central innate immune signaling. Disruption of cocaine signaling at TLR4 suppresses cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine in the NAc, as well as cocaine conditioned place preference and cocaine self-administration. These results provide a novel understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine reward/reinforcement that includes a critical role for central immune signaling, and offer a new target for medication development for cocaine abuse treatment. PMID:25644383

  8. Tomato Ribonuclease LX with the Functional Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention Motif HDEF Is Expressed during Programmed Cell Death Processes, Including Xylem Differentiation, Germination, and Senescence1

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Karin; Hause, Bettina; Altmann, Dorit; Köck, Margret

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the subcellular localization of the acid S-like ribonuclease (RNase) LX in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cells using a combination of biochemical and immunological methods. It was found that the enzyme, unexpectedly excluded from highly purified vacuoles, accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum. The evidence that RNase LX is a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is supported by an independent approach showing that the C-terminal peptide HDEF of RNase LX acts as an alternative ER retention signal in plants. For functional testing, the cellular distribution of chimeric protein constructs based on a marker protein, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) 2S albumin, was analyzed immunochemically in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Here, we report that the peptide motif is necessary and sufficient to accumulate 2S albumin constructs of both vacuolar and extracellular final destinations in the ER. We have shown immunochemically that RNase LX is specifically expressed during endosperm mobilization and leaf and flower senescence. Using immunofluorescence, RNase LX protein was detected in immature tracheary elements, suggesting a function in xylem differentiation. These results support a physiological function of RNase LX in selective cell death processes that are also thought to involve programmed cell death. It is assumed that RNase LX accumulates in an ER-derived compartment and is released by membrane disruption into the cytoplasma of those cells that are intended to undergo autolysis. These processes are accompanied by degradation of cellular components supporting a metabolic recycling function of the intracellular RNase LX. PMID:11598219

  9. Mode of cell death induced by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin) is dependent on the expression of pro-apoptotic BAX.

    PubMed

    Powers, Marissa V; Valenti, Melanie; Miranda, Susana; Maloney, Alison; Eccles, Suzanne A; Thomas, George; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are of considerable current interest as targeted cancer therapeutic agents because of the ability to destabilize multiple oncogenic client proteins. Despite their resulting pleiotropic effects on multiple oncogenic pathways and hallmark traits of cancer, resistance to HSP90 inhibitors is possible and their ability to induce apoptosis is less than might be expected. Using an isogenic model for BAX knockout in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells, we demonstrate the induction of BAX-dependent apoptosis at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG both in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Removal of BAX expression by homologous recombination reduces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo but allows a lower level of cell death via a predominantly necrotic mechanism. Despite reducing apoptosis, the loss of BAX does not alter the overall sensitivity to 17-AAG in vitro or in vivo. The results indicate that 17-AAG acts predominantly to cause a cytostatic antiproliferative effect rather than cell death and further suggest that BAX status may not alter the overall clinical response to HSP90 inhibitors. Other agents may be required in combination to enhance tumor-selective killing by these promising drugs. In addition, there are implications for the use of apoptotic endpoints in the assessment of the activity of molecularly targeted agents.

  10. Mode of cell death induced by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin) is dependent on the expression of pro-apoptotic BAX

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Marissa V; Valenti, Melanie; Miranda, Susana; Maloney, Alison; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Thomas, George; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are of considerable current interest as targeted cancer therapeutic agents because of the ability to destabilize multiple oncogenic client proteins. Despite their resulting pleiotropic effects on multiple oncogenic pathways and hallmark traits of cancer, resistance to HSP90 inhibitors is possible and their ability to induce apoptosis is less than might be expected. Using an isogenic model for BAX knockout in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells, we demonstrate the induction of BAX-dependent apoptosis at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG both in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Removal of BAX expression by homologous recombination reduces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo but allows a lower level of cell death via a predominantly necrotic mechanism. Despite reducing apoptosis, the loss of BAX does not alter the overall sensitivity to 17-AAG in vitro or in vivo. The results indicate that 17-AAG acts predominantly to cause a cytostatic antiproliferative effect rather than cell death and further suggest that BAX status may not alter the overall clinical response to HSP90 inhibitors. Other agents may be required in combination to enhance tumor-selective killing by these promising drugs. In addition, there are implications for the use of apoptotic endpoints in the assessment of the activity of molecularly targeted agents. PMID:24185264

  11. Sleep deprivation and divergent toll-like receptor-4 activation of cellular inflammation in aging.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard; Witarama, Tuff; Breen, Elizabeth C; Yokomizo, Megumi; Seeman, Teresa; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance and aging are associated with increases in inflammation, as well as increased risk of infectious disease. However, there is limited understanding of the role of sleep loss on age-related differences in immune responses. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on toll-like receptor activation of monocytic inflammation in younger compared to older adults. Community-dwelling adults (n = 70) who were categorized as younger (25-39 y old, n = 21) and older (60-84 y old, n = 49) participants, underwent a sleep laboratory-based experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, sleep deprivation (sleep restricted to 03:00-07:00), and recovery. Blood samples were obtained each morning to measure toll-like receptor-4 activation of monocyte intracellular production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Partial sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in the production of IL-6 and/or TNF-α that persisted after a night of recovery sleep (F(2,121.2) = 3.8, P < 0.05). Age moderated the effects of sleep loss, such that younger adults had an increase in inflammatory cytokine production that was not present in older adults (F(2,121.2) = 4.0, P < 0.05). Older adults exhibit reduced toll-like receptor 4 stimulated cellular inflammation that, unlike in younger adults, is not activated after a night of partial sleep loss. Whereas sleep loss increases cellular inflammation in younger adults and may contribute to inflammatory disorders, blunted toll-like receptor activation in older adults may increase the risk of infectious disease seen with aging. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on NF-κB activity prevents human cervical cancer cell growth via increase of death receptor 3 and 5 expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Mi Hee; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Ji Young; Seo, Hyen Ok; Han, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Won Hyoung; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ji In; Lee, Ung Soo; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that snake venom toxin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in several cancer cells. NF-κB is implicated in cancer cell growth and chemoresistance. In our present study, we investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) inhibits NF-κB, thereby preventing human cervical cancer cell growth (Ca Ski and C33A). SVT (0-12 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death. These inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. However, SVT dose dependently increased the expression of death receptors (DRs): DR3, DR5 and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins. Exploration of NF-κB inhibitor (Phenylarsine oxide, 0.1 μM) synergistically further increased SVT-induced DR3 and DR5 expressions accompanied with further inhibition of cancer cells growth. Moreover, deletion of DR3 and DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly abolished SVT-induced cell growth inhibitory effects, as well as NF-κB inactivation. Using TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance cancer cells (A549 and MCF-7), we also found that SVT enhanced the susceptibility of chemoresistance of these cancer cells through down-regulation of NF-κB, but up-regulation of DR3 and DR5. In vivo study also showed that SVT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth accompanied with inactivation of NF-κB. Thus, our present study indicates that SVT could be applicable as an anticancer agent for cervical cancer, or as an adjuvant agent for chemoresistant cancer cells.

  13. Impaired orexin receptor expression in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus in sudden infant death syndrome: possible involvement of this nucleus in arousal pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Ferrero, Stefano; Roncati, Luca; Matturri, Luigi; Pusiol, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    As well known, the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of a seemingly healthy infant during sleep, frequently resulted from a deficit in arousal phase. Awakening from sleep requires a fully developed and functioning neuronal respiratory network to modulate the ventilation as needed. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) plays a pivotal role in breathing control, thanks to its interconnections with the widespread serotonin and noradrenaline neurons in the brainstem. Numerous studies to date have focused on the implication of orexin, a neuropeptide synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, with major projections to the brainstem raphé nuclei and locus coeruleus, in arousal, a neurobiological process closely linked to breathing modifications. The aim of our research has been to demonstrate that also the KFN is a fundamental component of the orexin system, actively involved in arousal. We have evaluated the expression and distribution of the orexin receptors (orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors) particularly in the rostral pons, where the KFN is located, of 25 SIDS cases and 18 controls. An intense orexin-1 innervation around the KF neurons has been detected in almost all the controls and only in 20% of SIDS cases. On the basis of these results, we believe that: (1) the KFN plays a leading role not only in providing a regular breathing rhythm but also in the coordination of the sleep-to-wake transition; (2) a defective orexin expression in the KFN could prevent arousal, thus assuming a crucial importance in causing SIDS.

  14. Proteomic MALDI-TOF/TOF-IMS examination of peptide expression in the formalin fixed brainstem and changes in sudden infant death syndrome infants.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Phillips, Leo; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2016-04-14

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has not previously been utilised to examine sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This study aimed to optimise MALDI IMS for use on archived formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded human infant medulla tissue (n=6, controls; n=6, SIDS) to evaluate differences between multiple nuclei of the medulla by using high resolution IMS. Profiles were compared between SIDS and age/sex matched controls. LC-MALDI identified 55 proteins based on 321 peptides across all samples; 286 peaks were found using IMS, corresponding to these 55 proteins that were directly compared between controls and SIDS. Control samples were used to identify common peptides for neuronal/non-neuronal structures allowing identification of medullary regions. In SIDS, abnormal expression patterns of 41 peptides (p≤0.05) corresponding to 9 proteins were observed; these changes were confirmed with immunohistochemistry. The protein abnormalities varied amongst nuclei, with the majority of variations in the raphe nuclei, hypoglossal and pyramids. The abnormal proteins are not related to a previously identified neurological disease pathway but consist of developmental neuronal/glial/axonal growth, cell metabolism, cyto-architecture and apoptosis components. This suggests that SIDS infants have abnormal neurological development in the raphe nuclei, hypoglossal and pyramids of the brainstem, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIDS. This study is the first to perform an imaging mass spectrometry investigation in the human brainstem and also within sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). LC MALDI and MALDI IMS identified 55 proteins based on 285 peptides in both control and SIDS tissue; with abnormal expression patterns present for 41/285 and 9/55 proteins in SIDS using IMS. The abnormal proteins are critical for neurological development; with the impairment supporting the hypothesis that SIDS may be due to delayed neurological

  15. Angiotensin II Activates MCP-1 and Induces Cardiac Hypertrophy and Dysfunction via Toll-like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Susumu; Umemoto, Seiji; Yoshimura, Koichi; Itoh, Shinichi; Murata, Tomoaki; Fukai, Tohru; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2017-01-01

    Aim Angiotensin II (AngII) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, and stimulates the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). In addition, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in the upregulation of MCP-1. In order to clarify whether TLR4 is involved in the onset of cardiac dysfunction caused by AngII stimulation, we investigated the effects of TLR4 on oxidative stress, the MCP-1 expression and cardiac dysfunction in mice with AngII-induced hypertension. Methods TLR4-deficient (Tlr4lPS-d) and wild-type (WT) mice were randomized into groups treated with AngII, norepinephrine (NE) or a subdepressor dose of the AngII receptor blocker irbesartan (IRB) and Angll for two weeks. Results AngII and NE similarly increased systolic blood pressure in all drug-treated groups compared to that observed in the control group among both WT and T1r4lps-d mice (p< 0.05). In the WT mice, AngII induced cardiac hypertrophy as well as vascular remodeling and perivascular fibrosis of the intramyocardial arteries and monocyte/macrophage infiltration in the heart (P<0.05). Furthermore, AngII treatment decreased the left ventricular diastolic function and resulted in a greater left ventricular end-systolic dimension (P<0.05) in addition to producing a five-fold increase in the NADPH oxidase activity, ROS content and MCP-1 expression (P<0.05). In contrast, the Tlr4lps-d mice showed little effects of AngII on these indices. In the WT mice, IRB treatment reversed these changes compared to that seen in the mice treated with AngII alone. NE produced little effect on any of the indices in either the WT or T1r4lps-d mice. Conclusions TLR4 may be involved in the processes underlying the increased oxidative stress, selectively activated MCP-1 expression and cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction seen in cases of AngII-induced hypertension. PMID:25752363

  16. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012; Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: xywu8868@163.com

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cellsmore » has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response

  17. Effect of the knockdown of death-associated protein 1 expression on cell adhesion, growth and migration in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Umar; Sanders, Andrew J; Wazir, Ali; Baig, Ruqia Mehmood; Jiang, Wen G; Ster, Irina C; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah

    2015-03-01

    Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a highly conserved phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of autophagy. A previous clinical study by our group suggested an association between low DAP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters of human breast cancer. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of DAP1 in cancer cell behaviour in the context of human breast cancer. We developed knockdown sublines of MCF7 and MDA-MB‑231, and performed growth, adhesion and invasion assays and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) studies of the post-wound migration of cells. In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of caspase 8 and 9, DELE, IPS1, cyclin D1 and p21 in the control and knockdown sublines. Knockdown was associated with increased adhesion and migration, significantly so in the MDA-MB-231DAP1kd cell subline (p=0.029 and p=0.001, respectively). Growth in MCF7 cells showed a significant suppression on day 3 (p=0.029), followed by an increase in growth matching the controls on day 5. While no change in the apoptotic response to serum starvation could be attributed to DAP1 knockdown, the expression of known components of the apoptosis pathway (caspase 8) and cell cycle (p21) was significantly reduced in the MCF7DAP1kd cell subline (p≤0.05), while in MDA-MB-231DAP1kd the expression of a pro-apoptotic molecule, IPS1, was suppressed (p≤0.05). DAP1 may have an important role in cell adhesion, migration and growth in the context of breast cancer and has significant associations with the apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we believe that delayed increase in growth observed in the MCF7DAP1kd cell subline may indicate activation of a strongly pro-oncogenic pathway downstream of DAP1.

  18. Fine scale analysis of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster gonads reveals Programmed cell death 4 promotes the differentiation of female germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Germline stem cells (GSCs) are present in the gonads of Drosophila females and males, and their proper maintenance, as well as their correct differentiation, is essential for fertility and fecundity. The molecular characterization of factors involved in maintenance and differentiation is a major goal both in Drosophila and stem cell research. While genetic studies have identified many of these key factors, the use of genome-wide expression studies holds the potential to greatly increase our knowledge of these pathways. Results Here we report a genome-wide expression study that uses laser cutting microdissection to isolate germline stem cells, somatic niche cells, and early differentiating germ cells from female and male gonads. Analysis of this data, in association with two previously published genome-wide GSC data sets, revealed sets of candidate genes as putatively expressed in specific cell populations. Investigation of one of these genes, CG10990 the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), reveals expression in female and male germline stem cells and early differentiating daughter cells. Functional analysis demonstrates that while it is not essential for oogenesis or spermatogenesis, it does function to promote the differentiation of GSCs in females. Furthermore, in females, Pdcd4 genetically interacts with the key differentiation gene bag of marbles (bam) and the stem cell renewal factor eIF4A, suggesting a possible pathway for its function in differentiation. Conclusions We propose that Pdcd4 promotes the differentiation of GSC daughter cells by relieving the eIF4A-mediated inhibition of Bam. PMID:22252300

  19. PEP-1-SIRT2 inhibits inflammatory response and oxidative stress-induced cell death via expression of antioxidant enzymes in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Chi Hern; Yong, Ji In; Ryu, Eun Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Hyeon, Jiye; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Son, Ora; Park, Jinseu; Han, Kyu Hyung; Cho, Yoon Shin; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-10-01

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, plays an important role in cell survival. However, the biological function of SIRT2 protein is unclear with respect to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the protective effects of SIRT2 on inflammation and oxidative stress-induced cell damage using a cell permeative PEP-1-SIRT2 protein. Purified PEP-1-SIRT2 was transduced into RAW 264.7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and protected against lipopolysaccharide- and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced cell death and cytotoxicity. Also, transduced PEP-1-SIRT2 significantly inhibited the expression of cytokines as well as the activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, PEP-1-SIRT2 decreased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of cleaved caspase-3, whereas it elevated the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as MnSOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, topical application of PEP-1-SIRT2 to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-treated mouse ears markedly inhibited expression levels of COX-2 and proinflammatory cytokines as well as the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. These results demonstrate that PEP-1-SIRT2 inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress by reducing the levels of expression of cytokines and ROS, suggesting that PEP-1-SIRT2 may be a potential therapeutic agent for various disorders related to ROS, including skin inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell-Based Measures of Viral Persistence Are Associated With Immune Activation and Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 (PD-1)–Expressing CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Hiroyu; Jain, Vivek; Hunt, Peter W.; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Do, Tri D.; Hoh, Rebecca; Martin, Jeffrey N.; McCune, Joseph M.; Hecht, Frederick; Busch, Michael P.; Deeks, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Studies aimed at defining the association between host immune responses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence during therapy are necessary to develop new strategies for cure. Methods. We performed a comprehensive assessment of ultrasensitive plasma HIV RNA levels, cell-associated HIV RNA levels, proviral HIV DNA levels, and T cell immunophenotyping in a cohort of 190 subjects in whom HIV levels were suppressed by highly active antiretroviral therapy. Results. The median CD4+ T cell count was 523 cells/mm3, and the median duration of viral suppression was 31 months. Cell-associated RNA and proviral DNA levels (but not ultrasensitive plasma HIV RNA levels) were positively correlated with frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing markers of T-cell activation/dysfunction (CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5, and/or programmed cell death protein 1 [PD-1]) (P < .05). Having a low CD4+ T-cell count despite receipt of virologically suppressive therapy was associated with high cell-associated RNA and proviral DNA levels (P < .01) and higher frequencies of CD4+ T cells expressing CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5, and/or PD-1 (P < .0001). Conclusions. Cell-based measurements of viral persistence were consistently associated with markers of immune activation and the frequency of PD-1–expressing CD4+ T cells. Treated patients with a low CD4+ T-cell count had higher frequencies of PD-1–expressing CD4+ T cells and cell-based measures of viral persistence, suggesting that HIV infection in these individuals may be more difficult to cure and may require unique interventions. PMID:23089590

  1. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  2. Fibronectin Splicing Variants Containing Extra Domain A Promote Atherosclerosis in Mice Through Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Doddapattar, Prakash; Gandhi, Chintan; Prakash, Prem; Dhanesha, Nirav; Grumbach, Isabella M; Dailey, Michael E; Lentz, Steven R; Chauhan, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    Cellular fibronectin containing extra domain A (EDA(+)-FN) is abundant in the arteries of patients with atherosclerosis. Several in vitro studies suggest that EDA(+)-FN interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We tested the hypothesis that EDA(+)-FN exacerbates atherosclerosis through TLR4 in a clinically relevant model of atherosclerosis, the apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mouse. The extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated in whole aortae and cross sections of the aortic sinus in male and female EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice (which lack EDA(+)-FN), EDA(fl/fl)Apoe(-/-) mice (which constitutively express EDA(+)-FN), and control Apoe(-/-) mice fed a high-fat Western diet for 14 weeks. Irrespective of sex, EDA(fl/fl)Apoe(-/-) mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in atherosclerotic lesions (aorta and aortic sinus) and macrophage content within plaques, whereas EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice exhibited reduced atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.05 versus Apoe(-/-), n=10-12 mice/group), although cholesterol and triglyceride levels and circulating leukocytes were similar. Genetic ablation of TLR4 partially reversed atherosclerosis exacerbation in EDA(fl/fl)Apoe(-/-) mice (P<0.05) but had no effect on atherosclerotic lesions in EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. Purified cellular FN, which contains EDA, potentiated dose-dependent NFκB-mediated inflammation (increased phospho-NFκB p65/NFκB p65, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β) in bone marrow-derived macrophages from EDA(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice but not from EDA(-/-)TLR4(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. Finally, using immunohistochemistry, we provide evidence for the first time that EDA(+)-FN colocalizes with macrophage TLR4 in murine aortic lesions and human coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings reveal that TLR4 signaling contributes to EDA(+)-FN-mediated exacerbation of atherosclerosis. We suggest that EDA(+)-FN could be a therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphism C1196T in Polish Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis - Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Beata; Walicka, Magdalena; Sawicka, Ada; Bogołowska-Stieblich, Agata; Górski, Andrzej; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease characterized by low bone mass after menopause. Bone remodeling is regulated by a number of factors, including the immune system. Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) are expressed on bone cells and modify the immune response. TLR4 gene polymorphism may take part in the development of chronic inflammation in women after menopause, which is the cause of severe bone resorption. To examine the frequency of TLR4 C1196T genotypes in postmenopausal osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic Polish women and to investigate the possible relationship between C1196T polymorphism, bone mineral density (BMD) and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures in this group of patients. The study involved 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 63 healthy postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women. BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR using LightSNiP tests with SimpleProbe probes. Melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons enabled the identification of individual C1196T genotypes. C1196T genotype frequencies in the osteoporotic group were 88% for CC and 12% for CT. In the control group, respectively 86% and 14%. We did not observe the TT genotype. There was no association of C1196T genotypes and BMD nor the incidence of fractures but there was a correlation between genotypes and body height (p=0.035, r=0.415). Homozygous subjects for the C-allele had a lower body height with respect to heterozygous subjects. It is unlikely that TLR4 C1196T polymorphism is related to bone mineral density and fracture incidence in Polish osteoporotic women after menopause. However, our data suggests that the C allele may be associated with lower body height in this group. Due to the small number of participants, our observations should be considered as preliminary. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. Diet-induced obesity mediates a proinflammatory response in pancreatic β cell via toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Chen, Shufen; Qiang, Juan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lei; Zou, Dajin

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 has an important role in inflammation and immunity. Whether TLR4 signaling contributes to the link between insulin resistance and islet β cell dysfunction is an unanswered question. Here, we show that in the face of the same high-fat continuous stimulation for 24 weeks, in TLR4-/- HF mice, the weight, fraction of the liver, epididymal fat pad fraction, as well as blood glucose and insulin levels were lower than in the WT HF group. In TLR4-/- HF mice, the O2 consumption, CO2 production and activities were higher than in the WT HF group. Glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and insulin release test suggest that the impaired insulin secretion was significantly improved in TLR4-/- HF mice, compared with the WT HF group. In TLR4-/- HF mice, islet β cell ultrastructure was not damaged in the face of the same high-fat continuous stimulation, compared to that in the WT HF group. By detecting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the primary islet, insulin secretion of TLR4-/- HF mice was better than that of the WT HF group, and in the TLR4-/- HF group, at the mRNA level, islet interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were significantly lower than in the WT HF group. There was the islet macrophage infiltration in the WT HF group, but no significant macrophage infiltration in the TLR4-/- HF group. These data suggest that the damaged islet functions of the high fat diet-induced obesity mice may be linked to the TLR4 expression level, and the recruitment of macrophages into the islets.

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 protects against stress-induced ulcers via regulation of glucocorticoid production in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Luo, Pengfei; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yuelu; Wang, Xingtong; Chang, Fei; Zhang, Yuechan; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced gastric ulcer is an important life-threatening condition, while the molecular basis of its development is incompletely understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune pattern recognition receptor, can induce pro-inflammatory transcription, aggravating a stress ulcer. The present study found that TLR4 played a protective role in a mouse model of water immersion (23 °C) restraint stress. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 -/- male mice were respectively divided into five groups (5 per group), and exposed to the stressor for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hours. Gastric ulcer index, determined post mortem, increased with time in both types of mice but was greater in TLR4 -/- mice. Furthermore, increased serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations were observed in WT mice only, and such increases were detected only in WT mice 4 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). Moreover, the administration of cortisol alleviated the gastric injury in TLR4 -/- mice. Western blotting showed expression in the adrenal of P450scc (CYP11A1), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of steroids, was increased 4 h after water immersion restraint stress or LPS treatment in WT mice, but was conversely decreased in TLR4 -/- mice after either stressor. Furthermore, in adrenal glands of TLR4 -/- mice, structural distortion of mitochondria (which contain CYP11A1) was found with electron microscopy, and lack of lipid-storing droplets was found using light microscopy on adrenal cryosections stained with Oil red O. These data indicate that TLR4 plays a protective role in stress-induced gastric ulcer that is exerted via impacting synthesis of glucocorticoid in the adrenal gland.

  6. Involvement of toll-like receptor 4 in alveolar bone loss and glucose homeostasis in experimental periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.; Adeleke, A.; Pham, L.; Shlimon, A. E.; Yasin, M.; Horvath, P.; Unterman, T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective There is general agreement that certain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) promote inflammation through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and that inflammation promotes insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that mice with periodontitis and a TLR4 loss-of-function (LOF) mutation fed a high-fat (HF) diet would develop improved glucose homeostasis compared with wild-type (WT) animals with periodontitis fed a HF diet. Material and Methods Wild-type and TLR4 mutant mice fed a HF diet were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): WT; WT with periodontitis (WT/P); mutant (Mut); and mutant with periodontitis (Mut/P). Periodontitis was induced by placing LPS soaked ligatures around maxillary second molars. Fasting insulin and glucose levels were measured weekly for 10 wk. Glucose tolerance was evaluated at baseline (week 1) and at 9 wk. Insulin signaling (phosphorylation of Akt) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA levels in liver were determined when the mice were killed at week 10. Results Mut/P mice developed less alveolar bone loss compared with WT/P mice (p < 0.05). Fasting glucose levels were improved after 8 wk of feeding a HF diet (weeks 9 and 10) in Mut/P mice compared with Mut, WT and WT/P mice (p < 0.05). Glucose tolerance was impaired in all groups compared with baseline (p < 0.05), except for the Mut/P group. Insulin signaling was improved (p < 0.05), and expression of TNF-α was decreased (p < 0.05) in the liver of Mut/P mice compared with the liver of WT/P mice. Conclusion The TLR4 LOF mutation partially protects against alveolar bone loss and improves glucose homeostasis in mice with periodontitis fed a HF diet. PMID:20860587

  7. Inflammatory factor receptor Toll-like receptor 4 controls telomeres through heterochromatin protein 1 isoforms in liver cancer stem cell.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qidi; Xu, Jie; Lin, Zhuojia; Lu, Yanan; Xin, Xiaoru; Li, Xiaonan; Yang, Yuxin; Meng, Qiuyu; Wang, Chen; Xiong, Wujun; Lu, Dongdong

    2018-03-30

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which acts as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of it has not been elucidated. Herein, we demonstrate that TLR4 promotes the malignant growth of liver cancer stem cells. Mechanistically, TLR4 promotes the expression of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (SUV39 h2) and increases the formation of trimethyl histone H3 lysine 9-heterochromatin protein 1-telomere repeat binding factor 2 (H3K9me3-HP1-TRF2) complex at the telomeric locus under mediation by long non coding RNA urothelial cancer-associated 1 (CUDR). At the telomeric locus, this complex promotes binding of POT1, pPOT1, Exo1, pExo1, SNM1B and pSNM1B but prevents binding of CST/AAF to telomere, thus controlling telomere and maintaining telomere length. Furthermore, TLR4 enhances interaction between HP1α and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT3b), which limits RNA polymerase II deposition on the telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) promoter region and its elongation, thus inhibiting transcription of TERRA. Ultimately, TLR4 enhances the telomerase activity by reducing the interplay between telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT) and TERRA. More importantly, our results reveal that tri-complexes of HP1 isoforms (α, β and γ) are required for the oncogenic action of TLR4. This study elucidates a novel protection mechanism of TLR4 in liver cancer stem cells and suggests that TLR4 can be used as a novel therapeutic target for liver cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  8. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gargus, Matthew; Niu, Chao; Vallone, John G.; Binkley, Jana; Rubin, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal injury, repair, and inflammation in gastroesophageal reflux-disease (GERD) is complex. Whereas most studies have focused on the epithelial response to GERD injury, we are interested in the stromal response. We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier breaches or through dilated epithelial intercellular spaces. We determined the percentage of myofibroblasts [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+vimentin+CD31−] in the subepithelial GERD and normal esophageal stroma by immunomorphologic analysis. We performed α-SMA coimmunostaining with IL-6 and p65. We established and characterized primary cultures of α-SMA+vimentin+CD31−CD45− human esophageal myofibroblasts (HuEso MFs). We modeled GERD by treatment with pH 4.5-acidified media and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, LPS and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and determined myofibroblast cytokine secretion in response to GERD injury. We demonstrate that spindle-shaped cell myofibroblasts are located near the basement membrane of stratified squamous epithelium in normal esophagus. We identify an increase in subepithelial myofibroblasts and activation of proinflammatory pathways in patients with GERD. Primary cultures of stromal cells obtained from normal esophagus retain myofibroblast morphology and express the acid receptor transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and TLR4. HuEso MFs stimulated with acid and TLR4 agonists LPS and HMGB1 increase IL-6 and IL-8 secretion via TRPV1 and NF-κB activation. Our work implicates a role for human subepithelial stromal cells in the pathogenesis of GERD-related esophageal injury. Findings of this study can be extended to the investigation of epithelial-stromal interactions in inflammatory esophageal mucosal disorders. PMID:25882613

  9. Crocin reverses unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury-induced augmentation of oxidative stress and toll like receptor-4 activity.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hany, Hadeer O; Atef, Hoda; Said, Eman; Elkashef, Hassan A; Salem, Hatem A

    2018-03-27

    Renal Ischemia (RI) usually develops as a secondary manifestation of hypertension, various cardiovascular disorders and renal transplantation. It exerts hypoxic oxidative stress to kidneys, together with stimulation of several immune-mediated inflammatory cascades. Such events eventually damage renal tubules and glomeruli, driving acute kidney injury (AKI) and ultimately, renal failure. Crocin; the main bioactive constituent of Crocus sativus extract has been reported to demonstrate numerous pharmacological merits. In the current study, unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury (URIRI) was induced in rats by unilateral clamping of the left renal pedicle for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Daily pre-treatment with crocin (20 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days, significantly improved all signs of renal injury. Biochemically, kidney functions; including serum creatinine (Sr Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria and creatinine clearance (Cr Cl) significantly improved. Inflammatory biomarkers; serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and kidney nitric oxide (Nos) contents significantly declined. Oxidant/antioxidant balance was significantly restored; manifested in recovery of renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and restoration of serum catalase activity. Kidney contents of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL6) and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) significantly declined as well. Histopathologically, crocin pretreatment resulted in signs of improvement with minimal renal lesions with significant decrease in renal inflammatory cells count. In conclusion, crocin induced restoration of normal kidney functions is mediated through multiple mechanisms including mainly attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation via down-regulation of renal TLR4 and IL6 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PTPRO Promotes Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Apoptosis through Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Caihong; Wang, Xiaochen; Hu, Jianping; Lian, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Tiantian; Zhang, Hui; Gu, Ning; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Critical roles of phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been implicated in inflammation. However, little is known about their functional effects on atherosclerosis (AS). We aim to study their potential function in AS. An oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced AS model constructed with PTPRO over-expressing RAW264.7 cells and PTPRO knockout macrophages. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and fatty accumulation was evaluated by oil red staining. The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), SOD (superoxide dismutase), MDA (malondialdehyde), TC (Triglyceride), and TG (total cholesterol) was evaluated. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of CD36, TLR4 and nuclear factor kB (NF-κB). PTPRO expression was promoted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner following ox-LDL challenging. In PTPRO-over-expressing cells, CD36 expression and the level of oil-red staining, TC and TG were increased; ROS production, MDA and level of cell apoptosis were improved, but SOD was reduced. However, in PTPRO knockout cells opposite results were found. TLR4 and NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation was significantly enhanced in PTPRO over-expressing cells, while significantly down-regulated in PTPRO knockout cells. PTPRO plays ital roles in AS via promoting ox-LDL induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis through TLR4/NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Thickness and an Altered miRNA Expression in the Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Coronary Heart Disease in Sudden Death Victims.

    PubMed

    Marí-Alexandre, Josep; Barceló-Molina, Moises; Sanz-Sánchez, Jorge; Molina, Pilar; Sancho, Jennifer; Abellán, Yolanda; Santaolaria-Ayora, María Luisa; Giner, Juan; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Estelles, Amparo; Braza-Boïls, Aitana; Zorio, Esther

    2018-02-10

    An increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness has become a new risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We aimed to study the role of EAT dysfunction as a CHD marker by focusing on its thickness and microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, and the potential factors possibly influencing them. One hundred and fifty-five CHD sudden cardiac death victims and 84 non-CHD-sudden death controls were prospectively enrolled at autopsy. A representative subset underwent EAT thickness measurements and EAT miRNA expression profiling. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was increased and allowed an accurate diagnosis of patient status (among other measurements, EAT score area under the curve 0.718, P < .001). Epicardial adipose tissue from patients showed 14 up- and 14 down-regulated miRNAs and miR-34a-3p, -34a-5p, -124-3p, -125a-5p, 628-5p, -1303 and -4286 were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients exhibited higher EAT levels of miR-34a-3p and -34a-5p than controls (with a positive trend considering EAT from coronaries without stenosis, with stable stenosis and complicated plaques) and correlated with age only in controls. The mild positive correlation between liver and EAT miR-34a-5p levels in patients (r = 0.295, P = .020) dramatically increased in EAT from complicated plaques (r = 0.799, P = .017). Similar correlations were observed for high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein levels and miR-34a-5p levels both in EAT and liver extracts. Increased age-independent levels of miR-34a-3p and -34a-5p characterize the EAT miRNA expression profile of CHD regardless of EAT thickness, anthropometric parameters, and the presence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Abdel-Rahman M. M.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-01-01

    The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC’s and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In

  13. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Eshak, Mariam G; Elkaiaty, Ahmed M; Atta, Abdel-Rahman M M; Mashaly, Magdi M; Abass, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). Growth performance, including body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FC), were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC's and H/L ratio), T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT). The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1) in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9) in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection). In

  14. Anesthetic death.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, P

    1978-01-01

    Death due to anesthesia is a tragic paradox. The numbers about the frequency of anesthesia-related-death published in many reports have a relative value, as it is impossible to compare them one to another. A synoptic table of 20 important studies made on this subject, shows a great variation in figures concerning the incidence of death related to anesthesia. The most common causes of "anesthetic-death" are mentioned and some suggestions are made to decrease the frequency of death due to anesthesia.

  15. Brain Death.

    PubMed

    Drake, Mack; Bernard, Andrew; Hessel, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    Death determined by neurologic criteria, commonly referred to as "brain death," occurs when function of the entire brain ceases, including the brain stem. Diagnostic criteria for brain death are explicit but controversy exists regarding nuances of the evaluation and potential confounders of the examination. Hospitals and ICU teams should carefully consider which clinicians will perform brain death testing and should use standard processes, including checklists to prevent diagnostic errors. Proper diagnosis is essential because misdiagnosis can be catastrophic. Timely, accurate brain death determination and aggressive physiologic support are cornerstones of both good end-of-life care and successful organ donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Is a Regulator of Monocyte and Electroencephalographic Responses to Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Clegern, William C.; Schmidt, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep loss triggers changes in inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain and periphery. The mechanisms that underlie these changes are ill-defined. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activates inflammatory signaling cascades in response to endogenous and pathogen-associated ligands known to be elevated in association with sleep loss. TLR4 is therefore a possible mediator of some of the inflammation-related effects of sleep loss. Here we describe the baseline electroencephalographic sleep phenotype and the biochemical and electroencephalographic responses to sleep loss in TLR4-deficient mice. Design, Measurements and Results: TLR4-deficient mice and wild type controls were subjected to electroencephalographic and electromyographic recordings during spontaneous sleep/wake cycles and during and after sleep restriction sessions of 3, 6, and 24-h duration, during which sleep was disrupted by an automated sleep restriction system. Relative to wild type control mice, TLR4-deficient mice exhibited an increase in the duration of the primary daily waking bout occurring at dark onset in a light/dark cycle. The amount of time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep by TLR4-deficient mice was reduced in proportion to increased wakefulness in the hours immediately after dark onset. Subsequent to sleep restriction, EEG measures of increased sleep drive were attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. TLR4 was enriched 10-fold in brain cells positive for the cell surface marker CD11b (cells of the monocyte lineage) relative to CD11b-negative cells in wild type mouse brains. To assess whether this population was affected selectively by TLR4 knockout, flow cytometry was used to count F4/80- and CD45-positive cells in the brains of sleep deprived and time of day control mice. While wild-type mice exhibited a significant reduction in the number of CD11b-positive cells in the brain after 24-h sleep restriction, TLR4-deficient mice did not. Conclusion

  17. Molluscan death effector domain (DED)-containing caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in apoptosis and immune signaling. In this study, we cloned the first death effector domain (DED)-containing molluscan caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), which is named as hdCaspase-8. The full-length hdCaspase was 2855 bp, with a 1908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids. The hdCaspase-8 had 72 kDa predicted molecular mass with an estimated isoelectric point (PI) of 6.0. The hdCaspase-8 amino acid sequence contained the characteristic feature of an N-terminal two DED, a C-terminal catalytic domain and the caspase family cysteine active site ⁵¹³KPKLFFLQACQG⁵²⁴. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that hdCaspase-8 is more similar to the invertebrate Tubifex tubifex (sludge worm) caspase-8. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that hdCaspase-8 constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue of unchallenged disk abalone. The basal expression level of hdCaspase-8 in gill tissue was higher than all other tested tissues. The hdCaspase-8 mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes was significantly up-regulated by exposure to bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), as compared to control animals. These results suggest that hdCaspase-8 may be involved in immune response reactions in disk abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alteration in regulatory T cells and programmed cell death 1-expressing regulatory T cells in active generalized vitiligo and their clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Tembhre, M K; Parihar, A S; Sharma, V K; Sharma, A; Chattopadhyay, P; Gupta, S

    2015-04-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune depigmentation disease, and defects in regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed in the pathogenesis of generalized vitiligo (GV). However, the role of programmed cell death (PD)1(+) Tregs has not been studied. To investigate the status of Tregs, PD1(+) Tregs and associated parameters in active GV (aGV) during the first episode of disease attack and to establish the clinical correlation. The percentages of circulating Tregs, PD1(+) Tregs and CD3(+) CD4(+) PD1(+) T cells were evaluated in 50 patients with aGV and 51 controls. Expression levels of FOXP3, TGFB1, CTLA4 and genes for chemokine receptors (CCR4, CCR7) and their ligands (CCL21, CCL22) were quantified in peripheral blood and in lesional, perilesional, nonlesional and normal skin sections. The corresponding proteins were immunolocalized in tissue of aGV. The percentage of Tregs was decreased (P = 0·001) and that of PD1(+) Tregs increased (P = 0·001) in peripheral blood of patients with aGV compared with controls. The abundance of TGFB1 and CCL21 mRNA was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with aGV. Significant differences in forkhead box P3, transforming growth factor-β and CCL21 protein expression were found in skin sections. Deficiency in Treg frequency and decreased expression of Treg-associated parameters (TGFB and CCL21) suggested a possible defect in Tregs that may alter their suppression function and skin homing in aGV. The increased PD1(+) Tregs suggests that the PD1/PD ligand pathway may be involved in aGV and may have a role in Treg exhaustion. Further study is required to delineate the effect of PD1 in regulating Treg function in aGV. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat-Dependent, Biofilm-Specific Death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mediated by Increased Expression of Phage-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Heussler, Gary E.; Cady, Kyle C.; Koeppen, Katja; Bhuju, Sabin; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system is an adaptive immune system present in many archaea and bacteria. CRISPR/Cas systems are incredibly diverse, and there is increasing evidence of CRISPR/Cas systems playing a role in cellular functions distinct from phage immunity. Previously, our laboratory reported one such alternate function in which the type 1-F CRISPR/Cas system of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 (abbreviated as P. aeruginosa PA14) inhibits both biofilm formation and swarming motility when the bacterium is lysogenized by the bacteriophage DMS3. In this study, we demonstrated that the presence of just the DMS3 protospacer and the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) on the P. aeruginosa genome is necessary and sufficient for this CRISPR-dependent loss of these group behaviors, with no requirement of additional DMS3 sequences. We also demonstrated that the interaction of the CRISPR system with the DMS3 protospacer induces expression of SOS-regulated phage-related genes, including the well-characterized pyocin operon, through the activity of the nuclease Cas3 and subsequent RecA activation. Furthermore, our data suggest that expression of the phage-related genes results in bacterial cell death on a surface due to the inability of the CRISPR-engaged strain to downregulate phage-related gene expression, while these phage-related genes have minimal impact on growth and viability under planktonic conditions. Deletion of the phage-related genes restores biofilm formation and swarming motility while still maintaining a functional CRISPR/Cas system, demonstrating that the loss of these group behaviors is an indirect effect of CRISPR self-targeting. PMID:25968642

  20. Prognostic value of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wang, Ping; Xu, Youliang

    2017-01-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was reported to be correlated with poor prognosis in various cancers. However, the relationship between PD-L1 expression and the survival of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) remains inconclusive. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the prognostic value of PD-L1 in HNC patients using meta-analysis techniques. A comprehensive database searching was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from inception to August 2016. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Hazard ratios (HRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by STATA 11.0 for the outcome of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 17 studies with 2,869 HNC patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between PD-L1 expression and OS (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.99-1.53; P = 0.065) or DFS (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.03; P = 0.052) of HNC patients. However, the subgroup analysis suggested that positive expression of PD-L1 was associated with poor OS (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.12, 1.70; P = 0.003) and DFS (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.59, 2.48; P = 0.001) in HNC patients from Asian countries/regions. The subgroup analysis also showed that the correlations between PD-L1 and prognosis are variant among different subtypes of HNC. When performing sensitive analyses, we found that the results of meta-analyses were not robust. The meta-analysis indicated that positive expression of PD-L1 could serve as a good predictor for poor prognosis of Asian patients with HNC. However, the findings still need to be confirmed by large-scale, prospective studies.

  1. Amyloid-beta mediates the receptor of advanced glycation end product-induced pro-inflammatory response via toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Jer; Wang, Pei-Wen; Yang, I-Hui; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2015-07-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β, a product of amyloid precursor protein, is associated with neuro-inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's diseases. The correlation between amyloid-beta and advanced glycation end products, which accumulate in tissue of diabetic patients, is not clear. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of advanced glycation end product on the expression of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid-beta and associated pro-inflammatory responses in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Treatment with advanced glycation end product produced upregulation of amyloid precursor protein and increased secretion of amyloid-β(1-40). Additionally, amyloid-β(1-40) induced toll-like receptor 4-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine in myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88). We found that N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduced the secretion of amyloid-β(1-40) and inhibited the advanced glycation end product-induced activation of myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88). Amyloid-β(1-40) induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of TNFα mRNA. Knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 inhibited the amyloid-β(1-40)-induced phosphorylation of p65 in NF-κB. Additionally, the nuclear translocation of p65 and transcriptions of TNFα were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of receptor of advanced glycation end product or toll-like receptor 4. The advanced glycation end product-induced secretion of VEGF-A was also reduced by knockdown of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, our data suggested that amyloid-β(1-40) mediates the interaction between receptor of advanced glycation end product and toll-like receptor 4. Inhibition of the toll-like receptor 4 is an effective method for suppressing the amyloid-β(1-40)-induced pro-inflammatory responses in RGC-5 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Electrochemical sensor for rapid determination of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in raw cancer cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Torrente-Rodríguez, Rebeca M; Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, Víctor; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, María; Farchado, Meryem; Vargas, Eva; Manuel de Villena, F Javier; Garranzo-Asensio, María; Barderas, Rodrigo; Pingarrón, José M

    2017-01-01

    The first electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) biomarker is reported in this work. The biosensor involves a sandwich configuration with covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic microcarriers (HOOC-MBs) and amperometric detection at disposable carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs). The biosensor exhibits a great analytical performance regarding selectivity for the target protein and a low LOD of 48.2 pg mL-1. The electrochemical platform was successfully applied for the determination of FGFR4 in different cancer cell lysates without any apparent matrix effect after a simple sample dilution and using only 2.5 μg of the raw lysate. Comparison of the results with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit shows competitive advantages by using the developed immunosensor in terms of simplicity, analysis time, and portability and cost-affordability of the required instrumentation for the accurate determination of FGFR4 in cell lysates.

  3. Association between Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly polymorphism and coronary heart disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wu, B W; Zhu, J; Shi, H M; Jin, B; Wen, Z C

    2017-08-07

    Published data on the association between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) Asp299Gly polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. English-language studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases (up to November 2016). All epidemiological studies were regarding Caucasians because no TLR4 Asp/Gly and Gly/Gly genotypes have been detected in Asians. A total of 20 case-control studies involving 14,416 cases and 10,764 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, no significant associations were found between TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism and CHD susceptibility in the dominant model (OR=0.89; 95%CI=0.74 to 1.06; P=0.20) pooled in the meta-analysis. In the subgroup analysis by CHD, non-significant associations were found in cases compared to controls. When stratified by control source, no significantly decreased risk was found in the additive model or dominant model. The present meta-analysis suggests that the TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism was not associated with decreased CHD risk in Caucasians.

  4. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C.; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drug-primed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse. PMID:26022268

  5. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are important regulators of pulmonary remodeling and airway inflammation. Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen. However, PE has been characterized as a cytosolic enzyme, and the mechanism mediating PE release extracellularly remains unknown. We examined the role of exosomes derived from airway epithelia as a mechanism for PE release and the potential extracellular signals that regulate the release of these exosomes. We demonstrate a specific regulatory pathway of exosome release from airway epithelia and identify PE as novel exosome cargo. LPS stimulation of airway epithelial cells induces release of PE-containing exosomes, which is significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA depletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These differences were recapitulated upon intratracheal LPS administration in mice competent versus deficient for TLR4 signaling. Finally, sputum samples from subjects with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate elevated exosome content and increased PE levels. This TLR4-based mechanism highlights the first report of nonstochastic release of exosomes in the lung and couples TLR4 activation with matrikine generation. The increased quantity of these proteolytic exosomes in the airways of subjects with chronic lung disease highlights a new mechanism of injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders.

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist TAK-242 inhibits autoinflammatory symptoms in DITRA.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Akitaka; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furuta, Yasuhide; Mukumoto, Yoshiko; Kaminuma, Osamu; Akiyama, Masashi

    2017-06-01

    IL36RN encodes the IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), and loss-of-function mutations in IL36RN define a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disease named "deficiency of IL-36Ra" (DITRA). DITRA causes systemic autoinflammatory diseases, including generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), an occasionally life-threatening disease that is characterized by widespread sterile pustules on the skin, fever and other systemic symptoms. GPP can present at any age, and provocative factors include various infections, medicines and pregnancy. We aimed to elucidate the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in DITRA and to innovate an efficient treatment for DITRA. We generated Il36rn -/- mice and treated them with TLR4 agonist to establish DITRA model mice. Furthermore, we administrated TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 to the model mice to inhibit the DITRA symptoms. Il36rn -/- mice treated by TLR4 agonist showed autoinflammatory symptoms in skin, articulation and liver. Thus, we established model mice for DITRA or GPP that show cutaneous, articular, and hepatic autoinflammatory symptoms typical of DITRA or GPP: sterile pustules on the skin, liver abscesses and enthesitis of the hind paws. Additionally, these symptoms were canceled by TAK-242 administration. We demonstrated the inhibitory effects of the TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 on the autoinflammatory symptoms exhibited by the DITRA models. We suggested that blockage of TLR4 signaling is a promising treatment for DITRA and GPP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toll-like Receptor 4 Deficiency Promotes the Alternative Activation of Adipose Tissue Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Jeb S.; Puglisi, Michael J.; Ellacott, Kate L.J.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Wasserman, David H.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by adipose tissue (AT) macrophage (ATM) accumulation, which promotes AT inflammation and dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficiency attenuates AT inflammation in obesity but does not impede the accumulation of ATMs. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether TLR4 deficiency alters ATM polarization. TLR4−/− and wild-type mice were fed a low-fat, high-monounsaturated fat (HFMUFA), or a high-saturated fat (HFSFA) diet for 16 weeks. Further, we used a bone marrow transplant model to determine the influence of hematopoietic cell TLR4 signaling. The metabolic and inflammatory responses to high-fat feeding and ATM phenotype were assessed. Global and hematopoietic cell TLR4 deficiency, irrespective of recipient genotype, produced a shift in ATM phenotype toward an alternatively activated state, which was accompanied by reduced AT inflammation. Despite the observed shift in ATM phenotype, neither global nor hematopoietic cell TLR4 deficiency influenced systemic insulin sensitivity after high-fat feeding. Results of the current study suggest that TLR4 directly influences ATM polarization but question the relevance of TLR4 signaling to systemic glucose homeostasis in obesity. PMID:22751700

  8. Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) modulation by synthetic and natural compounds: an update

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Francesco; Calabrese, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), together with MD-2, binds bacterial endotoxins (E) with high affinity, triggering formation of the activated homodimer (E-MD-2-TLR4)2. Activated TLR4 induces intracellular signaling leading to activation of transcription factors that result in cytokine and chemokine production and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. TLR4 also responds to endogenous ligands called danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Increased sensitivity to infection and a variety of immune pathologies have been associated with either too little or too much TLR4 activation. We review here the molecular mechanisms of TLR4 activation (agonism) or inhibition (antagonism) by small organic molecules of both natural and synthetic origin. The role of co-receptors MD-2 and CD14 in the TLR4 modulation process is also discussed. Recent achievements in the field of chemical TLR4 modulation are reviewed, with special focus on non-classical TLR4 ligands with a chemical structure different from lipid A. PMID:24188011

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency promotes the alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages.

    PubMed

    Orr, Jeb S; Puglisi, Michael J; Ellacott, Kate L J; Lumeng, Carey N; Wasserman, David H; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is characterized by adipose tissue (AT) macrophage (ATM) accumulation, which promotes AT inflammation and dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficiency attenuates AT inflammation in obesity but does not impede the accumulation of ATMs. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether TLR4 deficiency alters ATM polarization. TLR4(-/-) and wild-type mice were fed a low-fat, high-monounsaturated fat (HF(MUFA)), or a high-saturated fat (HF(SFA)) diet for 16 weeks. Further, we used a bone marrow transplant model to determine the influence of hematopoietic cell TLR4 signaling. The metabolic and inflammatory responses to high-fat feeding and ATM phenotype were assessed. Global and hematopoietic cell TLR4 deficiency, irrespective of recipient genotype, produced a shift in ATM phenotype toward an alternatively activated state, which was accompanied by reduced AT inflammation. Despite the observed shift in ATM phenotype, neither global nor hematopoietic cell TLR4 deficiency influenced systemic insulin sensitivity after high-fat feeding. Results of the current study suggest that TLR4 directly influences ATM polarization but question the relevance of TLR4 signaling to systemic glucose homeostasis in obesity.

  10. Effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy in melanocortin receptor 4-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; Begg, Denovan P; Alsters, Suzanne I M; van Haaften, Gijs; Duran, Karen J; D'Alessio, David A; le Roux, Carel W; Woods, Stephen C; Sandoval, Darleen A; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Cuppen, Edwin; van Haelst, Mieke M; Seeley, Randy J

    2012-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a commonly applied bariatric procedure, involves surgically incising most of the volume of the stomach. In humans, partial loss of melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4R) activity is the most common monogenic correlate of obesity regardless of lifestyle. At present it is unclear whether genetic alteration of MC4R signaling modulates the beneficial effects of VSG. Following VSG, we analyzed body weight, food intake, glucose sensitivity, and macronutrient preference of wild-type and MC4R-deficient (Mc4r(+/-) and Mc4r(-/-)) rats compared with sham-operated controls. VSG reduced body weight and fat mass and improved glucose metabolism and also shifted preference toward carbohydrates and away from fat. All of this occurred independently of MC4R activity. In addition, MC4R was resequenced in 46 human subjects who underwent VSG. We observed common genetic variations in the coding sequence of MC4R in five subjects. However, none of those variations appeared to affect the outcome of VSG. Taken together, these data suggest that the beneficial effect of VSG on body weight and glucose metabolism is not mediated by alterations in MC4R activity.

  11. Effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy in melanocortin receptor 4-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; Begg, Denovan P.; Alsters, Suzanne I. M.; van Haaften, Gijs; Duran, Karen J.; D'Alessio, David A.; le Roux, Carel W.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Cuppen, Edwin; van Haelst, Mieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a commonly applied bariatric procedure, involves surgically incising most of the volume of the stomach. In humans, partial loss of melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4R) activity is the most common monogenic correlate of obesity regardless of lifestyle. At present it is unclear whether genetic alteration of MC4R signaling modulates the beneficial effects of VSG. Following VSG, we analyzed body weight, food intake, glucose sensitivity, and macronutrient preference of wild-type and MC4R-deficient (Mc4r+/− and Mc4r−/−) rats compared with sham-operated controls. VSG reduced body weight and fat mass and improved glucose metabolism and also shifted preference toward carbohydrates and away from fat. All of this occurred independently of MC4R activity. In addition, MC4R was resequenced in 46 human subjects who underwent VSG. We observed common genetic variations in the coding sequence of MC4R in five subjects. However, none of those variations appeared to affect the outcome of VSG. Taken together, these data suggest that the beneficial effect of VSG on body weight and glucose metabolism is not mediated by alterations in MC4R activity. PMID:22535749

  12. Common Interaction Surfaces of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Cytoplasmic Domain Stimulate Multiple Nuclear Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ronni, Tapani; Agarwal, Vishal; Haykinson, Michael; Haberland, Margaret E.; Cheng, Genhong; Smale, Stephen T.

    2003-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates the host response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by promoting the activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. To activate each gene, numerous signal transduction pathways are required. The adaptor proteins MyD88 and TIRAP contribute to the activation of several and possibly all pathways via direct interactions with TLR4's Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) (TIR) domain. However, additional adaptors that are required for the activation of specific subsets of pathways may exist, which could contribute to the differential regulation of target genes. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether direct interactions that have been reported between TIR domains and other proteins are required for TLR4 signaling. To address these issues, we systematically mutated the TLR4 TIR domain in the context of a CD4/TLR4 fusion protein. Several exposed residues defining at least two structural surfaces were required in macrophages for activation of the proinflammatory IL-12 p40 and anti-inflammatory IL-10 promoters, as well as promoters dependent on individual transcription factors. Interestingly, the same residues were required by all promoters tested, suggesting that the signaling pathways diverge downstream of the adaptors. The mutant phenotypes provide a framework for future studies of TLR4 signaling, as the interaction supported by each critical surface residue will need to be defined. PMID:12640135

  13. Electrochemical sensor for rapid determination of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in raw cancer cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Torrente-Rodríguez, Rebeca M.; Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, Víctor; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, María; Farchado, Meryem; Vargas, Eva; Manuel de Villena, F. Javier; Garranzo-Asensio, María; Barderas, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The first electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) biomarker is reported in this work. The biosensor involves a sandwich configuration with covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic microcarriers (HOOC-MBs) and amperometric detection at disposable carbon screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs). The biosensor exhibits a great analytical performance regarding selectivity for the target protein and a low LOD of 48.2 pg mL-1. The electrochemical platform was successfully applied for the determination of FGFR4 in different cancer cell lysates without any apparent matrix effect after a simple sample dilution and using only 2.5 μg of the raw lysate. Comparison of the results with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit shows competitive advantages by using the developed immunosensor in terms of simplicity, analysis time, and portability and cost-affordability of the required instrumentation for the accurate determination of FGFR4 in cell lysates. PMID:28376106

  14. Reduced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Canxiang; Yang Qingwu; Lv Fenglin

    2007-02-09

    Inflammatory reaction plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, its mechanism is still unclear. Our study aims to explore the function of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We made middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion model in mice with line embolism method. Compared with C3H/OuJ mice, scores of cerebral water content, cerebral infarct size and neurologic impairment in C3H/Hej mice were obviously lower after 6 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. Light microscopic and electron microscopic results showed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in C3H/Hej mice was less serious than that in C3H/OuJ mice. TNF-{alpha} andmore » IL-6 contents in C3H/HeJ mice were obviously lower than that in C3H/OuJ mice with ELISA. The results showed that TLR4 participates in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably through decrease of inflammatory cytokines. TLR4 may become a new target for prevention of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our study suggests that TLR4 is one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury besides its important role in innate immunity.« less

  15. Starring role of toll-like receptor-4 activation in the gut-liver axis

    PubMed Central

    Carotti, Simone; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Morini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of the term “gut-liver axis”, many studies have focused on the functional links of intestinal microbiota, barrier function and immune responses to liver physiology. Intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases alter microbiota composition and lead to dysbiosis, which aggravates impaired intestinal barrier function via increased lipopolysaccharide translocation. The subsequent increased passage of gut-derived product from the intestinal lumen to the organ wall and bloodstream affects gut motility and liver biology. The activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) likely plays a key role in both cases. This review analyzed the most recent literature on the gut-liver axis, with a particular focus on the role of TLR-4 activation. Findings that linked liver disease with dysbiosis are evaluated, and links between dysbiosis and alterations of intestinal permeability and motility are discussed. We also examine the mechanisms of translocated gut bacteria and/or the bacterial product activation of liver inflammation and fibrogenesis via activity on different hepatic cell types. PMID:26600967

  16. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse.

  17. 1-[4-Fluoro-2-(2-nitrovinyl)phenyl]pyrrolidine Suppresses Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sang-Ii; Kim, Ji-Soo; Hong, Chae-Yeon; Gu, Gyo-Jeong; Shin, Hyeon-Myeong; Jeong, Hyun Jung; Koh, Kwang Oh; Mang, Joo Yang; Kim, Dae Young; Youn, Hyung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes LPS and triggers the activation of the myeloid differential factor 88 (MyD88)- and toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter, inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dependent major downstream signaling pathways. Previously, we presented biochemical evidence that 1-[4-Fluoro-2-(2-nitrovinyl)phenyl]pyrrolidine (FPP), which was synthesized in our laboratory, inhibits NF-κB activation induced by LPS. Here, we investigated whether FPP modulates the TLR4 downstream signaling pathways and what anti-inflammatory target in TLR4 signaling is regulated by FPP. FPP inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by targeting TLR4 dimerization. These results suggest that FPP can modulate the TLR4 signaling pathway at the receptor level to decrease inflammatory gene expression.

  18. MicroRNA-1906, a Novel Regulator of Toll-Like Receptor 4, Ameliorates Ischemic Injury after Experimental Stroke in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wen, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Nan; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Fang; Gao, Jie; Jiang, Yongjun; Liu, Xinfeng

    2017-10-25

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a proinflammatory cascade initiator in poststroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, during oxygen-glucose deprivation, miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons. Surprisingly, despite the augmentation of intracellular abundance, miR-1906 expression in extracellular vesicles was decreased in astrocyte cell culture supernatants, suggesting reduced sources of miR-1906 from glia to neurons. When exogenous miR-1906 was administered, decreased TLR4 protein expression was observed both in vitro and in vivo Using Cy3 labeling, exogenous miR-1906 uptake by astrocytes, microglia, and neurons was visualized directly in vivo Reduced infarct volumes and improved functional outcomes were observed in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice receiving miR-1906. However, the protective effects of miR-1906 disappeared with the genetic knock-out of TLR4, suggesting that TLR4 is a major target of miR-1906 through which the microRNA exerts its therapeutic effects. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current study identified miR-1906 as a novel specific regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and depicted its distinct expression patterns in different cerebral regions and cell types during ischemic attack. Therefore, the therapeutic supplementation of miR-1906 can be beneficial in the modulation of poststroke inflammation. Using Cy3 labeling, exogenous miR-1906 expression was visualized and shown to enter astrocytes, microglia, and neurons successfully in vivo Supplemental therapeutic miR-1906 resulted in reduced TLR4 expression and improved outcomes after middle

  19. Eriodictyol Protects Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death through Modulating ERK/Nrf2/ARE-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Hye Rim; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-06-26

    The pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases is complex and may involve oxidative stress-related pathways. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid present in citrus fruits that demonstrates anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neurotrophic, and antioxidant effects in a range of pathophysiological conditions including vascular diseases. Because oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, the present study was designed to verify whether eriodictyol has therapeutic potential. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a phase II detoxifying enzyme, in endothelial cells is considered to be helpful in cardiovascular disease. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with eriodictyol showed the upregulation of HO-1 through extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathways. Further, eriodictyol treatment provided protection against hydrogen peroxide-provoked cell death. This protective effect was eliminated by treatment with a specific inhibitor of HO-1 and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of HO-1 expression. These data demonstrate that eriodictyol induces ERK/Nrf2/ARE-mediated HO-1 upregulation in human endothelial cells, which is directly associated with its vascular protection against oxidative stress-related endothelial injury, and propose that targeting the upregulation of HO-1 is a promising approach for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disease.

  20. Attenuation of lymphocyte immune responses during Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease due to increasing expression of programmed death-1 on lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Chin-Chung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Wu, Chen-Tu; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lee, Li-Na; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease (MAC-LD) becomes important due to its increasing prevalence. Attenuated cellular immunity associated with programmed cell death (PD)–1 may play a pathophysiological role in MAC-LD but lacks of investigation. We enrolled 80 participants in this prospective study, including 50 with MAC-LD and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were used for MAC antigen stimulation. Patients with MAC-LD had lower tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ responses compared to the healthy controls in PBMC stimulation assays with MAC bacilli. These responses improved after MAC treatment. The PD-1 and PD ligand expressions and apoptosis were higher in the lymphocytes of the patients with MAC-LD compared to the controls. Both PD-1 and apoptosis on T lymphocytes were significantly increased in the patients with MAC-LD, either by direct MAC stimulation or by MAC-primed macrophage activation. Partially blocking PD-1 and the PD ligand with antagonizing antibodies in the stimulation assay significantly increased the cytokine production of IFN-γ and decreased the apoptosis on T lymphocytes. In conclusion, the patients with MAC-LD have attenuated lymphocyte immunity, which might be associated with increasing activation of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand. Regulating such activation might improve the lymphocytic secretion of IFN-γ and reduce apoptosis. PMID:28169347

  1. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning protects against retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits inflammation response via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong; Qiu, Ping-Yang; Ma, Chuan-Gen

    2017-09-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of significant cause of visual dysopia and causes inflammatory response. Dexmedetomidine is widely applied to general/local anaesthesia and has been reported to have extensive anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role of dexmedetomidine in retinal I/R injury is currently unknown. This study investigates the effect of dexmedetomidine preconditioning on retinal I/R injury and explore the related signal mechanism toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway. Retinal I/R injury model were established with SD rats through periocular injection. Retinal damage was quantified by measuring the thickness of retinal layers, cell counts of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and electroretinography (ERG). Apoptosis of retinal cell was detected by TUNEL assay. Protein and mRNA expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were measured by western blot and real-time quantitate PCR. Bax, Bcl-2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in retinas were detected by western blot. ERG and HE staining showed that dexmedetomidine preconditioning significantly inhibited the histologic damage induced by I/R injury, which expresses apparent concentration dependent. TUNEL demonstrated that apoptosis of retinal cells were reduced by dexmedetomidine. The expression of NF-κB and GFAP were decreased compared I/R blank group. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning suppresses retinal I/R injury and shows effective anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. DC-SIGN and Toll-like receptor 4 mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Liu, Xinhe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinqiong; Cao, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Xu, Chundi; Shen, Weifeng; Zhou, Tong

    2017-06-12

    The regulation of inflammatory responses by innate immune receptors is recognized as a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study focused on illustrating the roles of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)- and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-regulated inflammatory responses in macrophages. We found that DC-SIGN expression levels were increased in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) significantly enhanced DC-SIGN protein expression levels after a short-term exposure. Knockdown of DC-SIGN decreased expression and secretion of interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that DC-SIGN and TLR4 co-localized in regions of the plaques. Moreover, DC-SIGN was co-expressed with TLR4 on the plasma membrane after oxLDL stimulation. The presence of an endogenous interaction and the results of the in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DC-SIGN binds directly with TLR4. We also present evidence that DC-SIGN mediates TLR4-regulated NFκB activation but not activation of p38 and JNK. Our results suggest an essential role of DC-SIGN/TLR4 signaling in macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  3. Bacterial Stimulation of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Drives Macrophages To Hemophagocytose.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Erin M; Pilonieta, M Carolina; Nick, Heidi J; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2016-01-01

    During acute infection with bacteria, viruses or parasites, a fraction of macrophages engulf large numbers of red and white blood cells, a process called hemophagocytosis. Hemophagocytes persist into the chronic stage of infection and have an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of immunocompetent mice results in acute followed by chronic infection, with the accumulation of hemophagocytes. The mechanism(s) that triggers a macrophage to become hemophagocytic is unknown, but it has been reported that the proinflammatory cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is responsible. We show that primary macrophages become hemophagocytic in the absence or presence of IFN-γ upon infection with Gram-negative bacterial pathogens or prolonged exposure to heat-killed Salmonella enterica, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, or Mycobacterium marinum. Moreover, conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns are sufficient to stimulate macrophages to hemophagocytose. Purified bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced hemophagocytosis in resting and IFN-γ-pretreated macrophages, whereas lipoteichoic acid and synthetic unmethylated deoxycytidine-deoxyguanosine dinucleotides, which mimic bacterial DNA, induced hemophagocytosis only in IFN-γ-pretreated macrophages. Chemical inhibition or genetic deletion of Toll-like receptor 4, a pattern recognition receptor responsive to LPS, prevented both Salmonella- and LPS-stimulated hemophagocytosis. Inhibition of NF-κB also prevented hemophagocytosis. These results indicate that recognition of microbial products by Toll-like receptors stimulates hemophagocytosis, a novel outcome of prolonged Toll-like receptor signaling, suggesting hemophagocytosis is a highly conserved innate immune response. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  5. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-02-28

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs.

  7. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  8. Cardiolipins Act as a Selective Barrier to Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Coats, Stephen R.; Hashim, Ahmed; Paramonov, Nikolay A.; Curtis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intestinal homeostasis mechanisms must protect the host intestinal tissue from endogenous lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) produced by the intestinal microbiota. In this report, we demonstrate that murine intestinal fecal lipids effectively block Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) responses to naturally occurring Bacteroidetes sp. LPS. Cardiolipin (CL) represents a significant proportion of the total intestinal and fecal lipids and, furthermore, potently antagonizes TLR4 activation by reducing LPS binding at the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, and MD-2 steps of the TLR4 signaling pathway. It is further demonstrated that intestinal lipids and CL are less effective at neutralizing more potent Enterobacteriaceae-type LPS, which is enriched in feces obtained from mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated inflammatory bowel disease. The selective inhibition of naturally occurring LPS structures by intestinal lipids may represent a novel homeostasis mechanism that blocks LPS activation in response to symbiotic but not dysbiotic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE The guts of animals harbor a variety of Gram-negative bacteria associated with both states of intestinal health and states of disease. Environmental factors, such as dietary habits, can drive the microbial composition of the host animal's intestinal bacterial community toward a more pathogenic state. Both beneficial and harmful Gram-negative bacteria are capable of eliciting potentially damaging inflammatory responses from the host intestinal tissues via a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent pathway. Physical mucosal barriers and antibodies produced by the intestinal immune system protect against the undesired inflammatory effects of LPS, although it is unknown why some bacteria are more effective at overcoming the protective barriers than others. This report describes the discovery of a lipid-type protective barrier in the intestine that reduces the deleterious effects of LPSs from beneficial

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 D299G polymorphism in metabolic disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Belforte, F S; Coluccio Leskow, F; Poskus, E; Penas Steinhardt, A

    2013-04-01

    The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in the activation of innate immune response participating in the recognition of lipopolysaccharides. Changes in the innate immune response are involved in the pathogenesis of some metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Met-S and T2DM). It has been recently shown the role of gut microbiota in the perpetuation of both insulin resistance and low-grade chronic inflammation. Some studies have reported that TLR4 D299G polymorphism is associated with metabolic disorders, however results have been inconsistent. Two recent meta-analyses showed that D299G is associated with inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal cancers risk, two pathological states in which the luminal microbial flora-host cells interaction may be implicated. We conducted a systemic review of the published data considering all eligible published studies (six studies with 1696 cases and 3388 controls for D299G) and a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between TLR4 D299G polymorphism and the risk for metabolic disorders. Five studies were identified for T2DM: three corresponding to Caucasian populations and two to mixed populations. The remaining study analyzed Met-S in a Caucasian population. We observed a significant association between D299G polymorphism and metabolic disorders (T2DM and Met-S) risk (OR = 0.566, 95 % CI: 0.347-0.925, p = 0.023) particularly in Caucasians. No association was found in mixed population subgroup. Our meta-analysis identified that the AG/GG genotypes of D299G are associated with decreased metabolic disorders risk.

  10. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Frick, Morin M; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F; Sammakia, Tarek; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-02-01

    We have recently shown that several classes of glucuronide metabolites, including the morphine metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide and the ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide, cause toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling in vitro and enhanced pain in vivo. Steroid hormones, including estrogens and corticosterone, are also metabolized through glucuronidation. Here we demonstrate that in silico docking predicts that corticosterone, corticosterone-21-glucuronide, estradiol, estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide all dock with the MD-2 component of the TLR4 receptor complex. In addition to each docking with MD-2, the docking of each was altered by pre-docking with (+)-naloxone, a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. As agonist versus antagonist activity cannot be determined from these in silico interactions, an in vitro study was undertaken to clarify which of these compounds can act in an agonist fashion. Studies using a cell line transfected with TLR4, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene revealed that only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide increased reporter gene product, indicative of TLR4 agonism. Finally, in in vivo studies, each of the 5 drugs was injected intrathecally at equimolar doses. In keeping with the in vitro results, only estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide caused enhanced pain. For both compounds, pain enhancement was blocked by the TLR4 antagonist lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, evidence for the involvement in TLR4 in the resultant pain enhancement. These findings have implications for several chronic pain conditions, including migraine and temporomandibular joint disorder, in which pain episodes are more likely in cycling females when estradiol is decreasing and estradiol metabolites are at their highest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in gut toll-like receptor-4 and nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 innate pathways in liver cirrhosis rats with bacterial translocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Chiqian; Hu, Yanyan; Zhou, Li; Tan, Qinghua

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) plays a vital role in the development of liver cirrhosis (LC); however, little is known regarding the role of gut innate immunity in cirrhosis. To observe the influence of BT on multiple vital organs in LC and changes in the gut toll-like receptor-4 and nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 innate pathways in liver cirrhosis rats with bacterial translocation. Wistar rats were divided into control and liver cirrhosis with and without bacterial translocation groups. Functional analysis was conducted using peripheral serum. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to evaluate morphological changes in vital organs. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the distribution of toll-like receptor-4, nuclear factor-κ-gene binding-p65, nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3, and its adaptor molecule Asc in the ileum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to measure tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 levels. A significant decrease in the serum albumin level and an increase in the serum ammonia level were detected in the BT-positive rats compared with the BT-negative rats. Pathological injuries of the intestines and livers of the BT-positive rats were greatly increased compared with the BT-negative rats. The cirrhotic rats with bacterial translocation exhibited increased expression of toll-like receptor-4, nuclear factor-κ-gene binding-p65, nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3, Asc and tumor necrosis factor-α in the intestines compared with the negative group. There were no significant differences of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in the intestines between these two groups. Excessive activation of nuclear factor-κ-gene binding-p65/tumor necrosis factor-α and impaired activation of nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3/Asc/interleukin-1β, interleukin-18 in the intestinal mucosa were observed in the cirrhotic rats with BT. Regulation of innate

  12. Arctigenin inhibits the activation of the mTOR pathway, resulting in autophagic cell death and decreased ER expression in ER-positive human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Thressi; Lee, Kyu Shik; Kim, Soyoung; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2018-04-01

    Arctigenin, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a biologically active lignan that is consumed worldwide due to its several health benefits. However, its use may pose a problem for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)α-positive breast cancer, since studies have shown that arctigenin is a phytoestrogen that exerts a proliferative effect by binding to the ER. Thus, in this study, we examined the effect of arctigenin on ERα-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to determine whether the consumption of arctigenin is safe for patients with breast cancer. First, we found that arctigenin inhibited the viability of the MCF-7 cells, and colony formation assay confirmed that this effect was cytotoxic rather than cytostatic. The cytotoxic effects were not mediated by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or necroptosis, despite DNA damage, as indicated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and phosphorylated H2A.X. An increase in lipidated LC3, a marker of autophagosome formation, was observed, indicating that autophagy was induced by arctigenin, which was found to be triggered by the inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We then examined the effects of arctigenin on ERα expression and determined whether it affects the sensitivity of the cells to tamoxifen, as tamoxifen is commonly used against hormone-responsive cancers and is known to act via the ERα. We found that treatment with arctigenin effectively downregulated ERα expression, which was found to be a consequence of the inhibition of the mTOR pathway. However, treatment with arctigenin in combination with tamoxifen did not affect the sensitivity of the cells to tamoxifen, but instead, exerted a synergistic effect. On the whole, our data indicate that the phytoestrogen, arctigenin, mainly targeted the mTOR pathway in ERα-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, leading to autophagy-induced cell death and the downregulation of ERα expression. Furthermore, the synergistic effects

  13. Oxidative stress and gene expression profiling of cell death pathways in alpha-cypermethrin-treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramos, Eva; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Víctor; Martínez, Marta; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in response to alpha-cypermethrin (α-CYPER) exposure. MTT and LDH assays were carried out to assess the α-CYPER cytotoxicity. The IC 50 value for α-CYPER was calculated to be 78.3 ± 2.98 µM for the MTT assay and 71.5 ± 3.94 µM for LDH assay. The pyrethroid α-CYPER (1-100 µM), in a dose-dependent manner, induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and in the levels of nitric oxide (NO). The neuroprotective role of three antioxidants, melatonin (MEL), Trolox and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against α-CYPER-induced oxidative stress was examined. Compared to other antioxidants, MEL (1 µM) treatment showed the most effective protection against α-CYPER-induced lipid peroxidation and NO production. The effects of α-CYPER on gene expression profiling of cell death pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were also investigated. Of the 84 genes examined (P < 0.001; fold change >1.5), changes in mRNA levels were detected in 39 genes: 36 were up-regulated and 3 were down-regulated. A greater fold change reversion than 3.5-fold was observed on the up-regulated ATP6V1G2, BCL2, CASP9, FAS, GADD45A, SPATA2, SYCP2, ATG7, NFKB1, SNCA, ULK1 and JPH3 genes. The results demonstrated that α-CYPER alters the expression of apoptosis-, autophagy- and necrosis genes as well as induces oxidative stress which may lead to DNA damage. The detailed knowledge of the changes in gene expression obtained will provide a basis for further elucidating the molecular mechanisms of the α-CYPER-induced toxicity.

  14. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax-Deregulated Autophagy Pathway and c-FLIP Expression Contribute to Resistance against Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiansuo; Shi, Juan; Zhang, Yaxi; Liu, Shilian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein is considered to play a central role in the process that leads to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 Tax-expressing cells show resistance to apoptosis induced by Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The regulation of Tax on the autophagy pathway in HeLa cells and peripheral T cells was recently reported, but the function and underlying molecular mechanism of the Tax-regulated autophagy are not yet well defined. Here, we report that HTLV-1 Tax deregulates the autophagy pathway, which plays a protective role during the death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis of human U251 astroglioma cells. The cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which is upregulated by Tax, also contributes to the resistance against DR-mediated apoptosis. Both Tax-induced autophagy and Tax-induced c-FLIP expression require Tax-induced activation of IκB kinases (IKK). Furthermore, Tax-induced c-FLIP expression is regulated through the Tax-IKK-NF-κB signaling pathway, whereas Tax-triggered autophagy depends on the activation of IKK but not the activation of NF-κB. In addition, DR-mediated apoptosis is correlated with the degradation of Tax, which can be facilitated by the inhibitors of autophagy. IMPORTANCE Our study reveals that Tax-deregulated autophagy is a protective mechanism for DR-mediated apoptosis. The molecular mechanism of Tax-induced autophagy is also illuminated, which is different from Tax-increased c-FLIP. Tax can be degraded via manipulation of autophagy and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results outline a complex regulatory network between and among apoptosis, autophagy, and Tax and also present evidence that autophagy represents a new possible target for therapeutic intervention for the HTVL-1 related diseases. PMID:24352466

  15. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat-Dependent, Biofilm-Specific Death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mediated by Increased Expression of Phage-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Heussler, Gary E; Cady, Kyle C; Koeppen, Katja; Bhuju, Sabin; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2015-05-12

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system is an adaptive immune system present in many archaea and bacteria. CRISPR/Cas systems are incredibly diverse, and there is increasing evidence of CRISPR/Cas systems playing a role in cellular functions distinct from phage immunity. Previously, our laboratory reported one such alternate function in which the type 1-F CRISPR/Cas system of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 (abbreviated as P. aeruginosa PA14) inhibits both biofilm formation and swarming motility when the bacterium is lysogenized by the bacteriophage DMS3. In this study, we demonstrated that the presence of just the DMS3 protospacer and the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) on the P. aeruginosa genome is necessary and sufficient for this CRISPR-dependent loss of these group behaviors, with no requirement of additional DMS3 sequences. We also demonstrated that the interaction of the CRISPR system with the DMS3 protospacer induces expression of SOS-regulated phage-related genes, including the well-characterized pyocin operon, through the activity of the nuclease Cas3 and subsequent RecA activation. Furthermore, our data suggest that expression of the phage-related genes results in bacterial cell death on a surface due to the inability of the CRISPR-engaged strain to downregulate phage-related gene expression, while these phage-related genes have minimal impact on growth and viability under planktonic conditions. Deletion of the phage-related genes restores biofilm formation and swarming motility while still maintaining a functional CRISPR/Cas system, demonstrating that the loss of these group behaviors is an indirect effect of CRISPR self-targeting. The various CRISPR/Cas systems found in both archaea and bacteria are incredibly diverse, and advances in understanding the complex mechanisms of these varied systems has not only increased our knowledge of host

  16. Religiosity and the Construction of Death in Turkish Death Announcements, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Death and rituals performed after death reflect and reproduce social distinctions despite death's popular reputation as a great leveler. This study examines expressions of religiosity and constructions of death in Turkish death announcements, paying particular attention to gendered, ethnic, and temporal variations as well as markers of status and…

  17. Combating Drug Abuse by Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    of cocaine and opioids . Notably, it suppresses reinstatement to drug seeking (relapse) supportive of the interest in this compound for aiding drug ...naltrexone; drug abuse; glial activation; therapeutic approach to treating drug abuse; opioids ; cocaine 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...signaling and cell death. Here, we demonstrate that two drugs with high abuse liability, opioids and cocaine, activate proinflammatory signaling glial cells

  18. Fibronectin splicing variants containing extra domain A promote atherosclerosis in mice through Toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Doddapattar, Prakash; Gandhi, Chintan; Prakash, Prem; Dhanesha, Nirav; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Dailey, Michael E.; Lentz, Steven R.; Chauhan, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cellular fibronectin containing extra domain A (EDA+-FN) is abundant in the arteries of patients with atherosclerosis. Several in vitro studies suggest that EDA+-FN interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We tested the hypothesis that EDA+-FN exacerbates atherosclerosis through TLR4 in a clinically-relevant model of atherosclerosis, the apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe−/−) mouse. Approach and Results The extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated in whole aortae and cross sections of the aortic sinus in male and female EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice (which lack EDA+-FN), EDAfl/flApoe−/− mice (which constitutively express EDA+-FN) and control Apoe−/− mice fed a high-fat “Western” diet for 14 weeks. Irrespective of gender, EDAfl/flApoe−/− mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in atherosclerotic lesions (aorta and aortic sinus) and macrophage content within plaques, whereas EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice exhibited reduced atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.05 vs. Apoe−/−, n=10-12 mice/group), although cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and circulating leukocytes were similar. Genetic ablation of TLR4 partially reversed atherosclerosis exacerbation in EDAfl/flApoe−/− mice (P<0.05) but had no effect on atherosclerotic lesions in EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice. Purified cellular FN, which contains EDA, potentiated dose-dependent NFκB-mediated inflammation (increased phospho-NFκB p65/ NFκB p65, TNFα and IL1β) in bone marrow-derived macrophages from EDA−/−Apoe−/− mice but not from EDA−/−TLR4−/−Apoe−/− mice. Finally, using immunohistochemistry, we provide evidence for the first time that EDA+-FN colocalizes with macrophage TLR4 in murine aortic lesions and human coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions Our findings reveal that TLR4 signaling contributes to EDA+-FN mediated exacerbation of atherosclerosis. We suggest that EDA+-FN could be a therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. PMID:26427793

  19. Resolution of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated acute lung injury is linked to eicosanoids and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3

    PubMed Central

    Hilberath, Jan N.; Carlo, Troy; Pfeffer, Michael A.; Croze, Roxanne H.; Hastrup, Frantz; Levy, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate roles for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in host responses to sterile tissue injury. Hydrochloric acid was instilled into the left mainstem bronchus of TLR4-defective (both C3H/HeJ and congenic C.C3-Tlr4Lps-d/J) and control mice to initiate mild, self-limited acute lung injury (ALI). Outcome measures included respiratory mechanics, barrier integrity, leukocyte accumulation, and levels of select soluble mediators. TLR4-defective mice were more resistant to ALI, with significantly decreased perturbations in lung elastance and resistance, resulting in faster resolution of these parameters [resolution interval (Ri); ∼6 vs. 12 h]. Vascular permeability changes and oxidative stress were also decreased in injured HeJ mice. These TLR4-defective mice paradoxically displayed increased lung neutrophils [(HeJ) 24×103 vs. (control) 13×103 cells/bronchoalveolar lavage]. Proresolving mechanisms for TLR4-defective animals included decreased eicosanoid biosynthesis, including cysteinyl leukotrienes (80% mean decrease) that mediated CysLT1 receptor-dependent vascular permeability changes; and induction of lung suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression that decreased TLR4-driven oxidative stress. Together, these findings indicate pivotal roles for TLR4 in promoting sterile ALI and suggest downstream provocative roles for cysteinyl leukotrienes and protective roles for SOCS3 in the intensity and duration of host responses to ALI.—Hilberath, J N., Carlo, T., Pfeffer, M. A., Croze, R. H., Hastrup, F., Levy, B. D. Resolution of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated acute lung injury is linked to eicosanoids and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. PMID:21321188

  20. Pectobacterium carotovorum elicits plant cell death with DspE/F but the P. carotovorum DspE does not suppress callose or induce expression of plant genes early in plant-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Thammarat, Phanit; Lommel, Steven A; Hogan, Clifford S; Charkowski, Amy O

    2011-07-01

    The broad-host-range bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum causes a DspE/F-dependent plant cell death on Nicotiana benthamiana within 24 h postinoculation (hpi) followed by leaf maceration within 48 hpi. P. carotovorum strains with mutations in type III secretion system (T3SS) regulatory and structural genes, including the dspE/F operon, did not cause hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and or leaf maceration. A strain with a mutation in the type II secretion system caused HR-like plant cell death but no maceration. P. carotovorum was unable to impede callose deposition in N. benthamiana leaves, suggesting that P. carotovorum does not suppress this basal immunity function. Within 24 hpi, there was callose deposition along leaf veins and examination showed that the pathogen cells were localized along the veins. To further examine HR-like plant cell death induced by P. carotovorum, gene expression profiles in N. benthamiana leaves inoculated with wild-type and mutant P. carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae strains were compared. The N. benthamiana gene expression profile of leaves infiltrated with Pectobacterium carotovorum was similar to leaves infiltrated with a Pseudomonas syringae T3SS mutant. These data support a model where Pectobacterium carotovorum uses the T3SS to induce plant cell death in order to promote leaf maceration rather than to suppress plant immunity.

  1. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong, E-mail: drkim@gnu.ac.kr

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we establishedmore » TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.« less

  2. Hydrogen sulfide delays GA-triggered programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers by the modulation of glutathione homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Zhang, Chen; Lai, Diwen; Sun, Ya; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered as a cellular signaling intermediate in higher plants, but corresponding molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways in plant biology are still limited. In the present study, a combination of pharmacological and biochemical approaches was used to study the effect of H2S on the alleviation of GA-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone cells. The results showed that in contrast with the responses of ABA, GA brought about a gradual decrease of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) activity and H2S production, and thereafter PCD occurred. Exogenous H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) not only effectively blocked the decrease of endogenous H2S release, but also alleviated GA-triggered PCD in wheat aleurone cells. These responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT), a H2S scavenger, suggesting that this effect of NaHS was in an H2S-dependent fashion. Further experiment confirmed that H2S, rather than other sodium- or sulphur-containing compounds derived from the decomposing of NaHS, was attributed to the rescuing response. Importantly, the reversing effect was associated with glutathione (GSH) because the NaHS triggered increases of endogenous GSH content and the ratio of GSH/oxidized GSH (GSSG) in GA-treated layers, and the NaHS-mediated alleviation of PCD was markedly eliminated by l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a selective inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis). The inducible effect of NaHS was also ascribed to the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), because the specific inhibitor of HO-1 zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) significantly suppressed the NaHS-related responses. By contrast, the above inhibitory effects were reversed partially when carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution or bilirubin (BR), two of the by-products of HO-1, was added, respectively. NaHS-triggered HO-1 gene expression in GA-treated layers was also confirmed. Together, the above results clearly suggested that the H2S-delayed PCD in GA-treated wheat

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates microglial activation and production of inflammatory mediators in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia: role of TLR4 in hypoxic microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia induces microglial activation which causes damage to the developing brain. Microglia derived inflammatory mediators may contribute to this process. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to induce microglial activation and cytokines production in brain injuries; however, its role in hypoxic injury remains uncertain. We investigate here TLR4 expression and its roles in neuroinflammation in neonatal rats following hypoxic injury. Methods One day old Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia for 2 h. Primary cultured microglia and BV-2 cells were subjected to hypoxia for different durations. TLR4 expression in microglia was determined by RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection and antibody neutralization were employed to downregulate TLR4 in BV-2 and primary culture. mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and NF-κB levels were determined by flow cytometry, colorimetric and ELISA assays respectively. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) mRNA and protein expression was quantified and where necessary, the protein expression was depleted by antibody neutralization. In vivo inhibition of TLR4 with CLI-095 injection was carried out followed by investigation of inflammatory mediators expression via double immunofluorescence staining. Results TLR4 immunofluorescence and protein expression in the corpus callosum and cerebellum in neonatal microglia were markedly enhanced post-hypoxia. In vitro, TLR4 protein expression was significantly increased in both primary microglia and BV-2 cells post-hypoxia. TLR4 neutralization in primary cultured microglia attenuated the hypoxia-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS. siRNA knockdown of TLR4 reduced hypoxia-induced upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, ROS and NO in BV-2 cells. TLR4

  4. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling plays a role in triggering periodontal infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Shu, Rong; Zhang, Ming-Zhu; Wu, An-Ping

    2008-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of sensors on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which recognize microbial pathogens and induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures. In order to address whether TLR4 signaling plays a role in periodontitis, we studied the gene expression change in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) in response to TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide treatment by microarray analysis. Expression of TLR4 was detected in HPDLCs. Lipopolysaccharide treatment increased the expression of 12 genes (more than twofold), including TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, Pellino 1, colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and IL-6. In addition, the expression of 15 genes (less than equal to twofold) was decreased, including Fos, LY64 and LY86. In addition, real-time PCR was used to confirm the change of gene expression of TLR4, IL-6 and Fos. We also showed that the upregulation of IL-6 by lipopolysaccharide treatment was TLR4-dependent. This pattern of gene expression indicates that pathogens may trigger TLR4 signaling and cause periodontitis. Manipulating TLR4 signaling may potentially become one of the recognized therapies for periodontitis.

  5. Increased Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Cerebral Endothelial Cells Contributes to the Astrocyte Swelling and Brain Edema in Acute Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, A.R.; Tong, X.Y.; Curtis, K.M.; Ruiz-Cordero, R.; Abreu, M.T.; Norenberg, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Astrocyte swelling and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation are major clinical consequences in patients with acute hepatic encephalopathy (AHE). We recently reported that conditioned media (CM) from brain endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to ammonia, a mixture of cytokines (CKs) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), when added to astrocytes caused cell swelling. In the present study we investigated the possibility that ammonia and inflammatory agents activate the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in ECs, resulting in the release of factors that ultimately cause astrocyte swelling. We found a significant increase in TLR4 protein expression when ECs were exposed to ammonia, CKs or LPS alone, while exposure of ECs to a combination of these agents potentiated such effects. Additionally, astrocytes exposed to CM from TLR4-silenced ECs that were treated with ammonia, CKs or LPS, resulted in a significant reduction in astrocyte swelling. TLR4 protein upregulation was also detected in rat brain ECs after treatment with the liver toxin thioacetamide (TAA), and that TAA-treated TLR4 knock-out mice exhibited a reduction in brain edema. These studies strongly suggest that ECs significantly contribute to the astrocyte swelling/brain edema in AHE, likely as a consequence of increased TLR4 protein expression by blood-borne noxious agents. PMID:24261962

  6. Increased toll-like receptor 4 in cerebral endothelial cells contributes to the astrocyte swelling and brain edema in acute hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Tong, Xiao Y; Curtis, Kevin M; Ruiz-Cordero, Roberto; Abreu, Maria T; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    Astrocyte swelling and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation are major clinical consequences in patients with acute hepatic encephalopathy. We recently reported that conditioned media from brain endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to ammonia, a mixture of cytokines (CKs) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), when added to astrocytes caused cell swelling. In this study, we investigated the possibility that ammonia and inflammatory agents activate the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in ECs, resulting in the release of factors that ultimately cause astrocyte swelling. We found a significant increase in TLR4 protein expression when ECs were exposed to ammonia, CKs or LPS alone, while exposure of ECs to a combination of these agents potentiate such effects. In addition, astrocytes exposed to conditioned media from TLR4-silenced ECs that were treated with ammonia, CKs or LPS, resulted in a significant reduction in astrocyte swelling. TLR4 protein up-regulation was also detected in rat brain ECs after treatment with the liver toxin thioacetamide, and that thioacetamide-treated TLR4 knock-out mice exhibited a reduction in brain edema. These studies strongly suggest that ECs significantly contribute to the astrocyte swelling/brain edema in acute hepatic encephalopathy, likely as a consequence of increased TLR4 protein expression by blood-borne noxious agents. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. High mobility group box protein-1 promotes cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury via activation of toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Laird, Melissa D; Shields, Jessica S; Sukumari-Ramesh, Sangeetha; Kimbler, Donald E; Fessler, R David; Shakir, Basheer; Youssef, Patrick; Yanasak, Nathan; Vender, John R; Dhandapani, Krishnan M

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Cerebral edema, a life-threatening medical complication, contributes to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and a poor clinical prognosis after TBI. Unfortunately, treatment options to reduce post-traumatic edema remain suboptimal, due in part, to a dearth of viable therapeutic targets. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral innate immune responses contribute to edema development after TBI. Our results demonstrate that high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) was released from necrotic neurons via a NR2B-mediated mechanism. HMGB1 was clinically associated with elevated ICP in patients and functionally promoted cerebral edema after TBI in mice. The detrimental effects of HMGB1 were mediated, at least in part, via activation of microglial toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the subsequent expression of the astrocytic water channel, aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Genetic or pharmacological (VGX-1027) TLR4 inhibition attenuated the neuroinflammatory response and limited post-traumatic edema with a delayed, clinically implementable therapeutic window. Human and rodent tissue culture studies further defined the cellular mechanisms demonstrating neuronal HMGB1 initiates the microglial release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a TLR4 dependent mechanism. In turn, microglial IL-6 increased the astrocytic expression of AQP4. Taken together, these data implicate microglia as key mediators of post-traumatic brain edema and suggest HMGB1-TLR4 signaling promotes neurovascular dysfunction after TBI. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  9. Identification and localization of the cytokine SDF1 and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4, to regions of necrosis and angiogenesis in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rempel, S A; Dudas, S; Ge, S; Gutiérrez, J A

    2000-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors display extensive histomorphological heterogeneity, with great variability in the extent of invasiveness, angiogenesis, and necrosis. The identification of genes associated with these phenotypes should further the molecular characterization, permitting better definition of glioma subsets that may ultimately lead to better treatment strategies. Therefore, we performed a differential mRNA display analysis comparing six GBM-derived primary cell cultures from patients having tumors with varied histomorphological features. We identified stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) as a gene with varied expression. SDF1 (cytokine) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) interactions are implicated in modulating cell migration. They are also implicated in modulating the immune response in AIDS patients by macrophage-mediated T-cell apoptosis. GBM patients also fail to mount an immune response, although their tumors are seemingly exposed to immune cells in regions of angiogenesis, where the blood-brain barrier is absent, or in areas of necrosis. To determine whether the expression and localization of SDF1 and CXCR4 are consistent with such a role in these brain tumors, immunohistochemical analyses of these proteins were performed on normal brain and astrocytomas (grades II-IV). In normal brain tissue, low levels of SDF1 (0.5+) were observed in astrocytic processes, in neurons, and in the occasional phagocytic cells around vessels. CXCR4 expression was negative in brain tissue but was observed in phagocytic cells within the vessel lumen. In tumors, SDF1 and CXCR4 expression was colocalized when both were expressed, and SDF1 and CXCR4 expression increased with increasing tumor grade (from 0.5+ to 6+). Additionally, CXCR4 was expressed in neovessel endothelial cells. The proteins were expressed in regions of angiogenesis and degenerative, necrotic, and microcystic changes. Those tumors displaying greater amounts of these features had greater staining

  10. The neurotoxicant PCB-95 by increasing the neuronal transcriptional repressor REST down-regulates caspase-8 and increases Ripk1, Ripk3 and MLKL expression determining necroptotic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Serani, Angelo; Mascolo, Luigi; Molinaro, Pasquale; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2017-10-15

    Our previous study showed that the environmental neurotoxicant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-95 increases RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, which is related to necrosis, but not apoptosis, of neurons. Meanwhile, necroptosis is a type of a programmed necrosis that is positively regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and negatively regulated by caspase-8. Here we evaluated whether necroptosis contributes to PCB-95-induced neuronal death through REST up-regulation. Our results demonstrated that in cortical neurons PCB-95 increased RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL expression and decreased caspase-8 at the gene and protein level. Furthermore, the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 or siRNA-mediated RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL expression knockdown significantly reduced PCB-95-induced neuronal death. Intriguingly, PCB-95-induced increases in RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL expression and decreases in caspase-8 expression were reversed by knockdown of REST expression with a REST-specific siRNA (siREST). Notably, in silico analysis of the rat genome identified a REST consensus sequence in the caspase-8 gene promoter (Casp8-RE1), but not the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL promoters. Interestingly, in PCB-95-treated neurons, REST binding to the Casp8-RE1 sequence increased in parallel with a reduction in its promoter activity, whereas under the same experimental conditions, transfection of siREST or mutation of the Casp8-RE1 sequence blocked PCB-95-induced caspase-8 reduction. Since RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL rat genes showed no putative REST binding site, we assessed whether the transcription factor cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB), which has a consensus sequence in all three genes, affected neuronal death. In neurons treated with PCB-95, CREB protein expression decreased in parallel with a reduction in binding to the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL gene promoter sequence. Furthermore, CREB overexpression was

  11. Inhibition of Prostaglandin Reductase 2, a Putative Oncogene Overexpressed in Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Cell Death Involving xCT and CTH Gene Expressions through 15-Keto-PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Emily Yun-Chia; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Tien, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Hee, Siow-Wey; Chen, Ing-Jung; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) is the enzyme that catalyzes 15-keto-PGE2, an endogenous PPARγ ligand, into 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2. Previously, we have reported a novel oncogenic role of PTGR2 in gastric cancer, where PTGR2 was discovered to modulate ROS-mediated cell death and tumor transformation. In the present study, we demonstrated the oncogenic potency of PTGR2 in pancreatic cancer. First, we observed that the majority of the human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues was stained positive for PTGR2 expression but not in the adjacent normal parts. In vitro analyses showed that silencing of PTGR2 expression enhanced ROS production, suppressed pancreatic cell proliferation, and promoted cell death through increasing 15-keto-PGE2. Mechanistically, silencing of PTGR2 or addition of 15-keto-PGE2 suppressed the expressions of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (xCT) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH), two important providers of intracellular cysteine for the generation of glutathione (GSH), which is widely accepted as the first-line antioxidative defense. The oxidative stress-mediated cell death after silencing of PTGR2 or addition of 15-keto-PGE2 was further abolished after restoring intracellular GSH concentrations and cysteine supply by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and 2-Mercaptomethanol. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting PTGR2/15-keto-PGE2 for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26820738

  12. A896G and C1196T Polymorphisms Within the TLR4 Gene Abate Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Signaling in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cuiyuan; Zhang, Hong; Bai, Ruidan; Wang, Li; Lv, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) appears to play an important role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it is unclear whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR4 gene influence HCC. In this study, we investigated the effects of TLR4 SNPs on HepG2 cell survival and proliferation, migration, and invasion. Plasmids carrying wild-type or mutant versions of the TLR4 gene (A896G and/or C1196T) were stably transfected into HepG2 cells, and cell viability and proliferation were analyzed using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays, whereas apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry. Migration and invasion were measured in a transwell chamber assay, and expression of inflammatory cytokines and downstream effectors was examined using real-time PCR and western blotting. Specific inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) were added to the HepG2 cultures to explore the potential role of each pathway in TLR4 signaling. TLR4 SNPs did not affect expression levels in transfected cells. Compared with wild-type TLR4, mutant TLR4 was associated with lower cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptotic threshold. In addition, the mutations were associated with significantly lower expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), IL-6, and TGF-β1, even after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. The expression of p-Akt was similar in the presence of wild-type or mutant TLR4. The 896G and 1196T SNPs in the TLR4 gene are associated with reduced TLR4-mediated signaling and, therefore, with lower survival, proliferation, and metastasis in HepG2 cells.

  13. [Sexuality and death].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.

  14. Correlation of the expression of YY1 and Fas cell surface death receptor with apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the development of multiple organ dysfunction in children with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Reséndiz-Martínez, Judith; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Vega, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) is a lethal complication in children with sepsis. Apoptosis of several cell types is involved in this process, and it is associated with increased Fas cell surface death receptor (Fas) expression. As YY1 transcription factor (YY1) negatively regulates the expression of Fas in cancer models, and is associated with the clinical outcome, it may be important in MOD. The present study aimed to determine the association between the expression of Fas, YY1 and apoptosis in children with sepsis, and its association with MOD, these factors were analyzed in 30 pediatric patients that had been diagnosed with sepsis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from patients, and YY1 and Fas protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. Sepsis was monitored using clinical parameters, pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) score and the pediatric mortality index. The results demonstrated that Fas expression was directly correlated with apoptosis levels and the expression of YY1 was inversely correlated with apoptosis levels. Patients with high levels of apoptosis exhibited increased disease severity and poor clinical outcome. Notably, the findings of the present study demonstrated that there were higher survival rates in patients with high YY1 expression, compared with those with low YY1 expression. Additionally, patients with MOD exhibited lower proportions of apoptotic cells compared with sepsis patients without MOD. Furthermore, the PELOD score was positively correlated with Fas and inversely correlated with YY1 expression. Finally, high apoptosis and low YY1 expression were prognostic factors associated with poor survival rates. These data suggested that YY1 may be important for apoptosis induction via the regulation of Fas during sepsis. Therefore, Fas may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent MOD through regulation of YY1

  15. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  16. Changes in keratin 8/18 expression in human granulosa cell lineage are associated to cell death/survival events: potential implications for the maintenance of the ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Gaytan, F; Morales, C; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M

    2018-04-01

    Is keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) expression linked to cell death/survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage? A close association exists between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival events along the human granulosa cell lineage lifespan. In addition to their structural and mechanical functions, K8/K18 play essential roles regulating cell death, survival and differentiation in several non-gonadal epithelial tissues. Transfection of the granulosa-like tumor KGN cells with siRNA to interfere KRT8 and KRT18 expression increases FAS-mediated apoptosis, while an inverse association between K8/K18 expression and cell death has been found in the bovine antral follicles and corpus luteum. Yet, only fragmentary and inconclusive information exists regarding K8/K18 expression in the human ovary. Expression of K8/K18 was assessed by immunohistochemistry at different stages of the granulosa cell lineage, from flattened granulosa cells in primordial follicles to fully luteinized granulosa-lutein cells in the corpus luteum (including corpus luteum of pregnancy). Immunohistochemical detection of K8/K18 was conducted in 40 archival ovarian samples from women aged 17-39 years. K8/K18 expression was analyzed at the different stages of follicle development and corpus luteum lifespan. The proportions of primordial follicles showing all K8/K18-positive, all K8/K18 negative, or a mixture of K8/K18 negative and positive granulosa cells were quantified in 18 ovaries, divided into three age groups: ≤ 25 years (N = 6), 26-30 (N = 6) and 31-36 (N = 6) years. A total number of 1793 primordial, 750 transitional and 140 primary follicles were scored. A close association was found between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/cell survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage. Large secondary and early antral follicles (most of them undergoing atresia) and regressing corpora lutea displayed low/absent K8/K18 expression. Conversely, early growing and some large antral

  17. Astragalus mongholicus regulate the Toll-like-receptor 4 meditated signal transduction of dendritic cells to restrain stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Li, Xueliang; Li, Hongxia; Lu, Qing; Sun, Guoping; Chen, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional view, we depend on three methods to treat tumors; surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, these methods have its own limitations in application. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest healing systems. Astragalus mongholicus (AMs) that is the common herbal medicine, the biggest part of TCM, have been proved to be effective in treating cancers from lots of clinical cases. However, we have not fully understood the anti-tumor mechanism of AMs, and this has lead to some doubt for some Western-Medicine scholars and restricts its wide use. The main objective of this research is to discuss the effect and mechanism of AMs to human stomach cancer. To observe the effect and mechanism of tumor treatment by AMs, we have done the research from three major aspects, the influence of DCs, the inhibition of tumor in vitro as well as the animal studies in vivo after treatment. First, we culture the mouse dendritic cells (DCs) from bone marrow of mouse hind legs according to the method using Interleukin-4(IL-4) and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which refer to the way established by Inaba (Inaba K, 1992). And then we investigate the growth-rate of the DCs co-cultured with AMs injection. We analyze the expression of the Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), with SYBR-Green I Real-time PCR and the I-kappa-B-alpha (IκB-α) with Western-Blot, the main regulatory protein to control nuclear factor NFκB-p65 nuclear translocation. Second, we choose the human gastric cancer cell lines MKN 45 as the target cell, which was co-cultured with DCs, T cells from spleen of mouse and AMs injection, and use MTT assay to judge the amount of cell lines and Immnunoflurescene to analyze the expression of anti-active caspase 3 pAb anti-PARP P85 fragment pAb, the mark of apoptosis of cells. Third, we have conducted the animal studies beside the basic experiment in vitro. The nude mouse developed stomach cancer, due to intra

  18. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  19. Betulinic acid and fluvastatin exhibits synergistic effect on toll-like receptor-4 mediated anti-atherogenic mechanism in type II collagen induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Limi Elizabeth; Rajagopal, Vrinda; A, Helen

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major problem during rheumatoid arthritis which leads to morbidity and mortality in arthritic patients. So the present study emphasizes combinatorial effect of Betulinic acid, a triterpenoid and fluvastatin, an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor on atherogenesis during arthritis. Arthritis was induced by bovine type II collagen dissolved in 0.01M acetic acid at a concentration of 4mg/mL and emulsified in equal volume of incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Betulinic acid (2mg/kg) and fluvastatin (5mg/kg) alone and in combination was administered orally from day 14 to 60. At the end of 60days, tissues and blood were isolated for evaluation of biochemical parameters. Treatment with betulinic acid and fluvastatin showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in Arthritic index, Rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), total lipids and anti-CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide) antibody. Anti-inflammatory enzyme activities and oxidative stress were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells by the administration of both betulinic acid and fluvastatin than alone treatments. Combination therapy was found to be a potential enhancer of the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 whereas it significantly blocked the expression of Toll-like receptors-2 and 4, inflammatory markers such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, Interferon-γ, cell adhesion molecules and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in aorta than drug alone treated groups. So the present study summarizes a combination therapy of betulinic acid and fluvastatin that reduces the risk of both rheumatoid arthritis and CVD by modulating the expression of various inflammatory mediators through Toll-like receptors-4-NF-κB downstream signaling pathway, atherogenic index and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 activation attenuates profibrotic response in control lung fibroblasts but not in fibroblasts from patients with IPF.

    PubMed

    Ebener, Simone; Barnowski, Sandra; Wotzkow, Carlos; Marti, Thomas M; Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Crestani, Bruno; Blank, Fabian; Schmid, Ralph A; Geiser, Thomas; Funke, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with a median survival of 3 yr. IPF deteriorates upon viral or bacterial lung infection although pulmonary infection (pneumonia) in healthy lungs rarely induces fibrosis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), initiating proinflammatory pathways. As TLR4 has already been linked to hepatic fibrosis and scleroderma, we now investigated the role of TLR4 in IPF fibroblasts. Lung tissue sections from patients with IPF were analyzed for TLR4 expression. Isolated normal human lung fibroblasts (NL-FB) and IPF fibroblasts (IPF-FB) were exposed to LPS and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) before expression analysis of receptors, profibrotic mediators, and cytokines. TLR4 is expressed in fibroblast foci of IPF lungs as well as in primary NL-FB and IPF-FB. As a model for a gram-negative pneumonia in the nonfibrotic lung, NL-FB and IPF-FB were coexposed to LPS and TGF-β. Whereas NL-FB produced significantly less connective tissue growth factor upon costimulation compared with TGF-β stimulation alone, IPF-FB showed significantly increased profibrotic markers compared with control fibroblasts after costimulation. Although levels of antifibrotic prostaglandin E2 were elevated after costimulation, they were not responsible for this effect. However, significant downregulation of TGF-β receptor type 1 in control fibroblasts seems to contribute to the reduced profibrotic response in our in vitro model. Normal and IPF fibroblasts thus differ in their profibrotic response upon LPS-induced TLR4 stimulation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products promote the secretion of TNF-alpha in the mouse intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells via Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Wang, Yan-Hong; Yu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Li, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2015-10-24

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), as one of the most important pathogen pattern recognitions (PPRs) plays a central role in elicitation of innate immunity and mediation of adaptive responses against foreign antigens. However, little is known of the roles of TLR4 in the immune responses of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) induced by Clonorchis sinensis, a parasite of significance in human health. In the present study, the primary mouse intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (MIBECs) were pre-treated with TLR4 inhibitor peptide or control peptide and then stimulated by excretory/secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis, respectively. The expressions of TLR4 and relative cytokines were determined using western blot and a bead-based analytic detection system, respectively. The results showed that ESP of C. sinensis significantly increased the expression of TLR4 which promoted the expression of MyD88 and NF-κB in BECs; the levels of TNF-α but not IL-6 from MIBECs stimulated by ESP alone were also considerably increased, compared with the group of the medium stimulated. However, the concentration of TNF-α was significantly decreased when MIBECs were pre-treated with TLR4 inhibitor. In addition, ESP could depress the level of IL-6 in MIBECs which was elevated by LPS. Our data for the first time demonstrate that ESP of C. sinensis can potently induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines via TLR4 in MIBECs, which suggests that TLR4 plays an important role in host defenses against C. sinensis and the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

  2. Ischemic post-conditioning attenuates renal ischemic reperfusion injury via down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo Tao; Chen, Qing Zhi; Guo, Zong Hua; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiong; Zha, Wen Liang

    2016-10-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is commonly seen in the field of renal surgery or transplantation, is a major cause of acute renal failure (ARF). The ischemic ARF in diabetic rats is much more severe than that in the normal rats exposed to as same ischemic time. Ischemic post-conditioning (IPO) is a phenomenon by which intermittent interruptions of blood flow in the early phase of reperfusion can protect organs from I/R injury. To determine whether the renal protection effect of IPO mediates by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group, I/R group, and IPO group. Except sham operation group, rats were subjected to 30 min of renal ischemia, both with and without treatment with IPO, then reperfusion 24 h. Light microscope and transmission electronic microscope were used to observe structural changes of renal tubule. RT-PCR was used to measure TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression level, renal TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein expression was detected by Western blot. The results demonstrated that IPO markedly decreased renal ischemic injury caused by I/R and inhibited the proinflammatory expression levels of TLR4, TNF-α, and NF-κB, all of which up-regulated by I/R in diabetic rats. Taken together, our results suggest that proper IPO may have protective effect on the ischemic injury mediated by renal I/R, which might be associated with inhibition of TLR4 signaling pathway in diabetic rats.

  3. (+)-Naloxone, an opioid-inactive toll-like receptor 4 signaling inhibitor, reverses multiple models of chronic neuropathic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Loram, Lisa C.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Li, Chien-Ming; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F.; Huang, Yong; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that both the opioid antagonist (−)-naloxone and the nonopioid (+)-naloxone inhibit toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and reverse neuropathic pain expressed shortly after chronic constriction injury. The present studies reveal that the TLR4 contributes to neuropathic pain in another major model (spinal nerve ligation) and to long established (2–4 mon) neuropathic pain, not just to pain shortly after nerve damage. Additionally, analyses of plasma levels of (+)-naloxone after subcutaneous administration indicate that (+)-naloxone has comparable pharmacokinetics to (−)-naloxone with a relatively short half-life. This finding accounts for the rapid onset and short duration of allodynia reversal produced by subcutaneous (+)-naloxone. Given that TLR2 has also recently been implicated in neuropathic pain, cell lines transfected with either TLR4 or TLR2, necessary co-signaling molecules, and a reporter gene were used to define whether (+)-naloxone effects could be accounted for by actions at TLR2 in addition to TLR4. (+)-Naloxone inhibited signaling by TLR4 but not TLR2. These studies provide evidence for broad involvement of TLR4 in neuropathic pain, both early after nerve damage and months later. Additional, they provide further support for the TLR4 inhibitor (+)-naloxone as a novel candidate for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:22520687

  4. Toll-like Receptor 4 Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerosis but Does Not Protect against Inflammation in Obese LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yilei; Subramanian, Savitha; Montes, Vince N.; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Han, Chang Yeop; Teresa, Antonio Sta.; Kim, Jinkyu; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Chait, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) participates in the cross-talk between inflammation and insulin resistance, being activated by both lipopolysaccharide and saturated fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine whether TLR4 deficiency has a protective role in inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis induced by a diabetogenic diet. Methods and Results TLR4 and LDL receptor double knockout (Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/−) mice and Ldlr−/− mice were fed either a normal chow or a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks. Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice fed a diabetogenic diet showed improved plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but developed obesity, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance equivalent to obese Ldlr−/− mice. Adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage accumulation and local inflammation were not attenuated in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice. However, TLR4 deficiency led to markedly decreased atherosclerosis in obese Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice. Compensatory up-regulation of TLR2 expression was observed both in obese TLR4 deficient mice and in palmitate-treated TLR4-silenced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions TLR4 deficiency decreases atherosclerosis without affecting obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in LDL receptor deficient mice. Alternative pathways may be responsible for adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance that occurs in obesity. PMID:22580897

  5. Resolution of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated acute lung injury is linked to eicosanoids and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3.

    PubMed

    Hilberath, Jan N; Carlo, Troy; Pfeffer, Michael A; Croze, Roxanne H; Hastrup, Frantz; Levy, Bruce D

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate roles for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in host responses to sterile tissue injury. Hydrochloric acid was instilled into the left mainstem bronchus of TLR4-defective (both C3H/HeJ and congenic C.C3-Tlr4(Lps-d)/J) and control mice to initiate mild, self-limited acute lung injury (ALI). Outcome measures included respiratory mechanics, barrier integrity, leukocyte accumulation, and levels of select soluble mediators. TLR4-defective mice were more resistant to ALI, with significantly decreased perturbations in lung elastance and resistance, resulting in faster resolution of these parameters [resolution interval (R(i)); ∼6 vs. 12 h]. Vascular permeability changes and oxidative stress were also decreased in injured HeJ mice. These TLR4-defective mice paradoxically displayed increased lung neutrophils [(HeJ) 24×10(3) vs. (control) 13×10(3) cells/bronchoalveolar lavage]. Proresolving mechanisms for TLR4-defective animals included decreased eicosanoid biosynthesis, including cysteinyl leukotrienes (80% mean decrease) that mediated CysLT1 receptor-dependent vascular permeability changes; and induction of lung suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression that decreased TLR4-driven oxidative stress. Together, these findings indicate pivotal roles for TLR4 in promoting sterile ALI and suggest downstream provocative roles for cysteinyl leukotrienes and protective roles for SOCS3 in the intensity and duration of host responses to ALI.

  6. Toll-like Receptors 4 and 5 Cooperatively Initiate the Innate Immune Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Mouse Epididymal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lijing; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Wu, Han; Wang, Qing; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Han, Daishu

    2016-03-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may cause epididymitis and impair male fertility. The mechanisms underlying the innate immune responses to UPEC infection in the epididymis are not fully understood. This study showed that UPEC induced innate immune responses in mouse epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) through the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR5. Infection with UPEC significantly induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, in EECs through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, UPEC induced the production of type 1 interferons by EECs through the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3. The UPEC-induced innate immune responses were significantly reduced in the EECs of Tlr4 or Tlr5 knockout mice. The innate immune responses were further reduced in Tlr4 and Tlr5 double-knockout EECs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR4 and TLR5 cooperatively initiated the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection in vivo. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Modulating effects of omega-3 fatty acids and pioglitazone combination on insulin resistance through toll-like receptor 4 in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Eraky, Salma M; Abdel-Rahman, Noha; Eissa, Laila A

    2017-06-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays important roles in innate immunity. Changes in the reduction-oxidation balance of tissues can lead to a pro-inflammatory state and insulin resistance. An action thought to be mediated by TLRs. Omega-3 fatty acids and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists as pioglitazone are used for decreasing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of combining omega -3 fatty acid with pioglitazone on type 2 diabetes, and the modifying effects on TLR-4. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by combination of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (35mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated with omega-3 fatty acids (10% W/W diet), pioglitazone (20mg/kg), and their combination for 4 weeks. Omega-3 fatty acids and the combination treatment significantly decreased TLR-4 activation. Omega-3 fatty acids, pioglitazone, and their combination significantly decreased TLR-4 mRNA expression, hepatic malondialdehyde, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels, compared to diabetic group. Pioglitazone and the combination significantly decreased blood glucose levels and improved insulin resistance. In conclusion, combining omega-3 fatty acids with pioglitazone showed potential effects in lowering blood glucose levels and improving lipid profile and insulin resistance. Such effects are mediated through modulation of TLR-4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Novel Approach for Effectively Treating SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation: Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Induced Constipation : Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Linda Watkins CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Regents of the...SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation : Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...as a whole. SCI also causes bowel dysfunction (“neurogenic bowel dysfunction”), which is characterized by constipation and/or fecal incontinence5

  9. A Novel Approach for Effectively Treating SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation: Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Induced Constipation : Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Linda Watkins CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Regents of the...Treating SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation : Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...after dorsal root avulsion, during the acute stages of injury? 3b. SNAP surgery and testing (Hargreaves, motor function and constipation tests during the

  10. The role of Toll-like receptor 4 in high-glucose-induced inflammatory and fibrosis markers in human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon-Youn; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Sun-Hee

    2017-01-01

    High glucose stimulates peritoneal inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). However, the roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 in high-glucose-induced inflammation and fibrosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high glucose on TLR2 and TLR4 expression in HPMCs and to assess their impact on peritoneal inflammatory and fibrosis markers. Using cultured HPMCs, TLRs expression by high-glucose (50 mM) stimulation was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The association of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high-glucose-induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression was measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining with or without ROS inhibitor. In addition, the role of TLR2 and TLR4 on high-glucose-induced inflammatory and fibrosis markers including chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-ß), and fibronectin was evaluated after inhibition of TLR2 and TLR4 by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) or anti-TLR4/TLR2 antibodies, respectively. High glucose induced TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4 mRNAs expressions. High-glucose-induced TLR4 and TLR2 mRNAs were associated partly with the generation of ROS. Inhibition of TLR4 attenuated the high-glucose-induced expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, MyD88 mRNA, nuclear NF-κB p65 protein, TGF-β, fibronectin, and α-SMA mRNA and protein. However, inhibition of TLR2 did not change the expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein. High glucose induces inflammatory and fibrosis markers in HPMCs partly through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway rather than TLR2. Therefore, TLR4 might be a therapeutic target for ameliorating peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis in PD.

  11. Repression of Toll-like receptor-4 by microRNA-149-3p is associated with smoking-related COPD.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohou; Fan, Minjuan; Song, Gao; Zhang, Yang; Weng, Zhiying; Zhang, You

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Exploring molecular markers and understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of smoking-related COPD are helpful for early clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This study aims to identify specific circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) from the blood of COPD patients with a long history of smoking. Blood samples from four different groups were collected, and miRNA microarray was performed. Differential expression of miRNAs was verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In vitro, THP-1 cells were cultured and stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or transfected with miR-149-3p inhibitor/mimics. Protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were detected using Western blot and immunofluorescence. Interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. miRNA profiling revealed that the expression of 56 miRNAs was changed between the four groups. Expression of miR-149-3p in group C (non-smoker non-COPD) was higher than in group S (smoker non-COPD), S-COPD (smoker with stable COPD) and AE-COPD (smoker with acute exacerbation COPD). CSE stimulation down-regulated the expression of miR-149-3p and up-regulated the TLR-4 and NF-κB levels in THP-1 cells. Transfecting miR-149-3p inhibitors in THP-1 cells also increased the expression of its target genes. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-149-3p inhibited the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathways and reduced the secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α. This study found that smoking can induce differential expression of circulating miR-NAs, such as down-regulation of miR-149-3p. Reducing miR-149-3p may increase the inflammatory response in COPD patients through the regulation of the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  12. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  13. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions ofmore » serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.« less

  14. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Egan, Charlotte E; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Good, Misty; Lin, Joyce; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria F; Weyandt, Samantha; Fulton, William B; Niño, Diego F; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A; Hackam, David J

    2016-02-01

    The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for proinflammatory lymphocytes in NEC development via intestinal epithelial TLR4 that could be reversed through dietary modification.

  15. Activation of macrophages stimulated by the bengkoang fiber extract through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kumalasari, Ika Dyah; Nishi, Kosuke; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Sugahara, Takuya

    2014-07-25

    Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) is an edible root tuber containing fairly large amounts of carbohydrates and crude fibers. Our previous studies showed that the bengkoang fiber extract (BFE) stimulates activation of macrophages, leading to induction of phagocytotic activity and cytokine production. In the present study we investigated the mechanism underlying activation of murine macrophages by BFE. BFE increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide by J774.1 cells. In addition BFE also facilitated the gene expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. We examined the effect of a TLR4 inhibitor on cytokine production to investigate the membrane receptor of macrophage activation by BFE. Treatment of J774.1 cells with the TLR4 inhibitor significantly inhibited production of IL-6 and TNF-α, suggesting that TLR4 is the target membrane receptor for BFE. The main signal molecules located downstream of TLR4 such as JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB were activated by BFE treatment. The immunostimulatory effect of BFE was cancelled by the pectinase treatment, suggesting that the active ingredient in BFE is pectin-like molecules. Overall results suggested that BFE activates J774.1 cells via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4–mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Charlotte E.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Good, Misty; Lin, Joyce; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria F.; Weyandt, Samantha; Fulton, William B.; Niño, Diego F.; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The nature and role of the intestinal leukocytes in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe disease affecting premature infants, remain unknown. We now show that the intestine in mouse and human NEC is rich in lymphocytes that are required for NEC development, as recombination activating gene 1–deficient (Rag1–/–) mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for proinflammatory lymphocytes in NEC development via intestinal epithelial TLR4 that could be reversed through dietary modification. PMID:26690704

  17. Microenvironmental regulation of chemokine (C-X-C-motif) receptor 4 in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barbolina, Maria V; Kim, Mijung; Liu, Yueying; Shepard, Jaclyn; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Miller, Richard J; Shea, Lonnie D; Stack, M Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The majority of women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) succumb due to complications of metastatic disease, suggesting that antimetastatic therapies may improve patient survival. EOC metastasis involves intraperitoneal shedding of cells from the primary tumor, followed by adhesion and localized penetration of the submesothelial matrix to anchor metastatic implants. Accumulation of malignant ascites is also common. Thus, a unique microenvironmental niche is established, which includes malignant cells and a plethora of soluble factors secreted by-or in response to-tumor cells. As cells penetrating the submesothelial surface encounter an interstitial collagen-rich extracellular matrix, we have used three-dimensional type I collagen gels to model early events resulting from intraperitoneal anchoring. In this study, we show a novel pathway of CXCR4 upregulation through beta1 integrin - and NFkappaB-dependent signaling pathways in response to three-dimensional type I collagen. We also show the involvement of CXCR4-SDF1 axis in collagen invasion and proliferation, relevant to the metastatic EOC. Our data show that CXCR4 expression in human EOCs, as well as SDF1 presence in the ascites, is correlated with disease progression and metastasis. These data emphasize the importance of the CXCR4-SDF1 axis in EOC metastasis and suggest that this mechanism should be accounted for when targeting EOC metastasis.

  18. Microenvironmental Regulation of Chemokine (C-X-C-motif) Receptor 4 in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Kim, Mijung; Liu, Yueying; Shepard, Jaclyn; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Miller, Richard J.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The majority of women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) succumb due to complications of metastatic disease, suggesting that anti-metastatic therapies may improve patient survival. EOC metastasis involves intra-peritoneal shedding of cells from the primary tumor, followed by adhesion and localized penetration of the submesothelial matrix to anchor metastatic implants. Accumulation of malignant ascites is also common. Thus, a unique microenvironmental niche is established, which includes malignant cells and a plethora of soluble factors secreted by – or in response to – tumor cells. As cells penetrating the sub-mesothelial surface encounter an interstitial collagen-rich ECM, we have used 3-dimensional type I collagen (3DCI) gels to model early events resulting from intra-peritoneal anchoring. In this study we demonstrate a novel pathway of CXCR4 upregulation through β1-integrin- and NFκB- dependent signaling pathways in response to 3DCI. We also demonstrate the involvement of CXCR4-SDF1 axis in collagen invasion and proliferation, relevant to the metastatic EOC. Our data show that CXCR4 expression in human EOCs, as well as SDF1 presence in the ascites, is correlated with disease progression and metastasis. These data emphasize the importance of CXCR4 – SDF1 axis in EOC metastasis and suggest that this mechanism should be accounted for when targeting EOC metastasis. PMID:20460402

  19. Impact of Macrophage Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency on Macrophage Infiltration into Adipose Tissue and the Artery Wall in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Coenen, Kimberly R.; Gruen, Marnie L.; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Puglisi, Michael J.; Wasserman, David H.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a receptor for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and global deficiency of TLR4 has been shown to protect against inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Because macrophages (Mθs) express TLR4 and are important in IR and atherosclerotic lesion formation due to their infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the artery wall, respectively, we hypothesized that deficiency of Mθ TLR4 could protect against these disorders. Methods Bone marrow transplantation of agouti, LDL receptor deficient (Ay/a;LDLR-/-) mice with marrow from either C57BL/6 or TLR4-/- mice was performed. Recipient mice with the presence (MθTLR4+/+) or absence (MθTLR4-/-) of Mθ TLR4 were then placed on one of four diets: 1) low fat (LF); 2) high fat (HF); 3) high fat rich in SFAs (HFSFA); and 4) the HFSFA diet supplemented with fish oil (HFSFA+FO). Results There were no differences in body composition or plasma lipids between MθTLR4+/+ and MθTLR4-/- mice on any of the diets. However, there was a decrease in some macrophage and inflammatory markers in WAT of female LF-fed MθTLR4-/- mice compared to MθTLR4+/+ mice. MθTLR4-/- mice fed LF diet also displayed decreased atherosclerotic lesion area. There were no differences in Mθ accrual in WAT or atherosclerosis between MθTLR4+/+ and MθTLR4-/- mice fed any of the high fat diets. Finally, there was no difference in insulin sensitivity between MθTLR4+/+ and MθTLR4-/- mice fed the HFSFA diet. Conclusions These data suggest that under certain dietary conditions, Mθ expression of TLR4 can be an important mediator of Mθ accumulation in both WAT and the artery wall. PMID:19052722

  20. Micrococcus luteus teichuronic acids activate human and murine monocytic cells in a CD14- and toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Sugawara, S; Monodane, T; Nishijima, M; Adachi, Y; Akashi, S; Miyake, K; Hase, S; Takada, H

    2001-04-01

    Teichuronic acid (TUA), a component of the cell walls of the gram-positive organism Micrococcus luteus (formerly Micrococcus lysodeikticus), induced inflammatory cytokines in C3H/HeN mice but not in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-resistant C3H/HeJ mice that have a defect in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene, both in vivo and in vitro, similarly to LPS (T. Monodane, Y. Kawabata, S. Yang, S. Hase, and H. Takada, J. Med. Microbiol. 50:4-12, 2001). In this study, we found that purified TUA (p-TUA) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in murine monocytic J774.1 cells but not in mutant LR-9 cells expressing membrane CD14 at a lower level than the parent J774.1 cells. The TNF-alpha-inducing activity of p-TUA in J774.1 cells was completely inhibited by anti-mouse CD14 monoclonal antibody (MAb). p-TUA also induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human monocytic THP-1 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells expressing CD14. Anti-human CD14 MAb, anti-human TLR4 MAb, and synthetic lipid A precursor IV(A), an LPS antagonist, almost completely inhibited the IL-8-inducing ability of p-TUA, as well as LPS, in the differentiated THP-1 cells. Reduced p-TUA did not exhibit any activities in J774.1 or THP-1 cells. These findings strongly suggested that M. luteus TUA activates murine and human monocytic cells in a CD14- and TLR4-dependent manner, similar to LPS.

  1. Micrococcus luteus Teichuronic Acids Activate Human and Murine Monocytic Cells in a CD14- and Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuhua; Sugawara, Shunji; Monodane, Toshihiko; Nishijima, Masahiro; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Akashi, Sachiko; Miyake, Kensuke; Hase, Sumihiro; Takada, Haruhiko

    2001-01-01

    Teichuronic acid (TUA), a component of the cell walls of the gram-positive organism Micrococcus luteus (formerly Micrococcus lysodeikticus), induced inflammatory cytokines in C3H/HeN mice but not in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-resistant C3H/HeJ mice that have a defect in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene, both in vivo and in vitro, similarly to LPS (T. Monodane, Y. Kawabata, S. Yang, S. Hase, and H. Takada, J. Med. Microbiol. 50:4–12, 2001). In this study, we found that purified TUA (p-TUA) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in murine monocytic J774.1 cells but not in mutant LR-9 cells expressing membrane CD14 at a lower level than the parent J774.1 cells. The TNF-α-inducing activity of p-TUA in J774.1 cells was completely inhibited by anti-mouse CD14 monoclonal antibody (MAb). p-TUA also induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human monocytic THP-1 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells expressing CD14. Anti-human CD14 MAb, anti-human TLR4 MAb, and synthetic lipid A precursor IVA, an LPS antagonist, almost completely inhibited the IL-8-inducing ability of p-TUA, as well as LPS, in the differentiated THP-1 cells. Reduced p-TUA did not exhibit any activities in J774.1 or THP-1 cells. These findings strongly suggested that M. luteus TUA activates murine and human monocytic cells in a CD14- and TLR4-dependent manner, similar to LPS. PMID:11254554

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Promotes Autonomic Dysfunction, Inflammation and Microglia Activation in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dange, Rahul B.; Silva-Soares, Pedro Paulo; Michelini, Lisete C.; Francis, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background & Purpose Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling induces tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine release and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We examined the role of TLR4 in autonomic dysfunction and the contribution of ER stress. Experimental approach Our study included animals divided in 6 experimental groups: rats treated with saline (i.v., 0.9%), LPS (i.v., 10mg/kg), VIPER (i.v., 0.1 mg/kg), or 4-PBA (i.p., 10 mg/kg). Two other groups were pretreated either with VIPER (TLR4 viral inhibitory peptide) LPS + VIPER (i.v., 0.1 mg/kg) or 4-Phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) LPS + PBA (i.p., 10 mg/kg). Arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. AP, HR variability, as well as baroreflex sensitivity (BrS), was determined after LPS or saline treatment for 2 hours. Immunofluorescence staining for NeuN, Ib1a, TLR4 and GRP78 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was performed. TNF-α, TLR4 and GRP78 protein expression in the PVN were evaluated by western blot. Plasma norepinephrine levels were determined by ELISA. Key Results Acute LPS treatment increased HR and plasma norepinephrine concentration. It also decreased HR variability and high frequency (HF) components of HR variability, as well BrS. Acute LPS treatment increased TLR4 and TNF-α protein expression in the PVN. These hemodynamic and molecular effects were partially abrogated with TLR4 blocker or ER stress inhibitor pretreatment. In addition, immunofluorescence study showed that TLR4 is co-localized with GRP78in the neurons. Further inhibition of TLR4 or ER stress was able to attenuate the LPS-induced microglia activation. Conclusions & Implications TLR4 signaling promotes autonomic dysfunction, inflammation and microglia activation, through neuronal ER stress, in the PVN. PMID:25811788

  3. The immunobiology of toll-like receptor 4 agonists: from endotoxin tolerance to immunoadjuvants.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Julia K; Hernandez, Antonio; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Adams, William L; Sherwood, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a structural component of the gram-negative outer membrane. The lipid A moiety of LPS binds to the LPS receptor complex expressed by leukocytes, endothelial cells, and parenchymal cells and is the primary component of gram-negative bacteria that is recognized by the immune system. Activation of the LPS receptor complex by native lipid A induces robust cytokine production, leukocyte activation, and inflammation, which is beneficial for clearing bacterial infections at the local level but can cause severe systemic inflammation and shock at higher challenge doses. Interestingly, prior exposure to LPS renders the host resistant to shock caused by subsequent LPS challenge, a phenomenon known as endotoxin tolerance. Treatment with lipid A has also been shown to augment the host response to infection and to serve as a potent vaccine adjuvant. However, the adverse effects associated with the pronounced inflammatory response limit the use of native lipid A as a clinical immunomodulator. More recently, analogs of lipid A have been developed that possess attenuated proinflammatory activity but retain attractive immunomodulatory properties. The lipid A analog monophosphoryl lipid A exhibits approximately 1/1,000th of the toxicity of native lipid A but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity. As such, monophosphoryl lipid A is currently used as an adjuvant in several human vaccine preparations. Because of the potency of lipid A analogs as immunoadjuvants, numerous laboratories are actively working to identify and develop new lipid A mimetics and to optimize their efficacy and safety. Based on those characteristics, lipid A analogs represent an attractive family of immunomodulators.

  4. CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cameron R.; Stuart, Lynda M.; Wilkinson, Kim; van Gils, Janine M.; Deng, Jiusheng; Halle, Annett; Rayner, Katey J.; Boyer, Laurent; Zhong, Ruiqin; Frazier, William A.; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; El Khoury, Joseph; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease, deposition of the altered-self components oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and β-amyloid triggers a protracted sterile inflammatory response. Although chronic stimulation of the innate immune system is believed to underlie the pathology of these diseases, the molecular mechanisms of activation remain unclear. Here we show that oxidized LDL and β-amyloid trigger inflammatory signaling through a heterodimer of Toll-like receptors 4 and 6. Assembly of this novel heterodimer is regulated by signals from the scavenger receptor CD36, a common receptor for these disparate ligands. Our results identify CD36-TLR4-TLR6 activation as a common molecular mechanism by which atherogenic lipids and β-amyloid stimulate sterile inflammation and suggest a new model of TLR heterodimerization triggered by co-receptor signaling events. PMID:20037584

  5. Interferon-gamma treatment elevates caspase-8 expression and sensitizes human breast tumor cells to a death receptor-induced mitochondria-operated apoptotic program.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, C; Muñoz-Pinedo, C; López-Rivas, A

    2000-10-15

    In this report, we have assessed the role of IFN-gamma as a sensitizing agent in apoptosis mediated by activation of death receptor CD95 in breast tumor cells. Treatment of the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 with IFN-gamma significantly facilitated apoptosis induced by CD95 receptor ligation at the plasma membrane, independently of p53 status. In contrast, IFN-gamma treatment did not enhance the apoptotic effect of the DNA-damaging drug, doxorubicin. Analysis of apoptosis regulators indicated that caspase-8 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in both of the cell lines after treatment with IFN-gamma. Furthermore, IFN-gamma sensitized MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells to CD95-mediated activation of