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Sample records for death receptor-mediated apoptosis

  1. Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; King, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents.

  2. A whole-genome RNAi screen identifies an 8q22 gene cluster that inhibits death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dompe, Nicholas; Rivers, Celina Sanchez; Li, Li; Cordes, Shaun; Schwickart, Martin; Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Amler, Lukas; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Tang, Jerry; Modrusan, Zora; Davis, David P

    2011-10-25

    Deregulation of apoptosis is a common occurrence in cancer, for which emerging oncology therapeutic agents designed to engage this pathway are undergoing clinical trials. With the aim of uncovering strategies to activate apoptosis in cancer cells, we used a pooled shRNA screen to interrogate death receptor signaling. This screening approach identified 16 genes that modulate the sensitivity to ligand induced apoptosis, with several genes exhibiting frequent overexpression and/or copy number gain in cancer. Interestingly, two of the top hits, EDD1 and GRHL2, are found 50 kb apart on chromosome 8q22, a region that is frequently amplified in many cancers. By using a series of silencing and overexpression studies, we show that EDD1 and GRHL2 suppress death-receptor expression, and that EDD1 expression is elevated in breast, pancreas, and lung cancer cell lines resistant to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Supporting the relevance of EDD1 and GRHL2 as therapeutic candidates to engage apoptosis in cancer cells, silencing the expression of either gene sensitizes 8q22-amplified breast cancer cell lines to death receptor induced apoptosis. Our findings highlight a mechanism by which cancer cells may evade apoptosis, and therefore provide insight in the search for new targets and functional biomarkers for this pathway.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Induces Death Receptor-mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Panchanathan, Radha; Yun, Jeong Won; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gon Sup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background Bile acids have anti-cancer properties in a certain types of cancers. We determined anticancer activity and its underlying molecular mechanism of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in human DU145 prostate cancer cells. Methods Cell viability was measured with an MTT assay. UDCA-induced apoptosis was determined with flow cytometric analysis. The expression levels of apoptosis-related signaling proteins were examined with Western blotting. Results UDCA treatment significantly inhibited cell growth of DU145 in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic blebs and accumulated the cells with sub-G1 DNA contents. Moreover, UDCA activated caspase 8, suggesting that UDCA-induced apoptosis is associated with extrinsic pathway. Consistent to this finding, UDCA increased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), and TRAIL augmented the UDCA-induced cell death in DU145 cells. In addition, UDCA also increased the expressions of Bax and cytochrome c and decreased the expression of Bcl-xL in DU145 cells. This finding suggests that UDCA-induced apoptosis may be involved in intrinsic pathway. Conclusions UDCA induces apoptosis via extrinsic pathway as well as intrinsic pathway in DU145 prostate cancer cells. UDCA may be a promising anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer. PMID:28382282

  4. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Induces Death Receptor-mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Panchanathan, Radha; Yun, Jeong Won; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gon Sup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2017-03-01

    Bile acids have anti-cancer properties in a certain types of cancers. We determined anticancer activity and its underlying molecular mechanism of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in human DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was measured with an MTT assay. UDCA-induced apoptosis was determined with flow cytometric analysis. The expression levels of apoptosis-related signaling proteins were examined with Western blotting. UDCA treatment significantly inhibited cell growth of DU145 in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic blebs and accumulated the cells with sub-G1 DNA contents. Moreover, UDCA activated caspase 8, suggesting that UDCA-induced apoptosis is associated with extrinsic pathway. Consistent to this finding, UDCA increased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), and TRAIL augmented the UDCA-induced cell death in DU145 cells. In addition, UDCA also increased the expressions of Bax and cytochrome c and decreased the expression of Bcl-xL in DU145 cells. This finding suggests that UDCA-induced apoptosis may be involved in intrinsic pathway. UDCA induces apoptosis via extrinsic pathway as well as intrinsic pathway in DU145 prostate cancer cells. UDCA may be a promising anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  5. Ouabain-induced perturbations in intracellular ionic homeostasis regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Franco, Rodrigo; Bortner, Carl D; Cidlowski, John A

    2010-07-01

    Apoptosis is defined by specific morphological and biochemical characteristics including cell shrinkage (termed apoptotic volume decrease), a process that results from the regulation of ion channels and plasma membrane transporter activity. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is the predominant pump that controls cell volume and plasma membrane potential in cells and alterations in its function have been suggested to be associated with apoptosis. We report here that the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, potentiates apoptosis in the human lymphoma Jurkat cells exposed to Fas ligand (FasL) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not other apoptotic agents such as H(2)O(2), thapsigargin or UV-C implicating a role for the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ouabain also potentiated perturbations in cell Ca(2+) homeostasis only in conjunction with the apoptotic inducer FasL but not TRAIL. Ouabain did not affect alterations in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in response to H(2)O(2), thapsigargin or UV-C. FasL-induced alterations in Ca(2+) were not abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium but incubation of cells with BAPTA-AM inhibited both Ca(2+) perturbations and the ouabain-induced potentiation of FasL-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the impairment of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity during apoptosis is linked to perturbations in cell Ca(2+) homeostasis that modulate apoptosis induced by the activation of Fas by FasL.

  6. Doxorubicin induces cardiotoxicity through upregulation of death receptors mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liqun; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer agent but causes cardiotoxicity in many patients. The mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). We found that doxorubicin and related anthracycline agents (e.g., daunorubicin, idarubicin, and epirubicin) significantly upregulated the expression of death receptors (DRs) (TNFR1, Fas, DR4 and DR5) in iPS-derived cardiomyocytes at both protein and mRNA levels. The resulting iPS-CMs cells underwent spontaneous apoptosis which was further enhanced by physiologically relevant death ligands including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Furthermore, TRAIL potentiated doxorubicin-induced decrease in beating rate and amplitude of iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that the induction of death receptors in cardiomyocytes is likely a critical mechanism by which doxorubicin causes cardiotoxicity. PMID:28300219

  7. Ouabain-induced perturbations in intracellular ionic homeostasis regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo; Bortner, Carl D.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is defined by specific morphological and biochemical characteristics including cell shrinkage (termed apoptotic volume decrease), a process that results from the regulation of ion channels and plasma membrane transporter activity. The Na+-K+-ATPase is the predominant pump that controls cell volume and plasma membrane potential in cells and alterations in its function have been suggested to be associated with apoptosis. We report here that the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, potentiates apoptosis in the human lymphoma Jurkat cells exposed to Fas ligand (FasL) or Tumor necrosis factor--related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not other apoptotic agents such as H2O2, thapsigargin or UV-C implicating a role for the Na+-K+-ATPase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ouabain also potentiated perturbations in cell Ca2+ homeostasis only in conjunction with the apoptotic inducer FasL but not TRAIL. Ouabain did not affect alterations in the intracellular Ca2+ levels in response to H2O2, thapsigargin or UV-C. FasL-induced alterations in Ca2+ were not abolished in Ca2+-free medium but incubation of cells with BAPTA-AM inhibited both Ca2+ perturbations and the ouabain-induced potentiation of FasL-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the impairment of the Na+-K+-ATPase activity during apoptosis is linked to perturbations in cell Ca2+ homeostasis that modulate apoptosis induced by the activation of Fas by FasL. PMID:20422450

  8. Nortriptyline induces mitochondria and death receptor-mediated apoptosis in bladder cancer cells and inhibits bladder tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sheau-Yun; Cheng, Chen-Li; Ho, Hao-Chung; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chiu, Kun-Yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2015-08-15

    Nortriptyline (NTP), an antidepressant, has antitumor effects on some human cancer cells, but its effect on human bladder cancer cells is not known. In this study, we used a cell viability assay to demonstrate that NTP is cytotoxic to human TCCSUP and mouse MBT-2 bladder cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. We also performed cell cycle analysis, annexin V and mitochondrial membrane potential assays, and Western blot analysis to show that NTP inhibits cell growth in these cells by inducing both mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Specifically, NTP increases the expression of Fas, FasL, FADD, Bax, Bak, and cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, NTP decreases the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BH3 interacting domain death agonist, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and survivin. Furthermore, NTP-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which can be reduced by antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Finally, we showed that NTP suppresses tumor growth in mice inoculated with MBT-2 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that NTP induces both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis in human and mouse bladder cancer cells and that it may be a clinically useful chemotherapeutic agent for bladder cancer in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Essential oil of Cephalotaxus griffithii needle inhibits proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer cells: involvement of mitochondria-initiated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Laishram, Surbala; Rana, Virendra Singh; Borah, Jagat Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cephalotaxus griffithii needle essential oil (CGNO) on proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer (HCC) cells. CGNO treatment decreased the viability of all the tested HCC (HeLa, ME-180 and SiHa) cells. Morphological and DNA fragmentation analysis of CGNO-treated HeLa cells indicated the involvement of apoptosis in inducing HCC cell death. CGNO increased mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and upregulated the expression of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. The activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9 was also significantly increased. Wound healing and transwell migration assay demonstrated that CGNO significantly inhibited the migration of HeLa cells to close a scratched wound and also inhibited their migration through filter towards a chemotactic stimulus. Taken together, these results indicated that CGNO inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. Of note, CGNO induced HeLa cell death through mitochondria-initiated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  10. CoCl2 induces apoptosis through the mitochondria- and death receptor-mediated pathway in the mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ha; Choi, Seong-Ho; Baek, Min-Woo; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Heong-Jun; Kim, Sun-Hun; Oh, Sang-Jin; Park, Hong-Ju; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2013-07-01

    Embryonic hypoxia/ischemia is a major cause of a poor fetal outcome and future neonatal and adult handicaps. However, biochemical cellular events in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells during hypoxia remains unclear. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of apoptosis in mES cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxic/ischemic conditions. CoCl2 enhanced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in mES cells. The CoCl2-treated mES cells showed a decrease in cell viability as well as typical apoptotic changes, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation and an extended G2/M phase of the cell cycle. CoCl2 augmented the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol from the mitochondria with a concomitant loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and upregulated the voltage-dependent anion channel. In addition, CoCl2-induced caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation and upregulation of p53 level, whereas downregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, a member of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family in mES cells. Furthermore, CoCl2 led to the upregulation of Fas and Fas-ligand, which are the death receptor assemblies, as well as the cleavage of Bid in mES cells. These results suggest that CoCl2 induces apoptosis through both mitochondria- and death receptor-mediated pathways that are regulated by the Bcl-2 family in mES cells.

  11. Caspase-8 mutations in head and neck cancer confer resistance to death receptor-mediated apoptosis and enhance migration, invasion, and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyou; Egloff, Ann Marie; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R; Johnson, Daniel E

    2014-10-01

    Little is known regarding molecular markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that predict responsiveness to different therapeutic regimens or predict HNSCC progression. Mutations in procaspase-8 occur in 9% of HNSCC primary tumors, but the functional consequences of these mutations are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the impact of four, representative, HNSCC-associated procaspase-8 mutations on activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, as well as cellular migration and invasion, and in vivo tumor growth. All four mutant proteins acted to potently inhibit activation of apoptosis following treatment with TRAIL or agonistic anti-Fas. In contrast to wild-type procaspase-8, the mutant proteins were not recruited to FADD following treatment with TRAIL or anti-Fas, but may be constitutively bound by FADD. Three of the four procaspase-8 mutants promoted enhanced cellular migration and invasion through matrigel, relative to that seen with the wild-type procaspase-8 protein. Procaspase-8 mutation also stimulated the growth of HNSCC xenograft tumors. These findings indicate that HNSCC-associated procaspase-8 mutations inhibit activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and are likely to represent markers for resistance to therapeutic regimens incorporating death receptor activators. Moreover, procaspase-8 mutations may serve as markers of HNSCC tumor progression, as exemplified by enhanced migration, invasion, and tumor growth. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination Treatment with Sublethal Ionizing Radiation and the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Enhances Death-Receptor Mediated Apoptosis and Anti-Tumor Immune Attack.

    PubMed

    Cacan, Ercan; Spring, Alexander M; Kumari, Anita; Greer, Susanna F; Garnett-Benson, Charlie

    2015-12-21

    Sub-lethal doses of radiation can modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrate broad anti-tumor activity in clinical and pre-clinical cancer models. Here, we use a combination treatment of proteasome inhibition and irradiation to further induce immunomodulation of tumor cells that could enhance tumor-specific immune responses. We investigate the effects of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, on the expression of immunogenic genes in normal colon and colorectal cancer cell lines. We examined cells for changes in the expression of several death receptors (DR4, DR5 and Fas) commonly used by T cells for killing of target cells. Our results indicate that the combination treatment resulted in increased cell surface expression of death receptors by increasing their transcript levels. The combination treatment further increases the sensitivity of carcinoma cells to apoptosis through FAS and TRAIL receptors but does not change the sensitivity of normal non-malignant epithelial cells. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly enhances tumor cell killing by tumor specific CD8⁺ T cells. This study suggests that combining radiotherapy and proteasome inhibition may simultaneously enhance tumor immunogenicity and the induction of antitumor immunity by enhancing tumor-specific T-cell activity.

  13. Berberine induces apoptosis in human HSC-3 oral cancer cells via simultaneous activation of the death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chung; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Jin-Tang; Fan, Shang; Yu, Fu-Shun; Yang, Jiun-Long; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Kao, Ming-Ching; Huang, An-Cheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that berberine is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information on the effects of berberine on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, the effects of berberine on cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation in human oral squamous carcinoma HSC-3 cells were examined. Berberine induced dose- and time-dependent irreversible inhibition of cell growth and cellular DNA synthesis. This was also confirmed by phase-contrast microscopy which showed that berberine induced morphological changes in HSC-3 cells. Propidium iodide/annexin V staining for flow cytometric analysis showed that berberine-induced apoptosis correlated with caspase-3 activation. Flow cytometric studies of the cell cycle distribution showed that berberine induced mainly G0/G1-phase arrest. Flow cytometric examinations also showed that berberine induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ production, as well as the dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which were correlated with apoptosis. In conclusion, our data support that berberine initially induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response based on ROS and Ca2+ production which is followed by dysfunctions of the mitochondria, resulting in apoptosis of these oral cancer HSC-3 cells. Prolonged exposure of the HSC-3 cells to berberine causes increased apoptosis through reduced levels of MMP, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3.

  14. Receptor-mediated choreography of life and death.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anjana; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2003-09-01

    The cytokine tumor necrosis factor was originally identified as a protein that kills tumor cells. So far, 18 distinct members of this family have been identified. All of them regulate cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death, also called apoptosis. The apoptosis induced by TNF, and other members of the family, for example, FasL, VEGI, and TRAIL is mediated through death receptors. The apoptotic signals by these cytokines are transduced by eight different death domain- (DD) containing receptors (TNFR1, also called DR1; Fas, also called DR2; DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, NGFR, and EDAR). The intracellular portion of all these receptors contains a region approximately 80 amino acids long referred to as the "death domain." Upon activation by its ligand, the DD recruits various proteins that mediate both death and proliferation of the cells. These proteins in turn recruit other proteins via their DDs or death effector domains. The actual destruction of the cell, however, is accomplished by serial activation of a family of proteases referred to as caspases. Cell death is negatively regulated by a family of proteins that includes decoy receptors, silencer of DD, sentrin, cellular FLICE inhibitory protein, cellular inhibitors of apoptosis, and survivin. This review is an attempt to describe how these negative and positive players of cell death perform a harmonious dance with each other.

  15. FLIP ing the coin? Death receptor-mediated signals during skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Leverkus, Martin; Diessenbacher, Philip; Geserick, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Keratinocyte skin cancer is a multi-step process, during which a number of obstacles have to be overcome by the tumor cell to allow the development of a manifest tumor. Beside proliferation and immortality, apoptosis resistance is one additional and critical step during skin carcinogenesis. Over the past two decades, much has been learned about the prototypical membrane-bound inducers of apoptosis, namely the death receptors and their ligands, and the apoptosis signalling pathways activated by death receptors have been elucidated in great detail. In contrast, much less is known about the tissue-specific role of the death receptor/ligands systems during the development of skin cancer. Here, we summarize and discuss the role of this intriguing receptor family and the potential mechanistical impact of the intracellular caspase-8 inhibitor cFLIP for keratinocyte skin cancer. Given more recent data about cFLIP and its isoforms, a more complex regulatory role of cFLIP can be suspected. Indeed, cFLIP may not solely interfere with death receptor-mediated apoptosis signalling pathways, but may positively or negatively influence other, potential harmful signalling pathways such as the production of inflammatory cytokines, tumor cell migration or the activation of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, considered crucial during skin tumorigenesis. In this respect, cFLIP may act to 'FLIP the coin' during the development of keratinocyte skin cancer.

  16. Stem cells are resistant to TRAIL receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Szegezdi, Eva; O'Reilly, Aoife; Davy, Yeung; Vawda, Reaz; Taylor, Deanna L; Murphy, Mary; Samali, Afshin; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    New therapeutic approaches aim to eradicate tumours by expression of tumouricidal proteins in the tumour stroma. One such anti-neoplastic protein is tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) because it induces apoptosis in cancerous cells, but not in non-transformed cells. Stem cells can migrate to, survive and proliferate in tumours. We examined the suitability of bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSC), foetal-MSC and umbilical cord matrix stem cells (Wharton's Jelly MSCs) as TRAIL-delivery vehicles. Although all MSC types expressed DR4 and/or DR5, none of them were sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Selective activation of DR4 or DR5 with agonistic antibodies or DR5-selective TRAIL-mutant (D269H/E195R) revealed that the TRAIL receptors are inactive in MSCs. In fMSC DR5 was not fully inactivated, its activity however was minimal in comparison to the colon carcinoma cell, Colo205. The intracellular components of the TRAIL-apoptotic pathway, such as pro-caspase-8 and -9 were also expressed at very low; almost undetectable levels in all three MSC types. In conclusion, the MSC species examined are resistant to TRAIL and thus can be suitable tools for TRAIL delivery to tumours.

  17. Stem cells are resistant to TRAIL receptor-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Szegezdi, Eva; O’Reilly, Aoife; Davy, Yeung; Vawda, Reaz; Taylor, Deanna L; Murphy, Mary; Samali, Afshin; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    New therapeutic approaches aim to eradicate tumours by expression of tumouricidal proteins in the tumour stroma. One such anti-neoplastic protein is tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) because it induces apoptosis in cancerous cells, but not in non-transformed cells. Stem cells can migrate to, survive and proliferate in tumours. We examined the suitability of bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSC), foetal-MSC and umbilical cord matrix stem cells (Wharton’s Jelly MSCs) as TRAIL-delivery vehicles. Although all MSC types expressed DR4 and/or DR5, none of them were sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Selective activation of DR4 or DR5 with agonistic antibodies or DR5-selective TRAIL-mutant (D269H/E195R) revealed that the TRAIL receptors are inactive in MSCs. In fMSC DR5 was not fully inactivated, its activity however was minimal in comparison to the colon carcinoma cell, Colo205. The intracellular components of the TRAIL-apoptotic pathway, such as pro-caspase-8 and -9 were also expressed at very low; almost undetectable levels in all three MSC types. In conclusion, the MSC species examined are resistant to TRAIL and thus can be suitable tools for TRAIL delivery to tumours. PMID:19604313

  18. Resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury by inhibiting death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways in a cisplatin-induced rat model

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiufa; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhen, Junhui; Feng, Jinbo; Song, Chun; Jiang, Bei; Hu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of renal function and acute tubular necrosis. Resveratrol exerts a wide range of pharmacological effects based on its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. The present study aimed to evaluate whether resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury in a cisplatin-induced rat model and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: Control, cisplatin, resveratrol, and cisplatin plus resveratrol. Rats exposed to cisplatin displayed acute kidney injury, identified by analysis of renal function and histopathological observation. Resveratrol significantly ameliorated the increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal index and histopathological damage induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, compared with untreated control animals, cisplatin lead to significantly increased expression of Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase-8 and Bcl-2 associated protein X apoptosis regulator (Bax), and decreased expression of anti-apoptosis regulators, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) and B cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl-2). Administration of resveratrol significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced alteration in these apoptosis-associated proteins. In conclusion, these findings suggest that resveratrol attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury through inactivation of the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the process of acute kidney injury. PMID:27600998

  19. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  20. Homocysteine-NMDA receptor mediated activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2009-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and neurological abnormalities. However the underlying cellular mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine can promote neuronal death is not clear. In the present study we have examined the role of NMDA receptor mediated activation of the extracellular-signal regulated mitogen activated protein (ERK MAP) kinase pathway in homocysteine-dependent neurotoxicity. The study demonstrates that in neurons L-homocysteine-induced cell death is mediated through activation of NMDA receptors. The study also shows that homocysteine-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation and resultant Ca2+ influx leads to rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation attenuates homocysteine mediated neuronal cell death thereby demonstrating that activation of ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway is an intermediate step that couples homocysteine mediated NMDA receptor stimulation to neuronal death. The findings also show that cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), a pro-survival transcription factor and a downstream target of ERK, is only transiently activated following homocysteine exposure. The sustained activation of ERK but a transient activation of CREB together suggest that exposure to homocysteine initiates a feedback loop that shuts off CREB signaling without affecting ERK phosphorylation and thereby facilitates homocysteine mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19508427

  1. Role of heme oxygenase 1 in TNF/TNF receptor-mediated apoptosis after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Eum, Hyun-Ae; Billiar, Timothy R; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2013-04-01

    Hepatocellular apoptosis commonly occurs in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The binding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) leads to the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), which subsequently initiates a caspase cascade resulting in apoptosis. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) confers cytoprotection against cell death in I/R injury and inhibits stress-induced apoptotic pathways in vitro. This study investigated the role of HO-1 in modulating TNF/TNFR1-mediated cell death pathways in hepatic I/R injury. Rats were pretreated with hemin, an HO-1 inducer, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an HO-1 inhibitor, before undergoing hepatic I/R. Heme oxygenase 1 activity increased after reperfusion. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced hepatocellular apoptosis was attenuated by hemin, as determined by the caspase-3 and -8 activity assays and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling). Zinc protoporphyrin eliminated the cytoprotective effect of hemin. Hepatic TNFR1 protein expression was unchanged among the experimental groups, whereas mitochondrial TNFR1 protein increased after I/R. Ischemia/reperfusion increased the quantity of DISC components, including TRADD (TNFR1-associated death domain), FADD (Fas-associated death domain), and caspase-8, as well as the assembly of DISCs within the liver. In the mitochondrial fraction, TNFR1-associated caspase-8 was increased after I/R. These increases were attenuated by hemin; zinc protoporphyrin eliminated this effect. Our findings suggest that the cytoprotective effects of HO-1 are mediated by suppression of TNF/TNFR1-mediated apoptotic signaling, specifically by modulating apoptotic DISC formation and mitochondrial TNFR1 translocation during hepatic I/R.

  2. P2X7 receptor-mediated PARP1 activity regulates astroglial death in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yang; Ko, Ah-Reum; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, necrosis, and other cellular processes after injury. Recently, we revealed that PARP1 regulates the differential neuronal/astroglial responses to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the distinct brain regions. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, activation accelerates astroglial apoptosis, while it attenuates clasmatodendrosis (lysosome-derived autophagic astroglial death). Therefore, we investigated whether P2X7R regulates regional specific astroglial PARP1 expression/activation in response to SE. In the present study, P2X7R activation exacerbates SE-induced astroglial apoptosis, while P2X7R inhibition attenuates it accompanied by increasing PARP1 activity in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus following SE. In the CA1 region, however, P2X7R inhibition deteriorates SE-induced clasmatodendrosis via PARP1 activation following SE. Taken together, our findings suggest that P2X7R function may affect SE-induced astroglial death by regulating PARP1 activation/expression in regional-specific manner. Therefore, the selective modulation of P2X7R-mediated PARP1 functions may be a considerable strategy for controls in various types of cell deaths. PMID:26388738

  3. Death penalty for keratinocytes: apoptosis versus cornification.

    PubMed

    Lippens, S; Denecker, G; Ovaere, P; Vandenabeele, P; Declercq, W

    2005-11-01

    Homeostasis implies a balance between cell growth and cell death. This balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Homeostasis is controlled by several mechanisms including apoptosis, a process by which cells condemned to death are completely eliminated. However, in some cases, total destruction and removal of dead cells is not desirable, as when they fulfil a specific function such as formation of the skin barrier provided by corneocytes, also known as terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In this case, programmed cell death results in accumulation of functional cell corpses. Previously, this process has been associated with apoptotic cell death. In this overview, we discuss differences and similarities in the molecular regulation of epidermal programmed cell death and apoptosis. We conclude that despite earlier confusion, apoptosis and cornification occur through distinct molecular pathways, and that possibly antiapoptotic mechanisms are implicated in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes.

  4. Methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis involves the activation of multiple death pathways. Review.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Deng, Xiaolin

    2005-11-01

    The abuse of the illicit drug methamphetamine (METH) is a major concern because it can cause terminal degeneration and neuronal cell death in the brain. METH-induced cell death occurs via processes that resemble apoptosis. In the present review, we discuss the role of various apoptotic events in the causation of METH-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Studies using comprehensive approaches to gene expression profiling have allowed for the identification of several genes that are up-regulated or down-regulated after an apoptosis-inducing dose of the drug. Further experiments have also documented the fact that the drug can cause demise of striatal enkephalinergic neurons by cross-talks between mitochondria-, endoplasmic reticulum- and receptor-mediated apoptotic events. These neuropathological observations have also been reported in models of drug-induced neuroplastic alterations used to mimic drug addiction (Nestler, 2001).

  5. Signaling pathways that regulate life and cell death: evolution of apoptosis in the context of self-defense.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Programmed Cell Death is essential for the life cycle of many organisms. Cell death in multicellular organisms can occur as a consequence of massive damage (necrosis) or in a controlled form, through engagement of diverse biochemical programs. The best well known form of programmed cell death is apoptosis. Apoptosis occurs in animals as a consequence of a variety of stimuli including stress and social signals and it plays essential roles in morphogenesis and immune defense. The machinery of apoptosis is well conserved among animals and it is composed of caspases (the proteases which execute cell death), adapter proteins (caspase activators), Bcl-2 family proteins and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs). We will describe in this chapter the main apoptotic pathways in animals: the extrinsic (death receptor-mediated), the intrinsic/mitochondrial and the Granzyme B pathway. Other forms of non-apoptotic Programmed Cell Death which occur in animals will also be discussed. We will summarize the current knowledge about apoptotic-like and other forms of cell death in other organisms such as plants and protists.Additionally, we will discuss the hypothesis that apoptosis originated as part of a host defense mechanism. We will explore the similarities between the protein complexes which mediate apoptosis (apoptosomes) and complexes involved in immunity: inflammasomes. Additional functions of apoptotic proteins related to immune function will be summarized, in an effort to explore the evolutionary origins of cell death.

  6. Death receptors mediate the adverse effects of febrile-range hyperthermia on the outcome of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Herrero, Raquel; Wong, Venus A.; Mongovin, Stephen M.; Martin, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that febrile-range hyperthermia enhances lung injury and mortality in mice exposed to inhaled LPS and is associated with increased TNF-α receptor activity, suppression of NF-κB activity in vitro, and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells in vivo. We hypothesized that hyperthermia enhances lung injury and mortality in vivo by a mechanism dependent on TNF receptor signaling. To test this, we exposed mice lacking the TNF-receptor family members TNFR1/R2 or Fas (TNFR1/R2−/− and lpr) to inhaled LPS with or without febrile-range hyperthermia. For comparison, we studied mice lacking IL-1 receptor activity (IL-1R−/−) to determine the role of inflammation on the effect of hyperthermia in vivo. TNFR1/R2−/− and lpr mice were protected from augmented alveolar permeability and mortality associated with hyperthermia, whereas IL-1R−/− mice were susceptible to augmented alveolar permeability but protected from mortality associated with hyperthermia. Hyperthermia decreased pulmonary concentrations of TNF-α and keratinocyte-derived chemokine after LPS in C57BL/6 mice and did not affect pulmonary inflammation but enhanced circulating markers of oxidative injury and nitric oxide metabolites. The data suggest that hyperthermia enhances lung injury by a mechanism that requires death receptor activity and is not directly associated with changes in inflammation mediated by hyperthermia. In addition, hyperthermia appears to enhance mortality by generating a systemic inflammatory response and not by a mechanism directly associated with respiratory failure. Finally, we observed that exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia converts a modest, survivable model of lung injury into a fatal syndrome associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. PMID:21515659

  7. Lymphotropic Virions Affect Chemokine Receptor-Mediated Neural Signaling and Apoptosis: Implications for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Associated Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jialin; Ghorpade, Anuja; Niemann, Douglas; Cotter, Robin L.; Thylin, Michael R.; Epstein, Leon; Swartz, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Robin B.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Nukuna, Adeline; Gendelman, Howard E.

    1999-01-01

    Chemokine receptors pivotal for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in lymphocytes and macrophages (CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4) are expressed on neural cells (microglia, astrocytes, and/or neurons). It is these cells which are damaged during progressive HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system. We theorize that viral coreceptors could effect neural cell damage during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) without simultaneously affecting viral replication. To these ends, we studied the ability of diverse viral strains to affect intracellular signaling and apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Inhibition of cyclic AMP, activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and apoptosis were induced by diverse HIV-1 strains, principally in neurons. Virions from T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains (MN, IIIB, and Lai) produced the most significant alterations in signaling of neurons and astrocytes. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, induced markedly less neural damage than purified virions. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) strains (ADA, JR-FL, Bal, MS-CSF, and DJV) produced the least neural damage, while 89.6, a dual-tropic HIV-1 strain, elicited intermediate neural cell damage. All T-tropic strain-mediated neuronal impairments were blocked by the CXCR4 antibody, 12G5. In contrast, the M-tropic strains were only partially blocked by 12G5. CXCR4-mediated neuronal apoptosis was confirmed in pure populations of rat cerebellar granule neurons and was blocked by HA1004, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C. Taken together, these results suggest that progeny HIV-1 virions can influence neuronal signal transduction and apoptosis. This process occurs, in part, through CXCR4 and is independent of CD4 binding. T-tropic viruses that traffic in and out of the brain during progressive HIV-1 disease may play an important role in HAD neuropathogenesis. PMID:10482576

  8. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative hepatoma and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, E F; Koch, D C; Bisson, W H; Jang, H S; Kolluri, S K

    2014-01-30

    Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer is an important clinical goal, especially for triple-negative breast cancer, which is refractory to existing targeted treatments. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, and thus may be a potential anticancer target. To investigate the AhR as an anticancer target, we conducted a small molecule screen to discover novel AhR ligands with anticancer properties. We identified raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator currently used in the clinic for prevention of ER-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as an AhR activator. Raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER. Raloxifene selectively induced apoptosis of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with non-transformed mammary epithelial cells via the AhR. Combined with recent data showing that raloxifene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer xenografts in vivo (Int J Oncol. 43(3):785-92, 2013), our results support the possibility of repurposing of raloxifene as an AhR-targeted therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To this end, we also evaluated the role of AhR expression on survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. We found that higher expression of the AhR is significantly associated with increased overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival in both hormone-dependent (ER-positive) and hormone-independent (ER and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative) breast cancers. Together, our data strongly support the possibility of using the Ah

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative hepatoma and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, E F; Koch, D C; Bisson, W H; Jang, H S; Kolluri, S K

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer is an important clinical goal, especially for triple-negative breast cancer, which is refractory to existing targeted treatments. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, and thus may be a potential anticancer target. To investigate the AhR as an anticancer target, we conducted a small molecule screen to discover novel AhR ligands with anticancer properties. We identified raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator currently used in the clinic for prevention of ER-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as an AhR activator. Raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER. Raloxifene selectively induced apoptosis of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with non-transformed mammary epithelial cells via the AhR. Combined with recent data showing that raloxifene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer xenografts in vivo (Int J Oncol. 43(3):785-92, 2013), our results support the possibility of repurposing of raloxifene as an AhR-targeted therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To this end, we also evaluated the role of AhR expression on survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. We found that higher expression of the AhR is significantly associated with increased overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival in both hormone-dependent (ER-positive) and hormone-independent (ER and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative) breast cancers. Together, our data strongly support the possibility of using the Ah

  10. [Strategy of probe selection for studying mRNAs that participate in receptor-mediated apoptosis signaling].

    PubMed

    Solntsev, L A; Starikova, V D; Sakharnov, N A; Knyazev, D I; Utkin, O V

    2015-01-01

    Death receptors (DRs) and the participants of DR-mediated signaling are characterized by a large number of mRNA isoforms generated by alternative splicing. Due to their high labor intensity and high cost, conventional methods (RT-PCR and RT-PCR in real time) are ineffective when the simultaneous detection of a plurality of mRNA isoforms is needed. In this regard, the use of DNA biochips is has prospective applications in analyzing the expression of many genes simultaneously. In this paper, we suggest an optimal strategy of probes selection aimed at detecting the maximum number of mRNA splice variants generated by major participants of DR-signaling. The objects of the study were 185 genes that form 1134 mRNA isoforms. As a result, a biochip design was developed that enables the detection of 499 mRNA isoforms (44% of total mRNA splice variants). The proposed strategy combines a high degree of modularity, the use of modern high-performance computers, and broad opportunities for setting up the selection criteria in accordance with the objectives of the study.

  11. NR2B-NMDA receptor mediated modulation of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP regulates glutamate induced neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Deb, Ishani; Mukherjee, Saibal; Paul, Surojit

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the role of a neuron-specific tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in excitotoxic cell death. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK, a stress-activated kinase that is known to play a role in the etiology of excitotoxic cell death is a substrate of STEP. Glutamate-mediated NMDA receptor stimulation leads to rapid but transient activation of p38 MAPK, which is primarily dependent on NR2A-NMDA receptor activation. Conversely, activation of NR2B-NMDA receptors leads to dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of STEP, which in turn leads to inactivation of p38 MAPK. Thus during transient NMDA receptor stimulation, increases in STEP activity appears to limit the duration of activation of p38 MAPK and improves neuronal survival. However, if NR2B-NMDA receptor stimulation is sustained, protective effects of STEP activation are lost, as these stimuli cause significant degradation of active STEP, leading to secondary activation of p38 MAP kinase. Consistent with this observation, a cell transducible TAT-STEP peptide that constitutively binds to p38 MAPK attenuated neuronal cell death caused by sustained NMDA receptor stimulation. The findings imply that the activation and levels of STEP are dependent on the duration and magnitude of NR2B-NMDA receptor stimulation and STEP serves as a modulator of NMDA receptor dependent neuronal injury, through its regulation of p38 MAPK. PMID:21029094

  12. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress are involved in interleukin-1beta-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yilong; Kalueff, Allan V; Song, Cai

    2017-06-15

    Increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and its gene expression are implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IL-1β activates microglia and stimulates glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NMDA receptor expression, thereby disturbing intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) disequilibrium, in turn, may trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, contributing to overall excitotoxicity and neuronal death that evoke AD. However, it is unclear whether IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis is mediated by the glutamatergic system, ER stress and/or Ca(2+) dysfunction. The present study investigated the role of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) in ER stress and IL-1β-evoked neuronal death by assessing NMDAR-induced Ca(2+) overload and NMDA-mediated ER stress. Male Long Evans rats were treated with IL-1β (with or without NMDAR antagonist MK801) injected intracerebroventricularly for 8days. Glutamate concentration was measured by HPLC, and mRNA and protein expression of microglial biomarkers and NMDAR, as well as markers of Ca(2+) overload (caplain2) and ER stress (glucose-regulated protein 78, GRP78, and C/EBP homologous protein-10, CHOP), were assessed by real-time PCR and western blot. Apoptosis was also evaluated in the hippocampal neurons using TUNEL. Overall, IL-1β induced robust neuronal apoptosis, accompanied by upregulated NMDAR, caplain2, GRP78 and CHOP. MK801 pretreatment significantly attenuated neuronal apoptosis and NMDA up-regulation, also reducing GRP78 and CHOP expression. In summary, these results suggest that IL-1β may disturb intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis via NMDAR-mediated mechanism, thereby triggering neuronal apoptosis by enhancing ER stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  14. Apoptosis through Death Receptors in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy-Associated Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Teocchi, Marcelo Ananias; D'Souza-Li, Lília

    2016-01-01

    Seizure models have demonstrated that neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are preponderant characteristics of epilepsy. Considering the lack of clinical studies, our aim is to investigate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) patients, TLE(HS). By a specific death receptor-mediated apoptosis array plate, 31 upregulated targets were revealed in the sclerotic hippocampus from TLE(HS) patients. Amongst them are the encoding genes for ligands (FASLG, TNF, and TNFSF10) and death receptors (FAS, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF10A, and TNFRSF10B). In addition, we evaluated the hippocampal relative mRNA expression of the two TNF receptors, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B, in patients, being both upregulated (n = 14; P < 0.01 and P < 0.04, resp.) when compared to the post mortem control group (n = 4). Our results have clearly suggested that three different death receptor apoptotic systems may be associated with the maintenance and progression of TLE-associated HS: (1) TNF-TNFRSF1A, (2) FASLG-FAS, and (3) TNFSF10-TNFRSF10A/B. Their effects on epilepsy are still scarcely comprehended. Our study points out to TNF and TNF receptor superfamily pathways as important targets for pharmacological studies regarding the benefits of an anti-inflammatory therapy in these patients. PMID:27006531

  15. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  16. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  17. Fc-receptor-mediated intracellular delivery of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protects against redox-induced apoptosis through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Vouldoukis, I.; Sivan, V.; Vozenin, M. C.; Kamaté, C.; Calenda, A.; Mazier, D.; Dugas, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using specific antibodies against bovine Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1, SOD1) we demonstrated that anti-SOD antibodies (IgG1) are able to promote the intracellular translocation of the antioxidant enzyme. The transduction signalling mediated by IgG1 immune complexes are known to promote a concomitant production of superoxide and nitric oxide leading to the production of peroxynitrites and cell death by apoptosis. The Fc-mediated intracellular delivery of SOD1 thus limited the endogenous production of superoxide. It was thus of interest to confirm that in the absence of superoxide anion, the production of nitric oxide protected cells against apoptosis. Study in greater detail clearly stated that under superoxide anion-free conditions, nitric oxide promoted the cell antioxidant armature and thus protected cells against redox-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The murine macrophage cell-lines J774 A1 were preactivated or not with interferon-gamma and were then stimulated by IgG1 immune complexes (IC), free SOD1 or SOD1 IC and superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production was evaluated. The redox consequences of these activation processes were also evaluated on mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis as well as on the controlled expression of the cellular antioxidant armature. RESULTS: We demonstrated that SOD1 IC induced a Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-dependent intracellular delivery of the antioxidant enzyme in IFN-gamma activated murine macrophages (the J774 AI cell line). The concomitant stimulation of the FcyR and the translocation of the SOD1 in the cytoplasm of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages not only reduced the production of superoxide anion but also induced the expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the related NO production. This inducing effect in the absence of superoxide anion production reduced mitochondrial damages and cell death by

  18. Morphological and cytochemical determination of cell death by apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Burton E.; Budd, Ralph C.

    2007-01-01

    Several modes of cell death are now recognized, including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Oftentimes the distinctions between these various modes may not be apparent, although the precise mode may be physiologically important. Accordingly, it is often desirable to be able to classify the mode of cell death. Apoptosis was originally defined by structural alterations in cells observable by transmitted light and electron microscopy. Today, a wide variety of imaging and cytochemical techniques are available for the investigation of apoptosis. This review will highlight many of these methods, and provide a critique on the advantages and disadvantages associated with them for the specific identification of apoptotic cells in culture and tissues. PMID:18000678

  19. TRAIL-death receptor endocytosis and apoptosis are selectively regulated by dynamin-1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Carlos R.; Chen, Ping-Hung; Bendris, Nawal; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) constitutes the major pathway for uptake of signaling receptors into eukaryotic cells. As such, CME regulates signaling from cell-surface receptors, but whether and how specific signaling receptors reciprocally regulate the CME machinery remains an open question. Although best studied for its role in membrane fission, the GTPase dynamin also regulates early stages of CME. We recently reported that dynamin-1 (Dyn1), previously assumed to be neuron-specific, can be selectively activated in cancer cells to alter endocytic trafficking. Here we report that dynamin isoforms differentially regulate the endocytosis and apoptotic signaling downstream of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand–death receptor (TRAIL–DR) complexes in several cancer cells. Whereas the CME of constitutively internalized transferrin receptors is mainly dependent on the ubiquitously expressed Dyn2, TRAIL-induced DR endocytosis is selectively regulated by activation of Dyn1. We show that TRAIL stimulation activates ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum stores, leading to calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation and activation of Dyn1, TRAIL–DR endocytosis, and increased resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL–DR-mediated ryanodine receptor activation and endocytosis is dependent on early caspase-8 activation. These findings delineate specific mechanisms for the reciprocal crosstalk between signaling and the regulation of CME, leading to autoregulation of endocytosis and signaling downstream of surface receptors. PMID:28049841

  20. Maslinic Acid, a Natural Triterpene, Induces a Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptotic Mechanism in Caco-2 p53-Deficient Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; García-Salguero, Leticia; Peragón, Juan; Medina, Pedro P.; Parra, Andrés; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene present in high concentrations in the waxy skin of olives. We have previously reported that MA induces apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HT29 colon cancer cells. Here, we show that MA induces apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. MA triggered a series of effects associated with apoptosis, including the cleavage of caspases -8 and -3, and increased the levels of t-Bid within a few hours of its addition to the culture medium. MA had no effect on the expression of the Bax protein, release of cytochrome-c or on the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggests that MA triggered the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in this cell type, as opposed to the intrinsic pathway found in the HT29 colon-cancer cell line. Our results suggest that the apoptotic mechanism induced in Caco-2 may be different from that found in HT29 colon-cancer cells, and that in Caco-2 cells MA seems to work independently of p53. Natural antitumoral agents capable of activating both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways could be of great use in treating colon-cancer of whatever origin. PMID:26751572

  1. X-ray-induced cell death: Apoptosis and necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hisako; Shinohara, Kunio

    1994-10-01

    X-ray-induced cell death in MOLT-4N1, a subclone of MOLT-4 cells, and M10 cells was studied with respect to their modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. MOLT-4N1 cells showed radiosensitivity similar to that of M10 cells, a radiosensitive mutant of L5178Y, as determined by the colony formation assay. Analysis of cell size demonstrated that MOLT-4N1 cells increased in size at an early stage after irradiation and then decreased to a size smaller than that of control cells, whereas the size of irradiated M10 cells increased continuously. Apoptosis detected by morphological changes and DNA ladder formation (the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments) occurred in X-irradiated MOLT-4N1 cells but not in M10 cells. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the ladder formation involved an intermediate-sized DNA (about 20 kbp). Most of the DNA was detected at the origin in both methods of electrophoresis in the case of M10 cells, though a trace amount of ladder formation was observed. Heat treatment of M10 cells induced apoptosis within 30 min after treatment, in contrast to MOLT-4N1 cells. The results suggest that apoptosis and necrosis are induced by X rays in a manner which is dependent on the cell line irrespective of the capability of the cells to develop apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was the earliest change observed in the development of apoptosis. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) as an indicator of xenobiotic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Xenobiotics alter the frequency and pattern of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Preliminary studies identified the mouse liver, with normally low levels of apoptosis, as a preferable test system to the chicken embryo limb, with normally high levels of apoptosis. The major purposes of these investigations, using the apoptogen and necrogen 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), were to determine if increases in apoptosis, (1) could be quantified as a direct result of treatment, (2) were dose- and time-dependent, (3) were independent of necrosis, (4) were associated with mitosis in the control of cell numbers and (5) were limited to specific areas of the liver. To these ends, food-deprived female, CF-1 mice were administered DCE ip under varying experimental conditions. Increased apoptosis occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with 12.5, 40, and 125 mg/kg for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr. Peak effects were observed at 4 hr. Apoptosis occurred only in the midzonal/pericentral areas of the liver. At 12.5 mg/kg, there were no effects on biochemical (alanine transaminase) and morphological indices of necrosis, establishing apoptosis as a separate phenomenon from necrosis. Increased {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation (DNA synthesis), mitosis and the percentage of octaploid hepatocytes occurred from 24-48 hr after treatment with the apoptotic but non-necrotic dose of 40 mg/kg. Apoptosis only occurred in the midzonal/pericentral areas of the liver after multiple doses with DCE, indicating the zonal selectivity of the response. In conclusion, apoptosis, a normally occurring homeostatic process associated with mitosis in the control of cell numbers, is affected by selected xenobiotics in a dose-dependent manner. Xenobiotic-induced apoptosis in the liver occurs at low doses of xenobiotics which cause no other effects on tissue structure or function.

  3. Apoptosis: understanding programmed cell death for the CRNA.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Paul S; Pierce, Janet D

    2010-06-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a physiologic mechanism employed by most multicellular organisms to maintain homeostasis of body tissues. In balance with the production of new cells by mitosis, apoptosis provides for the orderly destruction and removal of cells that are no longer needed by the organism. Apoptosis occurs by complex pathways involving multiple biochemical signals and processes. Dysfunctional apoptotic mechanisms are the pathologic basis for many human diseases, including common disorders of the heart, lungs, brain, and endocrine systems. Researchers have demonstrated in animal models that neurodegenerative changes after the administration of anesthetic drugs are related to apoptosis. Anesthesia drugs have been found to induce apoptosis, perhaps through the production of reactive oxygen species. Propofol is a drug used in anesthesia that has unique antioxidant qualities that may be beneficial. The purpose of this article is to review, for nurse anesthesia providers, current information about the process of apoptosis, the role of apoptosis in comorbid diseases, and the implications of the effects of anesthesia drugs on normal apoptotic mechanisms that need to be evaluated as potential sources of risk or benefit to surgical patients.

  4. Osteoblast cell death on methacrylate polymers involves apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gough, J E; Downes, S

    2001-12-15

    The success of an implant depends on the implant-tissue interface. There are many causes of implant failure, one of which is tissue necrosis. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine whether cell death of primary human osteoblasts (implant site specific cells) occurred by apoptosis (a form of programmed cell death) on two methacrylate polymers. Cells were cultured on poly(ethyl methacrylate)/tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate and poly(methyl methacrylate in the form of 13-mm discs, in conditioned medium containing leachable monomer and in the presence of various concentrations of monomer itself in the culture medium. It was found that monomer and leached monomer caused apoptosis of human osteoblast cells in this system. Tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate monomer was found to be more toxic than currently used monomer methylmethacrylate. Preincubation of polymers in serum containing medium was found to increase the biocompatibility of the polymers. High levels of apoptosis occurred on polymer used directly after polymerization. Apoptosis levels were decreased after polymer was incubated at 60 degrees C overnight or for 3 days. Apoptosis therefore may occur in cells at the implant site in vivo.

  5. Carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotube attenuated the cytotoxicity by limiting the oxidative stress initiated cell membrane integrity damage, cell cycle arrestment, and death receptor mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenbao; Liu, Yanfei; Peng, Dongming

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effects of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) on human normal liver cell line L02 was compared with that of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs). It was shown that compared with MWCNTs-COOH, p-MWCNTs induced apoptosis, reduced the level of intracellular antioxidant glutathione more significantly, and caused severer cell membrane damage as demonstrated by lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Cell cycles were arrested by both MWCNTs, while p-MWCNTs induced higher ratio of G0/G1 phase arrestment as compared with MWCNTs-COOH. Caspase-8 was also activated after both MWCNTs exposure, indicating extrinsic apoptotic pathway was involved in the apoptosis induced by MWCNTs exposure, more importantly, MWCNTs-COOH significantly reduced the activation of caspase-8 as compared with p-MWCNTs. All these results suggested that MWCNTs-COOH might be safer for in vivo application as compared with p-MWCNTs.

  6. Wnt3a mitigates acute lung injury by reducing P2X7 receptor-mediated alveolar epithelial type I cell death

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y; Mishra, A; Weng, T; Chintagari, N R; Wang, Y; Zhao, C; Huang, C; Liu, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, and loss of the alveolar–capillary barrier. We have previously shown that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a cell death receptor, is specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial type I cells (AEC I). In this study, we hypothesized that P2X7R-mediated purinergic signaling and its interaction with Wnt/β-catenin signaling contributes to AEC I death. We examined the effect of P2X7R agonist 2′-3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and Wnt agonist Wnt3a on AEC I death in vitro and in vivo. We also assessed the therapeutic potential of Wnt3a in a clinically relevant ALI model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in ventilated mice. We found that the activation of P2X7R by BzATP caused the death of AEC I by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling through stimulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and proteasome. On the other hand, the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt3a, GSK-3β inhibitor, or proteasome inhibitor blocked the P2X7R-mediated cell death. More importantly, Wnt3a attenuated the AEC I damage caused by intratracheal instillation of BzATP in rats or LPS in ventilated mice. Our results suggest that Wnt3a overrides the effect of P2X7R on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent the AEC I death and restrict the severity of ALI. PMID:24922070

  7. A Gammaherpesvirus Bcl-2 Ortholog Blocks B Cell Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis and Promotes the Survival of Developing B Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Carrie B.; McGraw, Jennifer E.; Feldman, Emily R.; Roth, Alexa N.; Keyes, Lisa R.; Grau, Katrina R.; Cochran, Stephanie L.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Liang, Chengyu; Forrest, J. Craig; Tibbetts, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8) establish lifelong latency in their hosts and are associated with the development of several types of malignancies, including a subset of B cell lymphomas. These viruses are thought to co-opt the process of B cell differentiation to latently infect a fraction of circulating memory B cells, resulting in the establishment of a stable latency setpoint. However, little is known about how this infected memory B cell compartment is maintained throughout the life of the host. We have previously demonstrated that immature and transitional B cells are long-term latency reservoirs for murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), suggesting that infection of developing B cells contributes to the maintenance of lifelong latency. During hematopoiesis, immature and transitional B cells are subject to B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated negative selection, which results in the clonal deletion of autoreactive B cells. Interestingly, numerous gammaherpesviruses encode homologs of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, suggesting that virus inhibition of apoptosis could subvert clonal deletion. To test this, we quantified latency establishment in mice inoculated with MHV68 vBcl-2 mutants. vBcl-2 mutant viruses displayed a marked decrease in the frequency of immature and transitional B cells harboring viral genome, but this attenuation could be rescued by increased host Bcl-2 expression. Conversely, vBcl-2 mutant virus latency in early B cells and mature B cells, which are not targets of negative selection, was remarkably similar to wild-type virus. Finally, in vivo depletion of developing B cells during chronic infection resulted in decreased mature B cell latency, demonstrating a key role for developing B cells in the maintenance of lifelong latency. Collectively, these findings support a model in which gammaherpesvirus latency in circulating mature B cells is sustained in part through the

  8. Role of transglutaminase 2 in PAC1 receptor mediated protection against hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Algarni, Alanood S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Dickenson, John M

    2017-03-15

    The PAC1 receptor and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 activity by the PAC1 receptor in retinoic acid-induced differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. TG2 phosphorylation was monitored via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. The role of TG2 in PAC1 receptor-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death and appearance of axonal-like processes, respectively. The amine incorporation and protein crosslinking activity of TG2 increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27). PACAP-27 mediated increases in TG2 activity were abolished by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283 and by pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase A (KT 5720 and Rp-cAMPs), protein kinase C (Ro 31-8220), MEK1/2 (PD 98059), and removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated PACAP-27 induced in situ TG2 activity. TG2 inhibition blocked PACAP-27 induced attenuation of hypoxia-induced cell death and outgrowth of axon-like processes. TG2 activation and cytoprotection were also observed in human SH-SY5Y cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TG2 activity was stimulated downstream of the PAC1 receptor via a multi protein kinase dependent pathway. Furthermore, PAC1 receptor-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth are dependent upon TG2. These results highlight the importance of TG2 in the cellular functions of the PAC1 receptor.

  9. Receptor-Mediated Tobacco Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Marubio, Lisa M.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Jolkovsky, David L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is a known cause of oral disease but the mechanism remains elusive. Nicotine (Nic) is a likely culprit of pathobiological effects because it displaces the local cytotransmitter acetylcholine from the nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) expressed by oral keratinocytes (KCs). To gain a mechanistic insight into tobacco-induced morbidity in the oral cavity, we studied effects of exposures to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus equivalent concentration of pure Nic on human and murine KCs. Both ETS and Nic up-regulated expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, differentiation marker filaggrin, and signal transduction factors at both the mRNA and protein levels. These changes could be abolished in cultured human oral KCs transfected with anti-α3 small interfering RNA or treated with the α3β2-preferring antagonist α-conotoxin MII. Functional inactivation of α3-mediated signaling in α3−/− mutant KCs prevented most of the ETS/Nic-dependent changes in gene expression. To determine relevance of the in vitro findings to the in vivo situation, we studied gene expression in oral mucosa of neonatal α3+/+ and α3−/− littermates delivered by heterozygous mice soon after their exposures to ETS or equivalent concentration of pure Nic in drinking water. In addition to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, the ETS/Nic-dependent alterations in gene expression were also detected by semiquantitative immunofluorescence assay directly in KCs comprising murine oral mucosa. Only wild-type mice consistently developed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the gene expression. These results identified α3β2 nAChR as a major receptor mediating effects of tobacco products on KC gene expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that in all three model systems the common genes targeted by α3β2-mediated ETS/Nic toxicity were p21, Bcl-2, NF-κB, and STAT-1. The expression of the nAChR subunits α5 and β2 and the muscarinic

  10. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  11. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-01-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  12. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R; Zhou, Jian-nian

    2003-02-01

    Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.

  13. Statins, Bcl-2, and apoptosis: cell death or cell protection?

    PubMed

    Wood, W Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Muller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2013-10-01

    Statins have proven their effectiveness in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. This class of drugs has also attracted attention as a potential treatment for dissimilar diseases such as certain types of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. What appears to be a contradiction is that, in the case of cancer, it has been suggested that statins increase apoptosis and alter levels of Bcl-2 family members (e.g., reduce Bcl-2 and increase Bax), whereas studies mainly using noncancerous cells report opposite effects. This review examined studies reporting on the effects of statins on Bcl-2 family members, apoptosis, cell death, and cell protection. Much, but not all, of the evidence supporting the pro-apoptotic effects of statins is based on data in cancer cell lines and the use of relatively high drug concentrations. Studies indicating an anti-apoptotic effect of statins are fewer in number and generally used much lower drug concentrations and normal cells. Those conclusions are not definitive, and certainly, there is a need for additional research to determine if statin repositioning is justified for noncardiovascular diseases.

  14. Activation of innate antiviral immune response via double-stranded RNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Azadzoi, Kazem M.; Su, Ning; Dai, Peng; Sun, Jianbin; Wang, Qin; Liang, Ping; Zhang, Wentao; Lei, Xiaoying; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Viruses induce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the host cells. The mammalian system has developed dsRNA-dependent recognition receptors such as RLRs that recognize the long stretches of dsRNA as PAMPs to activate interferon-mediated antiviral pathways and apoptosis in severe infection. Here we report an efficient antiviral immune response through dsRNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis against infections from different classes of viruses. We demonstrated that virus-infected A549 cells were efficiently killed in the presence of a chimeric RLR receptor, dsCARE. It measurably suppressed the interferon antiviral pathway but promoted IL-1β production. Canonical cell death analysis by morphologic assessment, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase cleavage and chemical inhibition excluded the involvement of apoptosis and consistently suggested RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis as the underlying mechanism of infected cell death. The necroptotic pathway was augmented by the formation of RIP1-RIP3 necrosome, recruitment of MLKL protein and the activation of cathepsin D. Contributing roles of RIP1 and RIP3 were confirmed by gene knockdown. Furthermore, the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 but not the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD impeded dsCARE-dependent infected cell death. Our data provides compelling evidence that the chimeric RLR receptor shifts the common interferon antiviral responses of infected cells to necroptosis and leads to rapid death of the virus-infected cells. This mechanism could be targeted as an efficient antiviral strategy. PMID:26935990

  15. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  16. Endogenous interleukin 18 regulates testicular germ cell apoptosis during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Taketo; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Kamoshida, Shingo; Nishino, Satoshi; Sasano, Maki; Oka, Nobuki; Yamashita, Hayato; Kai, Motoki; Nakao, Atsunori; Kotani, Joji; Usami, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    Orchitis (testicular swelling) often occurs during systemic inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis. Interleukin 18 (IL18) is a proinflammatory cytokine and is an apoptotic mediator during endotoxemia, but the role of IL18 in response to inflammation in the testes was unclear. WT and IL18 knockout (KO) mice were injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce endotoxemia and examined 12 and 48  h after LPS administration to model the acute and recovery phases of endotoxemia. Caspase activation was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. During the acute phase of endotoxemia, apoptosis (as indicated by caspase-3 cleavage) was increased in WT mice but not in IL18 KO mice. The death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways were both activated in the WT mice but not in the KO mice. During the recovery phase of endotoxemia, apoptosis was observed in the IL18 KO mice but not in the WT mice. Activation of the death-receptor mediated apoptotic pathway could be seen in the IL18 KO mice but not the WT mice. These results suggested that endogenous IL18 induces germ cell apoptosis via death receptor mediated- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways during the acute phase of endotoxemia and suppresses germ cell apoptosis via death-receptor mediated pathways during recovery from endotoxemia. Taken together, IL18 could be a new therapeutic target to prevent orchitis during endotoxemia.

  17. Synaptic NMDA Receptors Mediate Hypoxic Excitotoxic Death

    PubMed Central

    Wroge, Christine M.; Hogins, Joshua; Eisenman, Larry; Mennerick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NMDA receptor activation and excitotoxicity underlies pathology in many neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including hypoxia/ischemia. Thus, the development of effective therapeutics for these disorders demands a complete understanding of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during excitotoxic insults. The extrasynaptic NMDAR hypothesis posits that synaptic NMDARs are neurotrophic/neuroprotective and extrasynaptic NMDARs are neurotoxic. In part, the extrasynaptic hypothesis is built on observed selectivity for extrasynaptic receptors of a neuroprotective use-dependent NMDAR channel blocker, memantine. In rat hippocampal neurons we found that a neuroprotective concentration of memantine shows little selectivity for extrasynaptic NMDARs when all receptors are tonically activated by exogenous glutamate. This led us to test the extrasynaptic NMDAR hypothesis using metabolic challenge, where the source of excitotoxic glutamate buildup may be largely synaptic. Three independent approaches suggest strongly that synaptic receptors participate prominently in hypoxic excitotoxicity. First, block of glutamate transporters with a non-substrate antagonist exacerbated rather than prevented damage, consistent with a primarily synaptic source of glutamate. Second, selective, preblock of synaptic NMDARs with a slowly reversible, use-dependent antagonist protected nearly fully against prolonged hypoxic insult. Third, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), which degrades ambient but not synaptic glutamate, did not protect against hypoxia but protected against exogenous glutamate damage. Together, these results suggest that synaptic NMDARs can mediate excitotoxicity, particularly when the glutamate source is synaptic and when synaptic receptor contributions are rigorously defined. Moreover, the results suggest that in some situations therapeutically targeting extrasynaptic receptors may be inappropriate. PMID:22573696

  18. Brain death is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cao, S; Wang, T; Yan, B; Lu, Y; Zhao, Y; Zhang, S

    2014-12-01

    Cell death pathways initiated by stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis and liver injury after brain death is not known. In the present study, we found that brain death induces a variety of signature ER stress markers, including ER stress-specific X box-binding protein 1 and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78. Furthermore, brain death causes up-regulation of C/EBP homologous protein and caspase-12. Consistent with this, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling assay and transmission electron microscopy confirmed apoptosis in the liver after brain death. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting the presence and importance of ER stress and response in mediating brain death-induced apoptosis and liver injury.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 invokes apoptosis via death receptor pathway in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Muhammad Jameel; Xi, Peng; Yi, Zhou; Jing, Fang

    2017-01-31

    The fungal metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause detrimental health effects on humans and animals. Particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most studied and a well-known global carcinogen, producing hepatotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in multiple species. AFB1 is shown to provoke liver dysfunctioning by causing hepatocytes apoptosis and disturbing cellular enzymatic activities. In liver, AFB1 causes apoptosis via extrinsic mechanism because of high expression of death receptor pathway. The detailed mechanism of AFB1 induced hepatocytes apoptosis, via death receptor pathway still remains elusive. So the present study was conducted to explore apoptotic mechanism initiated by death receptors and associated genes in aflatoxin B1 induced liver apoptosis in chickens fed with AFB1 for 3 weeks. Results from the present study displayed histopathological and ultrastructural changes in liver such as hydropic degeneration, fatty vacuolar degeneration and proliferation of bile duct in hepatocytes in AFB1 group, along with imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense system upon AFB1 ingestion. Moreover, AFB1 intoxicated chickens showed upregulation of death receptors FAS, TNFR1 and associated genes and downregulation of inhibitory apoptotic proteins XIAP and BCL-2. The results obtained from this novel and comprehensive study including histopathological, ultrastructural, flow cytometrical and death receptor pathway gene expression profiles, will facilitate better understanding of mechanisms and involvement of death receptor pathway in hepatocytes apoptosis induced by AFB1 and ultimately may be helpful in bringing down the toxigenic potential of AFB1.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition broadly sensitizes glioblastoma cells to death receptor- and drug-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Opel, Daniela; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Bender, Ariane; Braun, Veit; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fulda, Simone

    2008-08-01

    The aberrant activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been reported to correlate with adverse clinical outcome in human glioblastoma in vivo. However, the question of how this survival network can be successfully targeted to restore the sensitivity of glioblastoma to apoptosis induction has not yet been answered. Here, we report that inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 broadly sensitizes wild-type and mutant PTEN glioblastoma cells to both death receptor- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, whereas mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition is not sufficient to restore apoptosis sensitivity. LY294002 significantly enhances apoptosis triggered by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), agonistic anti-CD95 antibodies, or several anticancer drugs (i.e., doxorubicin, etoposide, and vincristine) in a highly synergistic manner. In addition, LY294002 cooperates with TRAIL or doxorubicin to suppress colony formation, thus also showing a strong effect on long-term survival. Similarly, genetic knockdown of PI3K subunits p110alpha and/or p110beta by RNA interference (RNAi) primes glioblastoma cells for TRAIL- or doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis. In contrast to PI3K inhibition, pharmacologic or genetic blockade of mTOR by RAD001 (everolimus), rapamycin, or RNAi fails to enhance TRAIL- or doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Analysis of apoptosis pathways reveals that PI3K inhibition acts in concert with TRAIL or doxorubicin to trigger mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, caspase activation, and caspase-dependent apoptosis, which are abolished by the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Most importantly, PI3K inhibition by LY294002 sensitizes primary cultured glioblastoma cells obtained from surgical specimens to TRAIL- or chemotherapy-induced cell death. By showing that PI3K inhibition broadly primes glioblastoma cells for apoptosis, our findings provide the rationale for using PI3K inhibitors in

  1. Apoptosis and cell death (mechanisms, pharmacology and promise for the future).

    PubMed

    Franko, J; Pomfy, M; Prosbová, T

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly growing body of evidence on cell death mechanisms and its disorders during last five years has replaced old paradigms and opened new horizons in medicine. Identification of different morphological and signaling aspects, as well as variances in requirement for energy enabled us to construct a theory of three main types of cell death: necrosis, apoptosis, and lysosomal cell death. Mitochondria, certain oncoproteins such as Bcl-2 family, and special catabolic enzymes participating in cellular demise might serve as targets for pharmacological manipulation. Upregulation or downregulation of programmed cell death has been implicated in ischemic, neurodegenerative, and autoimmune disorders, as well as in oncology and chronic inflammation. This minireview brings a short overview of genesis and development of theories on programmed cell death and apoptosis, summarizes basic relevant facts on apoptotic mechanisms and draws a new hypothesis on possible implication in medicine and surgery.

  2. Genistein inhibits hypoxia, ischemic-induced death, and apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Xiang; Tian, Kun; He, Cong-Cong; Ma, Xue-Ling; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Gang; An, Di; Heng, Bin; Jiang, Yu-Gang; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2017-03-01

    A hypoxia/ischemia neuronal model was established in PC12 cells using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD-induced neuronal death, apoptosis, glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 expression, and potassium channel currents were evaluated in the present study to determine the effects of genistein in mediating the neuronal death and apoptosis induced by hypoxia and ischemia, as well as its underlying mechanism. OGD exposure reduced the cell viability, increased apoptosis, decreased the GluR2 expression, and decreased the voltage-activated potassium currents. Genistein partially reversed the effects induced by OGD. Therefore, genistein may prevent hypoxia/ischemic-induced neuronal apoptosis that is mediated by alterations in GluR2 expression and voltage-activated potassium currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Death Inducer-Obliterator 1 Triggers Apoptosis after Nuclear Translocation and Caspase Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    García-Domingo, David; Ramírez, Dorian; González de Buitrago, Gonzalo; Martínez-A, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Death inducer-obliterator 1 (DIO-1) is a gene that is upregulated early in apoptosis. Here we report that in healthy cells, the DIO-1 gene product was located in the cytoplasm, where it formed oligomers. After interleukin-3 starvation or c-Myc-induced apoptosis in serum-free conditions, DIO-1 translocated to the nucleus, where it upregulated caspase levels and activity. A nuclear localization signal deletion mutant (DIO-1ΔNLS) was unable to translocate to the nuclear compartment in the absence of interleukin-3 and failed to upregulate procaspase levels or trigger cell death. In addition, cells stably expressing DIO-1ΔNLS were protected from apoptosis induced by interleukin-3 withdrawal. These results indicate that DIO-1 has a relevant role in regulating the early stages of cell death. PMID:12697821

  4. Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

    1998-08-01

    The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation.

  5. The mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in the thymocytes apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiaochong; Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in endotherms, which can be related to the up-regulated apoptosis of immune organs. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in Aflatoxin B1 induced thymocytes apoptosis. Chickens were fed an aflatoxin B1 containing diet (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) for 3 weeks. Our results showed that (1) AFB1 diet induced the decrease of T-cell subsets, morphological changes, and excessive apoptosis of thymus. (2) The excessive apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (up-regulation of Bax, Bak, cytC and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and death receptor pathway (up-regulation of FasL, Fas and FADD). (3) Oxidative stress, an apoptosis inducer, was confirmed in the thymus. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in AFB1 induced thymocytes apoptosis in broilers. PMID:26933817

  6. N-Desmethyldauricine Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Apoptosis-Defective Cells via Ca(2+) Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Y K; Mok, Simon W F; Chen, Juan; Michelangeli, Francesco; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Han, Yu; Qu, Yuan Q; Qiu, Alena C L; Xu, Su-Wei; Xue, Wei-Wei; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Jia Y; Javed, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Coghi, Paolo; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent K W

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy remains a significant problem in oncology. Mechanisms regulating programmed cell death, including apoptosis, autophagy or necrosis, in the treatment of cancers have been extensively investigated over the last few decades. Autophagy is now emerging as an important pathway in regulating cell death or survival in cancer therapy. Recent studies demonstrated variety of natural small-molecules could induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, therefore, discovery of novel autophagic enhancers from natural products could be a promising strategy for treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancer. By computational virtual docking analysis, biochemical assays, and advanced live-cell imaging techniques, we have identified N-desmethyldauricine (LP-4), isolated from rhizoma of Menispermum dauricum DC as a novel inducer of autophagy. LP-4 was shown to induce autophagy via the Ulk-1-PERK and Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-AMPK-mTOR signaling cascades, via mobilizing calcium release through inhibition of SERCA, and importantly, lead to autophagic cell death in a panel of cancer cells, apoptosis-defective and apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, this study provides detailed insights into the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel autophagic compound that targeting the apoptosis resistant cancer cells, and new implication on drug discovery from natural products for drug resistant cancer therapy.

  7. Apoptosis and caspases regulate death and inflammation in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Richard S; Nicholson, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    Although the prevailing concept has been that mortality in sepsis results from an unbridled hyper-inflammatory cytokine-mediated response, the failure of more than 30 clinical trials to treat sepsis by controlling this cytokine response requires a 'rethink' of the molecular mechanism underpinning the development of sepsis. As we discuss here, remarkable new studies indicate that most deaths from sepsis are actually the result of a substantially impaired immune response that is due to extensive death of immune effector cells. Rectification of this apoptotic-inflammatory imbalance using modulators of caspases and other components of the cell-death pathway have shown striking efficacy in stringent animal models of sepsis, indicating an entirely novel path forward for the clinical treatment of human sepsis.

  8. Surviving apoptosis: life-death signaling in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Flusberg, Deborah A.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue development and homeostasis are regulated by opposing pro-survival and pro-death signals. An interesting feature of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family of ligands is that they simultaneously activate opposing signals within a single cell via the same ligand-receptor complex. The magnitude of pro-death events such as caspase activation and pro-survival events such as NF-κB activation vary not only from one cell type to the next but also among individual cells of the same type due to intrinsic and extrinsic noise. The molecules involved in these pro-survival/pro-death pathways, and the different phenotypes that result from their activities, have been recently reviewed. Here we focus on the impact of cell-to-cell variability in the strength of these opposing signals on shaping cell fate decisions. PMID:25920803

  9. Antibiotic-induced bacterial cell death exhibits physiological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Daniel J; Camacho, Diogo M; Kohanski, Michael A; Callura, Jarred M; Collins, James J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Programmed cell death is a gene-directed process involved in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. The most common mode of programmed cell death is apoptosis, which is characterized by a stereotypical set of biochemical and morphological hallmarks. Here we report that Escherichia coli also exhibit characteristic markers of apoptosis – including phosphatidylserine exposure, chromosome condensation and DNA fragmentation – when faced with cell death-triggering stress, namely bactericidal antibiotic treatment. Notably, we also provide proteomic and genetic evidence for the ability of multifunctional RecA to bind peptide sequences that serve as substrates for eukaryotic caspases, and regulation of this phenotype by the protease, ClpXP, under conditions of cell death. Our findings illustrate that prokaryotic organisms possess mechanisms to dismantle and mark dying cells in response to diverse noxious stimuli, and suggest that elaborate, multilayered proteolytic regulation of these features may have evolved in eukaryotes to harness and exploit their deadly potential. PMID:22633370

  10. Apoptosis-Like Death in Bacteria Induced by HAMLET, a Human Milk Lipid-Protein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hakansson, Anders P.; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is the primary means for eliminating unwanted cells in multicellular organisms in order to preserve tissue homeostasis and function. It is characterized by distinct changes in the morphology of the dying cell that are orchestrated by a series of discrete biochemical events. Although there is evidence of primitive forms of programmed cell death also in prokaryotes, no information is available to suggest that prokaryotic death displays mechanistic similarities to the highly regulated programmed death of eukaryotic cells. In this study we compared the characteristics of tumor and bacterial cell death induced by HAMLET, a human milk complex of alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that HAMLET-treated bacteria undergo cell death with mechanistic and morphologic similarities to apoptotic death of tumor cells. In Jurkat cells and Streptococcus pneumoniae death was accompanied by apoptosis-like morphology such as cell shrinkage, DNA condensation, and DNA degradation into high molecular weight fragments of similar sizes, detected by field inverse gel electrophoresis. HAMLET was internalized into tumor cells and associated with mitochondria, causing a rapid depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and bound to and induced depolarization of the pneumococcal membrane with similar kinetic and magnitude as in mitochondria. Membrane depolarization in both systems required calcium transport, and both tumor cells and bacteria were found to require serine protease activity (but not caspase activity) to execute cell death. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that many of the morphological changes and biochemical responses associated with apoptosis are present in prokaryotes. Identifying the mechanisms of bacterial cell death has the potential to reveal novel targets for future antimicrobial therapy and to further our understanding of core activation mechanisms of cell death in eukaryote cells. PMID:21423701

  11. Apoptosis-like death in bacteria induced by HAMLET, a human milk lipid-protein complex.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, Anders P; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-03-10

    Apoptosis is the primary means for eliminating unwanted cells in multicellular organisms in order to preserve tissue homeostasis and function. It is characterized by distinct changes in the morphology of the dying cell that are orchestrated by a series of discrete biochemical events. Although there is evidence of primitive forms of programmed cell death also in prokaryotes, no information is available to suggest that prokaryotic death displays mechanistic similarities to the highly regulated programmed death of eukaryotic cells. In this study we compared the characteristics of tumor and bacterial cell death induced by HAMLET, a human milk complex of alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid. We show that HAMLET-treated bacteria undergo cell death with mechanistic and morphologic similarities to apoptotic death of tumor cells. In Jurkat cells and Streptococcus pneumoniae death was accompanied by apoptosis-like morphology such as cell shrinkage, DNA condensation, and DNA degradation into high molecular weight fragments of similar sizes, detected by field inverse gel electrophoresis. HAMLET was internalized into tumor cells and associated with mitochondria, causing a rapid depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and bound to and induced depolarization of the pneumococcal membrane with similar kinetic and magnitude as in mitochondria. Membrane depolarization in both systems required calcium transport, and both tumor cells and bacteria were found to require serine protease activity (but not caspase activity) to execute cell death. Our results suggest that many of the morphological changes and biochemical responses associated with apoptosis are present in prokaryotes. Identifying the mechanisms of bacterial cell death has the potential to reveal novel targets for future antimicrobial therapy and to further our understanding of core activation mechanisms of cell death in eukaryote cells.

  12. HAMLET triggers apoptosis but tumor cell death is independent of caspases, Bcl-2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, O; Gustafsson, L; Irjala, H; Selivanova, G; Orrenius, S; Svanborg, C

    2006-02-01

    HAMLET (Human alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) triggers selective tumor cell death in vitro and limits tumor progression in vivo. Dying cells show features of apoptosis but it is not clear if the apoptotic response explains tumor cell death. This study examined the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in response to HAMLET. Apoptotic changes like caspase activation, phosphatidyl serine externalization, chromatin condensation were detected in HAMLET-treated tumor cells, but caspase inhibition or Bcl-2 over-expression did not prolong cell survival and the caspase response was Bcl-2 independent. HAMLET translocates to the nuclei and binds directly to chromatin, but the death response was unrelated to the p53 status of the tumor cells. p53 deletions or gain of function mutations did not influence the HAMLET sensitivity of tumor cells. Chromatin condensation was partly caspase dependent, but apoptosis-like marginalization of chromatin was also observed. The results show that tumor cell death in response to HAMLET is independent of caspases, p53 and Bcl-2 even though HAMLET activates an apoptotic response. The use of other cell death pathways allows HAMLET to successfully circumvent fundamental anti-apoptotic strategies that are present in many tumor cells.

  13. Selenium Compounds, Apoptosis and Other Types of Cell Death: An Overview for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sanmartín, Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Sharma, Arun K.; Palop, Juan Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in different physiological functions of the human body and plays a role in cancer prevention and treatment. Induction of apoptosis is considered an important cellular event that can account for the cancer preventive effects of Se. The mechanisms of Se-induced apoptosis are associated with the chemical forms of Se and their metabolism as well as the type of cancer studied. So, some selenocompounds, such as SeO2 involve the activation of caspase-3 while sodium selenite induces apoptosis in the absence of the activation of caspases. Modulation of mitochondrial functions has been reported to play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis and also to be one of the targets of Se compounds. Other mechanisms for apoptosis induction are the modulation of glutathione and reactive oxygen species levels, which may function as intracellular messengers to regulate signaling pathways, or the regulation of kinase, among others. Emerging evidence indicates the overlaps between the apoptosis and other types of cell death such as autophagy. In this review we report different processes of cell death induced by Se compounds in cancer treatment and prevention. PMID:22949823

  14. The meaning of death: evolution and ecology of apoptosis in protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Reece, Sarah E; Pollitt, Laura C; Colegrave, Nick; Gardner, Andy

    2011-12-01

    The discovery that an apoptosis-like, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious infectious diseases of humans, companion animals, wildlife, and livestock. Whilst apoptosis is an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defence in multicellular organisms, its occurrence in unicellular parasites appears counter-intuitive and has proved highly controversial: according to the Darwinian notion of "survival of the fittest", parasites are expected to evolve strategies to maximise their proliferation, not death. The prevailing, and untested, opinion in the literature is that parasites employ apoptosis to "altruistically" self-regulate the intensity of infection in the host/vector. However, evolutionary theory tells us that at most, this can only be part of the explanation, and other non-mutually exclusive hypotheses must also be tested. Here, we explain the evolutionary concepts that can explain apoptosis in unicellular parasites, highlight the key questions, and outline the approaches required to resolve the controversy over whether parasites "commit suicide". We highlight the need for integration of proximate and functional approaches into an evolutionary framework to understand apoptosis in unicellular parasites. Understanding how, when, and why parasites employ apoptosis is central to targeting this process with interventions that are sustainable in the face of parasite evolution.

  15. The Meaning of Death: Evolution and Ecology of Apoptosis in Protozoan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Sarah E.; Pollitt, Laura C.; Colegrave, Nick; Gardner, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that an apoptosis-like, programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in a broad range of protozoan parasites offers novel therapeutic tools to treat some of the most serious infectious diseases of humans, companion animals, wildlife, and livestock. Whilst apoptosis is an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defence in multicellular organisms, its occurrence in unicellular parasites appears counter-intuitive and has proved highly controversial: according to the Darwinian notion of “survival of the fittest”, parasites are expected to evolve strategies to maximise their proliferation, not death. The prevailing, and untested, opinion in the literature is that parasites employ apoptosis to “altruistically” self-regulate the intensity of infection in the host/vector. However, evolutionary theory tells us that at most, this can only be part of the explanation, and other non-mutually exclusive hypotheses must also be tested. Here, we explain the evolutionary concepts that can explain apoptosis in unicellular parasites, highlight the key questions, and outline the approaches required to resolve the controversy over whether parasites “commit suicide”. We highlight the need for integration of proximate and functional approaches into an evolutionary framework to understand apoptosis in unicellular parasites. Understanding how, when, and why parasites employ apoptosis is central to targeting this process with interventions that are sustainable in the face of parasite evolution. PMID:22174671

  16. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Cascade of Events Leading to Cell Death, Apoptosis or Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Iorga, Andrea; Dara, Lily; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can broadly be divided into predictable and dose dependent such as acetaminophen (APAP) and unpredictable or idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI). Liver injury from drug hepatotoxicity (whether idiosyncratic or predictable) results in hepatocyte cell death and inflammation. The cascade of events leading to DILI and the cell death subroutine (apoptosis or necrosis) of the cell depend largely on the culprit drug. Direct toxins to hepatocytes likely induce oxidative organelle stress (such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress) leading to necrosis or apoptosis, while cell death in idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI) is usually the result of engagement of the innate and adaptive immune system (likely apoptotic), involving death receptors (DR). Here, we review the hepatocyte cell death pathways both in direct hepatotoxicity such as in APAP DILI as well as in IDILI. We examine the known signaling pathways in APAP toxicity, a model of necrotic liver cell death. We also explore what is known about the genetic basis of IDILI and the molecular pathways leading to immune activation and how these events can trigger hepatotoxicity and cell death. PMID:28486401

  17. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Cascade of Events Leading to Cell Death, Apoptosis or Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Iorga, Andrea; Dara, Lily; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2017-05-09

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can broadly be divided into predictable and dose dependent such as acetaminophen (APAP) and unpredictable or idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI). Liver injury from drug hepatotoxicity (whether idiosyncratic or predictable) results in hepatocyte cell death and inflammation. The cascade of events leading to DILI and the cell death subroutine (apoptosis or necrosis) of the cell depend largely on the culprit drug. Direct toxins to hepatocytes likely induce oxidative organelle stress (such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress) leading to necrosis or apoptosis, while cell death in idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI) is usually the result of engagement of the innate and adaptive immune system (likely apoptotic), involving death receptors (DR). Here, we review the hepatocyte cell death pathways both in direct hepatotoxicity such as in APAP DILI as well as in IDILI. We examine the known signaling pathways in APAP toxicity, a model of necrotic liver cell death. We also explore what is known about the genetic basis of IDILI and the molecular pathways leading to immune activation and how these events can trigger hepatotoxicity and cell death.

  18. The mitochondria-regulated death pathway mediates asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep; Kamp, David W

    2003-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism implicated. The two major pathways regulating apoptosis include (i) the mitochondrial death (intrinsic) pathway caused by DNA damage, and (ii) the plasma-membrane death receptor (extrinsic) pathway. However, it is unknown whether asbestos activates either death pathway in AEC. We determined whether asbestos triggers AEC mitochondrial dysfunction by exposing cells (A549 and rat alveolar type II) to amosite asbestos and assessing mitochondrial membrane potential changes (deltapsi(m)) using a fluorometric technique involving tetremethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and mitotracker green. Unlike inert particulates (titanium dioxide and glass beads), amosite asbestos caused dose- and time-dependent reductions in deltapsi(m). Asbestos-induced deltapsi(m) was associated with the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm as well as activation of caspase 9, a mitochondrial-activated caspase. In contrast, a lower level of caspase 8, the death receptor-activated caspase, was detected in asbestos-exposed AEC. An iron chelator (phytic acid or deferoxamine) or a hydroxyl radical scavenger (sodium benzoate) each blocked asbestos-induced reductions in deltapsi(m) and caspase 9 activation, suggesting a role for iron-derived ROS. Finally, Bcl-X(L), a mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein that prevents cell death by preserving the outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, blocked asbestos-induced decreases in A549 cell deltapsi(m) and reduced apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation. We conclude that asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis results from mitochondrial dysfunction, in part due to iron-derived ROS, which is followed by the release of cytochrome c and caspase 9 activation. Our findings suggest an important role for the mitochondria-regulated death pathway in the

  19. Death harmony played by nucleus and mitochondria: nuclear apoptosis during conjugation of tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Tetrahymena programmed nuclear death or nuclear apoptosis is a unique process during conjugation in which only the parental macronucleus is eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm, and other nuclei such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. The nuclear death process consists of three successive steps: chromatin cleavage into high-molecular mass DNA, oligonucleosomal laddering concomitant with nuclear condensation, and complete degradation of the nuclear DNA. Following the first step of the death process, the parental macronucleus is engulfed by a large autophagosome in which many mitochondria are incorporated. Those sequestered mitochondria simply break down and release endonuclease similar to mammalian endonuclease G that is responsible for the generation of the DNA ladder, leading to the conclusion that mitochondria play a crucial role in the execution of the death program. Thus, the parental macronucleus is subject to final death by autophagy in collaboration with caspase-like enzymes, resulting in the ultimate outcome of nuclear resorption.

  20. Apoptosis is not the major death mechanism induced by celecoxib on rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Audo, Rachel; Deschamps, Véronique; Hahne, Michael; Combe, Bernard; Morel, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with apoptosis deficiency of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in some cellular systems. We have therefore examined the dose- and time-dependent effects of celecoxib on RA FLS viability. Treatment of RA FLSs with celecoxib for 24 hours reduced their viability in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of celecoxib-treated RA FLSs for their content of apoptotic and necrotic cells by Annexin V staining and TO-PRO-3 uptake displayed only few apoptotic cells. Caspase 3, a key mediator of apoptosis, was not activated in celecoxib-treated RA FLSs, and the presence of specific caspase 3 or pan-caspase inhibitors did not affect celecoxib-induced cell death. Moreover, we could not detect other signs of apoptosis, such as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, caspase 8 or 9, or DNA fragmentation. We therefore conclude that apoptosis is not the major death pathway in celecoxib-treated RA FLSs.

  1. Necrosis, and then stress induced necrosis-like cell death, but not apoptosis, should be the preferred cell death mode for chemotherapy: clearance of a few misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Lou, Xiaomin; Jin, Longyu; Zhou, Rongjia; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D. Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Cell death overarches carcinogenesis and is a center of cancer researches, especially therapy studies. There have been many nomenclatures on cell death, but only three cell death modes are genuine, i.e. apoptosis, necrosis and stress-induced cell death (SICD). Like apoptosis, SICD is programmed. Like necrosis, SICD is a pathological event and may trigger regeneration and scar formation. Therefore, SICD has subtypes of stress-induced apoptosis-like cell death (SIaLCD) and stress-induced necrosis-like cell death (SInLCD). Whereas apoptosis removes redundant but healthy cells, SICD removes useful but ill or damaged cells. Many studies on cell death involve cancer tissues that resemble parasites in the host patients, which is a complicated system as it involves immune clearance of the alien cancer cells by the host. Cancer resembles an evolutionarily lower-level organism having a weaker apoptosis potential and poorer DNA repair mechanisms. Hence, targeting apoptosis for cancer therapy, i.e. killing via SIaLCD, will be less efficacious and more toxic. On the other hand, necrosis of cancer cells releases cellular debris and components to stimulate immune function, thus counteracting therapy-caused immune suppression and making necrosis better than SIaLCD for chemo drug development. PMID:25594039

  2. Death Associated Protein Kinase 1 (DAPK1): A Regulator of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Ravanan, Palaniyandi; Talwar, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Death-Associated Protein Kinase 1 (DAPK1) belongs to a family of five serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases that possess tumor suppressive function and also mediate a wide range of cellular processes, including apoptosis and autophagy. The loss and gain-of–function of DAPK1 is associated with various cancer and neurodegenerative diseases respectively. In recent years, mechanistic studies have broadened our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in DAPK1-mediated autophagy/apoptosis. In the present review, we have discussed the structural information and various cellular functions of DAPK1 in a comprehensive manner. PMID:27445685

  3. RIPK1 promotes death receptor-independent caspase-8-mediated apoptosis under unresolved ER stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Estornes, Y; Aguileta, M A; Dubuisson, C; De Keyser, J; Goossens, V; Kersse, K; Samali, A; Vandenabeele, P; Bertrand, M J M

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and results in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims at restoring ER homeostasis. However, when the stress is too severe the UPR switches from being a pro-survival response to a pro-death one, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ER stress-mediated death have remained incompletely understood. In this study, we identified receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)—a kinase at the crossroad between life and death downstream of various receptors—as a new regulator of ER stress-induced death. We found that Ripk1-deficient MEFs are protected from apoptosis induced by ER stressors, which is reflected by reduced caspase activation and PARP processing. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic role of Ripk1 is independent of its kinase activity, is not regulated by its cIAP1/2-mediated ubiquitylation, and does not rely on the direct regulation of JNK or CHOP, two reportedly main players in ER stress-induced death. Instead, we found that ER stress-induced apoptosis in these cells relies on death receptor-independent activation of caspase-8, and identified Ripk1 upstream of caspase-8. However, in contrast to RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of TNFR1, we did not find Ripk1 associated with caspase-8 in a death-inducing complex upon unresolved ER stress. Our data rather suggest that RIPK1 indirectly regulates caspase-8 activation, in part via interaction with the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1). PMID:25476903

  4. Lovastatin triggers an apoptosis-like cell death process in the fungus Mucor racemosus.

    PubMed

    Roze, L V; Linz, J E

    1998-11-01

    The filamentous dimorphic fungus Mucor racemosus possesses three ras genes, Mras1, 2, and 3, whose expression is correlated to morphogenesis of the fungus. Lovastatin, an indirect inhibitor of protein prenylation, altered the processing of MRas1 protein, blocked the accumulation of MRas3 protein, and caused the MRas1/p20 protein complex to disappear in M. racemosus. Concurrently it arrested sporangiospore germination, decreased growth rate, caused a loss of cell viability accompanied by cell shrinkage, increased cell density and cytoplasm condensation, and triggered DNA fragmentation, resulting in nucleosomes and nucleosome multimers. The specific morphological and biochemical events seen in Mucor cell death, particularly DNA fragmentation, resemble the best known characteristics of classical apoptosis in mammalian cells and prompted us to classify lovastatin-induced cell death as an apoptosis-like process. Lovastatin did not cause cell death in a leucine auxotroph of Mucor grown in YNB minimal medium, conditions which support only spherical growth during spore germination. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP initiated morphogenesis from hyphal (polar) growth to yeast-like (spherical) growth during spore germination and strongly prevented cell death which resulted from lovastatin treatment. Wortmannin added together with dibutyryl-cAMP showed a synergistic effect in the prevention of fungal cell death. These data suggest that the regulation of lovastatin-induced cell death in Mucor requires a signal transduction pathway(s) involving cAMP whose function is specific to a particular developmental stage.

  5. Autophagy and apoptosis coordinate physiological cell death in larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Zacarin, Elaine C M Silva

    2007-01-01

    Larval salivary glands of bees provide a good model for the study of hormone-induced programmed cell death in Hymenoptera because they have a well-defined secretory cycle with a peak of secretory activity phase, prior to cocoon spinning, and a degenerative phase, after the cocoon spinning. Our findings demonstrate that there is a relationship between apoptosis and autophagy during physiological cell death in these larval salivary glands, that adds evidence to the hypothesis of overlap in the regulation pathways of both types of programmed cell death. Features of autophagy include cytoplasm vacuolation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of autophagic vacuoles and multi-lamellar structures, as well as a delay in the collapse of many nuclei. Features of apoptosis include bleb formation in the cytoplasm and nuclei, with release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen, chromatin compaction, and DNA and nucleolar fragmentation. We propose a model for programmed cell death in larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera where autophagy and apoptosis function cooperatively for a more efficient degeneration of the gland secretory cells.

  6. Role of apoptosis and necrosis in cell death induced by nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattani, Varun P.; Shah, Jay; Atalis, Alexandra; Sharma, Anirudh; Tunnell, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Current cancer therapies can cause significant collateral damage due to a lack of specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, we explored the cell death pathway response to gold nanorod (GNR)-mediated photothermal therapy as a highly specific cancer therapeutic to understand the role of apoptosis and necrosis during intense localized heating. By developing this, we can optimize photothermal therapy to induce a maximum of `clean' cell death pathways, namely apoptosis, thereby reducing external damage. GNRs were targeted to several subcellular localizations within colorectal tumor cells in vitro, and the cell death pathways were quantitatively analyzed after photothermal therapy using flow cytometry. In this study, we found that the cell death response to photothermal therapy was dependent on the GNR localization. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nanorods targeted to the perinuclear region irradiated at 37.5 W/cm2 laser fluence rate led to maximum cell destruction with the `cleaner' method of apoptosis, at similar percentages as other anti-cancer targeted therapies. We believe that this indicates the therapeutic potential for GNR-mediated photothermal therapy to treat cancer effectively without causing damage to surrounding tissue.

  7. Cell death control: the interplay of apoptosis and autophagy in the pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Kabbage, Mehdi; Williams, Brett; Dickman, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death is characterized by a cascade of tightly controlled events that culminate in the orchestrated death of the cell. In multicellular organisms autophagy and apoptosis are recognized as two principal means by which these genetically determined cell deaths occur. During plant-microbe interactions cell death programs can mediate both resistant and susceptible events. Via oxalic acid (OA), the necrotrophic phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hijacks host pathways and induces cell death in host plant tissue resulting in hallmark apoptotic features in a time and dose dependent manner. OA-deficient mutants are non-pathogenic and trigger a restricted cell death phenotype in the host that unexpectedly exhibits markers associated with the plant hypersensitive response including callose deposition and a pronounced oxidative burst, suggesting the plant can recognize and in this case respond, defensively. The details of this plant directed restrictive cell death associated with OA deficient mutants is the focus of this work. Using a combination of electron and fluorescence microscopy, chemical effectors and reverse genetics, we show that this restricted cell death is autophagic. Inhibition of autophagy rescued the non-pathogenic mutant phenotype. These findings indicate that autophagy is a defense response in this necrotrophic fungus/plant interaction and suggest a novel function associated with OA; namely, the suppression of autophagy. These data suggest that not all cell deaths are equivalent, and though programmed cell death occurs in both situations, the outcome is predicated on who is in control of the cell death machinery. Based on our data, we suggest that it is not cell death per se that dictates the outcome of certain plant-microbe interactions, but the manner by which cell death occurs that is crucial.

  8. Myelin-associated glycoprotein modulates apoptosis of motoneurons during early postnatal development via NgR/p75(NTR) receptor-mediated activation of RhoA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Palandri, A; Salvador, V R; Wojnacki, J; Vivinetto, A L; Schnaar, R L; Lopez, P H H

    2015-09-03

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a minor constituent of nervous system myelin, selectively expressed on the periaxonal myelin wrap. By engaging multiple axonal receptors, including Nogo-receptors (NgRs), MAG exerts a nurturing and protective effect the axons it ensheaths. Pharmacological activation of NgRs has a modulatory role on p75(NTR)-dependent postnatal apoptosis of motoneurons (MNs). However, it is not clear whether this reflects a physiological role of NgRs in MN development. NgRs are part of a multimeric receptor complex, which includes p75(NTR), Lingo-1 and gangliosides. Upon ligand binding, this multimeric complex activates RhoA/ROCK signaling in a p75(NTR)-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible modulatory role of MAG on MN apoptosis during postnatal development. A time course study showed that Mag-null mice suffer a loss of MNs during the first postnatal week. Also, these mice exhibited increased susceptibility in an animal model of p75(NTR)-dependent MN apoptosis induced by nerve-crush injury, which was prevented by treatment with a soluble form of MAG (MAG-Fc). The protective role of MAG was confirmed in in vitro models of p75(NTR)-dependent MN apoptosis using the MN1 cell line and primary cultures. Lentiviral expression of shRNA sequences targeting NgRs on these cells abolished protection by MAG-Fc. Analysis of RhoA activity using a FRET-based RhoA biosensor showed that MAG-Fc activates RhoA. Pharmacological inhibition of p75(NTR)/RhoA/ROCK pathway, or overexpression of a p75(NTR) mutant unable to activate RhoA, completely blocked MAG-Fc protection against apoptosis. The role of RhoA/ROCK signaling was further confirmed in the nerve-crush model, where pretreatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 blocked the pro-survival effect of MAG-Fc. These findings identify a new protective role of MAG as a modulator of apoptosis of MNs during postnatal development by a mechanism involving the p75(NTR)/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway

  9. Myelin-associated glycoprotein modulates apoptosis of motoneurons during early postnatal development via NgR/p75NTR receptor-mediated activation of RhoA signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Palandri, A; Salvador, V R; Wojnacki, J; Vivinetto, A L; Schnaar, R L; Lopez, P H H

    2015-01-01

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a minor constituent of nervous system myelin, selectively expressed on the periaxonal myelin wrap. By engaging multiple axonal receptors, including Nogo-receptors (NgRs), MAG exerts a nurturing and protective effect the axons it ensheaths. Pharmacological activation of NgRs has a modulatory role on p75NTR-dependent postnatal apoptosis of motoneurons (MNs). However, it is not clear whether this reflects a physiological role of NgRs in MN development. NgRs are part of a multimeric receptor complex, which includes p75NTR, Lingo-1 and gangliosides. Upon ligand binding, this multimeric complex activates RhoA/ROCK signaling in a p75NTR-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible modulatory role of MAG on MN apoptosis during postnatal development. A time course study showed that Mag-null mice suffer a loss of MNs during the first postnatal week. Also, these mice exhibited increased susceptibility in an animal model of p75NTR-dependent MN apoptosis induced by nerve-crush injury, which was prevented by treatment with a soluble form of MAG (MAG-Fc). The protective role of MAG was confirmed in in vitro models of p75NTR-dependent MN apoptosis using the MN1 cell line and primary cultures. Lentiviral expression of shRNA sequences targeting NgRs on these cells abolished protection by MAG-Fc. Analysis of RhoA activity using a FRET-based RhoA biosensor showed that MAG-Fc activates RhoA. Pharmacological inhibition of p75NTR/RhoA/ROCK pathway, or overexpression of a p75NTR mutant unable to activate RhoA, completely blocked MAG-Fc protection against apoptosis. The role of RhoA/ROCK signaling was further confirmed in the nerve-crush model, where pretreatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 blocked the pro-survival effect of MAG-Fc. These findings identify a new protective role of MAG as a modulator of apoptosis of MNs during postnatal development by a mechanism involving the p75NTR/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Also, our results

  10. CD95 death receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in liver cell apoptosis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Roland; Häussinger, Dieter

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that signaling pathways towards cell proliferation and cell death are much more interconnected than previously thought. Whereas not only death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1) can couple to both, cell death and proliferation, also growth factor receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are involved in these opposing kinds of cell fate. EGFR is briefly discussed as a growth factor receptor involved in liver cell proliferation during liver regeneration. Then the role of EGFR in activating CD95 death receptor in liver parenchymal cells (PC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which represent a liver stem/progenitor cell compartment, is described summarizing different ways of CD95- and EGFR-dependent signaling in the liver. Here, depending on the hepatic cell type (PC vs. HSC) and the respective signaling context (sustained vs. transient JNK activation) CD95-/EGFR-mediated signaling ends up in either liver cell apoptosis or cell proliferation.

  11. Mechanisms of apoptosis in Crustacea: what conditions induce versus suppress cell death?

    PubMed Central

    Menze, Michael A.; Fortner, Grady; Nag, Suman; Hand, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species. Our knowledge about regulation of apoptosis in this phylum is largely based on findings for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with crustaceans shows that apoptotic proteins, and presumably mechanisms of cell death regulation, are more diverse in arthropods than appreciated based solely on the excellent work with fruit flies. Crustacean homologs exist for many major proteins in the apoptotic networks of mammals and D. melanogaster, but integration of these proteins into the physiology and pathophysiology of crustaceans is far from complete. Whether apoptosis in crustaceans is mainly transcriptionally regulated as in D. melanogaster (e.g., RHG ‘killer’ proteins), or rather is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as in vertebrates needs to be clarified. Some phenomena like the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) are apparently lacking in crustaceans and may represent a vertebrate invention. We speculate that differences in regulation of the intrinsic pathway of crustacean apoptosis might represent a prerequisite for some species to survive harsh environmental insults. Pro-apoptotic stimuli described for crustaceans include UV radiation, environmental toxins, and a diatom-produced chemical that promotes apoptosis in offspring of a copepod. Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. Characterization of the players, pathways, and their significance in the core machinery of crustacean apoptosis is revealing new insights for the field of cell death. PMID:20043212

  12. Mechanisms of apoptosis in Crustacea: What conditions induce versus suppress cell death?

    PubMed

    Menze, Michael A; Fortner, Grady; Nag, Suman; Hand, Steven C

    2010-03-01

    Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species. Our knowledge about regulation of apoptosis in this phylum is largely based on findings for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with crustaceans shows that apoptotic proteins, and presumably mechanisms of cell death regulation, are more diverse in arthropods than appreciated based solely on the excellent work with fruit flies. Crustacean homologs exist for many major proteins in the apoptotic networks of mammals and D. melanogaster, but integration of these proteins into the physiology and pathophysiology of crustaceans is far from complete. Whether apoptosis in crustaceans is mainly transcriptionally regulated as in D. melanogaster (e.g., RHG 'killer' proteins), or rather is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as in vertebrates needs to be clarified. Some phenomena like the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) are apparently lacking in crustaceans and may represent a vertebrate invention. We speculate that differences in regulation of the intrinsic pathway of crustacean apoptosis might represent a prerequisite for some species to survive harsh environmental insults. Pro-apoptotic stimuli described for crustaceans include UV radiation, environmental toxins, and a diatom-produced chemical that promotes apoptosis in offspring of a copepod. Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. Characterization of the players, pathways, and their significance in the core machinery of crustacean apoptosis is revealing new insights for the field of cell death.

  13. Cell Death and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cell death mechanisms have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and mice. Recent studies suggested that a complex crosstalk between autophagy/apoptosis, microbe sensing, and enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the epithelium could play a critical role in these diseases. In addition, necroptosis, a relatively novel programmed necrosis-like pathway associated with TNF receptor activation, seems to be also present in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and in specific animal models for intestinal inflammation. This review attempts to cover new data related to cell death mechanisms and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25126549

  14. Apoptosis and necrosis: two different outcomes of cigarette smoke condensate-induced endothelial cell death

    PubMed Central

    Messner, B; Frotschnig, S; Steinacher-Nigisch, A; Winter, B; Eichmair, E; Gebetsberger, J; Schwaiger, S; Ploner, C; Laufer, G; Bernhard, D

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most important and preventable risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, because of the complex composition of cigarette smoke, the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Based on controversial reports on the pro-atherogenic activity of cigarette smoke condensate, also called tar fraction (CSC), we decided to analyse the effects of CSC on the viability of endothelial cells in vitro. The results of this study show that low concentrations of the hydrophobic tar fraction induces DNA damage resulting in a P53-dependent and BCL-XL-inhibitable death cascade. Western blot analyses showed that this cascade is caspase-independent and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the apoptotic death signalling is mediated by the release of apoptosis-inducing factor. Higher CSC concentrations also induce apoptotic-like signalling but the signalling cascade is then redirected to necrosis. Despite the fact that CSC induces a profound increase in cellular reactive oxygen species production, antioxidants exhibit only a minimal cell death protective effect. Our data indicates that not only hydrophilic constituents of cigarette smoke extract, but also CSC is harmful to endothelial cells. The mode and the outcome of CSC-induced cell death signalling are highly concentration dependent: lower concentrations induce caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death, whereas incubation with higher concentrations interrupts apoptotic signalling and induces necrosis. PMID:23152060

  15. Bifunctional apoptosis inhibitor (BAR) protects neurons from diverse cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Roth, W; Kermer, P; Krajewska, M; Welsh, K; Davis, S; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C

    2003-10-01

    The bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) is a multidomain protein that was originally identified as an inhibitor of Bax-induced apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis of normal human tissues demonstrated high BAR expression in the brain, compared to low or absent expression in other organs. Immunohistochemical staining of human adult tissues revealed that the BAR protein is predominantly expressed by neurons in the central nervous system. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that BAR localizes mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells. Overexpression of BAR in CSM 14.1 neuronal cells resulted in significant protection from a broad range of cell death stimuli, including agents that activate apoptotic pathways involving mitochondria, TNF-family death receptors, and ER stress. Downregulation of BAR by antisense oligonucleotides sensitized neuronal cells to induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the search for novel interaction partners of BAR identified several candidate proteins that might contribute to the regulation of neuronal apoptosis (HIP1, Hippi, and Bap31). Taken together, the expression pattern and functional data suggest that the BAR protein is involved in the regulation of neuronal survival.

  16. Cannabinoid receptor-mediated apoptosis induced by R(+)-methanandamide and Win55,212-2 is associated with ceramide accumulation and p38 activation in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Kristin; Christensson, Birger; Sander, Birgitta; Flygare, Jenny

    2006-11-01

    We have recently shown that cannabinoids induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a malignant B-cell lymphoma that expresses high levels of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB(1) and CB(2)). In the current study, the role of each receptor and the signal transduction triggered by receptor ligation were investigated. Induction of apoptosis after treatment with the synthetic agonists R(+)-methanandamide [R(+)-MA] and Win55,212-2 (Win55; (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone) was dependent on both cannabinoid receptors, because pretreatment with N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR141716A) and N-((1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) (SR144528), specific antagonists to CB(1) and CB(2), respectively, abrogated caspase-3 activity. Preincubation with the inhibitors 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB203580) and 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole (SB202190) showed that phosphorylation of MAPK p38 was implicated in the signal transduction leading to apoptosis. Treatment with R(+)-MA and Win55 was associated with accumulation of ceramide, and pharmacological inhibition of ceramide synthesis de novo prevented both p38 activation and mitochondria depolarization assessed by binding of 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC(6)). In contrast, the pancaspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-CH(2)F (z-VAD-FMK) did not protect the mitochondrial integrity. Taken together, these results suggest that concurrent ligation of CB(1) and CB(2) with either R(+)-MA or Win55 induces apoptosis via a sequence of events in MCL cells: accumulation of ceramide, phosphorylation of p38, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, and caspase activation. Although

  17. 188Rhenium-induced cell death and apoptosis in a panel of tumor cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoccia, Antonio; Banzato, Alessandra; Bello, Michele; Bollini, Dante; De Notaristefani, Francesco; Giron, Cecilia; Mazzi, Ulderico; Alafort, Laura Melendez; Moschini, Giuliano; Nadali, Anna; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rosato, Antonio; Tanzarella, Caterina; Uzunov, Nikolay

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of "in vitro" tumor growth inhibition and radiobiological effects, such as apoptosis, have been evaluated in human neoplastic cells of different histotypes (H460 lung cancer cells, U87 glioblastoma, LnCaP prostate tumor cells) treated using solutions of 188Rhenium-perrhenate. The MTT assay, which measures mitochondrial metabolism in the entire cell culture is a recognized test for cytotoxicity and was used in cells exposed 48-72 h to specific activities ranged from 37 to 148 GBq/l. Whereas H460 and LnCaP were particularly sensitive to treatment, U87 glioblastoma cells behaved as radioresistant ones. However, evaluation of 188Re-induced apoptosis indicated that this kind of cell death contributed only marginally to the reduction in cell viability of H460 and LNCaP lines, suggesting the existence of protective mechanisms against apoptosis. In this respect, the membrane receptor, CD44, whose expression is dysregulated in most malignant cell types has proven to alter the response of cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli, including ionizing radiation. Cell samples decorated with a FITC-labelled CD44 antibody indicated, that in H460 and U87 cells the CD44(+) correlated well with an apoptosis-resistant response. Conversely, LnCap cells proven as CD44(-) did not display however sensitivity to radio-induced apoptosis.

  18. Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecules: more than death-receptor antagonists in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Planells-Ferrer, Laura; Urresti, Jorge; Coccia, Elena; Galenkamp, Koen M O; Calleja-Yagüe, Isabel; López-Soriano, Joaquín; Carriba, Paulina; Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Segura, Miguel F; Comella, Joan X

    2016-10-01

    The importance of death receptor (DR) signaling in embryonic development and physiological homeostasis is well established, as is the existence of several molecules that modulate DRs function, among them Fas Apoptotis Inhibitory Molecules. Although FAIM1, FAIM2, and FAIM3 inhibit Fas-induced cell death, they are not structurally related, nor do they share expression patterns. Moreover, they inhibit apoptosis through completely different mechanisms. FAIM1 and FAIM2 protect neurons from DR-induced apoptosis and are involved in neurite outgrowth and neuronal plasticity. FAIM1 inhibits Fas ligand- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis by direct interaction with Fas receptor and through the stabilization of levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, a potent anti-apoptotic protein that inhibits caspases. Low FAIM1 levels are found in Alzheimer's disease, thus sensitizing neurons to tumor necrosis factor alpha and prompting neuronal loss. FAIM2 protects from Fas by direct interaction with Fas receptor, as well as by modulating calcium release at the endoplasmic reticulum through interaction with Bcl-xL. Several studies prove the role of FAIM2 in diseases of the nervous system, such as ischemia, bacterial meningitis, and neuroblastoma. The less characterized member of the FAIM family is FAIM3, which is expressed in tissues of the digestive and urinary tracts, bone marrow and testes, and restricted to the cerebellum in the nervous system. FAIM3 protects against DR-induced apoptosis by inducing the expression of other DR-antagonists such as CFLAR or through the interaction with the DR-adaptor protein Fas-associated via death domain. FAIM3 null mouse models reveal this protein as an important mediator of inflammatory autoimmune responses such as those triggered in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Given the differences between FAIMs and the variety of processes in which they are involved, here we sought to provide a concise review about these molecules and

  19. [Apoptosis modulation by human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Ratkovich-González, Sarah; Olimón-Andalón, Vicente; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important processes to keep the homeostasis in organisms is the apoptosis, also called programmed cell death. This mechanism works through two pathways: The intrinsic or mitochondrial, which responds to DNA damage and extern agents like UV radiation; and the extrinsic or receptor-mediated, which binds to their ligands to initiate the apoptotic trail. The evasion of apoptosis is one of the main causes of cellular transformation to malignity. Many viruses had shown capacity to modify the apoptotic process; among them is the human papillomavirus, which, by means of its oncoproteins, interferes in pathways, reacting with the receptors and molecules and participating in the death mechanism. This creates ideal conditions for cancer development.

  20. Adenoviral delivery of human connexin37 induces endothelial cell death through apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Seul, Kyung H; Kang, Keum Y; Lee, Kyung S; Kim, Suhn H; Beyer, Eric C

    2004-07-09

    Gap junction channels formed of connexins directly link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and have been implicated in intercellular signaling that may regulate the functions of vascular cells. To facilitate connexin manipulation and analysis of their roles in adult endothelial cells, we developed adenoviruses containing the vascular connexins (Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43). We infected cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with control or connexin adenoviruses. Connexin expression was verified by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Infection with the Cx37 adenovirus (but not control or other connexin adenoviruses) led to a dose-dependent death of the endothelial cells that was partially antagonized by the gap junction blocker alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and altered the intercellular transfer of Lucifer yellow and neurobiotin. Cell morphology, Annexin V and TUNEL staining, and caspase 3 assays all implicated apoptosis in the cell death. These data suggest that connexin-specific alterations of intercellular communication may modulate endothelial cell growth and death.

  1. Electron microscopic evidence against apoptosis as the mechanism of neuronal death in global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Colbourne, F; Sutherland, G R; Auer, R N

    1999-06-01

    It has been repeatedly claimed that neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 sector after untreated global ischemia occurs via apoptosis. This is based largely on DNA laddering, nick end labeling, and light microscopy. Delineation of apoptosis requires fine structural examination to detect morphological events of cell death. We studied the light and ultrastructural characteristics of CA1 injury after 5 min of untreated global ischemia in gerbils. To increase the likelihood of apoptosis, some ischemic gerbils were subjected to delayed postischemic hypothermia, a treatment that mitigates injury and delays the death of some neurons. In these gerbils, 2 d of mild hypothermia was initiated 1, 6, or 12 hr after ischemia, and gerbils were killed 4, 14, or 60 d later. Ischemia without subsequent cooling killed 96% of CA1 neurons by day 4, whereas all hypothermia-treated groups had significantly reduced injury at all survival times (2-67% loss). Electron microscopy of ischemic neurons with or without postischemic hypothermia revealed features of necrotic, not apoptotic, neuronal death even in cells that died 2 months after ischemia. Dilated organelles and intranuclear vacuoles preceded necrosis. Unique to the hypothermia-treated ischemic groups, some salvaged neurons were persistently abnormal and showed accumulation of unusual, morphologically complex secondary lysosomes. These indicate selective mitochondrial injury, because they were closely associated with normal and degenerate mitochondria, and transitional forms between mitochondria and lysosomes occurred. The results show that untreated global ischemic injury has necrotic, not apoptotic, morphology but do not rule out programmed biochemical events of the apoptotic pathway occurring before neuronal necrosis.

  2. VMP1 related autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: VMP1 regulates cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Qinyi; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yan; Shen, Chenglong; He, Songbing; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Liang; Wan, Daiwei; Gu, Wen

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •This research confirmed VMP1 as a regulator of autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We proved the pro-survival role of VMP1-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We found the interaction between VMP1 and BECLIN1 also existing in colorectal cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. We found that starvation-induced autophagy correlated with an increase in VMP1 expression, that VMP1 interacted with BECLIN1, and that siRNA mediated down-regulation of VMP1-reduced autophagy. Next, we examined the relationship between VMP1-dependent autophagy and apoptosis and found that VMP1 down-regulation sensitizes cells to apoptosis and that agents that induce apoptosis down-regulate VMP1. In conclusion, similar to its reported role in other cell types, VMP1 is an important regulator of autophagy in colorectal cell lines. However, in contrast to its role in pancreatic cell lines, in colorectal cancer cells, VMP1-dependent autophagy appears to be pro-survival rather than pro-cell death.

  3. Quercetin enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells by inducing the accumulation of death receptors in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Psahoulia, Faiy H; Drosopoulos, Konstantinos G; Doubravska, Lenka; Andera, Ladislav; Pintzas, Alexander

    2007-09-01

    Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells through engagement of death receptors. Nevertheless, evading apoptosis induced by anticancer drugs characterizes many types of cancers. This results in the need for combination therapy. In this study, we have investigated whether the flavonoid quercetin could sensitize human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We report that quercetin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by causing the redistribution of DR4 and DR5 into lipid rafts. Nystatin, a cholesterol-sequestering agent, prevented quercetin-induced clustering of death receptors and sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon adenocarcinoma cells. In addition, our experiments show that quercetin, in combination with TRAIL, triggered the mitochondrial-dependent death pathway, as shown by Bid cleavage and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Together, our findings propose that quercetin, through its ability to redistribute death receptors at the cell surface, facilitates death-inducing signaling complex formation and activation of caspases in response to death receptor stimulation. Based on these results, this study provides a challenging approach to enhance the efficiency of TRAIL-based therapies.

  4. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A; Greenwood, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti-apoptosis

  5. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti-apoptosis

  6. Diazene JK-279 induces apoptosis-like cell death in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jakopec, S; Dubravcic, K; Polanc, S; Kosmrlj, J; Osmak, M

    2006-03-01

    Diazene N-phenyl-2-(2-pyridinyl)diazenecarboxamide (JK-279) is a newly synthesized compound, cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and their drug-resistant sublines. In human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), this compound reduced intracellular glutathione content and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of diazene JK-279 on HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis showed that diazene JK-279 induces G(2)/M phase arrest, mediated by the increase in p21 expression, and accompanied by an alteration in the expression of survivin. The highest concentration of JK-279 altered nuclear morphology in intact cells, showing "apoptosis-like" features. No cleavage of procaspase-3, procaspase-9 and PARP, or altered expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bax were detected. At the same time, PS externalization and internucleosomal DNA cleavage were observed. Partial necrosis was detected as well. Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of diazene JK-279 is mostly the consequence of caspase-independent cell death, which is in some aspects "apoptosis-like". Taking into account the multiplicity of mechanisms used by cancer cells to prevent apoptosis, the drugs (like diazene JK-279) that would activate alternative cell death pathways could provide a useful tool for new types of cancer therapy.

  7. Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Keratinocyte Death in Canine Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    PubMed

    Banovic, F; Dunston, S; Linder, K E; Rakich, P; Olivry, T

    2017-03-01

    In humans and dogs, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a life-threatening dermatosis characterized by sudden epidermal death resulting in extensive skin detachment. There is little information on the pathogenesis of keratinocyte cell death in canine TEN. We studied the occurrence of apoptosis in skin lesions of dogs with TEN to determine if apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of this disease. Immunostaining with antibodies to activated caspase-3 and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling technique revealed positive apoptotic keratinocytes in basal and suprabasal epidermal compartments in 17 biopsy specimens collected from 3 dogs with TEN and 16 from 3 dogs with erythema multiforme (EM). There was no significant difference in the number of positively stained epidermal cells between TEN and EM. These results suggest that apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes and lymphocytic satellitosis represent one of the early steps in the pathogenesis of canine TEN, as in the human disease counterpart.

  8. [Cell death in inflammatory heart muscle diseases--apoptosis or necrosis?].

    PubMed

    Pankuweit, S; Jobmann, M; Crombach, M; Portig, I; Alter, P; Kruse, T; Hufnagel, G; Maisch, B

    1999-05-01

    Cell death can be induced by 2 different mechanisms: necrosis and apoptosis. Necrosis, on the one hand, is usually caused by unphysiological stress factors such as hyperthermia or hypoxia, apoptosis, on the other hand, is part of the normal organ development and controls for example immune responses. Morphologically, necrosis is characterized by swelling of cells and their organelles leading to the disruption of the cell membrane, which in turn causes an inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissue. Morphological and biochemical criteria (Figure 1, Table 1) of apoptosis are the condensation of chromatin leading to the development of apoptotic bodies or membrane-enclosed vesicles containing oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. Important diagnostic tools of cell death (Table 2), such as the TUNEL test (Figure 2) or gel electrophoresis of extracted DNA (Figure 3) are based on the above mentioned biochemical characteristics, but a reliable differentiation of apoptotic versus necrotic processes is not always possible. Experimental studies in animals and studies in various diseases of the cardiovascular system were able to show that apoptosis in myocytes can be induced, an issue that has long been discussed controversially. Ischemia, reperfusion, and myocardial infarction were also shown to lead to apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, whereas cell destruction was caused mainly by necrosis. Several authors (Table 3) demonstrated apoptotic indices in cardiomyocytes of patients with dilatated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and patients with acute infarction from 0.25 to 35% by the use of the TUNEL test. Others were able to demonstrate an elevated expression of Fas-receptor in cells of atheroslerotic plaques in patients with atherosclerosis and high indices of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in patients with chronic heart failure. We investigated endomyocardial biopsies of patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy, DCM without inflammatory reaction but the

  9. Human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Tatsurou; Ueda, Keiichi; Asakura, Kenji; Hata, Satoshi; Kuroda, Takayuki; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Takasu, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kazushige; Gemba, Takefumi; Hori, Yozo

    2002-01-01

    Expression of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is documented in the cerebral cortex (CTX) after ischemia, suggesting that sPLA2-IIA is associated with neurodegeneration. However, how sPLA2-IIA is involved in the neurodegeneration remains obscure. To clarify the pathologic role of sPLA2-IIA, we examined its neurotoxicity in rats that had the middle cerebral artery occluded and in primary cultures of cortical neurons. After occlusion, sPLA2 activity was increased in the CTX. An sPLA2 inhibitor, indoxam, significantly ameliorated not only the elevated activity of the sPLA2 but also the neurodegeneration in the CTX. The neuroprotective effect of indoxam was observed even when it was administered after occlusion. In primary cultures, sPLA2-IIA caused marked neuronal cell death. Morphologic and ultrastructural characteristics of neuronal cell death by sPLA2-IIA were apoptotic, as evidenced by condensed chromatin and fragmented DNA. Before apoptosis, sPLA2-IIA liberated arachidonic acid (AA) and generated prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an AA metabolite, from neurons. Indoxam significantly suppressed not only AA release, but also PGD2 generation. Indoxam prevented neurons from sPLA2-IIA-induced neuronal cell death. The neuroprotective effect of indoxam was observed even when it was administered after sPLA2-IIA treatment. Furthermore, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor significantly prevented neurons from sPLA2-IIA-induced PGD2 generation and neuronal cell death. In conclusion, sPLA2-IIA induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, which might be associated with AA metabolites, especially PGD2. Furthermore, sPLA2 contributes to neurodegeneration in the ischemic brain, highlighting the therapeutic potential of sPLA2-IIA inhibitors for stroke.

  10. Detachment of esophageal carcinoma cells from extracellular matrix causes relocalization of death receptor 5 and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guang-Chao; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shi-Gui; Gao, Rong; Long, Zhang-Fu; Tao, Ke; Ma, Yuan-Fang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of detachment of esophageal cancer cells from extracellular matrix on the localization of death receptor 5 (DR5) and apoptosis. METHODS: Anchorage-dependent EC9706 cells of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were pretreated or not treated with brefeldin A. Detached cells were harvested by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid digestion. Expression and localization of DR5 in these cells were determined by immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence assays, as well as flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis of EC9706 cells was detected by flow cytometry after stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V/propidium iodide. Activation of caspase 8 was detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Immunocytochemical assay indicated that DR5 was predominantly perinuclear in adherent cells but was mainly localized in cell membrane in detached cells. In addition, immunofluorescence assay also confirmed the above-mentioned results, and further demonstrated that DR5 was present in the form of coarse granules in detached cells, but in the form of fine granules in adherent cells. Cytometry analysis revealed higher levels of DR5 expression on the surfaces of brefeldin-A-untreated cells than on the surfaces of brefeldin-A-treated cells, but brefeldin A treatment did not affect the total DR5 expression levels. Moreover, nocodazole did not influence the extracelluar DR5 expression levels in EC9706 cells. Apoptosis assay revealed that detached cells were more sensitive to DR5 antibody-induced apoptosis than adherent cells. Western blotting showed that caspase 8 was activated in temporarily detached cells 4 h earlier than in adherent cells. CONCLUSION: Progress from adhesion to detachment of EC9706 cells causes DR5 relocalization, and promotes cytoplasmic translocation of DR5 to cell surfaces via a Golgi-dependent pathway. Moreover, it might also result in DR5 aggregation to render apoptosis of detached cells. PMID:19230044

  11. Increased lymphocyte death by neglect-apoptosis is associated with lymphopenia and autoantibodies in lupus patients presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucienir M; Garcia, Aglair B; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2002-08-01

    To evaluate lymphocyte death by neglect-apoptosis features in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients presenting with neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) involvement we studied 40 SLE patients with active disease, 20 with and 20 without neuropsychiatric manifestations, and 20 control individuals. Lymphocyte apoptosis was evaluated by means of DNA staining using flow cytometry, immediately after cell isolation and after incubation with culture medium or autologous serum. Compared with controls, NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients exhibited increased rates of neglect-apoptosis immediately after cell isolation. Only NPSLE patients exhibited an increased neglect-apoptosis rate after incubation with culture medium; however, the neglect-apoptosis rate was associated with lymphopenia in both series of patients. After lymphocyte incubation with autologous serum, only NPSLE patients exhibited a significant negative correlation between the neglect-apoptosis rate and the number of peripheral lymphocytes. The incubation of lymphocytes with autologous serum containing antiphospholipid or anti-SSA/Ro antibodies significantly increased the neglect-apoptosis in NPSLE when compared with non-NPSLE patients with a similar autoantibody profile. In conclusion, NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients shared several abnormalities in terms of lymphocyte neglect-apoptosis. Peculiar findings were observed in NPSLE patients particularly after incubation with autologous serum, such as the fact that the increased lymphocyte death by neglect-apoptosis was associated with lymphopenia and with the presence of antiphospholipid and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies.

  12. Receptor-mediated DNA-targeted photoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lobachevsky, Pavel N; Leung, Brenda K Y; White, Jonathan M; Martin, Roger F

    2006-11-01

    We show the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy that combines the potency of a DNA-binding photosensitizer, UV(A)Sens, with the tumor-targeting potential of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The photosensitizer is an iodinated bibenzimidazole, which, when bound in the minor groove of DNA and excited by UV(A) irradiation, induces cytotoxic lesions attributed to a radical species resulting from photodehalogenation. Although reminiscent of photochemotherapy using psoralens and UV(A) irradiation, an established treatment modality in dermatology particularly for the treatment of psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a critical difference is the extreme photopotency of the iodinated bibenzimidazole, approximately 1,000-fold that of psoralens. This feature prompted consideration of combination with the specificity of receptor-mediated targeting. Using two in vitro model systems, we show the UV(A) cytotoxicity of iodo ligand/protein conjugates, implying binding of the conjugate to cell receptors, internalization, and degradation of the conjugate-receptor complex, with release and translocation of the ligand to nuclear DNA. For ligand-transferrin conjugates, phototoxicity was inhibited by coincubation with excess native transferrin. Receptor-mediated UV(A)-induced cytotoxicity was also shown with the iodo ligand conjugate of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, exemplifying the potential application of the strategy to other cancer-specific targets to thus improve the specificity of phototherapy of superficial lesions and for extracorporeal treatments.

  13. Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted. PMID:23430083

  14. Partial equilibrium approximations in apoptosis. II. The death-inducing signaling complex subsystem.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Jing; Hong, Liu; Yong, Wen-An

    2015-12-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous work (Huang and Yong, 2013) for simplifying the Fas signaling-induced apoptotic pathway identified by Hua et al. (2005) for human tumor T cells. The previous paper studied the downstream intracelluar-signaling subsystem, while the present one is concerned with the upstream death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) subsystem. Under the assumption that the bind of Fas-associated death domains and FLICE-inhibitory proteins to the DISC is much faster than that of the initiator procaspases, we greatly simplify the upstream subsystem from 35 reactions with 26 species to 6 reactions with 9 species by adopting the classical and recently justified partial equilibrium approximation method. Numerical simulations show that the simplified model is in an excellent agreement with the original model. Most importantly, the simplified model clearly reveals the key reactants and dominated pathways in the Fas signaling process, and thus provides new insights into the apoptosis.

  15. Isogambogenic acid induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianhong; Zhou, Yongzhao; Cheng, Xia; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Li, Shucai; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Chunyan; Pei, Heying; Li, Luyuan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    To overcome drug resistance caused by apoptosis deficiency in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there is a need to identify other means of triggering apoptosis-independent cancer cell death. We are the first to report that isogambogenic acid (iso-GNA) can induce apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human NSCLC cells. Several features of the iso-GNA-treated NSCLC cells indicated that iso-GNA induced autophagic cell death. First, there was no evidence of apoptosis or cleaved caspase 3 accumulation and activation. Second, iso-GNA treatment induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, increased LC3 conversion, caused the appearance of autophagosomes and increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins. These findings provide evidence that iso-GNA induces autophagy in NSCLC cells. Third, iso-GNA-induced cell death was inhibited by autophagic inhibitors or by selective ablation of Atg7 and Beclin 1 genes. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased iso-GNA-induced cell death by enhancing autophagy. Finally, a xenograft model provided additional evidence that iso-GNA exhibited anticancer effect through inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that iso-GNA exhibited an anticancer effect by inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells, which may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent that can be used against NSCLC in a clinical setting. PMID:25571970

  16. Ursolic Acid Improves Liver Transplantation and Inhibits Apoptosis in Miniature Pigs Using Donation After Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Lin, Li; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng

    2017-08-31

    Ursolic acid (UA) possesses extensive pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, liver protection. This study was designed to investigate the effect of UA on liver transplantation after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD), and to assess the mechanisms. 24 healthy experimental pigs were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Each group received six DCD liver transplantations. In the experimental group, the recipient pigs received 120 mg/kg UA 4 h before surgery by intraperitoneal injection. The liver tissues and vein blood were collected 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after transplantation. Morphological change, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK)-CHOP signaling pathway and apoptosis in liver tissue and serum aminotransferase (ALT) level were assessed. Compared with control group, ALT level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and pathological changes in liver were ameliorated in experimental group. UA treatment also decreased MDA level in liver tissue and attenuated the apoptosis. Compared with control group, Bax decreased and Bcl-2 increased in UA-treated group. Importantly, UA decreased p-PERK, PERK, p-eIF2α, eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP levels compared with control group. Our results showed that UA treatment could improve the DCD liver transplantation likely through inhibiting apoptosis and PERK-CHOP pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Apoptosis Cell Death Effect of Scrophularia Variegata on Breast Cancer Cells via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baradaran, Behzad; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant which is used for various inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancer and cytotoxic effects of the Scrophularia variegata (S. variegata) ethanolic extract on the human breast cancer cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of the extract on MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. In addition, Caspase activity, DNA ladder and Cell death were evaluated by ELISA, gel electrophoresis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract showed significant effect cytotoxicity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with the extract induced apoptosis on the breast cancer cells by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The results indicated that cytotoxicity activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation as well as an increase of the amount of caspase 3 and caspase 9. In addition, the phytochemical assay showed that the extract had antioxidant capacity and also flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the extract. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that S. variegata extract induced apoptosis via mitochondrial intrinsic pathway on breast cancer by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and an increase of caspase 3 and caspase 9. However future studies are needed. PMID:26504768

  18. Programmed cell death-10 enhances proliferation and protects malignant T cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lauenborg, Britt; Kopp, Katharina; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Eriksen, Karsten W; Geisler, Carsten; Dabelsteen, Sally; Gniadecki, Robert; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2010-10-01

    The programmed cell death-10 (PDCD10; also known as cerebral cavernous malformation-3 or CCM3) gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein associated with cell apoptosis. Mutations in PDCD10 result in cerebral cavernous malformations, an important cause of cerebral hemorrhage. PDCD10 is associated with serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases and modulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway suggesting a role in the regulation of cellular growth. Here we provide evidence of a constitutive expression of PDCD10 in malignant T cells and cell lines from peripheral blood of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Sezary syndrome) patients. PDCD10 is associated with protein phosphatase-2A, a regulator of mitogenesis and apoptosis in malignant T cells. Inhibition of oncogenic signal pathways [Jak3, Notch1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)] partly inhibits the constitutive PDCD10 expression, whereas an activator of Jak3 and NF-κB, interleukin-2 (IL-2), enhances PDCD10 expression. Functional data show that PDCD10 depletion by small interfering RNA induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation of the sensitive cells. To our knowledge, these data provide the first functional link between PDCD10 and cancer.

  19. Smac mimetic primes apoptosis-resistant acute myeloid leukaemia cells for cytarabine-induced cell death by triggering necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Chromik, Joerg; Safferthal, Charlotta; Serve, Hubert; Fulda, Simone

    2014-03-01

    The prognosis for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is still poor, thus calling for novel treatment strategies. Here, we report that the small-molecule Smac mimetic BV6, which antagonizes Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, acts in concert with cytarabine (AraC) to trigger cell death in AML cells in a highly synergistic manner (combination index 0.02-0.27). Similarly, BV6 cooperates with AraC to trigger cell death in primary AML samples, underscoring the clinical relevance of our findings. Molecular studies reveal that the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel significantly reduces BV6/AraC-induced cell death, demonstrating that an autocrine/paracrine TNFα loop mediates cell death. Furthermore, BV6 and AraC synergize to induce loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, consistent with apoptotic cell death. Nevertheless, the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk fails to protect against BV6/AraC-induced cell death. Intriguingly, this cell death upon caspase inhibition is significantly reduced by pharmacological inhibition of two key components of necroptosis signaling, i.e. by RIP1 kinase inhibitor Necrostatin-1 or MLKL inhibitor NSA. Thus, BV6 sensitizes AML cells to AraC-induced cell death and overcomes apoptosis resistance by triggering necroptosis as alternative form of cell death. These findings have important implications for Smac mimetic-based strategies to bypass apoptosis resistance of AML. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Tamara C; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C

    2016-01-01

    Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis.

  1. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Tamara C.; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis. PMID:26567213

  2. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in programmed nuclear death during conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Programmed nuclear death (PND), which is also referred to as nuclear apoptosis, is a remarkable process that occurs in ciliates during sexual reproduction (conjugation). In Tetrahymena thermophila, when the new macronucleus differentiates, the parental macronucleus is selectively eliminated from the cytoplasm of the progeny, concomitant with apoptotic nuclear events. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are not well understood. The parental macronucleus is engulfed by a large autophagosome, which contains numerous mitochondria that have lost their membrane potential. In animals, mitochondrial depolarization precedes apoptotic cell death, which involves DNA fragmentation and subsequent nuclear degradation. Results We focused on the role of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) during PND in Tetrahymena. The disruption of AIF delays the normal progression of PND, specifically, nuclear condensation and kilobase-size DNA fragmentation. AIF is localized in Tetrahymena mitochondria and is released into the macronucleus prior to nuclear condensation. In addition, AIF associates and co-operates with the mitochondrial DNase to facilitate the degradation of kilobase-size DNA, which is followed by oligonucleosome-size DNA laddering. Conclusions Our results suggest that Tetrahymena AIF plays an important role in the degradation of DNA at an early stage of PND, which supports the notion that the mitochondrion-initiated apoptotic DNA degradation pathway is widely conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:20146827

  3. Praziquantel induced oxidative stress and apoptosis-like cell death in Raillietina echinobothrida.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bikash Ranjan; Roy, Bishnupada

    2016-07-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is an anthelmintic drug used against trematode and cestode parasites of humans and veterinary animals. Since praziquantel was introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic, numerous studies described its successful use against helminth parasites, but its exact mechanism of action is feebly understood. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the possible role of PZQ induced oxidative stress in apoptosis-like cell death in the poultry tapeworm Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasite viability assay revealed a time-dependent reduction in the worm viability compared to the control. Transmission electron microscopy showed typical apoptotic features like condensed nucleus, damaged nuclear envelope and altered mitochondrial membrane in PZQ exposed parasites. Results revealed chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in PZQ exposed parasites. There was a notable decline in the level of glutathione and glutathione-s-transferase activity leading to the augmented generation of reactive oxygen species. This led to the alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential with increased active caspase-3/7, confirms the involvement of mitochondria in the event. The present study suggests that PZQ exerts oxidative stress leading to apoptosis-like events in the parasites resulting their death.

  4. Systems modelling methodology for the analysis of apoptosis signal transduction and cell death decisions.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Markus; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2013-06-01

    Systems biology and systems medicine, i.e. the application of systems biology in a clinical context, is becoming of increasing importance in biology, drug discovery and health care. Systems biology incorporates knowledge and methods that are applied in mathematics, physics and engineering, but may not be part of classical training in biology. We here provide an introduction to basic concepts and methods relevant to the construction and application of systems models for apoptosis research. We present the key methods relevant to the representation of biochemical processes in signal transduction models, with a particular reference to apoptotic processes. We demonstrate how such models enable a quantitative and temporal analysis of changes in molecular entities in response to an apoptosis-inducing stimulus, and provide information on cell survival and cell death decisions. We introduce methods for analyzing the spatial propagation of cell death signals, and discuss the concepts of sensitivity analyses that enable a prediction of network responses to disturbances of single or multiple parameters.

  5. Natural small-molecule enhancers of autophagy induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-defective cells.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Chan, Wai Kit; Xu, Su Wei; Wang, Jing Rong; Bai, Li Ping; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2014-07-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is a significant problem in oncology, and the development of sensitising agents or small-molecules with new mechanisms of action to kill these cells is needed. Autophagy is a cellular process responsible for the turnover of misfolded proteins or damaged organelles, and it also recycles nutrients to maintain energy levels for cell survival. In some apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, autophagy can also enhance the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs through autophagy-mediated mechanisms of cell death. Because the modulation of autophagic processes can be therapeutically useful to circumvent chemoresistance and enhance the effects of cancer treatment, the identification of novel autophagic enhancers for use in oncology is highly desirable. Many novel anti-cancer compounds have been isolated from natural products; therefore, we worked to discover natural, anti-cancer small-molecule enhancers of autophagy. Here, we have identified a group of natural alkaloid small-molecules that function as novel autophagic enhancers. These alkaloids, including liensinine, isoliensinine, dauricine and cepharanthine, stimulated AMPK-mTOR dependent induction of autophagy and autophagic cell death in a panel of apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, our work provides novel insights into the biological functions, mechanisms and potential therapeutic values of alkaloids for the induction of autophagy.

  6. Marijuana smoke and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol promote necrotic cell death but inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, T A; Tashkin, D P; Roth, M D

    2001-08-01

    Marijuana smoke shares many components in common with tobacco smoke except for the presence of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the psychotropic compound found only in Cannibis sativa. Delta(9)-THC has been shown to potentiate smoke-induced oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. In the present study, our objective was to determine the effects of Delta(9)-THC on the balance between Fas-induced apoptosis and necrosis in A549 lung tumor cells. We found that Fas-induced activation of caspase-3 was inhibited by whole smoke from both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes. Gas-phase smoke, which generates high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, had no effect on caspase-3 activity. However, particulate-phase smoke (tar) was a potent inhibitor of Fas-induced caspase-3 activity, with marijuana tar being more potent than either tobacco or placebo marijuana tar (lacking Delta(9)-THC). Delta(9)-THC also inhibited Fas-induced caspase-3 activity in A549 cells. In contrast, no inhibition was observed when Delta(9)-THC was incubated with activated caspase-3 enzyme, suggesting that Delta(9)-THC acts on the cell pathway(s) leading to caspase-3 activation and not directly on enzyme function. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis (staining for annexin V) versus necrosis (staining for propidium iodide) and confirmed that both marijuana tar extract and synthetic Delta(9)-THC inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis while promoting necrosis. These observations suggest that the Delta(9)-THC contained in marijuana smoke disrupts elements of the apoptotic pathway, thereby shifting the balance between apoptotic and necrotic cell death. This shift may affect both the carcinogenic and immunologic consequences of marijuana smoke exposure.

  7. Saikosaponin-d, a novel SERCA inhibitor, induces autophagic cell death in apoptosis-defective cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, V K W; Li, T; Law, B Y K; Ma, E D L; Yip, N C; Michelangeli, F; Law, C K M; Zhang, M M; Lam, K Y C; Chan, P L; Liu, L

    2013-07-11

    Autophagy is an important cellular process that controls cells in a normal homeostatic state by recycling nutrients to maintain cellular energy levels for cell survival via the turnover of proteins and damaged organelles. However, persistent activation of autophagy can lead to excessive depletion of cellular organelles and essential proteins, leading to caspase-independent autophagic cell death. As such, inducing cell death through this autophagic mechanism could be an alternative approach to the treatment of cancers. Recently, we have identified a novel autophagic inducer, saikosaponin-d (Ssd), from a medicinal plant that induces autophagy in various types of cancer cells through the formation of autophagosomes as measured by GFP-LC3 puncta formation. By computational virtual docking analysis, biochemical assays and advanced live-cell imaging techniques, Ssd was shown to increase cytosolic calcium level via direct inhibition of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase pump, leading to autophagy induction through the activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase-AMP-activated protein kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. In addition, Ssd treatment causes the disruption of calcium homeostasis, which induces endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as the unfolded protein responses pathway. Ssd also proved to be a potent cytotoxic agent in apoptosis-defective or apoptosis-resistant mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, which either lack caspases 3, 7 or 8 or had the Bax-Bak double knockout. These results provide a detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of Ssd, as a novel autophagic inducer, which has the potential of being developed into an anti-cancer agent for targeting apoptosis-resistant cancer cells.

  8. Apoptosis-like cell death pathways in the unicellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii following treatment with apoptosis inducers and chemotherapeutic agents: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Ni Nyoman, Ayu Dewi; Lüder, Carsten G K

    2013-06-01

    Ancient pathways of an apoptosis-like cell death have been identified in unicellular eukaryotes including protozoan parasites. Here, we examined programmed cell death in the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii which is a common intracellular pathogen of humans and warm-blooded animals. Treatment of extracellular T. gondii with various pro-apoptotic stimuli significantly induced DNA strand breaks as revealed by TUNEL and flow cytometry. Using staurosporine or miltefosine as pro-apoptotic stimuli, parasites also presented a reduced cell size, i.e. pyknosis and externalized phosphatidylserine while the plasma membrane remained intact. Importantly, staurosporine also induced DNA strand breaks in intracellular T. gondii. Data mining of the Toxoplasma genome resource identified 17 putative cell death-associated genes encoding proteases, a nuclease and several apoptosis regulators. Staurosporine-treated parasites but not controls strongly up-regulated several of these genes in a time-dependent fashion with a putative PDCD2 protein being more than 100-fold up-regulated. However, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) remained intact and caspase-like activity increased only slightly during staurosporine-triggered cell death. As compared to staurosporine, the transcriptional response of parasites to miltefosine was more restricted but PDCD2 was again strongly induced. Furthermore, T. gondii lost their ΔΨ(m) and rapidly presented strong caspase-like activity during miltefosine treatment. Consequently, protease inhibitors abrogated miltefosine-induced but not staurosporine-induced Toxoplasma cell death. Finally, toxoplasmacidal drugs triggered DNA strand breaks in extracellular T. gondii. Interestingly, clindamycin also induced markers of an apoptosis-like cell death in intracellular parasites. Together, the data indicate that T. gondii possesses ancient apoptosis-like cell death machinery which can be triggered by chemotherapeutic agents.

  9. Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Ali, Irfan; Singh, Arvind K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2015-08-01

    Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals.

  10. Identification of a novel cyclin required for the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Roig, M B; Roset, R; Ortet, L; Balsiger, N A; Anfosso, A; Cabellos, L; Garrido, M; Alameda, F; Brady, H J M; Gil-Gómez, G

    2009-02-01

    We have identified an early step common to pathways activated by different forms of intrinsic apoptosis stimuli. It requires de novo synthesis of a novel cyclin, cyclin O, that forms active complexes primarily with Cdk2 upon apoptosis induction in lymphoid cells. Cyclin O expression precedes glucocorticoid and gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo in mouse thymus and spleen, and its overexpression induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells. Knocking down the endogenous expression of cyclin O by shRNA leads to the inhibition of glucocorticoid and DNA damage-induced apoptosis due to a failure in the activation of apical caspases while leaving CD95 death receptor-mediated apoptosis intact. Our data demonstrate that apoptosis induction in lymphoid cells is one of the physiological roles of cyclin O and it does not act by perturbing a normal cellular process such as the cell cycle, the DNA damage checkpoints or transcriptional response to glucocorticoids.

  11. Montelukast Induces Apoptosis-Inducing Factor-Mediated Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-An; Tsai, Pei-Hsun; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Ho, Ya-Wen; Yen, Meng-Chi; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Kuo, Po-Lin; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Developing novel chemo-prevention techniques and advancing treatment are key elements to beating lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Our previous cohort study showed that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists, mainly montelukast, decreased the lung cancer risk in asthma patients. In the current study, we conducted in vivo and in vitro experiments to demonstrate the inhibiting effect of montelukast on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Using Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice, we showed that feeding montelukast significantly delayed the tumor growth in mice (p < 0.0001). Montelukast inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced the cell death of lung cancer cells. Further investigation showed the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), up-regulation of Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in montelukast-treated lung cancer cells. Montelukast also markedly decreased the phosphorylation of several proteins, such as with no lysine 1 (WNK1), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), MAPK/Erk kinase (MEK), and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40-kDa (PRAS40), which might contribute to cell death. In conclusion, montelukast induced lung cancer cell death via the nuclear translocation of AIF. This study confirmed the chemo-preventive effect of montelukast shown in our previous cohort study. The utility of montelukast in cancer prevention and treatment thus deserves further studies. PMID:28672809

  12. Role of apoptosis-related miRNAs in resveratrol-induced breast cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, R; Muni, T; Iyer, A K V; Yakisich, J S; Azad, N

    2016-02-18

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent evidences indicate that dietary agents such as resveratrol may inhibit cancer progression through modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). We demonstrate that resveratrol regulates apoptotic and cell cycle machinery in breast cancer cells by modulating key tumor-suppressive miRNAs including miR-125b-5p, miR-200c-3p, miR-409-3p, miR-122-5p and miR-542-3p. Resveratrol-mediated miRNA modulation regulates key anti-apoptotic and cell cycle proteins including Bcl-2, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and CDKs, which are critical for its activity. Modulating miRNAs with mimics or inhibitors further validated a key role for miR-542-3p in MCF-7 and miR-122-5p in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell death in response to resveratrol. In conclusion, this study reveals novel miRNAs modulated by resveratrol that have a key role in breast cancer cell death.

  13. Honokiol synergizes chemotherapy drugs in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells via enhanced apoptosis and additional programmed necrotic death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Deng, Yongchuan; Li, Ling; He, Haifei; Sun, Jie; Xu, Dong

    2013-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Apoptosis tolerance is one of the key mechanisms of MDR. Honokiol, a small-molecule pharmacologically active component, exhibits competent cytotoxicity in a variety of human cancer cells through apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death (such as programmed necrosis). Although much work has been done on its antitumor effects, little attention has been paid on systemic evaluation of efficacy of honokiol combined with other chemotherapeutic agents, especially in drug‑resistant cell lines. Here, we systematically and quantitatively assess its combinational effect with different chemotherapeutic agents using the combination index (CI) equation. We found that honokiol synergized with chemotherapeutic agents both in sensitive and resistant, solid and non-solid (MCF-7, HL-60, MCF-7/ADR and HL-60/ADR) cell lines. Honokiol (40 µg/ml) induced necrotic cell death in MCF-7/ADR cells with characterized morphological and biochemical features. Co-incubation with honokiol and etoposide (VP-16) activated a complex death modality, which was composed of necrotic cell death and apoptosis. This dual-death pathway was shut down when pretreated with pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) and cyclophilin D inhibitor (cyclosporin A). Western blot analysis results proved that honokiol also enhanced VP-16-induced apoptosis potentially via blocking nuclear factor‑κB (NF-κB) activation. Our data for the first time quantitatively demonstrate that honokiol synergizes frequently-used chemotherapeutic agents via enhanced apoptosis and additional programmed necrotic death. These findings indicate a promising way to circumvent MDR and apoptosis tolerance.

  14. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Kłósek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P.; Król, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:23203129

  15. Cell Death Mechanisms in Tumoral and Non-Tumoral Human Cell Lines Triggered by Photodynamic Treatments: Apoptosis, Necrosis and Parthanatos.

    PubMed

    Soriano, J; Mora-Espí, I; Alea-Reyes, M E; Pérez-García, L; Barrios, L; Ibáñez, E; Nogués, C

    2017-01-23

    Cell death triggered by photodynamic therapy can occur through different mechanisms: apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy. However, recent studies have demonstrated the existence of other mechanisms with characteristics of both necrosis and apoptosis. These new cell death pathways, collectively termed regulated necrosis, include a variety of processes triggered by different stimuli. In this study, we evaluated the cell death mechanism induced by photodynamic treatments with two photosensitizers, meso-tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin sodium salt (Na-H2TCPP) and its zinc derivative Na-ZnTCPP, in two human breast epithelial cell lines, a non-tumoral (MCF-10A) and a tumoral one (SKBR-3). Viability assays showed that photodynamic treatments with both photosensitizers induced a reduction in cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and no dark toxicity was observed. The cell death mechanisms triggered were evaluated by several assays and cell line-dependent results were found. Most SKBR-3 cells died by either necrosis or apoptosis. By contrast, in MCF-10A cells, necrotic cells and another cell population with characteristics of both necrosis and apoptosis were predominant. In this latter population, cell death was PARP-dependent and translocation of AIF to the nucleus was observed in some cells. These characteristics are related with parthanatos, being the first evidence of this type of regulated necrosis in the field of photodynamic therapy.

  16. Monocytes regulate the mechanism of T-cell death by inducing Fas-mediated apoptosis during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Marc; De Silva, Thushan I; Bewley, Martin A; Preston, Julie A; Marriott, Helen M; Mitchell, Andrea M; Mitchell, Timothy J; Read, Robert C; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes and T-cells are critical to the host response to acute bacterial infection but monocytes are primarily viewed as amplifying the inflammatory signal. The mechanisms of cell death regulating T-cell numbers at sites of infection are incompletely characterized. T-cell death in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed 'classic' features of apoptosis following exposure to pneumococci. Conversely, purified CD3(+) T-cells cultured with pneumococci demonstrated necrosis with membrane permeabilization. The death of purified CD3(+) T-cells was not inhibited by necrostatin, but required the bacterial toxin pneumolysin. Apoptosis of CD3(+) T-cells in PBMC cultures required 'classical' CD14(+) monocytes, which enhanced T-cell activation. CD3(+) T-cell death was enhanced in HIV-seropositive individuals. Monocyte-mediated CD3(+) T-cell apoptotic death was Fas-dependent both in vitro and in vivo. In the early stages of the T-cell dependent host response to pneumococci reduced Fas ligand mediated T-cell apoptosis was associated with decreased bacterial clearance in the lung and increased bacteremia. In summary monocytes converted pathogen-associated necrosis into Fas-dependent apoptosis and regulated levels of activated T-cells at sites of acute bacterial infection. These changes were associated with enhanced bacterial clearance in the lung and reduced levels of invasive pneumococcal disease.

  17. Cell Death Mechanisms in Tumoral and Non-Tumoral Human Cell Lines Triggered by Photodynamic Treatments: Apoptosis, Necrosis and Parthanatos

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, J.; Mora-Espí, I.; Alea-Reyes, M. E.; Pérez-García, L.; Barrios, L.; Ibáñez, E.; Nogués, C.

    2017-01-01

    Cell death triggered by photodynamic therapy can occur through different mechanisms: apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy. However, recent studies have demonstrated the existence of other mechanisms with characteristics of both necrosis and apoptosis. These new cell death pathways, collectively termed regulated necrosis, include a variety of processes triggered by different stimuli. In this study, we evaluated the cell death mechanism induced by photodynamic treatments with two photosensitizers, meso-tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin sodium salt (Na-H2TCPP) and its zinc derivative Na-ZnTCPP, in two human breast epithelial cell lines, a non-tumoral (MCF-10A) and a tumoral one (SKBR-3). Viability assays showed that photodynamic treatments with both photosensitizers induced a reduction in cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and no dark toxicity was observed. The cell death mechanisms triggered were evaluated by several assays and cell line-dependent results were found. Most SKBR-3 cells died by either necrosis or apoptosis. By contrast, in MCF-10A cells, necrotic cells and another cell population with characteristics of both necrosis and apoptosis were predominant. In this latter population, cell death was PARP-dependent and translocation of AIF to the nucleus was observed in some cells. These characteristics are related with parthanatos, being the first evidence of this type of regulated necrosis in the field of photodynamic therapy. PMID:28112275

  18. Antibacterial active compounds from Hypericum ascyron L. induce bacterial cell death through apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Mei; Luo, Xue-Gang; Si, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Nan; Zhou, Hao; He, Jun-Fang; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Hypericum ascyron L. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds, swelling, headache, nausea and abscesses in China for thousands of years. However, modern pharmacological studies are still necessary to provide a scientific basis to substantiate their traditional use. In this study, the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of the antibacterial activity compounds from H. ascyron L. was investigated. Bioguided fractionation of the extract from H. ascyron L. afforded antibacterial activity fraction 8. The results of cup plate analysis and MTT assay showed that the MIC and MBC of fraction 8 is 5 mg/mL. Furthermore, using Annexin V-FITC/PI, TUNEL labeling and DNA gel electrophoresis, we found that cell death with apoptosis features similar to those in eucaryon could be induced in bacteria strains after exposure to the antibacterial activity compounds from H. ascyron L. at moderate concentration. In addition, we further found fraction 8 could disrupt the cell membrane potential indicate that fraction 8 exerts pro-apoptotic effects through a membrane-mediated apoptosis pathway. Finally, quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-β-(2″-acetyl)-galactopyranoside, were identified from fraction 8 by means of Mass spectrometry and Nuclear magnetic resonance. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to show that Kaempferol 3-O-β-(2″-acetyl)-galactopyranoside coupled with quercetin had significant antibacterial activity via apoptosis pathway, and it is also the first report that Kaempferol 3-O-β-(2″-acetyl)-galactopyranoside was found in clusiacea. Our data might provide a rational base for the use of H. ascyron L. in clinical, and throw light on the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in a pig model of brain death (BD) and living donation (LD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As organ shortage is increasing, the acceptance of marginal donors increases, which might result in poor organ function and patient survival. Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischemic time (CIT) or after reperfusion due to oxidative stress or the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to study a panel of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis and compare these findings with immunohistochemistry from a BD and living donation (LD) pig model and after cold ischemia time (CIT). Methods BD was induced in pigs; after 12 h organ retrieval was performed; heart, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected in the BD (n = 6) and in a LD model (n = 6). PCR analysis for NFKB1, GSS, SOD2, PPAR-alpha, OXSR1, BAX, BCL2L1, and HSP 70.2 was performed and immunohistochemistry used to show apoptosis and nitrosative stress induced cell damage. Results In heart tissue of BD BAX, BCL2L1 and HSP 70.2 increased significantly after CIT. Only SOD2 was over-expressed after CIT in BD liver tissue. In kidney tissue, BCL2L1, NFKB, OXSR1, SOD2 and HSP 70.2 expression was significantly elevated in LD. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in activated Caspase 3 and nitrotyrosine positive cells after CIT in BD in liver and in kidney tissue but not in heart tissue. Conclusion The up-regulation of protective and apoptotic genes seems to be divergent in the different organs in the BD and LD setting; however, immunohistochemistry revealed more apoptotic and nitrotyrosine positive cells in the BD setting in liver and kidney tissue whereas in heart tissue both BD and LD showed an increase. PMID:24088575

  20. UV irradiation/cold shock-mediated apoptosis is switched to bubbling cell death at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Ping; Huang, Shenq-Shyang; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Hsu, Li-Jin; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    When COS7 fibroblasts and other cells were exposed to UVC irradiation and cold shock at 4°C for 5 min, rapid upregulation and nuclear accumulation of NOS2, p53, WWOX, and TRAF2 occurred in 10–30 min. By time-lapse microscopy, an enlarging gas bubble containing nitric oxide (NO) was formed in the nucleus in each cell that finally popped out to cause “bubbling death”. Bubbling occurred effectively at 4 and 22°C, whereas DNA fragmentation was markedly blocked at 4°C. When temperature was increased to 37°C, bubbling was retarded and DNA fragmentation occurred in 1 hr, suggesting that bubbling death is switched to apoptosis with increasing temperatures. Bubbling occurred prior to nuclear uptake of propidium iodide and DAPI stains. Arginine analog Nω-LAME inhibited NO synthase NOS2 and significantly suppressed the bubbling death. Unlike apoptosis, there were no caspase activation and flip-over of membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) during bubbling death. Bubbling death was significantly retarded in Wwox knockout MEF cells, as well as in cells overexpressing TRAF2 and dominant-negative p53. Together, UV/cold shock induces bubbling death at 4°C and the event is switched to apoptosis at 37°C. Presumably, proapoptotic WWOX and p53 block the protective TRAF2 to execute the bubbling death. PMID:25779665

  1. A form of cell death with some features resembling apoptosis in the amitochondrial unicellular organism Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Chose, Olivier; Noël, Christophe; Gerbod, Delphine; Brenner, Catherine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Roseto, Alberto

    2002-05-15

    One of hallmarks of apoptosis is the degradation and concomitant compaction of chromatin. It is assumed that caspases and caspase-independent pathways are rate limiting for the development of nuclear apoptosis. The caspase-independent pathway involves apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and leads to DNA fragmentation and peripheral chromatin condensation. Both pathways are the result of activation of death signals that the mitochondrion receives, integrates, and responds to with the release of various molecules (e.g., cytochrome c and AIF). In fact, both pathways have in common the final point of the DNA fragmentation and the mitochondrial origin of molecules that initiate the apoptotic events. Here, we examine the question of whether apoptosis or apoptotic-like processes exist in a unicellular organism that lacks mitochondria. We herein show that a form of cell death with some features resembling apoptosis is indeed present in Trichomonas vaginalis. Characterization of morphological aspects implicated in this event together with the preliminary biochemical data provided may lead to new insight about the evolutionary relationships between the different forms of programmed cell death identified so far.

  2. Apoptosis-Like Cell Death Induction and Aberrant Fibroblast Properties in Human Incisional Hernia Fascia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Ramon; Quiles, Maria T.; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Lopez-Cano, Manuel; Huguet, Pere; Ramon-y-Cajal, Santiago; Reventos, Jaume; Armengol, Manel; Arbos, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Incisional hernia often occurs following laparotomy and can be a source of serious problems. Although there is evidence that a biological cause may underlie its development, the mechanistic link between the local tissue microenvironment and tissue rupture is lacking. In this study, we used matched tissue-based and in vitro primary cell culture systems to examine the possible involvement of fascia fibroblasts in incisional hernia pathogenesis. Fascia biopsies were collected at surgery from incisional hernia patients and non-incisional hernia controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histology and immunoblotting methods. Fascia primary fibroblast cultures were assessed at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. We document tissue and fibroblast loss coupled to caspase-3 activation and induction of apoptosis-like cell-death mechanisms in incisional hernia fascia. Alterations in cytoskeleton organization and solubility were also observed. Incisional hernia fibroblasts showed a consistent phenotype throughout early passages in vitro, which was characterized by significantly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, reduced adhesion, and altered cytoskeleton properties, as compared to non-incisional hernia fibroblasts. Moreover, incisional hernia fibroblasts displayed morphological and ultrastructural alterations compatible with autophagic processes or lysosomal dysfunction, together with enhanced sensitivity to proapoptotic challenges. Overall, these data suggest an ongoing complex interplay of cell death induction, aberrant fibroblast function, and tissue loss in incisional hernia fascia, which may significantly contribute to altered matrix maintenance and tissue rupture in vivo. PMID:21641387

  3. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dongjun; Ni, Qing; Ji, Anlai; Gu, Wen; Wu, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin's main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA). We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death. Methods. The cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The underlying mechanisms were tested by administration of cell death related inhibitors and detection of apoptotic and oncosis related proteins. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay, mitochondrial function test, and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration detection. Results. QC4 inhibited cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and destroyed cell membrane integrity, activated calpain-1 autolysis, and induced apoptotic protein cleavage in gastric cancer cells. The detection of decreased ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS accumulation, and cytosolic free Ca2+ elevation confirmed organelles damage in QC4-treated gastric cancer cells. Conclusions. DHA derivative QC4 induced the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, as a derivative of plant derived small molecule DHA, QC4 might become a promising agent in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27057539

  4. Modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) sensitizes human T cell leukemia cells to death receptor (CD95)-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Gollapudi, Sastry

    2003-11-10

    MGN-3, an arabinoxylan extracted from rice bran that is treated enzymatically with an extract from Shiitaki mushrooms, is an effective biological response modifier that increases NK cell activity, and potentiates the activity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the effect of MGN-3 on death receptor-induced apoptosis in the human leukemic HUT 78 cell line. HUT 78 cells were pre-treated with MGN-3, and then were incubated with the agonistic antibody against death receptor (Fas, CD95). Apoptosis was determined by the propidium iodide technique using FACScan. Activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9 was determined by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with DIOC(6) dye using FACScan. Expression of CD95 and Bcl-2 were measured by flow cytometry. In a dose-dependent manner, MGN-3 enhanced anti-CD95 antibody-induced apoptosis. Increased cell death was correlated with increased depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, and caspase 9. MGN-3 treatment had no effect on the level of expression of CD95, but it caused down regulation of Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that MGN-3 increases the susceptibility of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis mediated by death ligands, which may be relevant for anti-cancer activities.

  5. Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via caspase-8-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Li, Yi-Chen; Wang, Shyang-Guang; N G, Sue-Hwee; Wu, Chia-Yin; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2010-05-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural, biologically active compound from the rhizome of Rheum palmatum, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, its molecular mechanism of action in the apoptosis induction of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells has not been explored. This study shows that AE induced G(2)/M phase arrest by increasing levels of cyclin B1 bound to Cdc2, and also caused an increase in apoptosis of NPC cells, which was characterized by morphological changes, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and increased sub-G(1) population. Treatment of NPC cells with AE also resulted in a decrease in Bcl-X(L) and an increase in Bax expression. Ectopic expression of Bcl-X(L) but not Bcl-2 or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated attenuation of Bax suppressed AE-induced apoptotic cell death. AE-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase in cellular Ca(++) content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death were suppressed by the treatment of cyclosporin A (CsA) or caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK. Co-treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK could inhibit AE-induced cell death and the activation of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, suppression of caspase-8 with the specific inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK inhibited AE-induced the activation of Bax, the cleavage of Bid, the translocation of tBid to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Endo G from the mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that the caspase-8-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway plays a critical role in AE-induced apoptosis of NPC cells.

  6. Ryanodine receptor-mediated arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Blayney, Lynda M.; Lai, F. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The cardiac ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel (RyR2) is an essential sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) transmembrane protein that plays a central role in excitation–contraction coupling (ECC) in cardiomyocytes. Aberrant spontaneous, diastolic Ca2+ leak from the SR due to dysfunctional RyR2 contributes to the formation of delayed after-depolarisations, which are thought to underlie the fatal arrhythmia that occurs in both heart failure (HF) and in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT is an inherited disorder associated with mutations in either the RyR2 or a SR luminal protein, calsequestrin. RyR2 shows normal function at rest in CPVT but the RyR2 dysfunction is unmasked by physical exercise or emotional stress, suggesting abnormal RyR2 activation as an underlying mechanism. Several potential mechanisms have been advanced to explain the dysfunctional RyR2 observed in HF and CPVT, including enhanced RyR2 phosphorylation status, altered RyR2 regulation at luminal/cytoplasmic sites and perturbed RyR2 intra/inter-molecular interactions. This review considers RyR2 dysfunction in the context of the structural and functional modulation of the channel, and potential therapeutic strategies to stabilise RyR2 function in cardiac pathology. PMID:19345240

  7. Type I interferons induce apoptosis by balancing cFLIP and caspase-8 independent of death ligands.

    PubMed

    Apelbaum, Amir; Yarden, Ganit; Warszawski, Shira; Harari, Daniel; Schreiber, Gideon

    2013-02-01

    Interferons induce a pleiotropy of responses through binding the same cell surface receptor. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism driving interferon-induced apoptosis. Using a nonbiased small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen, we show that silencing genes whose products are directly engaged in the initiation of interferon signaling completely abrogate the interferon antiproliferative response. Apoptosis-related genes such as the caspase-8, cFLIP, and DR5 genes specifically interfere with interferon-induced apoptosis, which we found to be independent of the activity of death ligands. The one gene for which silencing resulted in the strongest proapoptotic effect upon interferon signaling is the cFLIP gene, where silencing shortened the time of initiation of apoptosis from days to hours and increased dramatically the population of apoptotic cells. Thus, cFLIP serves as a regulator for interferon-induced apoptosis. A shift over time in the balance between cFLIP and caspase-8 results in downstream caspase activation and apoptosis. While gamma interferon (IFN-γ) also causes caspase-8 upregulation, we suggest that it follows a different path to apoptosis.

  8. Glutamate receptor-mediated toxicity in optic nerve oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Carlos; Sánchez-Gómez, M. Victoria; Martínez-Millán, Luis; Miledi, Ricardo

    1997-01-01

    In cultured oligodendrocytes isolated from perinatal rat optic nerves, we have analyzed the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits as well as the effect of the activation of these receptors on oligodendrocyte viability. Reverse transcription–PCR, in combination with immunocytochemistry, demonstrated that most oligodendrocytes differentiated in vitro express the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR3 and GluR4 and the kainate receptor subunits GluR6, GluR7, KA1 and KA2. Acute and chronic exposure to kainate caused extensive oligodendrocyte death in culture. This effect was partially prevented by the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and was completely abolished by the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), suggesting that both AMPA and kainate receptors mediate the observed kainate toxicity. Furthermore, chronic application of kainate to optic nerves in vivo resulted in massive oligodendrocyte death which, as in vitro, could be prevented by coinfusion of the toxin with CNQX. These findings suggest that excessive activation of the ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed by oligodendrocytes may act as a negative regulator of the size of this cell population. PMID:9238063

  9. A systems level strategy for analyzing the cell death network: implication in exploring the apoptosis/autophagy connection.

    PubMed

    Zalckvar, E; Yosef, N; Reef, S; Ber, Y; Rubinstein, A D; Mor, I; Sharan, R; Ruppin, E; Kimchi, A

    2010-08-01

    The mammalian cell death network comprises three distinct functional modules: apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis. Currently, the field lacks systems level approaches to assess the extent to which the intermodular connectivity affects cell death performance. Here, we developed a platform that is based on single and double sets of RNAi-mediated perturbations targeting combinations of apoptotic and autophagic genes. The outcome of perturbations is measured both at the level of the overall cell death responses, using an unbiased quantitative reporter, and by assessing the molecular responses within the different functional modules. Epistatic analyses determine whether seemingly unrelated pairs of proteins are genetically linked. The initial running of this platform in etoposide-treated cells, using a few single and double perturbations, identified several levels of connectivity between apoptosis and autophagy. The knock down of caspase3 turned on a switch toward autophagic cell death, which requires Atg5 or Beclin-1. In addition, a reciprocal connection between these two autophagic genes and apoptosis was identified. By applying computational tools that are based on mining the protein-protein interaction database, a novel biochemical pathway connecting between Atg5 and caspase3 is suggested. Scaling up this platform into hundreds of perturbations potentially has a wide, general scope of applicability, and will provide the basis for future modeling of the cell death network.

  10. Cell death of chondrocytes is a combination between apoptosis and autophagy during the pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis within an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Almonte-Becerril, M; Navarro-Garcia, F; Gonzalez-Robles, A; Vega-Lopez, M A; Lavalle, C; Kouri, J B

    2010-05-01

    The death of chondrocytes and the loss of extracellular matrix are the central features in cartilage degeneration during Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. The mechanism by which chondrocytes are removed in OA cartilage are still not totally defined, although previous reports support the presence of apoptotic as well as non apoptotic signals. In addition, in 2004 Roach and co-workers suggested the term "Chondroptosis" to design the type of cell death present in articular cartilage, which include the presence of some apoptotic and autophagic processes. To identify the mechanisms, as well as the chronology by which chondrocytes are eliminated during OA pathogenesis, we decided to evaluate apoptosis (by active caspase 3 and TUNEL signal) and autophagy (by LC3II molecule and cytoplasmic vacuolization) using Immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques in an animal OA model. During OA pathogenesis, chondrocytes exhibit modifications in their death process in each zone of the cartilage. At early stages of OA, the death of chondrocytes starts with apoptosis in the superficial and part of the middle zones of the cartilage, probably as a consequence of a constant mechanical damage in the joint. As the degenerative process progresses, high incidence of active caspase 3 as well as LC3II expression are observed in the same cell, which indicate a combination of both death processes. In contrast, in the deep zone, due the abnormal subchondral bone ossification during the OA pathogenesis, apoptosis is the only mechanism observed.

  11. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yajie; Gao, Dongsheng; Zhao, Shenting

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  12. The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): pathways leading to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bejjani, Charbel; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2013-01-15

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the commonest cause of death in the post-neonatal period in the developed world. A leading hypothesis is that an abnormality in the brainstem of infants who succumb to SIDS, either causes or predisposes to failure to respond appropriately to an exogenous stressor. Neuronal apoptosis can lead to loss of cardiorespiratory reflexes, compromise of the infant's ability to respond to stressors such as hypoxia, and ultimately a sleep-related death. The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) is a medullary autonomic nucleus where abnormalities have regularly been identified in SIDS research. This review collates neurochemical findings documented over the last 30 years, including data from our laboratory focusing on neuronal apoptosis and the DMNV, and provides potential therapeutic interventions targeting neurotransmitters, growth factors and/or genes.

  13. Cyclic and constant hyperoxia cause inflammation, apoptosis and cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Hafner, C; Schramel, J P; Kaun, C; Krychtiuk, K A; Wojta, J; Boehme, S; Ullrich, R; Tretter, E V; Markstaller, K; Klein, K U

    2016-04-01

    Perioperative high-dose oxygen (O2 ) exposure can cause hyperoxia. While the effect of constant hyperoxia on the vascular endothelium has been investigated to some extent, the impact of cyclic hyperoxia largely remains unknown. We hypothesized that cyclic hyperoxia would induce more injury than constant hyperoxia to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to cyclic hyperoxia (5-95% O2 ) or constant hyperoxia (95% O2 ), normoxia (21% O2 ), and hypoxia (5% O2 ). Cell growth, viability (Annexin V/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), release, cytokine (interleukin, IL and macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF) release, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of cell lysate were assessed at baseline and 8, 24, and 72 h. A signal transduction pathway finder array for gene expression analysis was performed after 8 h. Constant and cyclic hyperoxia-induced gradually detrimental effects on HUVECs. After 72 h, constant or cyclic hyperoxia exposure induced change in cytotoxic (LDH +12%, P = 0.026; apoptosis +121/61%, P < 0.01; alive cells -15%, P < 0.01; MTT -16/15%, P < 0.01), inflammatory (IL-6 +142/190%, P < 0.01; IL-8 +72/43%, P < 0.01; MIF +147/93%, P < 0.01), or redox-sensitive (SOD +278%, TAC-25% P < 0.01) markers. Gene expression analysis revealed that constant and cyclic hyperoxia exposure differently activates oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappa B, Notch, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. Extreme hyperoxia exposure induces inflammation, apoptosis and cell death in HUVECs. Although our findings cannot be transferred to clinical settings, results suggest that hyperoxia exposure may cause vascular injury that could play a role in determining perioperative outcome. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mota, Alba; Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia; Herránz, Sandra; Heras, Beatriz de las; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2015-08-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. - Highlights: • α-Hispanolol induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. • α-Hispanolol induced activation of caspases and the death receptor pathway. • α-Hispanolol enhanced

  15. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  16. p53-independent death and p53-induced protection against apoptosis in fibroblasts treated with chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Malcomson, R. D.; Oren, M.; Wyllie, A. H.; Harrison, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated p53 in the cellular response to injury and induction of cell death by apoptosis. In a rat embryonal fibroblast cell line transformed with c-Ha-ras and a mutant temperature-sensitive p53 (val135), cells were G1 arrested at the permissive temperature of 32 degrees C when overexpressed p53 was in wild-type conformation. In this state cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by etoposide (at up to 50 microM) or bleomycin (15 microU ml-1). Cells at 37 degrees C with overexpressed p53 in mutant conformation were freed from this growth arrest, continued proliferating and showed dose-dependent increases in apoptosis. This death is independent of wild-type p53 function. Control cells containing a non-temperature-sensitive mutant p53 (phe132) were sensitive to both etoposide and bleomycin after 24 h at 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C, indicating that the results are not simply due to temperature effects on pharmacokinetics or DNA damage. Our data show that induction of a stable p53-mediated growth arrest renders these cells much less likely to undergo apoptosis in response to certain anti-cancer drugs, and we conclude that the regulatory role of p53 in apoptosis is influenced by the particular cellular context in which this gene is expressed. PMID:7547247

  17. Quercetin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via increased protein stability of death receptor 5

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young-Hwa; Heo, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yong J.; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Young-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Aims Quercetin has been shown to enhance tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells via mechanisms that include upregulation of death receptor (DR) 5, a protein reported to play an important role in sensitizing cancer cells to apoptosis. We aimed to determine the specific mechanisms underlying quercetin-induced DR5 expression. Main methods Human prostate cancer cells were exposed to quercetin and TRAIL. Trypan blue assays and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays evaluated changes in TRAIL resistance after quercetin treatment, and flow cytometry examined quercetin-induced death receptor expression in DU-145 cells. Western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and transiently transfection were utilized to confirm apoptotic patterns of prostate cancer cells. Key findings After stimulation with quercetin, DU-145 cells exhibited stronger sensitization to TRAIL. Quercetin treatment enhanced TRAIL-induced activation proteins in the caspase pathway, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Quercetin dose-dependently increased DR5 levels in prostate cancer cells, which was mediated by increased transcription and protein stability, but not mRNA stability. Ectopic expression of DR5 dose-dependently increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Significance Our results showed that the role of quercetin and TRAIL combination therapy may provide a novel strategy for treating prostate cancer by overcoming critical mechanisms of apoptosis resistance. PMID:20096292

  18. Targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins by Smac mimetic elicits cell death in poor prognostic subgroups of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Opel, Daniela; Schnaiter, Andrea; Dodier, Dagmar; Jovanovic, Marjana; Gerhardinger, Andreas; Idler, Irina; Mertens, Daniel; Bullinger, Lars; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Fulda, Simone

    2015-12-15

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are highly expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and contribute to evasion of cell death and poor therapeutic response. Here, we report that Smac mimetic BV6 dose-dependently induces cell death in 28 of 51 (54%) investigated CLL samples, while B-cells from healthy donors are largely unaffected. Importantly, BV6 is significantly more effective in prognostic unfavorable cases with, e.g., non-mutated VH status and TP53 mutation than samples with unknown or favorable prognosis. The majority of cases with 17p deletion (10/12) and Fludarabine refractory cases respond to BV6, indicating that BV6 acts independently of p53. BV6 also triggers cell death under survival conditions mimicking the microenvironment, e.g., by adding CD40 ligand or conditioned medium. Gene expression profiling identifies cell death, NF-κB and redox signaling among the top pathways regulated by BV6 not only in CLL but also in core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Consistently, BV6 stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are contributing to BV6-induced cell death, since antioxidants reduce cell death. While BV6 causes degradation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)1 and cIAP2 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway activation in primary CLL samples, BV6 induces cell death independently of caspase activity, receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1 activity or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, as zVAD.fmk, necrostatin-1 or TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel fail to inhibit cell death. Together, these novel insights into BV6-regulated cell death in CLL have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies to overcome cell death resistance especially in poor prognostic CLL subgroups. © 2015 UICC.

  19. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein – A Critical Death Resistance Regulator and Therapeutic Target for Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Obexer, Petra; Ausserlechner, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Defects in apoptosis regulation are one main cause of cancer development and may result from overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). IAPs are cell death regulators that, among other functions, bind caspases, and interfere with apoptotic signaling via death receptors or intrinsic cell death pathways. All IAPs share one to three common structures, the so called baculovirus-IAP-repeat (BIR)-domains that allow them to bind caspases and other proteins. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent and best-defined anti-apoptotic IAP family member that directly neutralizes caspase-9 via its BIR3 domain and the effector caspases-3 and -7 via its BIR2 domain. A natural inhibitor of XIAP is SMAC/Diablo, which is released from mitochondria in apoptotic cells and displaces bound caspases from the BIR2/BIR3 domains of XIAP thereby reactivating cell death execution. The central apoptosis-inhibitory function of XIAP and its overexpression in many different types of advanced cancers have led to significant efforts to identify therapeutics that neutralize its anti-apoptotic effect. Most of these drugs are chemical derivatives of the N-terminal part of SMAC/Diablo. These “SMAC-mimetics” either specifically induce apoptosis in cancer cells or act as drug-sensitizers. Several “SMAC-mimetics” are currently tested by the pharmaceutical industry in Phase I and Phase II trials. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in understanding the function of IAPs in normal and malignant cells and focus on approaches to specifically neutralize XIAP in cancer cells. PMID:25120954

  20. Glutathione administration reduces mitochondrial damage and shifts cell death from necrosis to apoptosis in ageing diabetic mice hearts during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, S; Botta, A; Gottfred, S; Nusrat, A; Laher, I; Ghosh, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effect of antioxidants on ageing type 2 diabetic (T2D) hearts during exercise is unclear. We hypothesized that GSH therapy during exercise reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress (mOXS) and cell death in ageing db/db mice hearts. Experimental Approach The effect of GSH on cardiac mOXS and cell death was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results During exercise, GSH treatment protected db/db hearts from exaggerated mOXS without reducing total cell death. Despite similar cell death, investigations on apoptosis-specific single-stranded DNA breaks and necrosis-specific damage provided the first in vivo evidence of a shift from necrosis to apoptosis, with reduced fibrosis following GSH administration in exercised db/db hearts. Further support for a GSH-regulated ‘switch’ in death phenotypes came from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar to in vivo findings, augmenting GSH by overexpressing glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCLc) protected fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes from necrosis induced by H2O2, but elevated caspase-3 and apoptosis instead. Similar to in vivo findings, where GSH therapy in normoglycaemic mice suppressed endogenous antioxidants and augmented caspase-3 activity, GCLc overexpression during staurosporine-induced death, which was not characterized by ROS, increased GSH efflux and aggravated death in fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, confirming that oxidative stress is required for GSH-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusions and Implications While GSH treatment is useful for reducing mOXS and attenuating necrosis and fibrosis in ageing T2D hearts during exercise, such antioxidant treatment could be counterproductive in the healthy heart during exercise. PMID:25039894

  1. Serum Markers of Hepatocyte Death and Apoptosis Are Non Invasive Biomarkers of Severe Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patouraux, Stéphanie; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Rousseau, Déborah; Anty, Rodolphe; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of hepatotocyte death is useful to evaluate the progression of alcoholic liver diseases. Our aims were to quantify and correlate the circulating levels of Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and its caspases-generated fragment to disease severity in heavy alcoholics. Methodology/Principal Findings CK18 and CK18-fragment were evaluated in the serum of 143 heavy alcoholics. Serum levels of markers of hepatocyte death (CK18), apoptosis (CK18 fragment) and necrosis (CK18 -CK18 fragment) increased in patients with severe fibrosis compared to patients with mild fibrosis. These markers strongly correlated with Mallory-Denk bodies, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrosis and with hepatic TNFα and TGFβ assessed in the liver of 24 patients. Elevated levels of serum hepatocyte death and apoptotic markers were independent risk factors in predicting severe fibrosis in a model combining alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, prothrombin index, hyaluronate, hepatocyte death and apoptotic markers. The level of markers of hepatocyte death and apoptosis had an area under the receiving operator curve that predicted severe fibrosis of 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Death of hepatocytes can be easily evaluated with serum markers and correlated with severe fibrosis in heavy alcohol drinkers. These biomarkers could be useful to rapidly evaluate liver injuries and the efficacy of therapies. PMID:21445263

  2. Serum markers of hepatocyte death and apoptosis are non invasive biomarkers of severe fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lavallard, Vanessa Jeannette; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Rousseau, Déborah; Anty, Rodolphe; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2011-03-18

    Quantification of hepatocyte death is useful to evaluate the progression of alcoholic liver diseases. Our aims were to quantify and correlate the circulating levels of Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and its caspases-generated fragment to disease severity in heavy alcoholics. CK18 and CK18-fragment were evaluated in the serum of 143 heavy alcoholics. Serum levels of markers of hepatocyte death (CK18), apoptosis (CK18 fragment) and necrosis (CK18 -CK18 fragment) increased in patients with severe fibrosis compared to patients with mild fibrosis. These markers strongly correlated with Mallory-Denk bodies, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrosis and with hepatic TNFα and TGFβ assessed in the liver of 24 patients. Elevated levels of serum hepatocyte death and apoptotic markers were independent risk factors in predicting severe fibrosis in a model combining alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, prothrombin index, hyaluronate, hepatocyte death and apoptotic markers. The level of markers of hepatocyte death and apoptosis had an area under the receiving operator curve that predicted severe fibrosis of 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Death of hepatocytes can be easily evaluated with serum markers and correlated with severe fibrosis in heavy alcohol drinkers. These biomarkers could be useful to rapidly evaluate liver injuries and the efficacy of therapies.

  3. Apoptosis: A Functional Paradigm for Programmed Plant Cell Death Induced by a Host-Selective Phytotoxin and Invoked during Development.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H; Li, J; Bostock, RM; Gilchrist, DG

    1996-01-01

    The host-selective AAL toxins secreted by Alternaria alternata f sp lycopersici are primary chemical determinants in the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato. The AAL toxins are members of a new class of sphinganine analog mycotoxins that cause cell death in both animals and plants. Here, we report detection of stereotypic hallmarks of apoptosis during cell death induced by these toxins in tomato. DNA ladders were observed during cell death in toxin-treated tomato protoplasts and leaflets. The intensity of the DNA ladders was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Zn2+. The progressive delineation of fragmented DNA into distinct bodies, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, also was observed during death of toxin-treated tomato protoplasts. In situ analysis of cells dying during development in both onion root caps and tomato leaf tracheary elements revealed DNA fragmentation localized to the dying cells as well as the additional formation of apoptotic-like bodies in sloughing root cap cells. We conclude that the fundamental elements of apoptosis, as characterized in animals, are conserved in plants. The apoptotic process may be expressed during some developmental transitions and is the functional process by which symptomatic lesions are formed in the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato. Sphinganine analog mycotoxins may be used to characterize further signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in plants. PMID:12239387

  4. Pulse mode irradiation at Radachlorin PDT shifted cell death to apoptosis in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, Vladimir V.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Knyazev, Nickolay A.; Dubina, Michael V.

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved treatment that can exhibit onsite cytotoxic activity toward tumor cells. One of the main factors limiting PDT efficiency is tissue hypoxia derived from photodynamic action. PDT with pulse mode irradiation at the same peak fluence rates as in continuous wave (CW) mode and with appropriate irradiation parameters could be more effective in the potency of 1O2 generation and the cytotoxic effect enhancement by tissue reoxygenation. In this study, we demonstrated theoretically that the main parameter of pulse mode irradiation is the intermittency factor, which makes it possible to maintain the intended 3O2 concentration and to regulate the efficiency of 1O2 generation. We also showed experimentally that photodynamic treatment with pulse mode irradiation has congruent cytotoxicity to CW mode but induces preferable cell apoptosis. We assume that not only is cumulative 1O2 concentration is important in photodynamic cytotoxicity, but so is the temporal distribution of 1O2 generation, which determines the types of cell death.

  5. 7-Hydroxydehydronuciferine induces human melanoma death via triggering autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Fang; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chen, Chung-Yi; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest cancer. We identified 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (7-HDNF) isolated from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn cv. Rosa-plena to be a bio-active agent that antagonizes melanoma tumor growth in mice xenograft model in vivo. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated strong anticancer effects of 7-HDNF to exhibit a dose-dependent behaviour and displayed minor cytotoxicities on normal human skin cells, including epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes, and dermal fibroblasts. With acridine orange (AO) staining and flow analysis, we found 7-HDNF induced the formation of intracellular vacuoles and the augmentation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). The apoptotic cell death ratio was measured via two-dimensional flow cytometry by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double stained to confirm the cellular membrane asymmetry lost. One-dimensional flow cytometric analysis showed 7-HDNF increased the cellular arrest in cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Through Western blot examinations, protein expressions were discovered to verify autophagy and apoptosis response mechanisms sharing the associated pathways. Finally, 7-HDNF presented a high-quality antimigratory activity in wound-healing assay. Overall, 7-HDNF presented high-quality anticancer bio-functions and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Akt-phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-activating death domain protein (MADD) inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis by blocking Fas-associated death domain (FADD) association with death receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Li, Peifeng; Jayarama, Shankar; Ganesh, Lakshmy; Mordi, David; Carr, Ryan; Kanteti, Prasad; Hay, Nissim; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2010-07-16

    MADD plays an essential role in cancer cell survival. Abrogation of endogenous MADD expression results in significant spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of MADD function is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous MADD is phosphorylated at three highly conserved sites by Akt, and only the phosphorylated MADD can directly interact with the TRAIL receptor DR4 thereby preventing Fas-associated death domain recruitment. However, in cells susceptible to TRAIL treatment, TRAIL induces a reduction in MADD phosphorylation levels resulting in MADD dissociation from, and Fas-associated death domain association with DR4, which allows death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation leading to apoptosis. Thus, the pro-survival function of MADD is dependent upon its phosphorylation by Akt. Because Akt is active in most cancer cells and phosphorylated MADD confers resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, co-targeting Akt-MADD axis is likely to increase efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies.

  7. Mechanics of receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian; Shi, Wendong; Freund, Lambert B.

    2005-07-01

    Most viruses and bioparticles endocytosed by cells have characteristic sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The process of viruses entering and leaving animal cells is mediated by the binding interaction between ligand molecules on the viral capid and their receptor molecules on the cell membrane. How does the size of a bioparticle affect receptor-mediated endocytosis? Here, we study how a cell membrane containing diffusive mobile receptors wraps around a ligand-coated cylindrical or spherical particle. It is shown that particles in the size range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can enter or exit cells via wrapping even in the absence of clathrin or caveolin coats, and an optimal particles size exists for the smallest wrapping time. This model can also be extended to include the effect of clathrin coat. The results seem to show broad agreement with experimental observations. Author contributions: H.G. and L.B.F. designed research; H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. performed research; and H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: CNT, carbon nanotube; SWNT, single-walled nanotube.

  8. Receptor-mediated signaling at plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) generate continuity between plant cells via the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM), allowing movement of different classes of molecules between cells. Proteomic data indicates that the PD PM hosts many receptors and receptor kinases, as well as lipid raft and tetraspanin enriched microdomain associated proteins, suggesting the hypothesis that the PD PM is specialized with respect to both composition and function. PD-located receptor proteins and receptor kinases are responsible for perception of microbe associated molecular patterns at PD and initiate signaling that mediates changes to PD flux. In addition, developmentally relevant receptor kinases have different interactions dependent upon whether located at the PD PM or the cellular PM. The implications of these findings are that receptor-mediated signaling in PD membranes differs from that in the cellular PM and, in light the identification of PD-located proteins associated with membrane microdomains and the role of membrane microdomains in analogous signaling processes in animals, suggests that the PD PM contains specialized signaling platforms.

  9. Autophagy and apoptosis have a role in the survival or death of stallion spermatozoa during conservation in refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Gallardo Bolaños, Juan M; Miró Morán, Álvaro; Balao da Silva, Carolina M; Morillo Rodríguez, Antolín; Plaza Dávila, María; Aparicio, Inés M; Tapia, José A; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Peña, Fernando J

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis has been recognized as a cause of sperm death during cryopreservation and a cause of infertility in humans, however there is no data on its role in sperm death during conservation in refrigeration; autophagy has not been described to date in mature sperm. We investigated the role of apoptosis and autophagy during cooled storage of stallion spermatozoa. Samples from seven stallions were split; half of the ejaculate was processed by single layer centrifugation, while the other half was extended unprocessed, and stored at 5°C for five days. During the time of storage, sperm motility (CASA, daily) and membrane integrity (flow cytometry, daily) were evaluated. Apoptosis was evaluated on days 1, 3 and 5 (active caspase 3, increase in membrane permeability, phosphatidylserine translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential) using flow cytometry. Furthermore, LC3B processing was investigated by western blotting at the beginning and at the end of the period of storage. The decrease in sperm quality over the period of storage was to a large extent due to apoptosis; single layer centrifugation selected non-apoptotic spermatozoa, but there were no differences in sperm motility between selected and unselected sperm. A high percentage of spermatozoa showed active caspase 3 upon ejaculation, and during the period of storage there was an increase of apoptotic spermatozoa but no changes in the percentage of live sperm, revealed by the SYBR-14/PI assay, were observed. LC3B was differentially processed in sperm after single layer centrifugation compared with native sperm. In processed sperm more LC3B-II was present than in non-processed samples; furthermore, in non-processed sperm there was an increase in LC3B-II after five days of cooled storage. These results indicate that apoptosis plays a major role in the sperm death during storage in refrigeration and that autophagy plays a role in the survival of spermatozoa representing a new pro-survival mechanism in

  10. Autophagy and Apoptosis Have a Role in the Survival or Death of Stallion Spermatozoa during Conservation in Refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo Bolaños, Juan M.; Miró Morán, Álvaro; Balao da Silva, Carolina M.; Morillo Rodríguez, Antolín; Plaza Dávila, María; Aparicio, Inés M.; Tapia, José A.; Ferrusola, Cristina Ortega; Peña, Fernando J.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis has been recognized as a cause of sperm death during cryopreservation and a cause of infertility in humans, however there is no data on its role in sperm death during conservation in refrigeration; autophagy has not been described to date in mature sperm. We investigated the role of apoptosis and autophagy during cooled storage of stallion spermatozoa. Samples from seven stallions were split; half of the ejaculate was processed by single layer centrifugation, while the other half was extended unprocessed, and stored at 5°C for five days. During the time of storage, sperm motility (CASA, daily) and membrane integrity (flow cytometry, daily) were evaluated. Apoptosis was evaluated on days 1, 3 and 5 (active caspase 3, increase in membrane permeability, phosphatidylserine translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential) using flow cytometry. Furthermore, LC3B processing was investigated by western blotting at the beginning and at the end of the period of storage. The decrease in sperm quality over the period of storage was to a large extent due to apoptosis; single layer centrifugation selected non-apoptotic spermatozoa, but there were no differences in sperm motility between selected and unselected sperm. A high percentage of spermatozoa showed active caspase 3 upon ejaculation, and during the period of storage there was an increase of apoptotic spermatozoa but no changes in the percentage of live sperm, revealed by the SYBR-14/PI assay, were observed. LC3B was differentially processed in sperm after single layer centrifugation compared with native sperm. In processed sperm more LC3B-II was present than in non-processed samples; furthermore, in non-processed sperm there was an increase in LC3B-II after five days of cooled storage. These results indicate that apoptosis plays a major role in the sperm death during storage in refrigeration and that autophagy plays a role in the survival of spermatozoa representing a new pro-survival mechanism in

  11. Cell death (apoptosis) in mouse intestine after continuous irradiation with gamma rays and with beta rays from tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, K.

    1989-04-01

    Apoptosis is a pattern of cell death involving nuclear pycnosis, cytoplasmic condensation, and karyorrhexis. Apoptosis induced by continuous irradiation with gamma rays (externally given by a 137Cs source) or with beta rays (from tritiated water injected ip) was quantified in the crypts of two portions of mouse bowel, the small intestine and descending colon. The time-course change in the incidence of apoptosis after each type of radiation could be explained on the basis of the innate circadian rhythm of the cells susceptible to apoptotic death and of the excretion of tritiated water (HTO) from the body. For 6-h continuous gamma irradiation at various dose rates (0.6-480 mGy/h) and for 6 h after injection of HTO of various radioactivities (0.15-150 GBq per kg body wt), the relationships between dose and incidence of apoptosis were obtained. Survival curves were then constructed from the curves for dose vs incidence of apoptosis. For the calculation of the absorbed dose from HTO, the water content both of the mouse body and of the cells was assumed to be 70%. One megabecquerel of HTO per mouse (i.e., 40 MBq/kg body wt) gave a dose rate of 0.131 mGy/h. The mean lethal doses (D0) were calculated for gamma rays and HTO, and relative biological effectiveness values of HTO relative to gamma rays were obtained. The D0 values for continuous irradiation with gamma rays were 210 mGy for small intestine and 380 mGy for descending colon, and the respective values for HTO were 130 and 280 mGy, indicating the high radiosensitivity of target cells for apoptotic death. The relative biological effectiveness of HTO relative to 137Cs gamma rays for cell killing in both the small intestine and the descending colon in the mouse was 1.4-2.1.

  12. Heat shock induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species involving mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Yu, Hsin-Su; Lin, Hsien-Chung; Wu, Kwou-Yeung; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2011-10-01

    Although many studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular consequences of ultraviolet irradiation, little is known about the effect of infrared radiation on ocular disease. In addition to photons, heat is generated as a consequence of infrared irradiation, and heat shock is widely considered to be an environmental stressor. Here, we are the first to investigate the biological effect of heat shock on Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells. Our results indicate that heat shock exhibits effective cell proliferation inhibition by inducing apoptosis. Heat shock triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway indicated by a change in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, resulting in caspase-9 activity. In addition, heat shock triggered the death receptor apoptotic pathway indicated by a change in Fas ligand expression, resulting in caspase-8 activity. Furthermore, we also found that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical mediator in heat shock-induced apoptosis. In addition, the antioxidant vitamin C significantly decreased heat shock-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role for ROS involving mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in heat shock-mediated apoptosis of cornea cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. T315 Decreases Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Viability through a Combination of Apoptosis Induction and Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chang-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ru; Jadhav, Appaso; Wu, Chia-Yung; Sargeant, Aaron M.; Bai, Li-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    T315, an integrin-linked kinase (ILK) inhibitor, has been shown to suppress the proliferation of breast cancer, stomach cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Here we demonstrate that T315 decreases cell viability of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines (HL-60 and THP-1) and primary leukemia cells from AML patients in a dose-responsive manner. Normal human bone marrow cells are less sensitive than leukemia cells to T315. T315 down regulates protein kinase B (Akt) and p-Akt and induces caspase activation, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, apoptosis and autophagy through an ILK-independent manner. Interestingly, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors rescues cells from apoptosis and concomitant PARP cleavage, which implicates a key role of autophagic cell death in T315-mediated cytotoxicity. T315 also demonstrates efficacy in vivo, suppressing the growth of THP-1 xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice when administered intraperitoneally. This study shows that autophagic cell death and apoptosis cooperatively contribute to the anticancer activity of T315 in AML cells. In conclusion, the complementary roles of apoptotic and autophagic cell death should be considered in the future assessment of the translational value of T315 in AML therapy. PMID:27537872

  14. Flavanonol taxifolin attenuates proteasome inhibition-induced apoptosis in differentiated PC12 cells by suppressing cell death process.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Da Hee; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Sohn, Dong Suep; Lee, Chung Soo

    2015-03-01

    The proteasomal dysfunction and mitochondrial impairment has been implicated in neuronal degeneration. Taxifolin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of taxifolin on the neuronal cell death induced by proteasome inhibition has not been studied. Therefore, in the respect of cell death process, we assessed the effect of taxifolin on the proteasome inhibition-induced apoptosis in neuronal cell injury using differentiated PC12 cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132 and MG115 induced a decrease in Bid, Bcl-2, and survivin protein levels, an increase in Bax, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases(-8, -9 and -3), an increase in the tumor suppressor p53 levels and cleavage of PARP-1. The addition of taxifolin attenuated the proteasome inhibitor-induced changes in the apoptosis-related protein levels, formation of reactive oxygen species, depletion and oxidation of GSH, formations of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, and cell death. The results show that taxifolin may attenuate the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by suppressing the activation of the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The preventive effect of taxifolin appears to be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the formation of reactive oxygen species, and depletion and oxidation of GSH.

  15. Hepatocyte Death: A Clear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    MALHI, HARMEET; GUICCIARDI, MARIA EUGENIA; GORES, GREGORY J.

    2010-01-01

    The hepatocyte is especially vulnerable to injury due to its central role in xenobiotic metabolism including drugs and alcohol, participation in lipid and fatty acid metabolism, its unique role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, the widespread prevalence of hepatotropic viruses, and its existence within a milieu of innate immune responding cells. Apoptosis and necrosis are the most widely recognized forms of hepatocyte cell death. The hepatocyte displays many unique features regarding cell death by apoptosis. It is quite susceptible to death receptor-mediated injury, and its death receptor signaling pathways involve the mitochondrial pathway for efficient cell killing. Also, death receptors can trigger lysosomal disruption in hepatocytes which further promote cell and tissue injury. Interestingly, hepatocytes are protected from cell death by only two anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, which have nonredundant functions. Endoplasmic reticulum stress or the unfolded protein response contributes to hepatocyte cell death during alterations of lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Finally, the current information implicating RIP kinases in necrosis provides an approach to more fully address this mode of cell death in hepatocyte injury. All of these processes contributing to hepatocyte injury are discussed in the context of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20664081

  16. ST6Gal-I Regulates Macrophage Apoptosis via α2-6 Sialylation of the TNFR1 Death Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyu; Swindall, Amanda F.; Kesterson, Robert A.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in innate immunity, however mechanisms regulating macrophage survival are not fully understood. Herein we describe a novel apoptotic pathway involving α2-6 sialylation of the TNFR1 death receptor by the ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase. Variant glycosylation of TNFR1 has not previously been implicated in TNFR1 function, and little is known regarding the TNFR1 glycan composition. To study sialylation in macrophages, we treated U937 monocytic cells with PMA, which stimulates both macrophage differentiation and apoptosis. Interestingly, macrophage differentiation induces ST6Gal-I down-regulation, leading to reduced α2-6 sialylation of selected receptors. To prevent loss of α2-6 sialylation, we forced constitutive expression of ST6Gal-I, and found that this strongly inhibited PMA-induced apoptosis. Given that PMA-mediated apoptosis is thought to result from up-regulation of TNFα, which then activates TNFR1, we next evaluated the α2-6 sialylation of TNFR1. U937 cells with forced ST6Gal-I displayed TNFR1 with elevated α2-6 sialylation, and this was associated with diminished TNFα-stimulated apoptosis. Correspondingly, removal of α2-6 sialylation from TNFR1 through either neuraminidase treatment or expression of ST6Gal-I shRNA markedly enhanced TNFα-mediated apoptosis. To confirm the physiologic importance of TNFR1 sialylation, we generated overexpressing ST6Gal-I transgenic mice. Peritoneal macrophages from transgenic lines displayed TNFR1 with elevated α2-6 sialylation, and these cells were significantly protected against TNFα-stimulated apoptosis. Moreover, greater numbers of thioglycollate-induced peritoneal cells were observed in transgenic mice. These collective results highlight a new mechanism of TNFR1 regulation, and further intimate that loss of α2-6 sialylation during macrophage differentiation may limit macrophage lifespan by sensitizing cells to TNFα-stimulated apoptosis. PMID:21930713

  17. Systems biology of death receptor networks: live and let die

    PubMed Central

    Lavrik, I N

    2014-01-01

    The extrinsic apoptotic pathway is initiated by death receptor activation. Death receptor activation leads to the formation of death receptor signaling platforms, resulting in the demolition of the cell. Despite the fact that death receptor-mediated apoptosis has been studied to a high level of detail, its quantitative regulation until recently has been poorly understood. This situation has dramatically changed in the last years. Creation of mathematical models of death receptor signaling led to an enormous progress in the quantitative understanding of the network regulation and provided fascinating insights into the mechanisms of apoptosis control. In the following sections, the models of the death receptor signaling and their biological implications will be addressed. Central attention will be given to the models of CD95/Fas/APO-1, an exemplified member of the death receptor signaling pathways. The CD95 death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and regulation of CD95 DISC activity by its key inhibitor c-FLIP, have been vigorously investigated by modeling approaches, and therefore will be the major topic here. Furthermore, the non-linear dynamics of the DISC, positive feedback loops and bistability as well as stoichiometric switches in extrinsic apoptosis will be discussed. Collectively, this review gives a comprehensive view how the mathematical modeling supported by quantitative experimental approaches has provided a new understanding of the death receptor signaling network. PMID:24874731

  18. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yajie; Gao, Dongsheng; Zhao, Shenting

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy.

  19. Disruption of cellular homeostasis induces organelle stress and triggers apoptosis like cell-death pathways in malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, S; Datta, G; Kaur, I; Malhotra, P; Mohmmed, A

    2015-01-01

    A regulated protein turnover machinery in the cell is essential for effective cellular homeostasis; any interference with this system induces cellular stress and alters the normal functioning of proteins important for cell survival. In this study, we show that persistent cellular stress and organelle dysfunction because of disruption of cellular homeostasis in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, leads to apoptosis-like cell death. Quantitative global proteomic analysis of the stressed parasites before onset of cell death, showed upregulation of a number of proteins involved in cellular homeostasis; protein network analyses identified upregulated metabolic pathways that may be associated with stress tolerance and pro-survival mechanism. However, persistent stress on parasites cause structural abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, subsequently a cascade of reactions are initiated in parasites including rise in cytosolic calcium levels, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of VAD-FMK-binding proteases. We further show that activation of VAD-FMK-binding proteases in the parasites leads to degradation of phylogenetically conserved protein, TSN (Tudor staphylococcal nuclease), a known target of metacaspases, as well as degradation of other components of spliceosomal complex. Loss of spliceosomal machinery impairs the mRNA splicing, leading to accumulation of unprocessed RNAs in the parasite and thus dysregulate vital cellular functions, which in turn leads to execution of apoptosis-like cell death. Our results establish one of the possible mechanisms of instigation of cell death by organelle stress in Plasmodium. PMID:26136076

  20. Distinct modes of cell death induced by different reactive oxygen species: amino acyl chloramines mediate hypochlorous acid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Englert, Robert P; Shacter, Emily

    2002-06-07

    Oxidants derived from inflammatory phagocytes compose a key element of the host immune defense system and can kill mammalian cells by one of several different mechanisms. In this report, we compare mechanisms of cell death induced in human B lymphoma cells by the inflammatory oxidants superoxide, H(2)O(2), and HOCl. The results indicate that the mode of cell death induced depends on the nature of the oxidant involved and the medium in which the cells are treated. When human Burkitt's lymphoma cells are exposed to superoxide anion, generated as a flux from xanthine and xanthine oxidase, the cells die by a non-apoptotic mechanism (pyknosis/necrosis) identical to that seen when cells are treated with a bolus of reagent H(2)O(2). Addition of superoxide dismutase has no effect, whereas catalase is completely protective, indicating that exogenously generated superoxide kills cells entirely through its dismutation into H(2)O(2). In contrast, cells treated in culture media with reagent HOCl die largely by apoptosis. HOCl-induced apoptosis is mediated by aminoacyl chloramines generated in the culture media and can be mimicked by treatment of cells with taurine chloramine or with long lived chloramines generated from modified Lys or Arg. The results suggest that in a physiological milieu in which O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) are the main oxidants being formed, the principal form of cell death may be necrotic, and under inflammatory conditions in which HOCl is generated, apoptotic cell death may predominate.

  1. DNA damage-induced cell death: from specific DNA lesions to the DNA damage response and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Roos, Wynand P; Kaina, Bernd

    2013-05-28

    DNA damaging agents are potent inducers of cell death triggered by apoptosis. Since these agents induce a plethora of different DNA lesions, it is firstly important to identify the specific lesions responsible for initiating apoptosis before the apoptotic executing pathways can be elucidated. Here, we describe specific DNA lesions that have been identified as apoptosis triggers, their repair and the signaling provoked by them. We discuss methylating agents such as temozolomide, ionizing radiation and cisplatin, all of them are important in cancer therapy. We show that the potentially lethal events for the cell are O(6)-methylguanine adducts that are converted by mismatch repair into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), non-repaired N-methylpurines and abasic sites as well as bulky adducts that block DNA replication leading to DSBs that are also directly induced following ionizing radiation. Transcriptional inhibition may also contribute to apoptosis. Cells are equipped with sensors that detect DNA damage and relay the signal via kinases to executors, who on their turn evoke a process that inhibits cell cycle progression and provokes DNA repair or, if this fails, activate the receptor and/or mitochondrial apoptotic cascade. The main DNA damage recognition factors MRN and the PI3 kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK, which phosphorylate a multitude of proteins and thus induce the DNA damage response (DDR), will be discussed as well as the downstream players p53, NF-κB, Akt and survivin. We review data and models describing the signaling from DNA damage to the apoptosis executing machinery and discuss the complex interplay between cell survival and death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultraviolet B-induced cell death in four cutaneous cell lines exhibiting different enzymatic antioxidant defences: involvement of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1998-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in the modulation of apoptosis. Antioxidant defence mechanisms against cell death involving apoptosis due to UVB irradiation were studied on three established cell lines (SCC derived from human skin squamous cell carcinoma, F-SV and F-ST derived from human skin fibroblasts) which were susceptible to cell death by UVB irradiation (12.5-250 mJ/cm2), and one cell line (N-F) derived from primary cultured human skin fibroblasts which was resistant to cell death. We compared antioxidant defences between the three established cell lines and N-F, measuring four antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) and a non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione. The greatest difference was that Cu, Zn-SOD activity in N-F was 3-4-times the three other cell lines. Though SCC had much larger amounts of glutathione and higher antioxidant enzyme activities except for Cu, Zn-SOD than N-F, SCC was very susceptible to cell death. After UVB irradiation (at 16 h after 12.5 mJ/cm2), in all cell lines, SOD activity increased 1.1-1.3-times that of non-irradiated cells, while other enzyme activities remained constant. This presumably represents a protective response against ROS generated during UVB irradiation. N-F which was resistant to UVB-induced cell death had higher Cu, Zn-SOD activity before UVB irradiation, and a larger increase of SOD (mainly Mn-SOD) after UVB exposure than the other cell lines which were susceptible to cell death. Therefore, we conclude that the most important enzymatic antioxidant to protect cells from UVB damage is SOD.

  3. Molecular Cell Biology of Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Cell death is a major mechanism to eliminate cells in which DNA is damaged, organelles are stressed, or oncogenes are overexpressed, all events that would otherwise predispose cells to oncogenic transformation. The pathways that initiate and execute cell death are complex, genetically encoded, and subject to significant regulation. Consequently, while these pathways are often mutated in malignancy, there is considerable interest in inducing cell death in tumor cells as therapy. This chapter addresses our current understanding of molecular mechanisms contributing to two cell death pathways, apoptotic cell death and necroptosis, a regulated form of necrotic cell death. Apoptosis can be induced by a wide variety of signals, leading to protease activation that dismantles the cell. We discuss the physiological importance of each apoptosis pathway and summarize their known roles in cancer suppression and the current efforts at targeting each pathway therapeutically. The intricate mechanistic link between death receptor-mediated apoptosis and necroptosis is described, as well as the potential opportunities for utilizing necroptosis in the treatment of malignancy.

  4. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Mota, Alba; Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia; Herránz, Sandra; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2015-08-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Apoptosis (cell death) induced in mouse bowel by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methylazoxymethanol acetate, and gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, K. )

    1989-11-15

    Apoptosis is a pattern of cell death involving nuclear pyknosis, cytoplasmic condensation, and karyorrhexis. The frequency of apoptosis after treatment with two colon carcinogens and radiation was studied in the crypts of five different portions of mouse bowel. When 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was injected s.c., the earliest rise in apoptotic incidence after a high dose (200 mg/kg) was noted at 3 h in small intestine and at 6 h in large bowel. After i.p. administration of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate, apoptotic cells were seen in large bowel after 3 h. When the plateau values attained after high doses of DMH were compared, many apoptotic cells were found in the lower part of the large bowel, whereas few such cells were observed in the small intestine and the upper part of the large bowel. This finding was reversed in the case of radiation-induced apoptosis. In the descending colon, a definite circadian rhythm in the apoptotic incidence was observed 6 h after injection of DMH or MAM acetate. Apoptosis showed a high incidence when these drugs were given between 2400 h and 0900 h, but a low incidence after administration between 1200 h and 2100 h. In the small intestine a rhythm was also noted for MAM acetate, but not significantly for DMH.

  6. Colistin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Jichang; Zhou, Tiezhong; Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Hongjun

    2014-05-01

    Colistin, a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic that is used to treat infections, may cause neurotoxicity. However, whether colistin can induce apoptosis and the precise mechanism of apoptosis involved in PC12 cells remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and DNA damage, as well as apoptotic factors such as p53, cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, Fas-L and caspase family via western blotting in PC12 cells treated with colistin sulfate. The results showed that colistin sulfate increased ROS levels significantly. An increase of ROS levels induces the release of cytochrome c and DNA damage. DNA damage can activate p53, which leads to the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 promotes additional release of cytochrome c. The release of cytochrome c contributes to the activation of caspase-9 and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. An increase of Fas and Fas-L induced the activation of caspase-8 leading to the activation of caspases-3, the latter induces apoptosis. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the apoptotic pathway of colistin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells is involved in both the mitochondrial and death receptor pathway.

  7. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and leukocyte elastase inhibitor/L-DNase II (LEI/LDNaseII), can interact to conduct caspase-independent cell death.

    PubMed

    Leprêtre, Chloé; Tchakarska, Guergana; Blibech, Hounayda; Lebon, Cécile; Torriglia, Alicia

    2013-09-01

    Programmed cell death is an important factor in tissue homeostasis. Lot of work has been performed to characterize the caspase-dependent cell death. Caspase-independent cell death, although important in many physiological situations, is less investigated. In this work we show that two caspase-independent effectors of cell death, namely apoptosis-inducing factor and leukocyte elastase inhibitor derived DNase II interact and can cooperate to induce cell death. These results contribute to the knowledge of molecular pathways of cell death, an important issue in the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer or neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Farnesol induces apoptosis-like cell death in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Youzhi; Zhou, Yuguang; Wei, Xinli

    2014-01-01

    Farnesol (FOH) is known to induce apoptosis in some fungi and mammalian cells. We treated Aspergillus flavus, one of the leading causes of human invasive aspergillosis and a key producer of the most potent naturally occurring hepatocarcinogenic compounds, with FOH to assess its effect on the viability of the fungus. FOH strongly inhibited germination and growth of A. flavus and induced markers for apoptosis including nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metacaspase activation and abnormal cellular ultrastructure. Moreover, FOH-induced apoptosis in A. flavus was inhibited by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and partially inhibited by the ROS scavenger l-proline, which suggests that FOH induces apoptosis in A. flavus via a mechanism involving metacaspase activation and ROS production.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces death receptor 5 networks that are highly organized.

    PubMed

    Valley, Christopher C; Lewis, Andrew K; Mudaliar, Deepti J; Perlmutter, Jason D; Braun, Anthony R; Karim, Christine B; Thomas, David D; Brody, Jonathan R; Sachs, Jonathan N

    2012-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death-inducing cytokine with anti-tumor potential, initiates apoptosis by re-organizing TRAIL receptors into large clusters, although the structure of these clusters and the mechanism by which they assemble are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5) forms receptor dimers in a ligand-dependent manner at endogenous receptor levels, and these receptor dimers exist within high molecular weight networks. Using mutational analysis, FRET, fluorescence microscopy, synthetic biochemistry, and molecular modeling, we find that receptor dimerization relies upon covalent and noncovalent interactions between membrane-proximal residues. Additionally, by using FRET, we show that the oligomeric structure of two functional isoforms of DR5 is indistinguishable. The resulting model of DR5 activation should revise the accepted architecture of the functioning units of DR5 and the structurally homologous TNF receptor superfamily members.

  10. Ro52/SSA sensitizes cells to death receptor-induced apoptosis by down-regulating c-FLIP(L).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Fang, Lei; Zhu, Xuguo; Qiao, Yiting; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lu; Chen, Yuan; Yin, Wu; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2012-05-01

    Ro52/SSA is an autoantigen that presents in patients with SS (Sjögren's syndrome) and SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus). It increases cell death and redistributes itself to apoptotic blebs, but its pro-apoptotic function has not been completely identified. Overexpression of Ro52/SSA promoted cell apoptosis induced by DR (death receptor) in caspase-8-dependent manner. Ro52/SSA expression down-regulated c-FLIP(L) [cellular (Fas-associated death domain)-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein long form] expression, and Ro52/SSA siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) increased c-FLIP(L) production, indicating that Ro52/SSA plays a role in c-FLIP(L) regulation. Ro52/SSA negatively regulated c-FLIP(L) transcriptional level probably by suppressing NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling. The data suggest that Ro52/SSA is involved in DR-mediated apoptosis by regulating c-FLIP(L).

  11. Berberine Induces Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Colon Tumor Cells through Activation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Liu, Liping; Shi, Yan; Cao, Hanwei; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Calcutt, M. Wade; Hu, Tianhui; Ren, Xiubao; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent; Yan, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants, is a traditional medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite infections. Although berberine has recently been shown to suppress growth of several tumor cell lines, information regarding the effect of berberine on colon tumor growth is limited. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of berberine on regulating the fate of colon tumor cells, specifically the mouse immorto-Min colonic epithelial (IMCE) cells carrying the Apcmin mutation, and of normal colon epithelial cells, namely young adult mouse colonic epithelium (YAMC) cells. Berberine decreased colon tumor colony formation in agar, and induced cell death and LDH release in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in IMCE cells. In contrast, YAMC cells were not sensitive to berberine-induced cell death. Berberine did not stimulate caspase activation, and PARP cleavage and berberine-induced cell death were not affected by a caspase inhibitor in IMCE cells. Rather, berberine stimulated a caspase-independent cell death mediator, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria and nuclear translocation in a ROS production-dependent manner. Amelioration of berberine-stimulated ROS production or suppression of AIF expression blocked berberine-induced cell death and LDH release in IMCE cells. Furthermore, two targets of ROS production in cells, cathepsin B release from lysosomes and PARP activation were induced by berberine. Blockage of either of these pathways decreased berberine-induced AIF activation and cell death in IMCE cells. Thus, berberine-stimulated ROS production leads to cathepsin B release and PARP activation-dependent AIF activation, resulting in caspase-independent cell death in colon tumor cells. Notably, normal colon epithelial cells are less susceptible to berberine-induced cell death, which suggests the specific inhibitory effects of berberine on colon tumor cell growth. PMID:22574158

  12. Expression of apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the cardiac conduction system of crib death (SIDS).

    PubMed

    Matturri, L; Ottaviani, G; Lavezzi, A M; Turconi, P; Cazzullo, A; Rossi, L

    2001-07-01

    Aim of this study is to determine the expression of apoptosis and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) in the cardiac conduction system in crib death and explained death (ED) cases. Postnatal morphogenesis of the conducting tissue is an important part of its normal development. In the atrio-ventricular node (AVN) and His bundle (HB) it consists of degeneration, cell death and replacing in an orderly programmed way. However, its nature and its relation to crib death is not yet fully explained. Apoptosis and PCNA were investigated in 8 heart conduction systems of infants dying of crib death and in 3 conduction systems of infants dying of ED as controls. The cardiac conduction system was removed in two blocks: the first included the sino-atrial node (SAN) and the crista terminalis, the second contained the atrio-ventricular node (AVN), His bundle (HB), bifurcation, and bundle branches. In the conduction systems as well as in the common myocardium the PCNA Labeling Index (PCNA-LI) was found to be negative in all cases. The apoptotic indices (AI) in SIDS and in ED were found to have no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). The SAN, in both groups, showed an AI similar to the one detected in common myocardium. In almost all cases, TUNEL labeling was detected in peripheral region of the AVN, close to the atrial myocardium. The AI was higher in the AVN, HB and the initial tract of bundle branches than in the common myocardium (p<0.05; Student's t test).

  13. The plant alkaloid voacamine induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death on both sensitive and multidrug resistant human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meschini, Stefania; Condello, Maria; Calcabrini, Annarica; Marra, Manuela; Formisano, Giuseppe; Lista, Pasquale; De Milito, Angelo; Federici, Elena; Arancia, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    In our previous studies, the bisindolic alkaloid voacamine (VOA), isolated from the plant Peschiera fuchsiaefolia, proved to exert a chemosensitizing effect on cultured multidrug resistant (MDR) osteosarcoma cells exposed to doxorubicin (DOX). In particular, VOA was capable of inhibiting P-glycoprotein action in a competitive way, thus explaining the enhancement of the cytotoxic effect induced by DOX on MDR cells. Afterwards, preliminary observations suggested that such an enhancement did not involve the apoptotic process but was due instead to the induction of autophagic cell death. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that the plant alkaloid VOA is an autophagy inducer able to exert apoptosis-independent cytotoxic effect on both wild-type and MDR tumor cells. In fact, under treatment condition causing about 50 percent of cell death, no evidence of apoptosis could be revealed by microscopical observations, Annexin V-FITC labeling and analysis of PARP cleavage, whereas the same cells underwent apoptosis when treated with apoptosis inducers, such as doxorubicin and staurosporine. Conversely, VOA-induced autophagy was clearly evidentiated by electron microscopy observations, monodansylcadaverine staining, LC3 expression, and conversion. These results were confirmed by the analysis of the modulating effects of the pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors prior to VOA administration. In addition, transfection of osteosarcoma cells with siRNA against ATG genes reduced VOA cytotoxicity. In conclusion, considering the very debated dual role of autophagy in cancer cells (protective or lethal, pro- or anti- apoptotic) our findings seem to demonstrate, at least in vitro, that a natural product able to induce autophagy can be effective against drug resistant tumors, either used alone or in association with conventional chemotherapeutics.

  14. The role of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic death pathway in gingerdione derivative I6-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ho; Chen, Po-See; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Huang, Li-Jiau; Gean, Po-Wu; Chiu, Ted-H

    2012-03-01

    Neuronal death induced by I6 displayed apoptotic characteristics but the precise mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present studies, I6 at 24 h after intraperitoneal administration significantly decreased the density of surviving neurons and increased caspase-3 activity in frontal cortex, suggesting that peripherally administered I6 may cross BBB to induce CNS toxicity. In rat embryonic primary cortical cells, I6-induced reduction of mitochondrial viability and neuronal apoptosis was inhibited by vitamin E. In addition, I6-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused the disruption of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), resulting in activation of mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic death pathway. Pre-treatment with antioxidant vitamin E or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely abolished the I6-induced generation of ROS, loss of MMP, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler, significantly reduced I6-induced neuronal death as well as caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. These results suggest that I6 induces neuronal death by promoting intracellular ROS production to cause a loss of MMP that result in release of cytochrome c and activation of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic death pathway.

  15. Kaempferol induces ATM/p53-mediated death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu-Fang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Chun; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-05-01

    Kaempferol is a member of the flavonoid compounds found in vegetables and fruits. It is shown to exhibit biological impact and anticancer activity, but no report exists on the angiogenic effect of kaempferol and induction of cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we investigated the role of kaempferol on anti-angiogenic property and the apoptotic mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that kaempferol decreased HUVEC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol also induced morphological changes and sub-G1 phase cell population (apoptotic cells). Kaempferol triggered apoptosis of HUVECs as detecting by DNA fragmentation, comet assay and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3. The caspase signals, including caspase-8, -9 and -3, were time-dependently activated in HUVECs after kaempferol exposure. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-FMK) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3, indicating that extrinsic pathway is a major signaling pathway in kaempferol-treated HUVECs. Importantly, kaempferol promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated using flow cytometric assay in HUVECs. We further investigated the upstream extrinsic pathway and showed that kaempferol stimulated death receptor signals [Fas/CD95, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] through increasing the levels of phosphorylated p53 and phosphorylated ATM pathways in HUVECs, which can be individually confirmed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ATM specific inhibitor (caffeine) and p53 siRNA. Based on these results, kaempferol-induced HUVEC apoptosis was involved in an ROS-mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. Kaempferol might possess therapeutic effects on cancer treatment in anti-vascular targeting.

  16. Paclitaxel-induced aberrant mitosis and mitotic slippage efficiently lead to proliferative death irrespective of canonical apoptosis and p53.

    PubMed

    Yasuhira, Shinji; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Nishiya, Masao; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    Spindle poisons elicit various cellular responses following metaphase arrest, but how they relate to long-term clonogenicity has remained unclear. We prepared several HeLa lines in which the canonical apoptosis pathway was attenuated, and compared their acute responses to paclitaxel, as well as long-term fate, with the parental line. Three-nanomolar paclitaxel induced brief metaphase arrest (<5 h) often followed by aberrant mitosis, and about 90% of the cells of each line had lost their clonogenicity after 48 h of the treatment. A combination of the same concentration of paclitaxel with the kinesin-5 inhibitor, S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC), at 1 µM led to much longer arrest (∼20 h) and predominance of subsequent line-specific responses: mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the apoptosis-prone line, or mitotic slippage without obvious MOMP in the apoptosis-reluctant lines. In spite of this, combination with STLC did not lead to a marked difference in clonogenicity between the apoptosis-prone and -reluctant lines, and intriguingly resulted in slightly better clonogenicity than that of cells treated with 3 nM paclitaxel alone. This indicates that changes in the short-term response within 3 possible scenarios - acute MOMP, mitotic slippage or aberrant mitosis - has only a weak impact on clonogenicity. Our results suggest that once cells have committed to slippage or aberrant mitosis they eventually undergo proliferative death irrespective of canonical apoptosis or p53 function. Consistent with this, cells with irregular DNA contents originating from mitotic slippage or aberrant mitosis were mostly eliminated from the population within several rounds of division after the drug treatment.

  17. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications.

  18. Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Oskar; Aits, Sonja; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2008-01-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a molecular complex derived from human milk that kills tumor cells by a process resembling programmed cell death. The complex consists of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, and both the protein and the fatty acid are required for cell death. HAMLET has broad antitumor activity in vitro, and its therapeutic effect has been confirmed in vivo in a human glioblastoma rat xenograft model, in patients with skin papillomas and in patients with bladder cancer. The mechanisms of tumor cell death remain unclear, however. Immediately after the encounter with tumor cells, HAMLET invades the cells and causes mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, phosphatidyl serine exposure, and a low caspase response. A fraction of the cells undergoes morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, but caspase inhibition does not rescue the cells and Bcl-2 overexpression or altered p53 status does not influence the sensitivity of tumor cells to HAMLET. HAMLET also creates a state of unfolded protein overload and activates 20S proteasomes, which contributes to cell death. In parallel, HAMLET translocates to tumor cell nuclei, where high-affinity interactions with histones cause chromatin disruption, loss of transcription, and nuclear condensation. The dying cells also show morphological changes compatible with macroautophagy, and recent studies indicate that macroautophagy is involved in the cell death response to HAMLET. The results suggest that HAMLET, like a hydra with many heads, may interact with several crucial cellular organelles, thereby activating several forms of cell death, in parallel. This complexity might underlie the rapid death response of tumor cells and the broad antitumor activity of HAMLET.

  19. Effect of vitamin E on 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol-induced necroptosis-like cell death and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takaya; Miyanoki, Yuta; Urano, Yasuomi; Uehara, Madoka; Saito, Yoshiro; Noguchi, Noriko

    2016-03-04

    24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) has diverse physiological and pathological functions. In particular, cytotoxic effects of 24S-OHC in neuronal cells are important in development of neurodegenerative diseases. 24S-OHC induces necroptosis-like cell death in SH-SY5Y cells expressing little caspase-8. In the present study, 24S-OHC was found to induce apoptosis as determined by caspase-3 activation in all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA)-treated SH-SY5Y cells in which expression of caspase-8 was induced. 24S-OHC-induced cell death was inhibited by α-tocopherol (α-Toc) but not by α-tocotrienol (α-Toc3) in SH-SY5Y cells regardless of whether cells were treated with atRA. In contrast, cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH)-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by α-Toc and α-Toc3. In atRA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by stimulation with CumOOH but was not induced by stimulation with 24S-OHC. These results suggest that inhibition of 24S-OHC-induced cell death by α-Toc cannot be explained by its radical scavenging antioxidant activity. Esterification of 24S-OHC followed by lipid droplet (LD) formation due to acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) are key events in 24S-OHC-induced cell death in atRA-treated SH-SY5Y cells as demonstrated by inhibition of cell death by ACAT1 inhibitor. LD number was not changed by treatment with either α-Toc or α-Toc3. The different physical properties of α-Toc and α-Toc3 may account for their different inhibitory effects on 24S-OHC-induced cell death.

  20. Cytosolic Irradiation of Femtosecond Laser Induces Mitochondria-dependent Apoptosis-like Cell Death via Intrinsic Reactive Oxygen Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Ryu, Seung-wook; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity femtosecond lasers have recently been used to irreversibly disrupt nanoscale structures, such as intracellular organelles, and to modify biological functions in a reversible manner: so-called nanosurgery and biophotomodulation. Femtosecond laser pulses above the threshold intensity sufficient for reversible biophotomodulation can cause irreversible changes in the irradiated cell, eventually leading to cell death. Here, we demonstrated that cytosolic irradiation with a femtosecond laser produced intrinsic cascades of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which led to rapid apoptosis-like cell death via a caspase and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) signaling pathway. We further showed that cells with enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity are more resilient to laser-induced stress compared to those with enforced mitochondrial fission. Taken together, these findings provide fundamental insight into how optical stimulation intervenes in intrinsic cellular signaling pathways and functions. PMID:25648455

  1. Bigelovin triggered apoptosis in colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo via upregulating death receptor 5 and reactive oxidative species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingyue; Song, Li-Hua; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Zhao, Li-Mei; Li, Lin; Zhou, Xunian; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Ng, Simon Siu-Man; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer and the third highest cancer-related mortality in the United States. Bigelovin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helianthus aquatica, has been proven to induce apoptosis and exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. However, the effects of bigelovin on CRC and underlying mechanisms have not been explored. The present study demonstrated that bigelovin exhibited potent anti-tumor activities against CRC in vitro and in vivo. Bigelovin suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HT-29 and HCT 116 cells in vitro. Results also revealed that bigelovin activated caspases, caused the G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced DNA damage through up-regulation of death receptor (DR) 5 and increase of ROS. In HCT 116 xenograft model, bigelovin treatment resulted in suppression of tumor growth. Bigelovin at 20 mg/kg showed more significant tumor suppression and less side effects than conventional FOLFOX (containing folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) treatment. In addition, in vivo data confirmed that anti-tumor activity of bigelovin in CRC was through induction of apoptosis by up-regulating DR5 and increasing ROS. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that bigelovin has potential to be developed as therapeutic agent for CRC patients. PMID:28181527

  2. Cucurbitacin E as Inducer of Cell Death and Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SAS

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chen-Wei; Ko, Shun-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 μM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC. PMID:23965977

  3. Cucurbitacin E as inducer of cell death and apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SAS.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chen-Wei; Ko, Shun-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2013-08-20

    Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 µM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  4. D-cyclins Repress Apoptosis in Hematopoietic Cells by Controlling Death Receptor Fas and its Ligand FasL

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jong; Saez, Borja; Anders, Lars; Hydbring, Per; Stefano, Joanna; Bacon, Nickolas A.; Cook, Colleen; Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Signoretti, Sabina; Young, Richard A.; Scadden, David T.; Sicinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are components of the mammalian core cell cycle machinery and function to drive cell proliferation. Here we report that D-cyclins perform a rate-limiting anti-apoptotic function in vivo. We found that acute shutdown of all three D-cyclins in bone marrow of adult mice resulted in massive apoptosis of all hematopoietic cell types. We demonstrate that adult hematopoietic stem cells are particularly dependent on D-cyclins for survival, and they are especially sensitive to cyclin D loss. Surprisingly, we found that the anti-apoptotic function of D-cyclins also operates in quiescent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Our analyses revealed that D-cyclins repress the expression of the death receptor Fas and its ligand, FasL. Acute ablation of D-cyclins upregulated these pro-apoptotic genes, and led to Fas- and caspase 8-dependent apoptosis. These results reveal an unexpected function of cell cycle proteins in controlling apoptosis in normal cell homeostasis. PMID:25087893

  5. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Liu, Qiaoyun; Xie, Shujun; Xu, Jian; Huang, Bo; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-06-17

    Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway.

  6. Cypermethrin Induces Macrophages Death through Cell Cycle Arrest and Oxidative Stress-Mediated JNK/ERK Signaling Regulated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Liu, Qiaoyun; Xie, Shujun; Xu, Jian; Huang, Bo; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2016-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most highly effective synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. The toxicity of cypermethrin to the reproductive and nervous systems has been well studied. However, little is known about the toxic effect of cypermethrin on immune cells such as macrophages. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin on macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that cypermethrin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Cypermethrin also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cypermethrin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was associated with an enhanced expression of p21, wild-type p53, and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDK4. In addition, cypermethrin treatment activated MAPK signal pathways by inducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increased the cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Further, pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively abrogated cypermethrin-induced cell cytotoxicity, G1 cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, PARP activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. The specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) effectively reversed the phosphorylation level of JNK and ERK1/2, and attenuated the apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggested that cypermethrin caused immune cell death via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis regulated by ROS-mediated JNK/ERK pathway. PMID:27322250

  7. miR-613 suppresses ischemia-reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting the programmed cell death 10 gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenhua; Qi, Yujuan; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Peijun; Zhou, Ding

    2016-09-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators in both biological and pathological processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the effect of miR-613 on I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and its molecular mechanism of action. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, but these effects were attenuated by an miR-613 mimic. Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) was identified as a target gene of miR-613. miR-613 significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt). An miR-613 mimic lowered the level of expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and it up-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). All of these effects were reversed by restoration of PDCD10. Taken together, the current findings indicate that miR-613 inhibits I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting PDCD10 by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  8. IGF-I maintains calpastatin expression and attenuates apoptosis in several models of photoreceptor cell death.

    PubMed

    Arroba, Ana I; Wallace, Deborah; Mackey, Ashley; de la Rosa, Enrique J; Cotter, Thomas G

    2009-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal dystrophies in which the loss of photoreceptor cells via apoptosis leads to blindness. In this study we have experimentally mimicked this condition by treating 661W cells and wild-type mouse retinal explants with a Ca(2+) ionophore. Ca(2+) overload induced apoptosis, which was correlated with calpain-2 activation, loss of calpastatin, its endogenous inhibitor, as well as the loss of its transcriptional activator, phospho-cAMP response element binding (CREB). All are similar changes to those observed in the rd1 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Insulin like-growth factor-I (IGF-I) attenuated this Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis, as well as decreased the activation of calpain-2 and maintained calpastatin levels through the activation of the Akt-CREB pathway. Similarly, IGF-I decreased photoreceptor apoptosis in rd1 mouse retinal explants in parallel with reduced activation of calpain-2 and increased levels of calpastatin and activation of phospho-CREB. In conclusion, IGF-I seems to protect neural cells following a physiopathological or an experimental increase in intracellular Ca(2+), an observation that may have therapeutic consequences in neurodegenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.

  9. Unique spectral signatures of the nucleic acid dye acridine orange can distinguish cell death by apoptosis and necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Plemel, Jason R; Caprariello, Andrew V; Keough, Michael B; Henry, Tyler J; Tsutsui, Shigeki; Chu, Tak H; Schenk, Geert J; Klaver, Roel; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter K

    2017-03-06

    Cellular injury and death are ubiquitous features of disease, yet tools to detect them are limited and insensitive to subtle pathological changes. Acridine orange (AO), a nucleic acid dye with unique spectral properties, enables real-time measurement of RNA and DNA as proxies for cell viability during exposure to various noxious stimuli. This tool illuminates spectral signatures unique to various modes of cell death, such as cells undergoing apoptosis versus necrosis/necroptosis. This new approach also shows that cellular RNA decreases during necrotic, necroptotic, and apoptotic cell death caused by demyelinating, ischemic, and traumatic injuries, implying its involvement in a wide spectrum of tissue pathologies. Furthermore, cells with pathologically low levels of cytoplasmic RNA are detected earlier and in higher numbers than with standard markers including TdT-mediated dUTP biotin nick-end labeling and cleaved caspase 3 immunofluorescence. Our technique highlights AO-labeled cytoplasmic RNA as an important early marker of cellular injury and a sensitive indicator of various modes of cell death in a range of experimental models.

  10. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, modulates death receptor pathway proteins, and protects the rat cerebrum against bisphenol-A-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I; Al-Abdan, Monera A; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2014-12-15

    Epidemiological reports have indicated a correlation between the increasing of bisphenol-A (BPA) levels in the environment and the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the protective effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and the death receptor apoptotic proteins in the cerebrum of the bisphenol-A-treated rats were examined. Adult male rats were orally administered melatonin (10mg/kg bw) concurrently with BPA (50mg/kg bw) 3 days a week for 6 weeks. BPA exposure resulted in significant elevations of oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in the cerebrum. BPA caused an upregulation of p53 and CD95-Fas and activation of capsases-3 and 8, resulting in cerebral cell apoptosis. Melatonin significantly attenuated the BPA-evoked brain oxidative stress, modulated apoptotic-regulating proteins and protected against apoptosis. These data suggest that melatonin modulated important steps in the death receptor apoptotic pathway which likely related to its redox control properties. Melatonin is a promising pharmacological agent for preventing the potential neurotoxicity of BPA following occupational or environmental exposures.

  11. Crocetin exploits p53-induced death domain (PIDD) and FAS-associated death domain (FADD) proteins to induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pallab; Guha, Deblina; Chakraborty, Juni; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Adhikary, Arghya; Chakraborty, Samik; Das, Tanya; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 preserves the genomic integrity by restricting anomaly at the gene level. The hotspots for mutation in half of all colon cancers reside in p53. Hence, in a p53-mutated cellular milieu targeting cancer cells may be achievable by targeting the paralogue(s) of p53. Here we have shown the effectiveness of crocetin, a dietary component, in inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells with varying p53 status. In wild-type p53-expressing cancer cells, p53 in one hand transactivates BAX and in parallel up-regulates p53-induced death domain protein (PIDD) that in turn cleaves and activates BID through caspase-2. Both BAX and t-BID converge at mitochondria to alter the transmembrane potential thereby leading to caspase-9 and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, in functional p53-impaired cells, this phytochemical exploits p53-paralogue p73, which up-regulates FAS to cleave BID through FAS-FADD-caspase-8-pathway. These findings not only underline the phenomenon of functional switch-over from p53 to p73 in p53-impaired condition, but also validate p73 as a promising and potential target for cancer therapy in absence of functional p53. PMID:27622714

  12. Analysis of a mathematical model of apoptosis: individual differences and malfunction in programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Elife Zerrin; Sen, S Murat; Camurdan, Mehmet C

    2013-08-01

    Apoptosis is an important area of research because of its role in keeping a mature multicellular organism's number of cells constant, hence, ensuring that the organism does not have cell accumulation that may transform into cancer with additional hallmarks. Firstly, we have carried out sensitivity analysis on an existing mathematical mitochondria-dependent apoptosis model to find out which parameters have a role in causing monostable cell survival, which may, in turn, lead to malfunction in apoptosis. We have then generated three base parameter sets that represent healthy cells. These parameter sets were built by changing the sensitive parameters while preserving the bistability. For each base set, we varied the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic production rates, to yield new sets for the cells that have malfunctioning apoptosis. In a hypothetical cell model, we simulated caspase-3 activation by numerically integrating the governing ordinary differential equations of a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis model. These simulations were carried out for four potential treatments, namely: (1) proteasome inhibitor treatment, (2) Bcl-2 inhibitor treatment, (3) IAP inhibitor treatment, (4) Bid-like synthetic peptides treatment. The results suggest that the proteasome inhibitor treatment is the most effective treatment, though it may have severe side effects. For this treatment, the amount of proteasome inhibitor needed for caspase-3 activation may be different for hypothetical cells with a different pro- or anti-apoptotic protein defect. It is also found that caspase-3 can be activated by Bcl-2 inhibitor treatment only in those hypothetical malfunctioning cells with Bax deficiency but not in others. These results are in line with the view that molecular heterogeneity in individuals may be an important factor in determining the individuals' positive or negative responses to treatments.

  13. Plumbagin, isolated from Plumbago zeylanica, induces cell death through apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-An; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kao, Chung-Yu; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most resistant malignancies. Several studies have indicated that plumbagin isolated from Plumbago zeylanica possesses anticancer activity. However, its antitumor effects against pancreatic cancer have not been explored. We investigated the effect of plumbagin on the growth of human pancreatic carcinoma cells and its possible underlying mechanisms. Plumbagin inhibited the growth of Panc-1 and Bxpc-3 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Liu's staining and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated morphological changes resembling apoptosis in Panc-1 cells treated with plumbagin. The degree of apoptosis was assessed by measuring the proportions of sub-G(1), annexin V+/propidium iodide-, and terminal- deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated-nick-end labeling (TUNEL)+ cells, and a significant increment in apoptotic cells was observed. Exposure to plumbagin caused the upregulation of Bax, a rapid decline in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, apoptosis-inducing factor overexpression in cytosol, and the cleavage of procaspase-9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Activation of caspase-3, but not caspase-8, was evidenced by fluorometric substrate assay. Pretreatment with caspase inhibitors did not block plumbagin-induced apoptosis. Alternatively, it is possible that plumbagin downregulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity through a negative feedback mechanism. In an orthotopic pancreatic tumor model, plumbagin markedly inhibited the growth of Panc-1 xenografts without any significant effect on leukocyte counts or body weight. Plumbagin may induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells primarily through the mitochondria-related pathway followed by both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cascades. It indicates that plumbagin can be potentially developed as a novel therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Blockade of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand death receptor DR5 prevents beta-amyloid neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Daniela; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara Anna; Sarnico, Ilenia; Benarese, Marina; Pizzi, Marina; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Spano, PierFranco; Facchetti, Fabio; Memo, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    We originally suggested that inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) death pathway could be taken into consideration as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, because the critical role of TRAIL in immune surveillance, the neutralization of TRAIL protein by an antibody to prevent its binding to death receptors is definitely a risky approach. Here, we demonstrated that the blockade of the TRAIL death receptor DR5 with a specific antibody completely prevented amyloid beta peptide (A beta) neurotoxicity in both neuronal cell line and primary cortical neurons. DR5 was demonstrated to be a key factor in TRAIL death pathway. In fact, whereas TRAIL expression was enhanced dose-dependently by concentrations of beta amyloid ranging from 10 nM to 1 microM, only the highest toxic dose of A beta (25 microM) induced the increased expression of DR5 and neuronal cell death. In addition, the increased expression of DR5 receptor after beta amyloid treatment was sustained by p53 transcriptional activity, as demonstrated by the data showing that the p53 inhibitor Pifithrin alpha prevented both beta amyloid-induced DR5 induction and cell death. These data suggest a sequential activation of p53 and DR5 upon beta amyloid exposure. Further insight into the key role of DR5 in AD was suggested by data showing a significant increase of DR5 receptor in cortical slices of AD brain. Thus, these findings may give intracellular TRAIL pathway a role in AD pathophysiology, making DR5 receptor a possible candidate as a pharmacological target.

  15. Endothelial apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension is controlled by a microRNA/programmed cell death 4/caspase-3 axis.

    PubMed

    White, Kevin; Dempsie, Yvonne; Caruso, Paola; Wallace, Emma; McDonald, Robert A; Stevens, Hannah; Hatley, Mark E; Van Rooij, Eva; Morrell, Nicholas W; MacLean, Margaret R; Baker, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis is a transient, yet defining pathogenic event integral to the onset of many pulmonary vascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the molecular pathway(s) that control pulmonary arterial endothelial cell apoptosis. Here, we introduce a molecular axis that when functionally active seems to induce pulmonary arterial endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo. In response to apoptotic stimuli, human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells exhibited robust induction of a programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4)/caspase-3/apoptotic pathway that was reversible by direct PDCD4 silencing. Indirectly, this pathway was also repressed by delivery of a microRNA-21 mimic. In vivo, genetic deletion of microRNA-21 in mice (miR-21(-/-) mice) resulted in functional activation of the PDCD4/caspase-3 axis in the pulmonary tissues, leading to the onset of progressive PH. Conversely, microRNA-21-overexpressing mice (CAG-microRNA-21 mice) exhibited reduced PDCD4 expression in pulmonary tissues and were partially resistant to PH in response to chronic hypoxia plus SU 5416 injury. Furthermore, direct PDCD4 knockout in mice (PDCD4(-/-) mice) potently blocked pulmonary caspase-3 activation and the development of chronic hypoxia plus SU 5416 PH, confirming its importance in disease onset. Broadly, these findings support the existence of a microRNA-21-responsive PDCD4/caspase-3 pathway in the pulmonary tissues that when active serves to promote endothelial apoptosis in vitro and PH in vivo.

  16. Cannabidiol induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Ashutosh; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E; Prasad, Anil

    2011-07-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, is considered an antineoplastic agent on the basis of its in vitro and in vivo activity against tumor cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism through which CBD mediates this activity is yet to be elucidated. Here, we have shown CBD-induced cell death of breast cancer cells, independent of cannabinoid and vallinoid receptor activation. Electron microscopy revealed morphologies consistent with the coexistence of autophagy and apoptosis. Western blot analysis confirmed these findings. We showed that CBD induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and, subsequently, inhibits AKT and mTOR signaling as shown by decreased levels of phosphorylated mTOR and 4EBP1, and cyclin D1. Analyzing further the cross-talk between the autophagic and apoptotic signaling pathways, we found that beclin1 plays a central role in the induction of CBD-mediated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Although CBD enhances the interaction between beclin1 and Vps34, it inhibits the association between beclin1 and Bcl-2. In addition, we showed that CBD reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, triggers the translocation of BID to the mitochondria, the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and, ultimately, the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in breast cancer cells. CBD increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS inhibition blocked the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Our study revealed an intricate interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in CBD-treated breast cancer cells and highlighted the value of continued investigation into the potential use of CBD as an antineoplastic agent. © 2011 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Death associated protein 1 (DAP 1) positively regulates virus replication and apoptosis of hemocytes in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-Li; Kang, Li-Hua; Liu, Chang-Bin; Kang, Cui-Jie

    2017-04-01

    Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a small proline-rich cytoplasmic protein that functions both in the apoptosis and autophage process of mammalian and in the clinical cancer of human. However, little knowledge is known about the homologue gene of DAP1 and its roles in the physiological process of invertebrates. In this paper, we report a novel function of DAP1 in the antivirus immunity of shrimp. A homologue gene of DAP1 was cloned from Marsupenaeus japonicus and named as Mjdap-1. The full-length of Mjdap-1 was 1761 bp with a 309 bp open reading frame that encoded 102 amino acids. Reverse transcription-PCR results showed that Mjdap-1 was expressed in all tested tissues, including hemocytes, gills, intestines, stomach, heart, hepatopancreas, testes, and ovaries. In shrimp, Mjdap-1 transcripts were up-regulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection; Mjdap-1 knockdown decreased the virus copy in vivo and the mortality of M. japonicus to WSSV challenge. Conversely, injecting the purified recombinant MjDAP1 protein promoted the amplification of virus in shrimp. Flow cytometric assay showed, the virus infection-induced apoptosis of hemocytes was enhanced by MjDAP1 protein injection and inhibited in MjDAP1 knockdown shrimp. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was regulated by Mjdap-1, but the caspase transcripts were not affected. Our results suggested that MjDAP1 facilitated the amplification of virus in shrimp, which may be attributed to the promotion of hemocyte apoptosis in an AIF-dependent manner. These results provided a new insight into the function of this protein that may be used for virus disease control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A caspase-3 ‘death-switch' in colorectal cancer cells for induced and synchronous tumor apoptosis in vitro and in vivo facilitates the development of minimally invasive cell death biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, K L; Cawthorne, C; Zhou, C; Hodgkinson, C L; Walker, M J; Trapani, F; Kadirvel, M; Brown, G; Dawson, M J; MacFarlane, M; Williams, K J; Whetton, A D; Dive, C

    2013-01-01

    Novel anticancer drugs targeting key apoptosis regulators have been developed and are undergoing clinical trials. Pharmacodynamic biomarkers to define the optimum dose of drug that provokes tumor apoptosis are in demand; acquisition of longitudinal tumor biopsies is a significant challenge and minimally invasive biomarkers are required. Considering this, we have developed and validated a preclinical ‘death-switch' model for the discovery of secreted biomarkers of tumour apoptosis using in vitro proteomics and in vivo evaluation of the novel imaging probe [18F]ML-10 for non-invasive detection of apoptosis using positron emission tomography (PET). The ‘death-switch' is a constitutively active mutant caspase-3 that is robustly induced by doxycycline to drive synchronous apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro or grown as tumor xenografts. Death-switch induction caused caspase-dependent apoptosis between 3 and 24 hours in vitro and regression of ‘death-switched' xenografts occurred within 24 h correlating with the percentage of apoptotic cells in tumor and levels of an established cell death biomarker (cleaved cytokeratin-18) in the blood. We sought to define secreted biomarkers of tumor apoptosis from cultured cells using Discovery Isobaric Tag proteomics, which may provide candidates to validate in blood. Early after caspase-3 activation, levels of normally secreted proteins were decreased (e.g. Gelsolin and Midkine) and proteins including CD44 and High Mobility Group protein B1 (HMGB1) that were released into cell culture media in vitro were also identified in the bloodstream of mice bearing death-switched tumors. We also exemplify the utility of the death-switch model for the validation of apoptotic imaging probes using [18F]ML-10, a PET tracer currently in clinical trials. Results showed increased tracer uptake of [18F]ML-10 in tumours undergoing apoptosis, compared with matched tumour controls imaged in the same animal. Overall, the death

  19. Apoptosis goes on a chip: advances in the microfluidic analysis of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sharpe, John C; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Cooper, Jonathan Mark

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent years have brought enormous progress in cell-based lab-on-a-chip technologies, allowing dynamic studies of cell death with an unprecedented accuracy. As interest in the microfabricated technologies for cell-based bioassays is rapidly gaining momentum, we highlight the most promising technologies that provide a new outlook for the rapid assessment of programmed and accidental cell death and are applicable in drug discovery, high-content drug screening, and personalized clinical diagnostics. PMID:21630641

  20. Cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs: beyond apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Hmadi, Raed; Kareh, Mike; Tohme, Rita; Darwiche, Nadine

    2015-12-01

    Despite remarkable progress in the discovery and development of novel cancer therapeutics, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the world. For many years, compounds derived from plants have been at the forefront as an important source of anticancer therapies and have played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer because of their availability, and relatively low toxicity when compared with chemotherapy. More than 3000 plant species have been reported to treat cancer and about thirty plant-derived compounds have been isolated so far and have been tested in cancer clinical trials. The mechanisms of action of plant-derived anticancer drugs are numerous and most of them induce apoptotic cell death that may be intrinsic or extrinsic, and caspase and/or p53-dependent or independent mechanisms. Alternative modes of cell death by plant-derived anticancer drugs are emerging and include mainly autophagy, necrosis-like programmed cell death, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence leading to cell death. Considering that the non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs are less reviewed than the apoptotic ones, this paper attempts to focus on such alternative cell death pathways for some representative anticancer plant natural compounds in clinical development. In particular, emphasis will be on some promising polyphenolics such as resveratrol, curcumin, and genistein; alkaloids namely berberine, noscapine, and colchicine; terpenoids such as parthenolide, triptolide, and betulinic acid; and the organosulfur compound sulforaphane. The understanding of non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms induced by these drugs would provide insights into the possibility of exploiting novel molecular pathways and targets of plant-derived compounds for future cancer therapeutics.

  1. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury.

  2. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury. PMID:26316710

  3. Effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi: Parasite death involving apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Danielle Oliveira; Sobral Alves, Eliomara Sousa; Gonçalves, Vinicius Tomaz; Fontes, Sheila Suarez; Nogueira, Mateus Lima; Suarez-Fontes, Ana Márcia; Neves da Costa, João Batista; Rios-Santos, Fabricio; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André

    2016-12-01

    Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T. cruzi morphology and surface topography. General plasma membrane waving and blebbing particularly on the cytostome region were observed in the R72-treated parasites. Transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed the surface damage at the cytostome opening vicinity. We also observed ultrastructural evidence of the autophagic mechanism termed macroautophagy. Some of the autophagosomes involved large portions of the parasite cytoplasm and their fusion/confluence may lead to necrotic parasite death. The remarkably enhanced frequency of autophagy triggering was confirmed by quantitating monodansylcadaverine labeling. Some cells displayed evidence of chromatin pycnosis and nuclear fragmentation were detected. This latter phenomenon was also indicated by DAPI staining of R72-treated cells. The apoptotis induction was suggested to take place in circa one-third of the parasites assessed by annexin V labeling measured by flow cytometry. TUNEL staining corroborated the apoptosis induction. Propidium iodide labeling indicate that at least 10% of the R72-treated parasites suffered necrosis within 24 h. The present data indicate that the β-lapachone derivative R72 selectively triggers T. cruzi cell death, involving both apoptosis and autophagy-induced necrosis.

  4. YOPRO-1 permits cytofluorometric analysis of programmed cell death (apoptosis) without interfering with cell viability.

    PubMed

    Idziorek, T; Estaquier, J; De Bels, F; Ameisen, J C

    1995-09-25

    In the absence of cell permeabilization, the impermeant nuclear dye YOPRO-1 permits accurate analysis of apoptosis using cytofluorometry or fluorescent microscopy. Several immune cell populations were studied including dexamethasone-treated thymocytes, irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a growth factor-depleted tumor B cell line. Excellent correlation values were found with acridine orange using cytofluorometry and with eosin-hematoxylin using optical microscopy. Under fluorescent microscopy, YOPRO-1-fluorescent cells demonstrate the morphological features of cells undergoing apoptosis such as nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation. An important characteristic of the dye that differs from all other nuclear dyes previously used for the detection of apoptosis is that it does not label living cells. Cell sorting after flow cytofluorometry analysis confirmed that only the apoptotic cell population was labelled with YOPRO-1. Further studies showed that while incubation of living cells with Hoechst 33342 almost completely abrogated the capacity of T cells to proliferate in response to several stimuli, YOPRO-1 had no inhibitory effect. This new simple, rapid and reproducible use of the YOPRO-1 dye should prove useful in the analysis of apoptotic cells as well as for investigations of the functional properties of living cells in a culture containing apoptotic cells.

  5. Wingless mediated apoptosis: How cone cells direct the death of peripheral ommatidia in the developing Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudha R; Patel, Hina; Tomlinson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Morphogen gradients play pervasive roles in development, and understanding how they are established and decoded is a major goal of contemporary developmental biology. Here we examine how a Wingless (Wg) morphogen gradient patterns the peripheral specialization of the fly eye. The outermost specialization is the pigment rim; a thick band of pigment cells that circumscribes the eye and optically insulates the sides of the retina. It results from the coalescence of pigment cells that survive the death of the outermost row of developing ommatidia. We investigate here how the Wg target genes expressed in the moribund ommatidia direct the intercellular signaling, the morphogenetic movements, and ultimately the ommatidial death. A salient feature of this process is the secondary expression of the Wg morphogen elicited in the ommatidia by the primary Wg signal. We find that neither the primary nor secondary sources of Wg alone are able to promote ommatidial death, but together they suffice to drive the apoptosis. This represents an unusual gradient read-out process in which a morphogen induces its own expression in its target cells to generate a concentration spike required to push the local cellular responses to the next threshold response. PMID:26428511

  6. Ruthenium(II) Complexes as Potential Apoptosis Inducers in Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kangdi; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Chengxi; Tan, Weijun; Mei, Wenjie

    2017-01-01

    Herein, the development of ruthenium complexes as potential apoptosis inducers, as well as their underlying mechanism has been reviewed. In recent years, various ruthenium complexes have been designed and their in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities against various types of tumor cells have been evaluated extensively. It's demonstrated that ruthenium complexes can induce apoptosis of tumor cells through the signal pathway of mitochondria-mediated, death receptor-mediated, and/or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Alternately, the binding behavior of these ruthenium(II) complexes with DNA, especially with Gquadruplex DNA may play a key role in the DNA damage of tumor cells, and thus provides a versatile tool to rational design novel ruthenium complexes with high activity and selectivity.

  7. Autophagy inhibition and mitochondrial remodeling join forces to amplify apoptosis in activation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Corrado; Silvia, Campello

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial structural and functional changes and the autophagy pathway crosstalk under several stress conditions. However, their interplay under physiological cell death stimulation has been unclear. In our recent report, we show that during activation-induced cell death (AICD), the T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent pathway that controls immune tolerance, autophagy is inhibited at an early stage. Further, we found that this inhibition is coupled with mitochondria fragmentation and cristae remodeling to unleash the apoptotic program. Last, we dissected the role of macroautophagy/autophagy versus mitophagy in the context of this physiological cell death, and bulk autophagy turned out to be able to remove dysfunctional and depolarized mitochondria. Our data suggest new possible approaches to modulate the immune function in the context of autoimmunity or immunotherapy.

  8. The Death Domain Superfamily in Intracellular Signaling of Apoptosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Ho; Lo, Yu-Chih; Lin, Su-Chang; Wang, Liwei; Yang, Jin Kuk; Wu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The death domain (DD) superfamily comprising the death domain (DD) subfamily, the death effector domain (DED) subfamily, the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) subfamily and the pyrin domains (PYD) subfamily is one of the largest domain superfamilies. By mediating homotypic interactions within each domain subfamily, these proteins play important roles in the assembly and activation of apoptotic and inflammatory complexes. In this article, we review the molecular complexes that are assembled by these proteins, the structural and biochemical features of these domains and the molecular interactions mediated by them. By analyzing the potential molecular basis for the function of these domains, we hope to provide a comprehensive understanding on the function, structure, interaction and evolution of this important family of domains. PMID:17201679

  9. Noninvasive Monitoring of Pharmacodynamics and Kinetics of a Death Receptor 5 Antibody and Its Enhanced Apoptosis Induction in Sequential Application with Doxorubicin1

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas G; Pöschinger, Thomas; Galbán, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Scheuer, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis plays a crucial role in the response of tumors to treatment. Thus, we investigated the pharmacodynamics and tumor saturation kinetics of a death receptor 5 antibody (anti-DR5) when combined with chemotherapeutics. For our investigations, we applied an imaging method that allows monitoring of apoptosis noninvasively in living mice. A stably transfected apoptosis reporter based on split luciferase technology facilitates to screen various chemotherapeutics and anti-DR5 on their ability to induce apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in vitro as well as in vivo. We found that doxorubicin (DOX) treatment in vitro led to significant apoptosis induction within 48 hours and to a 2.3-fold increased anti-DR5 binding to the cell surface. In contrast, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment altered anti-DR5 binding only marginally. Induction of apoptosis by treatment with anti-DR5 was dose- and time-dependent (both in vitro and in vivo). Simultaneous visualization of fluorescence-labeled anti-DR5 in tumor tissue and apoptosis revealed maximal apoptosis induction immediately after the compound had reached tumor site. Regarding combination therapy of anti-DR5 and DOX, we found that the sequential application of DOX before anti-DR5 resulted in synergistically enhanced apoptosis reporter activity. In striking contrast, anti-DR5 given before DOX did not lead to increased apoptosis induction. We suggest that DOX-induced recruitment of DR5 to the cell surface impacts the enhanced apoptotic effect that can be longitudinally monitored by apoptosis imaging. This study demonstrates that the combination of apoptosis and fluorescence imaging is an excellent method for optimizing dosing and treatment schedules in preclinical cancer models. PMID:23908588

  10. The C-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and tumor-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Bing-Jia; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    As an important member of tyrosine kinase family, c-kit receptor causes specific expression of certain genes, regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, resists cell apoptosis, and plays a key role in tumor occurrence, development, migration and recurrence through activating the downstream signaling molecules following interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). The abnormality of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway is closely related to some certain tumors. The discovery of c-kit receptor-targeted drugs has promoted clinical-related cancer's diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we review recent research progress on c-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and its potential therapeutic application as a target in tumor-related diseases.

  11. The C-Kit Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction and Tumor-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Bing-Jia; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    As an important member of tyrosine kinase family, c-kit receptor causes specific expression of certain genes, regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, resists cell apoptosis, and plays a key role in tumor occurrence, development, migration and recurrence through activating the downstream signaling molecules following interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). The abnormality of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway is closely related to some certain tumors. The discovery of c-kit receptor-targeted drugs has promoted clinical-related cancer's diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we review recent research progress on c-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and its potential therapeutic application as a target in tumor-related diseases. PMID:23678293

  12. The Janus Face of Death Receptor Signaling during Tumor Immunoediting

    PubMed Central

    O’ Reilly, Eimear; Tirincsi, Andrea; Logue, Susan E.; Szegezdi, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immune surveillance is essential for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Malignantly transformed cells can be recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems through different mechanisms. Immune effector cells induce extrinsic cell death in the identified tumor cells by expressing death ligand cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor ligand family. However, some tumor cells can escape immune elimination and progress. Acquisition of resistance to the death ligand-induced apoptotic pathway can be obtained through cleavage of effector cell expressed death ligands into a poorly active form, mutations or silencing of the death receptors, or overexpression of decoy receptors and pro-survival proteins. Although the immune system is highly effective in the elimination of malignantly transformed cells, abnormal/dysfunctional death ligand signaling curbs its cytotoxicity. Moreover, DRs can also transmit pro-survival and pro-migratory signals. Consequently, dysfunctional death receptor-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis signaling does not only give a passive resistance against cell death but actively drives tumor cell motility, invasion, and contributes to consequent metastasis. This dual contribution of the death receptor signaling in both the early, elimination phase, and then in the late, escape phase of the tumor immunoediting process is discussed in this review. Death receptor agonists still hold potential for cancer therapy since they can execute the tumor-eliminating immune effector function even in the absence of activation of the immune system against the tumor. The opportunities and challenges of developing death receptor agonists into effective cancer therapeutics are also discussed. PMID:27843441

  13. Synergistic chemopreventive effects of curcumin and berberine on human breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and autophagic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Chao; Bao, Jiaolin; Jia, Xuejing; Liang, Yeer; Wang, Xiaotong; Chen, Meiwan; Su, Huanxing; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) and berberine (BBR) are renowned natural compounds that exhibit potent anticancer activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. However, the anticancer capacity of either CUR or BBR is limited. This prompted us to investigate the chemopreventive potential of co-treatment of CUR and BBR against breast cancers. The results showed that CUR and BBR in combination synergistically inhibited the growth of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells than the compounds used alone. Further study confirmed that synergistic anti-breast cancer activities of co-treatment of these two compounds was through inducing more apoptosis and autophagic cell death (ACD). The co-treatment-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and through activating ERK pathways. Our data also demonstrated that co-treatment of CUR and BBR strongly up-regulated phosphorylation of JNK and Beclin1, and decreased phosphorylated Bcl-2. Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 markedly decreased LC3-II and Beclin1, restored phosphorylated Bcl-2, and reduced the cytotoxicity induced by the two compounds in combination. These results strongly suggested that JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin1 pathway played a key role in the induction of ACD in breast cancer cells by co-treatment of CUR and BBR. This study provides an insight into the potential application of curcumin and berberine in combination for the chemoprevention and treatment of breast cancers. PMID:27263652

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces germ cell death by apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sur, J H; Doster, A R; Christian, J S; Galeota, J A; Wills, R W; Zimmerman, J J; Osorio, F A

    1997-01-01

    Like other arteriviruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is shed in semen, a feature that is critical for the venereal transmission of this group of viruses. In spite of its epidemiological importance, little is known of the association of PRRSV or other arteriviruses with gonadal tissues. We experimentally infected a group of boars with PRRSV 12068-96, a virulent field strain. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected infection by PRRSV in the testes of these boars. The PRRSV testicular replication in testis centers on two types of cells: (i) epithelial germ cells of the seminiferous tubules, primarily spermatids and spermatocytes, and (ii) macrophages, which are located in the interstitium of the testis. Histopathologically, hypospermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), and abundant germ cell depletion and death were observed. We obtained evidence that such germ cell death occurs by apoptosis, as determined by a characteristic histologic pattern and evidence of massive DNA fragmentation detected in situ (TUNEL [terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated digoxigenin-UTP nick end labeling] assay). Simultaneously with these testicular alterations, we observed that there is a significant increase in the number of immature sperm cells (mainly MGCs, spermatids, and spermatocytes) in the ejaculates of the PRRSV-inoculated boars and that these cells are infected with PRRSV. Our results indicate that PRRSV may infect target cells other than macrophages, that these infected cells can be primarily responsible for the excretion of infectious PRRSV in semen, and that PRRSV induces apoptosis in these germ cells in vivo. PMID:9371575

  15. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A 1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer.

  16. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer. PMID:23580233

  17. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish.

  18. Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in the Caenorhabditis elegans Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Barth; Hirsh, David

    1999-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte is a highly amenable system for forward and reverse genetic analysis of receptor-mediated endocytosis. We describe the use of transgenic strains expressing a vitellogenin::green fluorescent protein (YP170::GFP) fusion to monitor yolk endocytosis by the C. elegans oocyte in vivo. This YP170::GFP reporter was used to assay the functions of C. elegans predicted proteins homologous to vertebrate endocytosis factors using RNA-mediated interference. We show that the basic components and pathways of endocytic trafficking are conserved between C. elegans and vertebrates, and that this system can be used to test the endocytic functions of any new gene. We also used the YP170::GFP assay to identify rme (receptor-mediated endocytosis) mutants. We describe a new member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily, RME-2, identified in our screens for endocytosis defective mutants. We show that RME-2 is the C. elegans yolk receptor. PMID:10588660

  19. Receptors mediating toxicity and their involvement in endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, Joëlle; Penttinen-Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Mäkelä, Sari; Pongratz, Ingemar; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2009-01-01

    Many toxic compounds exert their harmful effects by activating of certain receptors, which in turn leads to dysregulation of transcription. Some of these receptors are so called xenosensors. They are activated by external chemicals and evoke a cascade of events that lead to the elimination of the chemical from the system. Other receptors that are modulated by toxic substances are hormone receptors, particularly the ones of the nuclear receptor family. Some environmental chemicals resemble endogenous hormones and can falsely activate these receptors, leading to undesired activity in the cell. Furthermore, excessive activation of the xenosensors can lead to disturbances of the integrity of the system as well. In this chapter, the concepts of receptor-mediated toxicity and hormone disruption are introduced. We start by describing environmental chemicals that can bind to xenosensors and nuclear hormone receptors. We then describe the receptors most commonly targeted by environmental chemicals. Finally, the mechanisms by which receptor-mediated events can disrupt the system are depicted.

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  1. Silencer-of-Death Domain Mediates Acid-Induced Decrease in Cell Apoptosis in Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Hong, Jie; Cao, Weibiao

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX)5-S may mediate the acid-induced decrease in cell apoptosis. However, mechanisms of NOX5-S-dependent decrease in cell apoptosis are not fully understood. In this study, we found that silencer-of-death domain (SODD) was significantly increased in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) tissues, EA cell lines FLO and OE33, and a dysplastic cell line CP-B. Strong SODD immunostaining was significantly higher in low-grade dysplasia (66.7%), high-grade dysplasia (81.2%), and EA (71.2%) than in Barrett's mucosa (10.5%). Acid treatment significantly increased SODD protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity in FLO cells, an increase that was significantly decreased by the knockdown of NOX5-S and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)1 p50 with their small interfering RNAs. Similarly, acid-induced increase of SODD mRNA was blocked by knockdown of NOX5-S and p50 in a BE cell line CP-A. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased SODD protein expression in FLO cells. Moreover, overexpression of NOX5-S or p50 significantly increased the SODD promoter activity and decreased the caspase 9 activity or apoptosis. NOX5-S overexpression-induced increase in SODD promoter activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of p50. In addition, acid treatment significantly decreased the caspase 9 activity, a decrease that was significantly inhibited by knockdown of SODD. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB1 p50 bound to SODD genomic DNA containing a NF-κB-binding element GGGGACACCCT. This binding element was further confirmed by a gel mobility shift assay. We conclude that acid-induced increase in SODD expression and decrease in cell apoptosis may depend on the activation of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50 in FLO cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Death deflected: IL-15 inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis in fibroblasts by TRAF2 recruitment to the IL-15Ralpha chain.

    PubMed

    Bulfone-Paus, S; Bulanova, E; Pohl, T; Budagian, V; Durkop, H; Ruckert, R; Kunzendorf, U; Paus, R; Krause, H

    1999-09-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a potent inhibitor of several apoptosis pathways. One prominent path toward apoptosis is the ligand-induced association of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) with death domain adaptor proteins. Studying if and how IL-15 blocks TNFR1-mediated apoptosis in a murine fibroblast cell line (L929), we show here that IL-15 blocks TNFR1-induced apoptosis via IL-15Ralpha chain signaling. The intracellular tail of IL-15Ralpha shows sequence homologies to the TRAF2 binding motifs of CD30 and CD40. Most important, binding of IL-15 to IL-15Ralpha successfully competes with the TNFR1 complex for TRAF2 binding, which may impede assembly of key adaptor proteins to the TNFR1 complex, and induces IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Thus, IL-15Ralpha chain stimulation is a powerful deflector of cell death very early in the apoptosis signaling cascade, while TNF-alpha and IL-15 surface as major opponents in apoptosis control.

  3. Isocryptotanshinone, a STAT3 inhibitor, induces apoptosis and pro-death autophagy in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuhui; Luo, Weiwei; Liu, Lijuan; Pang, Xiaocong; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Ailin; Lu, Jinjian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-12-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a potential drug target for chemotherapy. Cryptotanshinone (CTS) was identified as a potent STAT3 inhibitor, while the effect of other tanshinones remains unknown. In this study, the influence of eight tanshinones on STAT3 activity was initially screened and isocryptotanshinone (ICTS) significantly inhibited STAT3 activity in a dual luciferase assay. ICTS inhibited the constitutive and inducible phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 without affecting the phosphorylation of STAT3 at S727 in A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ICTS inhibited the nuclear translocation of STAT3. Compared with CTS, ICTS exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on STAT3 phosphorylation and on A549 cytotoxicity. ICTS induced autophagy as evidenced by the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the increased expression of LC3 protein and autophagosomes. ICTS-induced cell death was partially reversed by the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. The docking assay predicted that both ICTS and CTS bind the SH2 domain of STAT3. ICTS formed hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interaction with the nearby amino acid residues of Lys591, Arg609, and Ser636. These findings suggested that ICTS, a natural compound, is a potent STAT3 inhibitor. ICTS induced apoptosis and pro-death autophagy in A549 cells.

  4. Betanin-Enriched Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extract Induces Apoptosis and Autophagic Cell Death in MCF-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Laëtitia; Vigneron, Pascale; Rotellini, Laura; Cazzola, Hélène; Merlier, Franck; Prost, Elise; Ralanairina, Robert; Gadonna, Jean-Pierre; Rossi, Claire; Vayssade, Muriel

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have pointed out the preventive role of beetroot extracts against cancers and their cytotoxic activity on cancer cells. Among many different natural compounds, these extracts contained betanin and its stereoisomer isobetanin, which belongs to the betalain group of highly bioavailable antioxidants. However, a precise identification of the molecules responsible for this tumor-inhibitory effect was still required. We isolated a betanin/isobetanin concentrate from fresh beetroots, corresponding to the highest purified betanin extract used for studying anticancer activities of these molecules. The cytotoxicity of this betanin-enriched extract was then characterized on cancer and normal cells and we highlighted the death signalling pathways involved. Betanin/isobetanin concentrate significantly decreased cancer cell proliferation and viability. Particularly in MCF-7-treated cells, the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bad, TRAILR4, FAS, p53) were strongly increased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was altered, demonstrating the involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Autophagosome vesicles in MCF-7-treated cells were observed, also suggesting autophagic cell death upon betanin/isobetanin treatment. Importantly, the betanin-enriched extract had no obvious effect towards normal cell lines. Our data bring new insight to consider the betanin/isobetanin mix as therapeutic anticancer compound, alone or in combination with classical chemotherapeutic drugs, especially in functional p53 tumors.

  5. The cyclomodulin Cif of Photorhabdus luminescens inhibits insect cell proliferation and triggers host cell death by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Carolina Varela; Jubelin, Grégory; Courties, Gabriel; Gomard, Aurélie; Ginibre, Nadège; Pages, Sylvie; Taïeb, Frédéric; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Oswald, Eric; Givaudan, Alain; Zumbihl, Robert; Escoubas, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cif) constitute a broad family of cyclomodulins present in bacterial pathogens of invertebrates and mammals. Cif proteins are thought to be type III effectors capable of arresting the cell cycle at G(2)/M phase transition in human cell lines. We report here the first direct functional analysis of Cif(Pl), from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, in its insect host. The cif(Pl) gene was expressed in P. luminescens cultures in vitro. The resulting protein was released into the culture medium, unlike the well characterized type III effector LopT. During locust infection, cif(Pl) was expressed in both the hemolymph and the hematopoietic organ, but was not essential for P. luminescens virulence. Cif(Pl) inhibited proliferation of the insect cell line Sf9, by blocking the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase transition. It also triggered host cell death by apoptosis. The integrity of the Cif(Pl) catalytic triad is essential for the cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic activities of this protein. These results highlight, for the first time, the dual role of Cif in the control of host cell proliferation and apoptotic death in a non-mammalian cell line. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for the involvement of apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated caspase-independent neuronal death in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenfeng; Mechawar, Naguib; Krantic, Slavica; Quirion, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms in neuronal cell death in Alzheimer disease (AD). The apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial oxido-reductase originally characterized as a mediator of caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD). In this postmortem study, we investigated the distribution of AIF and its possible morphological association with pathological features in the hippocampus, as well as entorhinal and medial gyrus of temporal cortices of late stage AD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and control subjects. In comparison with controls, a significant increase in neuronal AIF immunoreactivity (AIF-ir) was observed in the hippocampus and the superficial layers of entorhinal and medial gyrus of temporal cortices in AD--but not DLB--samples. AIF-ir in neuronal nuclei was also significantly more widespread in AD compared with control and DLB samples. Furthermore, AIF-ir was found to be colocalized with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD brains. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was seen between nuclear AIF-ir and Braak stage in CA1 of the hippocampus as well as in entorhinal and temporal cortices in AD samples. These data show for the first time: (1) the nuclear localization of AIF in the AD brain and (2) its colocalization with NFTs, suggesting a possible involvement of AIF-mediated caspase-independent PCD, at least in the late stage of this neuropathology.

  7. In vivo analysis of germ cell apoptosis reveals the existence of stage-specific 'social' control of germ cell death in the seminiferous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rodríguez, J; Martínez-García, C

    1997-12-01

    It has become clear in recent years that programmed cell death is regulated during development by signals from other cells. Nevertheless, compared to the 'social' control of cell proliferation, relatively little is known about the 'social' control of cell death in other systems. Since in a previous study we showed that induced germ cell apoptosis occurs at specific stages of the spermatogenic cycle, in this study we aimed to ascertain the existence of supracellular control of germ cell death during spermatogenesis. Therefore, the TUNEL technique has been used to analyse whether all of the different germ cell types are induced to die at these specific stages in animals injected intratesticularly with one of several inducers of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that all of the investigated agents trigger apoptosis in all the diverse progenies of germ cells existing at stages I, XII or XIV of the spermatogenic cycle. In contrast, at most other stages the number of apoptotic cells was similar to that found in control animals. These data are consistent with the existence of an intercellular control of germ cell death during spermatogenesis. We conclude that the seminiferous epithelium provides a suitable in vivo model to study the mechanisms underlying the 'social' control of apoptosis.

  8. An insight into the hepatocellular death induced by amphetamines, individually and in combination: the involvement of necrosis and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dias da Silva, Diana; Carmo, Helena; Lynch, Adam; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-12-01

    The liver is a vulnerable target for amphetamine toxicity, but the mechanisms involved in the drug's hepatotoxicity remain poorly understood. The purpose of the current research was to characterize the mode of death elicited by four amphetamines and to evaluate whether their combination triggered similar mechanisms in immortalized human HepG2 cells. The obtained data revealed a time- and temperature-dependent mortality of HepG2 cells exposed to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy; 1.3 mM), methamphetamine (3 mM), 4-methylthioamphetamine (0.5 mM) and D-amphetamine (1.7 mM), alone or combined (1.6 mM mixture). At physiological temperature (37 °C), 24-h exposures caused HepG2 death preferentially by apoptosis, while a rise to 40.5 °C favoured necrosis. ATP levels remained unaltered when the drugs where tested at normothermia, but incubation at 40.5 °C provoked marked ATP depletion for all treatments. Further investigations on the apoptotic mechanisms triggered by the drugs (alone or combined) showed a decline in BCL-2 and BCL- XL mRNA levels, with concurrent upregulation of BAX, BIM, PUMA and BID genes. Elevation of Bax, cleaved Bid, Puma, Bak and Bim protein levels was also seen. To the best of our knowledge, Puma, Bim and Bak have never been linked with the toxicity induced by amphetamines. Time-dependent caspase-3/-7 activation, but not mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm) disruption, also mediated amphetamine-induced apoptosis. The cell dismantling was confirmed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase proteolysis. Overall, for all evaluated parameters, no relevant differences were detected between individual amphetamines and the mixture (all tested at equieffective cytotoxic concentrations), suggesting that the mode of action of the amphetamines in combination does not deviate from the mode of action of the drugs individually, when eliciting HepG2 cell death.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin against rat retinal ganglion cell death under various stresses that induce apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Reiko; Aihara, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a type of carotenoid known to have strong antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether astaxanthin confers a neuroprotective effect against glutamate stress, oxidative stress, and hypoxia-induced apoptotic or necrotic cell death in primary cultures of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Purified rat RGCs were exposed to three kinds of stressors induced by 25 μM glutamate for 72 h, B27 medium without an antioxidant for 4 h, and a reduced oxygen level of 5% for 12 h. Each assay was repeated 12 times, with or without 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM astaxanthin. The number of live RGCs was then counted using a cell viability assay. RGC viability in each condition was evaluated and compared with controls. In addition, we measured apoptosis and DNA damage. We found that under glutamate stress, RGC viability was reduced to 58%. Cultures with 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM astaxanthin showed an increase in RGC viability of 63%, 74%, and 84%, respectively. Under oxidative stress, RGC viability was reduced to 40%, and astaxanthin administration resulted in increased viability of 43%, 50%, and 67%, respectively. Under hypoxia, RGC viability was reduced to 66%, and astaxanthin administration resulted in a significant increase in viability to 67%, 77%, and 93%, respectively. These results indicate that 100 nM astaxanthin leads to a statistically significant increase in RGC viability under the three kinds of stressors tested, compared to controls (Dunnett's test, p<0.05). The apoptotic activity of RGCs under glutamate stress increased to 32%, but was reduced to 15% with 100 nM astaxanthin administration. Glutamate stress led to a 58% increase in DNA damage, which was reduced to 43% when cultured with 100 nM astaxanthin. Thus, 100 nM astaxanthin showed a statistically significant reduction in apoptosis and DNA damage in RGCs (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p<0.05). Our results suggest that astaxanthin has a neuroprotective effect against RGC death induced by

  10. Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin against rat retinal ganglion cell death under various stresses that induce apoptosis and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Astaxanthin is a type of carotenoid known to have strong antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether astaxanthin confers a neuroprotective effect against glutamate stress, oxidative stress, and hypoxia-induced apoptotic or necrotic cell death in primary cultures of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods Purified rat RGCs were exposed to three kinds of stressors induced by 25 μM glutamate for 72 h, B27 medium without an antioxidant for 4 h, and a reduced oxygen level of 5% for 12 h. Each assay was repeated 12 times, with or without 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM astaxanthin. The number of live RGCs was then counted using a cell viability assay. RGC viability in each condition was evaluated and compared with controls. In addition, we measured apoptosis and DNA damage. Results We found that under glutamate stress, RGC viability was reduced to 58%. Cultures with 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM astaxanthin showed an increase in RGC viability of 63%, 74%, and 84%, respectively. Under oxidative stress, RGC viability was reduced to 40%, and astaxanthin administration resulted in increased viability of 43%, 50%, and 67%, respectively. Under hypoxia, RGC viability was reduced to 66%, and astaxanthin administration resulted in a significant increase in viability to 67%, 77%, and 93%, respectively. These results indicate that 100 nM astaxanthin leads to a statistically significant increase in RGC viability under the three kinds of stressors tested, compared to controls (Dunnett’s test, p<0.05). The apoptotic activity of RGCs under glutamate stress increased to 32%, but was reduced to 15% with 100 nM astaxanthin administration. Glutamate stress led to a 58% increase in DNA damage, which was reduced to 43% when cultured with 100 nM astaxanthin. Thus, 100 nM astaxanthin showed a statistically significant reduction in apoptosis and DNA damage in RGCs (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that astaxanthin has a

  11. The role of intracellular oxidation in death induction (apoptosis and necrosis) in human promonocytic cells treated with stress inducers (cadmium, heat, X-rays).

    PubMed

    Galán, A; García-Bermejo, L; Troyano, A; Vilaboa, N E; Fernández, C; de Blas, E; Aller, P

    2001-04-01

    Treatment of U-937 human promonocytic cells with the stress inducers cadmium chloride (2 h at 200 microM), heat (2 h at 42.5 C) or X-rays (20 Gy), followed by recovery, caused death by apoptosis and stimulated caspase-3 activity. In addition, all stress agents caused intracellular oxidation, as measured by peroxide and/or anion superoxide accumulation. However, while pre-incubation with antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine or butylated hydroxyanisole) inhibited the induction of apoptosis by cadmium and X-rays, it did not affect the induction by heat-shock. Pre-incubation for 24 h with the GSH-depleting agent L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) switched the mode of death from apoptosis to necrosis in cadmium-treated cells. By contrast, BSO only caused minor modifacions in the rate of apoptosis without affecting the mode of death in heat- and X-rays-treated cells. BSO potentiated peroxide accumulation in cells treated with both cadmium and X-rays. However, while the accumulation of peroxides was stable in the case of cadmium, it was transient in the case of X-rays. Moreover, the administration of antioxidants during the recovery period sufficed to prevent necrosis and restore apoptosis in BSO plus cadmium-treated cells. Cadmium and X-rays caused a decrease in intracellular ATP levels, but the decrease was similar in both apoptotic and necrotic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (i) stress inducers cause intracellular oxidation, but oxidation is not a general requirement for apoptosis; and (ii) the duration of the oxidant state seems to be critical in determining the mode of death.

  12. Magnolol-induced H460 cells death via autophagy but not apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Bo; Yi, Xin; Gao, Jian-Mei; Ying, Xi-Xiang; Guan, Hong-Quan; Li, Jian-Chun

    2007-12-01

    We have reported that the protective effect of Magnolol on TBHP-induced injury in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells is partially via a p53 dependent mechanism. In this study, we found that Magnolol displayed a stimulatory effect at low concentrations (< or = 20 microM) whilst inhibitory effect at high concentrations (> or = 40 microM) in H460 cells. To investigate the mechanism of inducing the biphasic effect in H460 cells with Magnolol, we showed that Magnolol stimulated DNA synthesis at low concentrations and displayed an inhibition effect at high concentrations in H460 cells. More importantly, the inhibition of DNA synthesis was accompanied by the S phase cell cycle arrest and the appearance of intense intracytoplasmic vacuoles. These vacuoles can be labeled by autophagic marker monodansylcadaverin (MDC), 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagy, was able to inhibit the occurrence of autophagy. The results of the LDH activity assay and TUNEL assay also showed that Magnolol at high concentrations inhibiting H460 cell growth was not via apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, accompanied by the occurrence of autophagy, the expression of phospho-Akt was down-regulated but PTEN significantly was up-regulated. In conclusion, Magnolol induces H460 cells death by autophagy but not apoptotic pathway. Blockade of PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway is maybe related to Magnolol-induced autophagy. Autophagic cells death induction by Magnolol underlines the potential utility of its induction as a new cancer treatment modality.

  13. Interplay between lysosomal, mitochondrial and death receptor pathways during manganese-induced apoptosis in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Gorojod, R M; Alaimo, A; Porte Alcon, S; Saravia, F; Kotler, M L

    2017-04-04

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal which plays a critical role in brain physiology by acting as a cofactor for several enzymes. However, upon overexposure, Mn preferentially accumulates within the basal ganglia leading to the development of a Parkinsonism known as Manganism. Data from our group have proved that Mn induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in astrocytoma C6 cells. In the present study we described how cathepsins impact on different steps of each apoptotic cascade. Evidence obtained demonstrated that Mn generates lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release. Both cathepsins B (Ca-074 Me) and D (Pepstatin A) inhibitors as well as Bafilomycin A1 prevented caspases-3, -7, -8 and -9 activation, FasL upregulation, Bid cleavage, Δφm disruption and cytochrome c release. Results from in vivo studies showed that intrastriatal Mn injection increased cathepsin D levels from corpus striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results point to LMP and lysosomal cathepsins as key mediators in the apoptotic process triggered by Mn. These findings highlight the relevance of targeting the lysosomal pathway for Manganism therapy.

  14. Activation of autophagic flux by epigallocatechin gallate mitigates TRAIL-induced tumor cell apoptosis via down-regulation of death receptors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Youel

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea. Recent studies have reported that EGCG can inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis and activate autophagic flux in cancer cells. However, the mechanism behind these processes is unclear. The present study found that EGCG prevents tumor cell death by antagonizing the TRAIL pathway and activating autophagy flux. Our results indicate that EGCG dose-dependently inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis and decreases the binding of death receptor 4 and 5 (DR4 and 5) to TRAIL. In addition, EGCG activates autophagy flux, which is involved in the inhibition of TRAIL cell death. We confirmed that the protective effect of EGCG can be reversed using genetic and pharmacological tools through re-sensitization to TRAIL. The inhibition of autophagy flux affects not only the re-sensitization of tumor cells to TRAIL, but also the restoration of death receptor proteins. This study demonstrates that EGCG inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the manipulation of autophagic flux and subsequent decrease in number of death receptors. On the basis of these results, we suggest further consideration of the use of autophagy activators such as EGCG in combination anti-tumor therapy with TRAIL. PMID:27582540

  15. FasL and TRAIL Induce Epidermal Apoptosis and Skin Ulceration Upon Exposure to Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Eidsmo, Liv; Fluur, Caroline; Rethi, Bence; Eriksson Ygberg, Sofia; Ruffin, Nicolas; De Milito, Angelo; Akuffo, Hannah; Chiodi, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Receptor-mediated apoptosis is proposed as an important regulator of keratinocyte homeostasis in human epidermis. We have previously reported that Fas/FasL interactions in epidermis are altered during cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and that keratinocyte death through apoptosis may play a pathogenic role for skin ulceration. To further investigate the alterations of apoptosis during CL, a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and primary human epidermal keratinocytes were incubated with supernatants from Leishmania major-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. An apoptosis-specific microarray was used to assess mRNA expression in HaCaT cells exposed to supernatants derived from L. major-infected cultures. Fas and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated, and apoptosis was detected in both HaCaT and human epidermal keratinocyte cells. The keratinocyte apoptosis was partly inhibited through blocking of Fas or FasL and even more efficiently through TRAIL neutralization. Up-regulation of Fas on keratinocytes in epidermis and the presence of FasL-expressing macrophages and T cells in dermis were previously reported by us. In this study, keratinocytes expressing TRAIL, as well as the proapoptotic receptor TRAIL-R2, were detected in skin biopsies from CL cases. We propose that activation of Fas and TRAIL apoptosis pathways, in the presence of inflammatory mediators at the site of infection, leads to tissue destruction and ulceration during CL. PMID:17200196

  16. Apoptosis-inducing factor participation in bovine macrophage Mycobacterium bovis-induced caspase-independent cell death.

    PubMed

    Vega-Manriquez, X; López-Vidal, Y; Moran, J; Adams, L G; Gutiérrez-Pabello, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species survive and replicate in phagosomes of the host cell. Cell death (CD) has been highlighted as one of the probable outcomes in this host-pathogen interaction. Previously, our group demonstrated macrophage apoptosis as a consequence of Mycobacterium bovis infection. In this study, we aimed to identify the contribution of apoptotic effector elements in M. bovis-induced CD. Bovine macrophages were either infected with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection, 10:1) or treated with an M. bovis cell extract (CFE). Structural changes compatible with CD were evaluated. Chromatin condensation was increased three times by the CFE. On the other hand, a terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated that levels of DNA fragmentation induced by M. bovis and CFE were 53.7% +/- 24% and 38.9% +/- 14%, respectively, whereas control cells had a basal proportion of 8.9% +/- 4.1%. Rates of DNA fragmentation were unaffected by the presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (z-VAD). Cells treated with 100 mug of CFE for 12 h had a fivefold decrease in the level of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization compared to that of untreated cells. Neither M. bovis infection nor CFE treatment induced activation of caspase 3, 8, or 9. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus was identified in 32% +/- 3.5% and 26.3% +/- 4.9% of M. bovis-infected and CFE-treated cells, respectively. Incubation of macrophages with z-VAD prior to infection did not alter the percentage of cells showing AIF translocation. Our data suggest that M. bovis-induced CD in bovine macrophages is caspase independent with AIF participation.

  17. FK506 augments activation-induced programmed cell death of T lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Migita, K; Eguchi, K; Kawabe, Y; Tsukada, T; Mizokami, A; Nagataki, S

    1995-01-01

    FK506 is an immunosuppressive drug that inhibits T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction. This drug can induce immunological tolerance in allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of FK506 on T cell receptor-mediated apoptosis induction. Injection of anti-CD3 antibody (Ab) in mice resulted in the elimination of CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes by DNA fragmentation. FK506 treatment significantly augmented thymic apoptosis induced by in vivo anti-CD3 Ab administration. Increased thymic apoptosis resulted in the disappearance of CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes after anti-CD3 Ab/FK506 treatment. DNA fragmentation triggered by FK506 was induced exclusively in antigen-stimulated T cells, since enhanced DNA fragmentation induced by in vivo staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) injection was confirmed in SEB-reactive V beta 8+ thymocytes but not in SEB-nonreactive V beta 6+ thymocytes. In addition to thymocytes, mature peripheral T cells also die by activation-induced programmed cell death. A similar effect of FK506 on activation-induced programmed cell death was observed in SEB-activated peripheral spleen T cells. In contrast, cyclosporin A treatment did not enhance activation-induced programmed cell death of thymocytes and peripheral T cells. Apoptosis is required for the generation and maintenance of self-tolerance in the immune system. Our findings suggest that FK506-triggered apoptosis after elimination of antigen-activated T cells may represent a potential mechanism of the immunological tolerance achieved by FK506 treatment. Images PMID:7543492

  18. Gelam honey attenuated radiation-induced cell death in human diploid fibroblasts by promoting cell cycle progression and inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tengku Ahmad, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal; Jaafar, Faizul; Jubri, Zakiah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Makpol, Suzana

    2014-03-24

    The interaction between ionizing radiation and substances in cells will induce the production of free radicals. These free radicals inflict damage to important biomolecules such as chromosomes, proteins and lipids which consequently trigger the expression of genes which are involved in protecting the cells or repair the oxidative damages. Honey has been known for its antioxidant properties and was used in medical and cosmetic products. Currently, research on honey is ongoing and diversifying. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Gelam honey as a radioprotector in human diploid fibroblast (HDFs) which were exposed to gamma-rays by determining the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. Six groups of HDFs were studied viz. untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/ml of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy) of gamma-rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Our findings showed that, gamma-irradiation at 1 Gy up-regulated ATM, p53, p16ink4a and cyclin D1 genes and subsequently initiated cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with Gelam honey however caused down regulation of these genes in irradiated HDFs while no significant changes was observed on the expression of GADD45 and PAK genes. The expression of ATM and p16 proteins was increased in irradiated HDFs but the p53 gene was translated into p73 protein which was also increased in irradiated HDFs. Gelam honey treatment however significantly decreased the expression of ATM, p73, and p16 proteins (p < 0.05) while the expression of cyclin D1 remained unchanged. Analysis on cell cycle profile showed that cells progressed to S phase with less percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase with Gelam honey treatment while apoptosis was inhibited. Gelam honey acts a radioprotector

  19. Gelam honey attenuated radiation-induced cell death in human diploid fibroblasts by promoting cell cycle progression and inhibiting apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The interaction between ionizing radiation and substances in cells will induce the production of free radicals. These free radicals inflict damage to important biomolecules such as chromosomes, proteins and lipids which consequently trigger the expression of genes which are involved in protecting the cells or repair the oxidative damages. Honey has been known for its antioxidant properties and was used in medical and cosmetic products. Currently, research on honey is ongoing and diversifying. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Gelam honey as a radioprotector in human diploid fibroblast (HDFs) which were exposed to gamma-rays by determining the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. Methods Six groups of HDFs were studied viz. untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/ml of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy) of gamma-rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Results Our findings showed that, gamma-irradiation at 1 Gy up-regulated ATM, p53, p16ink4a and cyclin D1 genes and subsequently initiated cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with Gelam honey however caused down regulation of these genes in irradiated HDFs while no significant changes was observed on the expression of GADD45 and PAK genes. The expression of ATM and p16 proteins was increased in irradiated HDFs but the p53 gene was translated into p73 protein which was also increased in irradiated HDFs. Gelam honey treatment however significantly decreased the expression of ATM, p73, and p16 proteins (p < 0.05) while the expression of cyclin D1 remained unchanged. Analysis on cell cycle profile showed that cells progressed to S phase with less percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase with Gelam honey treatment while apoptosis was inhibited. Conclusion

  20. An anthraquinone derivative, emodin sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis through the induction of death receptors and downregulation of cell survival proteins.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Aruljothi; Loo, Ser Yue; Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Manu, Kanjoormana A; Perumal, Ekambaram; Li, Feng; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Park, Joo-In; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Hui, Kam M; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam

    2013-10-01

    Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is currently under clinical trials for cancer, however many tumor cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Hence, novel agents that can alleviate TRAIL-induced resistance are urgently needed. In the present report, we investigated the potential of emodin to enhance apoptosis induced by TRAIL in HCC cells. As observed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and the externalization of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, we found that emodin can significantly potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. When investigated for the mechanism(s), we observed that emodin can downregulate the expression of various cell survival proteins, and induce the cell surface expression of both TRAIL receptors, death receptors (DR) 4 as well as 5. In addition, emodin increased the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA decreased the induction of emodin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis. Emodin-induced induction of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of DR5 and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the knockdown of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by siRNA significantly reduced the sensitization effect of emodin on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Overall, our experimental results clearly indicate that emodin can indeed potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, increased expression of apoptotic proteins, and ROS mediated upregulation of DR in HCC cells.

  1. Antigen-Specific Immune Modulation Targets mTORC1 Function To Drive Chemokine Receptor-Mediated T Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weirong; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Miller, Mindy M; Barik, Subhasis; Cattin-Roy, Alexis N; Zaghouani, Habib

    2016-11-01

    To contain autoimmunity, pathogenic T cells must be eliminated or diverted from reaching the target organ. Recently, we defined a novel form of T cell tolerance whereby treatment with Ag downregulates expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and prevents diabetogenic Th1 cells from reaching the pancreas, leading to suppression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This report defines the signaling events underlying Ag-induced chemokine receptor-mediated tolerance. Specifically, we show that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major target for induction of CXCR3 downregulation and crippling of Th1 cells. Indeed, Ag administration induces upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1 on dendritic cells in a T cell-dependent manner. In return, programmed death-ligand 1 interacts with the constitutively expressed programmed death-1 on the target T cells and stimulates docking of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 phosphatase to the cytoplasmic tail of programmed death-1. Active Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 impairs the signaling function of the PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, leading to functional defect of mTORC1, downregulation of CXCR3 expression, and suppression of T1D. Thus, mTORC1 component of the metabolic pathway serves as a target for chemokine receptor-mediated T cell tolerance and suppression of T1D.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)-like protein lacks a baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain and attenuates cell death in plant and animal systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woe Yeon; Lee, Sun Yong; Jung, Young Jun; Chae, Ho Byoung; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Shin, Mi Rim; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Jin Ho; Kang, Chang Ho; Chi, Yong Hun; Ahn, Il Pyung; Yun, Dae Jin; Lee, Kyun Oh; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2011-12-09

    A novel Arabidopsis thaliana inhibitor of apoptosis was identified by sequence homology to other known inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Arabidopsis IAP-like protein (AtILP) contained a C-terminal RING finger domain but lacked a baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain, which is essential for anti-apoptotic activity in other IAP family members. The expression of AtILP in HeLa cells conferred resistance against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/ActD-induced apoptosis through the inactivation of caspase activity. In contrast to the C-terminal RING domain of AtILP, which did not inhibit the activity of caspase-3, the N-terminal region, despite displaying no homology to known BIR domains, potently inhibited the activity of caspase-3 in vitro and blocked TNF-α/ActD-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic activity of the AtILP N-terminal domain observed in plants was reproduced in an animal system. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing AtILP exhibited anti-apoptotic activity when challenged with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1, an agent that induces apoptosis-like cell death in plants. In AtIPL transgenic plants, suppression of cell death was accompanied by inhibition of caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Overexpression of AtILP also attenuated effector protein-induced cell death and increased the growth of an avirulent bacterial pathogen. The current results demonstrated the existence of a novel plant IAP-like protein that prevents caspase activation in Arabidopsis and showed that a plant anti-apoptosis gene functions similarly in plant and animal systems.

  4. Sialylation of the Fas Death Receptor by ST6Gal-I Provides Protection against Fas-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Swindall, Amanda F.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The glycosyltransferase, ST6Gal-I, adds sialic acid in an α2–6 linkage to the N-glycans of membrane and secreted glycoproteins. Up-regulation of ST6Gal-I occurs in many cancers, including colon carcinoma, and correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis. However, mechanisms by which ST6Gal-I facilitates tumor progression remain poorly understood due to limited knowledge of enzyme substrates. Herein we identify the death receptor, Fas (CD95), as an ST6Gal-I substrate, and show that α2–6 sialylation of Fas confers protection against Fas-mediated apoptosis. Intriguingly, differences in ST6Gal-I activity do not affect the function of DR4 or DR5 death receptors upon treatment with TRAIL, implicating a selective effect of ST6Gal-I on the Fas receptor. Using ST6Gal-I knockdown and forced overexpression colon carcinoma cell models, we find that α2–6 sialylation of Fas prevents apoptosis stimulated by FasL as well as the Fas-activating antibody, CH11, as evidenced by decreased activation of caspases 8 and 3. We also show that α2–6 sialylation of Fas does not alter the binding of CH11, but rather inhibits the capacity of Fas to induce apoptosis by blocking the association of FADD with Fas cytoplasmic tails, an event that initiates death-inducing signaling complex formation. Furthermore, α2–6 sialylation of Fas inhibits Fas internalization, which is required for apoptotic signaling. Although dysregulated Fas activity is a well known mechanism through which tumors evade apoptosis, the current study is the first to link Fas insensitivity to the actions of a specific sialyltransferase. This finding establishes a new paradigm by which death receptor function is impaired for the self-protection of tumors against apoptosis. PMID:21550977

  5. Apoptosis-like cell death in Leishmania donovani treated with KalsomeTM10, a new liposomal amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Shadab, Md.; Jha, Baijayanti; Asad, Mohammad; Deepthi, Makaraju; Kamran, Mohd.; Ali, Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to elucidate the cell death mechanism in Leishmania donovani upon treatment with KalsomeTM10, a new liposomal amphotericin B. Methodology/Principal findings We studied morphological alterations in promastigotes through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and disruption of mitochondrial integrity was determined by flow cytometry using annexinV-FITC, JC-1 and mitotraker, respectively. For analysing oxidative stress, generation of H2O2 (bioluminescence kit) and mitochondrial superoxide O2− (mitosox) were measured. DNA fragmentation was evaluated using terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and DNA laddering assay. We found that KalsomeTM10 is more effective then Ambisome against the promastigote as well as intracellular amastigote forms. The mechanistic study showed that KalsomeTM10 induced several morphological alterations in promastigotes typical of apoptosis. KalsomeTM10 treatment showed a dose- and time-dependent exposure of PS in promastigotes. Further, study on mitochondrial pathway revealed loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as disruption in mitochondrial integrity with depletion of intracellular pool of ATP. KalsomeTM10 treated promastigotes showed increased ROS production, diminished GSH levels and increased caspase-like activity. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest was observed in KalsomeTM10 treated promastigotes. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was also observed in KalsomeTM10 treated intracellular amastigotes. KalsomeTM10 induced generation of ROS and nitric oxide leads to the killing of the intracellular parasites. Moreover, endocytosis is indispensable for KalsomeTM10 mediated anti-leishmanial effect in host macrophage. Conclusions KalsomeTM10 induces apoptotic-like cell death in L. donovani parasites to exhibit its anti-leishmanial function. PMID:28170432

  6. Rottlerin induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death through a PKC-delta-independent pathway in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells: the protective role of autophagy in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Jong-Seok; Yun, Eun-Jin; Kim, Young-Rae; Seo, Kang-Sik; Park, Ji-Hoon; Jung, Yeon-Joo; Park, Jong-Il; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung-Doo

    2008-07-01

    Rottlerin is widely used as a protein kinase C-delta inhibitor. Recently, several reports have shown the possible apoptosis-inducing effect of rottlerin in some cancer cell lines. Here we report that rottlerin induces not only apoptosis but also autophagy via a PKC-delta-independent pathway in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Rottlerin treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth, and cytoplasmic vacuolations were markedly shown. These vacuoles were identified as acidic autolysosomes by electron microscopy, acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) staining and transfection of green fluorescent protein-LC3. The LC3-II protein level also increased after treatment with rottlerin. Prolonged exposure to rottlerin eventually caused apoptosis via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of AIF from mitochondria to the nucleus. However, the activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were not changed, and PARP did not show signs of cleavage. Interestingly, the pretreatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of autophagy (3-methyladenine) accelerated rottlerin-induced apoptosis as revealed by an analysis of the subdiploid fraction and TUNEL assay. Nevertheless, the knockdown of PKC-delta by RNA interference neither affected cell growth nor acidic vacuole formation. Similarly, rottlerin-induced cell death was not prevented by PKC-delta overexpression. Taken together, these findings suggest that rottlerin induces early autophagy and late apoptosis in a PKC-delta-independent manner, and the rottlerin-induced early autophagy may act as a survival mechanism against late apoptosis in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

  7. Triclosan Demonstrates Synergic Effect with Amphotericin B and Fluconazole and Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Movahed, Elaheh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Munusamy, Komathy; Yeow, Tee Cian; Tay, Sun Tee; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungus that causes fatal meningoencephalitis especially in AIDS patients. There is an increasing need for discovery of new anti-cryptococcal drugs due to emergence of resistance cases in recent years. In this study, we aim to elucidate the antifungal effect of triclosan against C. neoformans. Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of triclosan in different C. neoformans strains was first examined. The in vitro interactions between triclosan and two standard anti-fungal drugs (amphotericin B and fluconazole) were further evaluated by microdilution checkerboard assay. Mechanism of triclosan fungicidal activity was then investigated by viewing the cell morphology under transmission electron microscope. Results: We reported that triclosan potently inhibited the growth of C. neoformans. A combination of triclosan with amphotericin B or with fluconazole enhanced their fungicidal effects. Triclosan-treated C. neoformans displayed characteristics such as nuclear chromatin condensation, extensive intracellular vacuolation and mitochondrial swelling, indicating that triclosan triggered apoptosis-like cell death. Conclusion: In summary, our report suggests triclosan as an independent drug or synergent for C. neoformans treatment. PMID:27047474

  8. Gedunin Inactivates the Co-chaperone p23 Protein Causing Cancer Cell Death by Apoptosis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Chaitanya A.; Fauq, Abdul; Peterson, Laura B.; Miller, Charles; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Chadli, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 is an exciting option for cancer therapy. The clinical efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors is, however, less than expected. Binding of the co-chaperone p23 to Hsp90 and induced overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins Hsp70 and Hsp27 are thought to contribute to this outcome. Herein, we report that the natural product gedunin may provide a new alternative to inactivate the Hsp90 machine. We show that gedunin directly binds to p23 and inactivates it, without overexpression of Hsp27 and relatively modest induction of Hsp70. Using molecular docking and mutational analysis, we mapped the gedunin-binding site on p23. Functional analysis shows that gedunin inhibits the p23 chaperoning activity, blocks its cellular interaction with Hsp90, and interferes with p23-mediated gene regulation. Cell treatment with gedunin leads to cancer cell death by apoptosis through inactivation of p23 and activation of caspase 7, which cleaves p23 at the C terminus. These results provide important insight into the molecular mechanism of action of this promising lead compound. PMID:23355466

  9. Death receptor-induced apoptosis reveals a novel interplay between the chromosomal passenger complex and CENP-C during interphase.

    PubMed

    Faragher, Alison J; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Butterworth, Michael; Harper, Nick; Mulheran, Mike; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Earnshaw, William C; Cohen, Gerald M

    2007-04-01

    Despite the fact that the chromosomal passenger complex is well known to regulate kinetochore behavior in mitosis, no functional link has yet been established between the complex and kinetochore structure. In addition, remarkably little is known about how the complex targets to centromeres. Here, in a study of caspase-8 activation during death receptor-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, we have found that cleaved caspase-8 rapidly translocates to the nucleus and that this translocation is correlated with loss of the centromere protein (CENP)-C, resulting in extensive disruption of centromeres. Caspase-8 activates cytoplasmic caspase-7, which is likely to be the primary caspase responsible for cleavage of CENP-C and INCENP, a key chromosomal passenger protein. Caspase-mediated cleavage of CENP-C and INCENP results in their mislocalization and the subsequent mislocalization of Aurora B kinase. Our results demonstrate that the chromosomal passenger complex is displaced from centromeres as a result of caspase activation. Furthermore, mutation of the primary caspase cleavage sites of INCENP and CENP-C and expression of noncleavable CENP-C or INCENP prevent the mislocalization of the passenger complex after caspase activation. Our studies provide the first evidence for a functional interplay between the passenger complex and CENP-C.

  10. Nitric oxide releasing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: cell viability, apoptosis and cell death evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, R.; de Oliveira, J. L.; Ludescher, A.; Molina, M. M.; Itri, R.; Seabra, A. B.; Haddad, P. S.

    2013-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as control of vascular tone and immune responses against microbes. Thus, there is great interest in the development of NO-releasing materials to carry and deliver NO for biomedical applications. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been used in important pharmacological applications, including drug-delivery. In this work, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with thiol-containing hydrophilic ligands: mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Free thiol groups on the surface of MSA- or DMSA- coated nanoparticles were nitrosated, leading to the formation of NO-releasing iron oxide nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of MSA- or DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) (thiolated nanoparticles) and nitrosated MSA- or nitrosated DMSA- coated MNPs (NO-releasing nanoparticles) were evaluated towards human lymphocytes. The results showed that MNP-MSA and MNP-DMSA have low cytotoxicity effects. On the other hand, NO-releasing MNPs were found to increase apoptosis and cell death compared to free NO-nanoparticles. Therefore, the cytotoxicity effects observed for NO-releasing MNPs may result in important biomedical applications, such as the treatment of tumors cells.

  11. Mitochondrial apoptosis is dispensable for NLRP3 inflammasome activation but non-apoptotic caspase-8 is required for inflammasome priming

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Lawlor, Kate E; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Mildenhall, Alison L; Moujalled, Donia M; Lewis, Rowena S; Ke, Francine; Mason, Kylie D; White, Michael J; Stacey, Katryn J; Strasser, Andreas; O’Reilly, Lorraine A; Alexander, Warren; Kile, Benjamin T; Vaux, David L; Vince, James E

    2014-01-01

    A current paradigm proposes that mitochondrial damage is a critical determinant of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we genetically assess whether mitochondrial signalling represents a unified mechanism to explain how NLRP3 is activated by divergent stimuli. Neither co-deletion of the essential executioners of mitochondrial apoptosis BAK and BAX, nor removal of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D, nor loss of the mitophagy regulator Parkin, nor deficiency in MAVS affects NLRP3 inflammasome function. In contrast, caspase-8, a caspase essential for death-receptor-mediated apoptosis, is required for efficient Toll-like-receptor-induced inflammasome priming and cytokine production. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial apoptosis is not required for NLRP3 activation, and highlight an important non-apoptotic role for caspase-8 in regulating inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:24990442

  12. Mitochondrial apoptosis is dispensable for NLRP3 inflammasome activation but non-apoptotic caspase-8 is required for inflammasome priming.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Lawlor, Kate E; Yu, Eric Chi-Wang; Mildenhall, Alison L; Moujalled, Donia M; Lewis, Rowena S; Ke, Francine; Mason, Kylie D; White, Michael J; Stacey, Katryn J; Strasser, Andreas; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Alexander, Warren; Kile, Benjamin T; Vaux, David L; Vince, James E

    2014-09-01

    A current paradigm proposes that mitochondrial damage is a critical determinant of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we genetically assess whether mitochondrial signalling represents a unified mechanism to explain how NLRP3 is activated by divergent stimuli. Neither co-deletion of the essential executioners of mitochondrial apoptosis BAK and BAX, nor removal of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D, nor loss of the mitophagy regulator Parkin, nor deficiency in MAVS affects NLRP3 inflammasome function. In contrast, caspase-8, a caspase essential for death-receptor-mediated apoptosis, is required for efficient Toll-like-receptor-induced inflammasome priming and cytokine production. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial apoptosis is not required for NLRP3 activation, and highlight an important non-apoptotic role for caspase-8 in regulating inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.

  13. Both the Caspase CSP-1 and a Caspase-Independent Pathway Promote Programmed Cell Death in Parallel to the Canonical Pathway for Apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Daniel P.; Hatch, Victoria; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Caspases are cysteine proteases that can drive apoptosis in metazoans and have critical functions in the elimination of cells during development, the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and responses to cellular damage. Although a growing body of research suggests that programmed cell death can occur in the absence of caspases, mammalian studies of caspase-independent apoptosis are confounded by the existence of at least seven caspase homologs that can function redundantly to promote cell death. Caspase-independent programmed cell death is also thought to occur in the invertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The C. elegans genome contains four caspase genes (ced-3, csp-1, csp-2, and csp-3), of which only ced-3 has been demonstrated to promote apoptosis. Here, we show that CSP-1 is a pro-apoptotic caspase that promotes programmed cell death in a subset of cells fated to die during C. elegans embryogenesis. csp-1 is expressed robustly in late pachytene nuclei of the germline and is required maternally for its role in embryonic programmed cell deaths. Unlike CED-3, CSP-1 is not regulated by the APAF-1 homolog CED-4 or the BCL-2 homolog CED-9, revealing that csp-1 functions independently of the canonical genetic pathway for apoptosis. Previously we demonstrated that embryos lacking all four caspases can eliminate cells through an extrusion mechanism and that these cells are apoptotic. Extruded cells differ from cells that normally undergo programmed cell death not only by being extruded but also by not being engulfed by neighboring cells. In this study, we identify in csp-3; csp-1; csp-2 ced-3 quadruple mutants apoptotic cell corpses that fully resemble wild-type cell corpses: these caspase-deficient cell corpses are morphologically apoptotic, are not extruded, and are internalized by engulfing cells. We conclude that both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways promote apoptotic programmed cell death and the phagocytosis of cell corpses in parallel to

  14. Dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A public workshop, organized by a Steering Committee of scientists from government, industry, universities, and research organizations, was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in September, 2010. The workshop explored the dose-response implications of toxicant modes of action (MOA) mediated by nuclear receptors. The dominant paradigm in human health risk assessment has been linear extrapolation without a threshold for cancer, and estimation of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer endpoints. However, recent publications question the application of dose-response modeling approaches with a threshold. The growing body of molecular toxicology information and computational toxicology tools has allowed for exploration of the presence or absence of subthreshold doses for a number of receptor-mediated MOPs. The workshop explored the development of dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated liver cancer, within a MOA Human Relevance framework (HRF). Case studies addressed activation of the AHR; the CAR/PXR, and the PPARa. This paper describes the workshop process, key issues discussed, and conclusions. The value of an interactive workshop approach to apply current MOA/HRF frameworks was demonstrated. The results may help direct research on the MOA and dose-response of receptor-based toxicity, since there are commonalities for many receptors in the basic pathways involved for late steps in the

  15. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  16. Dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A public workshop, organized by a Steering Committee of scientists from government, industry, universities, and research organizations, was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in September, 2010. The workshop explored the dose-response implications of toxicant modes of action (MOA) mediated by nuclear receptors. The dominant paradigm in human health risk assessment has been linear extrapolation without a threshold for cancer, and estimation of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer endpoints. However, recent publications question the application of dose-response modeling approaches with a threshold. The growing body of molecular toxicology information and computational toxicology tools has allowed for exploration of the presence or absence of subthreshold doses for a number of receptor-mediated MOPs. The workshop explored the development of dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated liver cancer, within a MOA Human Relevance framework (HRF). Case studies addressed activation of the AHR; the CAR/PXR, and the PPARa. This paper describes the workshop process, key issues discussed, and conclusions. The value of an interactive workshop approach to apply current MOA/HRF frameworks was demonstrated. The results may help direct research on the MOA and dose-response of receptor-based toxicity, since there are commonalities for many receptors in the basic pathways involved for late steps in the

  17. Interferon (IFN)-beta induces apoptotic cell death in DHL-4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    PubMed

    Oehadian, Amaylia; Koide, Naoki; Mu, Mya Mya; Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2005-07-08

    The effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha, beta and gamma on the growth of DHL-4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells was studied. IFN-beta significantly inhibited the cell growth, and the effect was stronger than that of IFN-alpha. IFN-gamma did not inhibit the cell growth because of lack of IFN-gamma receptors. IFN-beta caused apoptotic cell death which was accompanied by DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activation and annexin V binding. IFN-beta lead to the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA. Anti-TRAIL antibody significantly prevented IFN-beta-induced apoptosis. It was suggested that IFN-beta might cause apoptosis in DHL-4 cells through TRAIL.

  18. Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) increases cell death of human osteosarcoma cells and binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, Hakan; Lindholm, Dan

    2008-02-08

    Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) is a recently identified gene expressed in mouse and human tissues particularly during embryonic development. Nulp1 belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that are important in development. The precise function of Nulp1 in cells is however not known. We observed that overexpression of Nulp1 induces a large increase in cell death of human osteosarcoma Saos2 cells with DNA fragmentation. In mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells Nulp1 affected cell proliferation and sensitized cells towards death induced by staurosporine. Staining using a novel antibody localized Nulp1 mainly to the cell nucleus and to some extent to the cytoplasm. Nulp1 binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and this interaction was increased during cell death. These results indicate that Nulp1 plays a role in cell death control and may influence tumor growth.

  19. The multiple functions of cytochrome c and their regulation in life and death decisions of the mammalian cell: from respiration to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hüttemann, Maik; Pecina, Petr; Rainbolt, Matthew; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Samavati, Lobelia; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Icksoo

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome c (Cytc) is essential in mitochondrial electron transport and intrinsic type II apoptosis. Mammalian Cytc also scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) under healthy conditions, produces ROS with the co-factor p66Shc, and oxidizes cardiolipin during apoptosis. The recent finding that Cytc is phosphorylated in vivo underpins a model for the pivotal role of Cytc regulation in making life and death decisions. An apoptotic sequence of events is proposed involving changes in Cytc phosphorylation, increased ROS via increased mitochondrial membrane potentials or the p66Shc pathway, the oxidation of cardiolipin by Cytc, and its release from the mitochondria. Cytc regulation in respiration and cell death is discussed in a human disease context including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and sepsis. PMID:21296189

  20. The multiple functions of cytochrome c and their regulation in life and death decisions of the mammalian cell: From respiration to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hüttemann, Maik; Pecina, Petr; Rainbolt, Matthew; Sanderson, Thomas H; Kagan, Valerian E; Samavati, Lobelia; Doan, Jeffrey W; Lee, Icksoo

    2011-05-01

    Cytochrome c (Cytc) is essential in mitochondrial electron transport and intrinsic type II apoptosis. Mammalian Cytc also scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) under healthy conditions, produces ROS with the co-factor p66(Shc), and oxidizes cardiolipin during apoptosis. The recent finding that Cytc is phosphorylated in vivo underpins a model for the pivotal role of Cytc regulation in making life and death decisions. An apoptotic sequence of events is proposed involving changes in Cytc phosphorylation, increased ROS via increased mitochondrial membrane potentials or the p66(Shc) pathway, and oxidation of cardiolipin by Cytc followed by its release from the mitochondria. Cytc regulation in respiration and cell death is discussed in a human disease context including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyril narciclasine induces apoptosis by activation of the death receptor and/or mitochondrial pathways in cancer cells but not in normal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Patrick; Ingrassia, Laurent; Rouzeau, Sébastien; Ribaucour, Fabrice; Thomas, Stéphanie; Roland, Isabelle; Darro, Francis; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Our study has shown that the Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyril narciclasine induces marked apoptosis-mediated cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells but not in normal fibroblasts by triggering the activation of the initiator caspases of the death receptor pathway (caspase-8 and caspase-10) at least in human MCF-7 breast and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. The formation of the Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) death-inducing signaling complex was clearly evidenced in MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells. Caspase-8 was found to interact with Fas and DR4 receptors on narciclasine treatment. However, narciclasine-induced downstream apoptotic pathways in MCF-7 cells diverged from those in PC-3 cells, where caspase-8 directly activated effector caspases such as caspase-3 in the absence of any further release of mitochondrial proapoptotic effectors. In contrast, in MCF-7 cells, the apoptotic process was found to require an amplification step that is mitochondria-dependent, with Bid processing, release of cytochrome c, and caspase-9 activation. It is postulated that the high selectivity of narciclasine to cancer cells might be linked, at least in part, to this activation of the death receptor pathway. Normal human fibroblasts appear approximately 250-fold less sensitive to narciclasine, which does not induce apoptosis in these cells probably due to the absence of death receptor pathway activation.

  2. The Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Narciclasine Induces Apoptosis By Activation of the Death Receptor and/or Mitochondrial Pathways in Cancer Cells But Not in Normal Fibroblasts1

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Patrick; Ingrassia, Laurent; Rouzeau, Sébastien; Ribaucour, Fabrice; Thomas, Stéphanie; Roland, Isabelle; Darro, Francis; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Our study has shown that the Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyril narciclasine induces marked apoptosis-mediated cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells but not in normal fibroblasts by triggering the activation of the initiator caspases of the death receptor pathway (caspase-8 and caspase-10) at least in human MCF-7 breast and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. The formation of the Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) death-inducing signaling complex was clearly evidenced in MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells. Caspase-8 was found to interact with Fas and DR4 receptors on narciclasine treatment. However, narciclasine-induced downstream apoptotic pathways in MCF-7 cells diverged from those in PC-3 cells, where caspase-8 directly activated effector caspases such as caspase-3 in the absence of any further release of mitochondrial proapoptotic effectors. In contrast, in MCF-7 cells, the apoptotic process was found to require an amplification step that is mitochondria-dependent, with Bid processing, release of cytochrome c, and caspase-9 activation. It is postulated that the high selectivity of narciclasine to cancer cells might be linked, at least in part, to this activation of the death receptor pathway. Normal human fibroblasts appear approximately 250-fold less sensitive to narciclasine, which does not induce apoptosis in these cells probably due to the absence of death receptor pathway activation. PMID:17898872

  3. Pomegranate Juice Polyphenols Induce Macrophage Death via Apoptosis as Opposed to Necrosis Induced by Free Radical Generation: A Central Role for Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Nandi, Sukhendu; Jelinek, Raz; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    At high concentrations, polyphenols induce cell death, and the polyphenols-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its antioxidative/antiatherogenic properties, can possibly affect cell death, including macrophage death involved in atherogenesis. In the present study, apoptotic/necrotic macrophage death was analyzed in J774A.1 macrophages and in peritoneal macrophages isolated from atherosclerotic apoE-/- mice treated with PJ. The effects of PJ were compared with those of the free radical generator 2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Both PJ and AAPH significantly increased J774A.1 macrophage death; however, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses using annexin V/propidium iodide revealed that PJ increased the early apoptosis of the macrophage dose dependently (up to 2.5-fold, P < 0.01), whereas AAPH caused dose-dependent increases in late apoptosis/necrosis (up to 12-fold, P < 0.001). Unlike PJ, AAPH-induced macrophage death was associated with increased intracellular oxidative stress (up to 7-fold, P < 0.001) and with lipid stress demonstrated by triglyceride accumulation (up to 3-fold, P < 0.01) and greater chromatic vesicle response to culture medium (up to 5-fold, P < 0.001). Accordingly, recombinant paraoxonase 1, which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids, attenuated macrophage death induced by AAPH, but not by PJ. Similar apoptotic and oxidative effects were found in macrophages from apoE-/- mice treated with PJ or AAPH. As macrophage apoptotic/necrotic death has considerable impact on atherosclerosis progression, these findings may provide novel mechanisms for the antiatherogenicity of PJ.

  4. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD)

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yasunobu; Maeno, Emi; Shimizu, Takahiro; Dezaki, Katsuya; Wang, Jun; Morishima, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl− channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl− channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl− conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNFα receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma × rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be

  5. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  6. ERK-mediated activation of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2) prevents apoptosis of 661W cells in a model of detachment-induced photoreceptor cell death.

    PubMed

    Besirli, Cagri G; Zheng, Qiong-Duon; Reed, David M; Zacks, David N

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), an inhibitor of the Fas signaling pathway, and its regulation by stress kinase signaling during Fas-mediated apoptosis of 661W cells, an immortalized photoreceptor-like cell line Treatment of 661W cells with a Fas-activating antibody led to increased levels of Faim2. Both ERK and JNK stress kinase pathways were activated in Fas-treated 661W cells, but only the inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced the levels of Faim2. Blocking the ERK pathway using a pharmacological inhibitor increased the susceptibility of 661W cells to Fas-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. When the levels of Faim2 were reduced in 661W cells by siRNA knockdown, Fas activating antibody treatment resulted in earlier and more robust caspase activation, and increased cell death. These results demonstrate that Faim2 acts as a neuroprotectant during Fas-mediated apoptosis of 661W cells. The expression of Faim2 is triggered, at least in part, by Fas-receptor activation and subsequent ERK signaling. Our findings identify a novel protective pathway that auto-regulates Fas-induced photoreceptor apoptosis in vitro. Modulation of this pathway to increase Faim2 expression may be a potential therapeutic option to prevent photoreceptor death.

  7. Induction of Cell Death by Betulinic Acid through Induction of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Autophagic Flux in Microglia BV-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeongbin; Jung, Juneyoung; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Joungmok; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2017-03-10

    Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpene found in many medicinal plants is known to have various biological activity including tumor suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cell-death induction effect of BA was investigated in BV-2 microglia cells. BA was cytotoxic to BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ of approximately 2.0 μM. Treatment of BA resulted in a dosedependent chromosomal DNA degradation, suggesting that these cells underwent apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis further confirmed that BA-treated BV-2 cells showed hypodiploid DNA content. BA treatment triggered apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 levels, activation of capase-3 protease and cleavage of PARP. In addition, BA treatment induced the accumulation of p62 and the increase in conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, which are important autophagic flux monitoring markers. The increase in LC3-II indicates that BA treatment induced autophagosome formation, however, accumulation of p62 represents that the downstream autophagy pathway is blocked. It is demonstrated that BA induced cell death of BV-2 cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting autophagic flux. These data may provide important new information towards understanding the mechanisms by which BA induce cell death in microglia BV-2 cells.

  8. Saving cells from ultrasound-induced apoptosis: quantification of cell death and uptake following sonication and effects of targeted calcium chelation

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, J.D.; Schlicher, R.K.; Hicks, H.K.; Prausnitz, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Applications of ultrasound for non-invasive drug and gene delivery have been limited by associated cell death due to sonication. In this study, we sought to quantify the distribution of cellular bioeffects caused by low-frequency ultrasound (24 kHz) and test the hypothesis that Ca2+ chelation after sonication can shift this distribution by saving cells from death by apoptosis. Using flow cytometry, we quantitatively categorized sonicated cells among four populations: (1) cells that appear largely unaffected, (2) cells reversibly permeabilized, (3) cells rendered nonviable during sonication and (4) cells that appear to be viable shortly after sonication, but later undergo apoptosis and die. By monitoring cells for 6 h after ultrasound exposure, we found that up to 15% of intact cells fell into this final category. Those apoptotic cells initially had the highest levels of uptake of a marker compound, calcein; also had highly elevated levels of intracellular Ca2+; and contained an estimated plasma membrane wound radius of 100 – 300 nm. Finally, we showed that chelation of intracellular Ca2+ after sonication reduced apoptosis by up to 44%, thereby providing a strategy to save cells. We conclude that cells can be saved from ultrasound-induced death by appropriate selection of ultrasound conditions and Ca2+ chelation after sonication. PMID:20447754

  9. Chaetocin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress response and leads to death receptor 5-dependent apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianfang; Guo, Sen; Liu, Xiangguo; Su, Ling

    2015-11-01

    Epigenetic abnormalities are associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) initiation and progression. Epigenetic drugs are being studied and in clinical trials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the apoptosis by the epigenetic agents remains unclear. SUV39H1 is an important methyl-transferase for lysine 9 on histone H3 and usually related to gene transcriptional suppression, and chaetocin acts as the inhibitor of SUV39H1. We demonstrated here that chaetocin effectively suppressed the growth of multiple lung cancer cells through inducing apoptosis in a death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent manner. Chaetocin treatment activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which gave rise to the up-regulation of ATF3 and CHOP. Furthermore, ATF3 and CHOP contributed to the induction of DR5 and subsequent apoptosis. When SUV39H1 was silenced with siRNA, the expression of ATF3, CHOP and DR5 was elevated. Thereafter, knockdown of SUV39H1 induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells. In summary, chaetocin pharmacologically inhibits the activity of SUV39H1 which provokes ER stress and results in up-regulation of ATF3 and CHOP, leading to DR5-dependent apoptosis eventually. These findings provide a novel interpretation on the anti-neoplastic activity of epigenetic drugs as a new therapeutic approach in NSCLC.

  10. An essential oil and its major constituent isointermedeol induce apoptosis by increased expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c and apical death receptors in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz; Bhushan, Shashi; Sethi, Vijay K; Shahi, Ashok K; Kaur, Jagdeep; Taneja, Subhash C; Qazi, Ghulam N; Singh, Jaswant

    2008-02-15

    An essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus (CFO) and its major chemical constituent sesquiterpene isointermedeol (ISO) were investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells because dysregulation of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer cells. CFO and ISO inhibited cell proliferation with 48 h IC50 of approximately 30 and 20 microg/ml, respectively. Both induced concentration dependent strong and early apoptosis as measured by various end-points, e.g. annexinV binding, DNA laddering, apoptotic bodies formation and an increase in hypo diploid sub-G0 DNA content during the early 6h period of study. This could be because of early surge in ROS formation with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential observed. Both CFO and ISO activated apical death receptors TNFR1, DR4 and caspase-8 activity. Simultaneously, both increased the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein with its concomitant release to cytosol leading to caspase-9 activation, suggesting thereby the involvement of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Further, Bax translocation, and decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB expression predict multi-target effects of the essential oil and ISO while both appeared to follow similar signaling apoptosis pathways. The easy and abundant availability of the oil combined with its suggested mechanism of cytotoxicity make CFO highly useful in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.

  11. A novel Death Defying Domain in Met entraps the active site of Caspase-3 and blocks apoptosis in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jihong; Zou, Chunbin; Guo, Lida; Seneviratne, Danushka S.; Tan, Xinping; Kwon, Yong-Kook; An, Jiyan; Bowser, Robert; DeFrances, Marie C.; Zarnegar, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Met, the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to function as a potent anti-apoptotic mediator in normal and neoplastic cells. Herein we report that intracellular cytoplasmic tail of Met has evolved to harbor a tandem pair of Caspase-3 cleavage sites, which bait, trap and disable the active site of Caspase-3, thereby blocking the execution of apoptosis. We call this Caspase-3 cleavage motif the ‘Death Defying Domain’ (DDD). This site consists of the following sequence: DNAD-DEVD-T (where the hyphens denote caspase cleavage sites). Through functional and mechanistic studies, we show that upon DDD cleavage by Caspase-3, the resulting DEVD-T peptide acts as a competitive inhibitor and entraps the active site of Caspase-3 akin to DEVD-CHO, which is a potent, synthetic inhibitor of Caspase-3 activity. By gain and loss-of-function studies using restoration of DDD expression in DDD deficient hepatocytic cells, we found that both Caspase-3 sites in DDD are necessary for inhibition of Caspase-3 and promotion of cell survival. Employing mutagenesis studies, we show that DDD could operate independently of Met’s enzymatic activity as determined by using kinase-dead human Met mutant constructs. Studies of both human liver cancer tissues and cell lines uncovered that DDD cleavage and entrapment of Caspase-3 by DDD occur in vivo, further proving that this site has physiological and pathophysiological relevance. Conclusion Our findings show that Met can directly inhibit Caspase-3 via a novel mechanism and promote hepato-cyte survival. Results presented here will further our understanding of the mechanisms that control not only normal tissue homeostasis but also abnormal tissue growth such as cancer and degenerative diseases in which apoptotic caspases are at play. PMID:24122846

  12. Mitochondrial calcium signalling and cell death: approaches for assessing the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György; Das, Sudipto; Garcia-Perez, Cecilia; Saotome, Masao; Roy, Soumya Sinha; Yi, Muqing

    2009-01-01

    Summary Local Ca2+ transfer between adjoining domains of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) and mitochondria allows ER/SR Ca2+ release to activate mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and to evoke a matrix [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) rise. [Ca2+]m exerts control on several steps of energy metabolism to synchronize ATP generation with cell function. However, calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria may also ignite a cell death program through opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). This occurs when the Ca2+ release from the ER/SR is enhanced or is coincident with sensitization of the PTP. Recent studies have shown that several pro-apoptotic factors, including members of the Bcl-2 family proteins and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the Ca2+ sensitivity of both the Ca2+ release channels in the ER and the PTP in the mitochondria. To test the relevance of the mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation in various apoptotic paradigms, methods are available for buffering of [Ca2+], for dissipation of the driving force of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and for inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms. However, in intact cells, the efficacy and the specificity of these approaches have to be established. Here we discuss mechanisms that recruit the mitochondrial calcium signal to a pro-apoptotic cascade and the approaches available for assessment of the relevance of the mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in apoptosis. We also present a systematic evaluation of the effect of ruthenium red and Ru360, two inhibitors of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake on cytosolic [Ca2+] and [Ca2+]m in intact cultured cells. PMID:17074387

  13. Apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes induced by eugenol-rich oil of Syzygium aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis consists of a complex spectrum of infectious diseases with worldwide distribution of which visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar caused by Leishmania donovani is the most devastating. In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice are expensive and associated with multiple adverse side effects. Because of these limitations, the development of new antileishmanial compounds is imperative and plants offer prospects in this regard. The present work was conducted to study the antileishmanial potential of oil from Syzygium aromaticum flower buds (clove). The S. aromaticum oil was characterized by gas chromatography and GC-MS and eugenol as well as eugenyl acetate were found to be the most abundant compounds, composing 59.75 % and 29.24 %, respectively of the oil. Our findings have shown that eugenol-rich essential oil from S. aromaticum (EROSA) possesses significant activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 21 ± 0.16 µg ml(-1) and 15.24 ± 0.14 µg ml(-1), respectively, against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Alterations in cellular morphology and growth reversibility assay substantiated the leishmanicidal activity of EROSA. The leishmanicidal effect was mediated via apoptosis as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation. EROSA presented no adverse cytotoxic effects against murine macrophages even at 200 µg ml(-1). Our studies authenticate the promising antileishmanial activity of EROSA, which is mediated by programmed cell death, and, accordingly, EROSA may be a source of novel agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  14. Survival and death strategies in glioma cells: autophagy, senescence and apoptosis triggered by a single type of temozolomide-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Knizhnik, Anna V; Roos, Wynand P; Nikolova, Teodora; Quiros, Steve; Tomaszowski, Karl-Heinz; Christmann, Markus; Kaina, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis and cellular senescence are key responses of cells that were exposed to genotoxicants. The types of DNA damage triggering these responses and their interrelationship are largely unknown. Here we studied these responses in glioma cells treated with the methylating agent temozolomide (TMZ), which is a first-line chemotherapeutic for this malignancy. We show that upon TMZ treatment cells undergo autophagy, senescence and apoptosis in a specific time-dependent manner. Necrosis was only marginally induced. All these effects were completely abrogated in isogenic glioma cells expressing O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), indicating that a single type of DNA lesion, O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)MeG), is able to trigger all these responses. Studies with mismatch repair mutants and MSH6, Rad51 and ATM knockdowns revealed that autophagy induced by O(6)MeG requires mismatch repair and ATM, and is counteracted by homologous recombination. We further show that autophagy, which precedes apoptosis, is a survival mechanism as its inhibition greatly ameliorated the level of apoptosis following TMZ at therapeutically relevant doses (<100 µM). Cellular senescence increases with post-exposure time and, similar to autophagy, precedes apoptosis. If autophagy was abrogated, TMZ-induced senescence was reduced. Therefore, we propose that autophagy triggered by O(6)MeG adducts is a survival mechanism that stimulates cells to undergo senescence rather than apoptosis. Overall, the data revealed that a specific DNA adduct, O(6)MeG, has the capability of triggering autophagy, senescence and apoptosis and that the decision between survival and death is determined by the balance of players involved. The data also suggests that inhibition of autophagy may ameliorate the therapeutic outcome of TMZ-based cancer therapy.

  15. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells via activation of both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Qin, Qizhi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Hongyan; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The evidence shows that DEHP may exert its toxic effects primarily via MEHP, which is 10-fold more potent than its parent compound in toxicity in vitro. MEHP-induced apoptosis is mediated by either p53-dependent or -independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. In this study, immortalized normal human liver cell line L02 was chosen, as an in vitro model of nonmalignant liver, to elucidate the role of p53 in MEHP-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with MEHP (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 μM) for 24 and 36 h, then small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to specifically silence p53 gene of L02 cells. The results indicated that MEHP caused oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in L02 cells were associated with the p53 signaling pathway. Further study found that MEHP (50.00 and 100.00 μM) induced apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells, along with the up-regulations of Fas and FasL proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 activities. Additionally, both FasL inhibitor (AF-016) and Caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) could prevent the cell apoptosis induced by MEHP. The findings suggested that MEHP-induced apoptosis in L02 cells involving a Caspases-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway and/or death receptor pathway. p53 was not absolutely necessary for MEHP-induced L02 cell apoptosis.

  16. Loss of FAS/FASL signaling does not reduce apoptosis in Sharpin null mice.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher S; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Stearns, Timothy M; HogenEsch, Harm; Sundberg, John P

    2017-01-17

    Mice with mutations in SHANK-associated RH domain interactor (Sharpin) develop a hypereosinophilic auto-inflammatory disease known as chronic proliferative dermatitis. Affected mice have increased apoptosis in the keratinocytes of the skin, esophagus, and forestomach driven by extrinsic TNF receptor mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. FAS receptor signaling is an extrinsic apoptotic signaling mechanism frequently involved in inflammatory skin diseases. Compound mutations in Sharpin and Fas or Fasl were created to determine if these death domain proteins influenced the cutaneous phenotype in Sharpin null mice. Both Sharpin/Fas and Sharpin/Fasl compound mutant mice developed an auto-inflammatory phenotype similar to that seen in Sharpin null mice indicating that initiation of apoptosis by FAS signaling is likely not involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Hyaluronan synthase-2 upregulation protects smpd3-deficient fibroblasts against cell death induced by nutrient deprivation, but not against apoptosis evoked by oxidized LDL

    PubMed Central

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Rouahi, Myriam; Mucher, Elodie; Auge, Nathalie; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The neutral type 2 sphingomyelinase (nSMase2) hydrolyzes sphingomyelin and generates ceramide, a major bioactive sphingolipid mediator, involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. The role of nSMase2 in apoptosis is debated, and apparently contradictory results have been observed on fibroblasts isolated from nSMase2-deficient fragilitas ossium (homozygous fro/fro) mice. These mice exhibit a severe neonatal dysplasia, a lack of long bone mineralization and delayed apoptosis patterns of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate. We hypothesized that apoptosis induced by nutrient deprivation, which mimics the environmental modifications of the growth plate, requires nSMase2 activation. In this study, we have compared the resistance of fro/fro fibroblasts to different death inducers (oxidized LDL, hydrogen peroxide and nutrient starvation). The data show that nSMase2-deficient fro/fro cells resist to apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation (fetal calf serum/glucose/pyruvate-free DMEM), whereas wt fibroblasts die after 48 h incubation in this medium. In contrast, oxidized LDL and hydrogen peroxide are similarly toxic to fro/fro and wt fibroblasts, indicating that nSMase2 is not involved in the mechanism of toxicity evoked by these agents. Interestingly, wt fibroblasts treated with the SMase inhibitor GW4869 were more resistant to starvation-induced apoptosis. The resistance of fro/fro cells to starvation-induced apoptosis is associated with an increased expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNAs and protein, which is inhibited by ceramide. In wt fibroblasts, this HAS2 rise and its protective effect did not occur, but exogenously added HA exhibited a protective effect against starvation-induced apoptosis. The protective mechanism of HAS2 involves an increased expression of the heat-shock protein Hsp72, a chaperone with antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, these results highlight the role of nSMase2 in apoptosis evoked by nutrient starvation that could

  18. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-03-09

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc(-) system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc(-) inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death.

  19. Apoptosis induction of human lung carcinoma cells by Chan Su (Venenum Bufonis) through activation of caspases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hye Ri; Yoo, Hwa Seung; Shin, Dong Yeok; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Chong Kwan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2009-09-01

    Chan Su is a traditional Chinese medicine prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of toads, and has been used as an oriental drug for the treatment of a number of diseases, including cancer. In this study, the potential of Chan Su (skin of Venenum Bufonis) to induce apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells was investigated. Treatment of A549 cells with skin of Venenum Bufonis resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and viability and the induction of apoptosis, which was shown by trypan blue counts, MTT assay, DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis that was induced by skin of Venenum Bufonis was correlated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Fas ligand and death receptor 4, and a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Skin of Venenum Bufonis treatment induced the proteolytic activation of caspases and a concomitant degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase and beta-catenin protein. Cleavage of Bid and a down-regulation of the inhibitor of apoptosis family proteins were also observed in skin of Venenum Bufonis-treated A549 cells. Data from this study indicates that SVB induces the apoptosis of A549 cells through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic and mitochondria-mediated intrinsic caspase pathways.

  20. Receptor-Mediated Transport of Insulin across Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, George L.; Johnson, Sandra M.

    1985-03-01

    Hormones such as insulin are transported from the interior to the exterior of blood vessels. Whether endothelial cells, which line the inner walls of blood vessels have a role in this transport of hormones is not clear, but it is known that endothelial cells can internalize and release insulin rapidly with little degradation. The transport of iodine-125-labeled insulin was measured directly through the use of dual chambers separated by a horizontal monolayer of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. In this setting, endothelial cells took up and released the labeled insulin, thereby transporting it across the cells. The transport of insulin across the endothelial cells was temperature sensitive and was inhibited by unlabeled insulin and by antibody to insulin receptor in proportion to the ability of these substances to inhibit insulin binding to its receptor. More than 80 percent of the transported insulin was intact. These data suggest that insulin is rapidly transported across endothelial cells by a receptor-mediated process.

  1. Receptor mediated cellular uptake of low molecular weight dendritic polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Marcelo; Reichert, Stephanie; Welker, Pia; Licha, Kai; Kratz, Felix; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective polymer-based nanocarriers which are able to target diseased tissues still remains a great challenge in current research. Dendritic polyglycerols have emerged as novel polymeric scaffolds that have demonstrated a great potential for diverse biomedical applications. These architectures have already proven their usefulness in therapeutic approaches related to multivalency, given by the synergy between the nanosized dimensions combined with the high density of functional groups. However, a continuous effort is necessary to modify and tailor polyglycerol architectures to fit the future demands of biomedical applications. The present work deals with the development of a general synthetic strategy that allows the linkage of low molecular weight dendritic polyglycerols to fluorescent dyes and cell targeting ligands. The receptor mediated cellular uptake of the polyglycerol conjugates highlight their potential to acts as new targeted nanocarriers that should be able to decrease non-specific cellular uptake.

  2. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Shuba, Yaroslav; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Frank C; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 5-HT (1 μM)-evoked currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp technique were reversibly inhibited by menthol in a concentration-dependent (IC50 = 163 μM) manner. The effects of menthol developed gradually, reaching a steady-state level within 10-15 minutes and did not involve G-proteins, since GTPγS activity remained unaltered and the effect of menthol was not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment. The actions of menthol were not stereoselective as (-), (+), and racemic menthol inhibited 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents to the same extent. Menthol inhibition was not altered by intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid injections and transmembrane potential changes. The maximum inhibition observed for menthol was not reversed by increasing concentrations of 5-HT. Furthermore, specific binding of the 5-HT3 antagonist [(3)H]GR65630 was not altered in the presence of menthol (up to 1 mM), indicating that menthol acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. Finally, 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurons were also inhibited by menthol (100 μM). These data demonstrate that menthol, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is an allosteric inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors.

  3. Valosin-containing protein is a key mediator between autophagic cell death and apoptosis in adult hippocampal neural stem cells following insulin withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Bo Kyoung; Hong, Caroline Jeeyeon; Chung, Kyung Min; Woo, Hanwoong; Kim, Kyungchan; Jung, Seonghee; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-03-22

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays essential roles in the regulation of survival and function of neural stem cells (NSCs). Abnormal regulation of this process is associated with developmental and degenerative neuronal disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the PCD of NSCs remain largely unknown. Understanding the mechanisms of PCD in NSCs is crucial for exploring therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously reported that adult rat hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells undergo autophagic cell death (ACD) following insulin withdrawal without apoptotic signs despite their normal apoptotic capabilities. It is unknown how interconnection between ACD and apoptosis is mediated in HCN cells. Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is known to be essential for autophagosome maturation in mammalian cells. VCP is abundantly expressed in HCN cells compared to hippocampal tissue and neurons. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of VCP at basal state in the presence of insulin modestly impaired autophagic flux, consistent with its known role in autophagosome maturation. Of note, VCP inaction in insulin-deprived HCN cells significantly decreased ACD and down-regulated autophagy initiation signals with robust induction of apoptosis. Overall autophagy level was also substantially reduced, suggesting the novel roles of VCP at initial step of autophagy. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VCP may play an essential role in the initiation of autophagy and mediation of crosstalk between ACD and apoptosis in HCN cells when autophagy level is high upon insulin withdrawal. This is the first report on the role of VCP in regulation of NSC cell death. Elucidating the mechanism by which VCP regulates the crosstalk of ACD and apoptosis will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of PCD in NSCs.

  4. Synergistic induction of apoptosis and caspase-independent autophagic cell death by a combination of nitroxide Tempo and heat shock in human leukemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Li; Fujiwara, Yoshisada; Kondo, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that heat stress or a superoxide dismutase mimic nitroxide, Tempo, induces apoptosis, while their combination causes nonapoptotic cell death; however, the underlying mechanism for this switch remains unclear. Here we identified for the first time that 10 mM Tempo present during heating at 44°C for 30 min rapidly induced autophagy in U937 leukemic cells in spite of Bax activation and mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization. This co-treatment inhibited the processing of heat-activated procaspases-2, -8, -9 and -3 into active small subunits, leading to the inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis, and instead caused the induction of autophagy. The inactivation of caspases, a key event, could result from oxidation of active-site-CysSH of all caspases by a prooxidant oxo-ammonium cation, an intermediate derived Tempo during dismutation of heat-induced superoxide anion. In addition, the co-treatment caused mitochondrial calcium overloads, the mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization, profound mitochondrial dysfunction, and liberation of Beclin 1 from the Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complex, all of which contributed to induction of autophagy. These autophagic cells underwent propidium iodide-positive necrosis in a delayed fashion, leading to the complete proliferative inhibition. Remarkably, ruthenium red and BAPTA, which interfere with mitochondrial calcium uptake, facilitated autophagic necrotic death. Cyclosporin A, which binds to cyclophilin D, had a similar necrotic effect. 3-Methyladenine facilitated the necrosis of autophagic cells. In contrast, 5 mM Tempo-44°C/10 min or 44°C/30 min induced Bax-mediated MOM permeabilization and caspase-dependent apoptosis more potently than Tempo alone. Thus, Tempo is a unique thermosensitizer to synergistically induce apoptosis and autophagic cell death.

  5. Involvement of the PI3K and ERK signaling pathways in largemouth bass virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Youhua; Xu, Liwen; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-12-01

    Increased reports demonstrated that largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides in natural and artificial environments were always suffered from an emerging iridovirus disease, largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). However, the underlying mechanism of LMBV pathogenesis remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the cell signaling events involved in virus induced cell death and viral replication in vitro. We found that LMBV infection in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells induced typical apoptosis, evidenced by the appearance of apoptotic bodies, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) destruction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Two initiators of apoptosis, caspase-8 and caspase-9, and the executioner of apoptosis, caspase-3, were all significantly activated with the infection time, suggested that not only mitochondrion-mediated, but also death receptor-mediated apoptosis were involved in LMBV infection. Reporter gene assay showed that the promoter activity of transcription factors including p53, NF-κB, AP-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were decreased during LMBV infection. After treatment with different signaling pathway inhibitors, virus production were significantly suppressed by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling pathway. Furthermore, LMBV infection induced apoptosis was enhanced by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but decreased by addition of ERK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, we speculated that apoptosis was sophisticatedly regulated by a series of cell signaling events for efficient virus propagation. Taken together, our results provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of ranavirus infection.

  6. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces necrosis-like cell death in tumor cells at acidic extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Meurette, Olivier; Huc, Laurence; Rebillard, Amelie; Le Moigne, Gwenaelle; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese

    2005-11-01

    How tumor microenvironment, more specifically low extracellular pH (6.5), alters cell response to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-based cancer therapy has yet to be determined. The aim of the current work was to test the effect of acidic extracellular pH on TRAIL-induced cell death in human HT29 colon carcinoma and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell lines as well as in human primary hepatocytes. We found an increase in TRAIL sensitivity at low extracellular pH, which is partially inhibited by Bcl-2 expression in HT29 cells. At low extracellular pH, TRAIL induced a new form of cell death, sharing necrotic and apoptotic features in tumor cells. By contrast, human primary hepatocytes were resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death even at acidic extracellular pH.

  7. Direct Visualization of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription in Living Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Receptor-Mediated Transcription in Living Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul M. Yen, M.D...reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of...Sep 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Direct Visualization of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription in Living Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  8. Antigen receptor-induced B lymphocyte apoptosis mediated via a protease of the caspase family.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, S; Liou, H C

    1998-02-01

    An extensive body of data, in a variety of systems, denoted the caspase family of proteases as a key player in the execution of programmed cell death. This family consists of cysteine proteases that cleave after asparagine-containing motifs. It is well established that the caspases are essential for the apoptosis mediated by Fas (CD95) and TNF receptor p55, molecules that contain the "death domain" in the cytoplasmic tail. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the antigen receptor-mediated cell death in B lymphocytes, a process instrumental in negative selection of potentially autoreactive B cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of caspases in cell death triggered via the antigen receptor in B lymphocytes (BCR) by using specific inhibitors. Initially, we used a well-established cell line, CH31, which is a model of B cell tolerance, to demonstrate that these proteases indeed participate in the BCR-induced apoptotic pathway. Next, we confirmed the physiological relevance of the caspase-mediated cell death pathway in splenic B cell populations isolated ex vivo that were induced to undergo apoptosis by extensive cross-linking of their BCR. Most interestingly, our data demonstrated that caspases regulate not only the nuclear DNA fragmentation, but also the surface membrane phosphatidylserine translocation as well as the degradation of a specific nuclear substrate. Taken together, this report supports the hypothesis that regulation of the caspase family is crucial in controlling the life/death decision in B lymphocytes mediated by the antigen receptor signal transduction.

  9. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Das, Bimolendu; Sen, Rupashree; Kundu, Priyanka; Manna, Alak; Sarkar, Avijit; Chowdhury, Chinmay; Chatterjee, Mitali; Das, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of the most potent Andrographolide analogue (AG–4) mediated action that involved the induction of dual modes of cell death—apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemic U937 cells. Principal Findings AG–4 induced cytotoxicity was associated with redox imbalance and apoptosis which involved mitochondrial depolarisation, altered apoptotic protein expressions, activation of the caspase cascade leading to cell cycle arrest. Incubation with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA decreased cytotoxic efficacy of AG–4 emphasising critical roles of caspase and Bax. In addition, AG–4 induced autophagy as evident from LC3-II accumulation, increased Atg protein expressions and autophagosome formation. Pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA suppressed the cytotoxic effect of AG–4 implying the pro-death role of autophagy. Furthermore, incubation with Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA subdued AG–4 induced autophagy and pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA curbed AG–4 induced apoptosis—implying that apoptosis and autophagy acted as partners in the context of AG–4 mediated action. AG–4 also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR or Akt augmented AG–4 induced apoptosis and autophagy signifying its crucial role in its mechanism of action. Conclusions Thus, these findings prove the dual ability of AG–4 to induce apoptosis and autophagy which provide a new perspective to it as a potential molecule targeting PCD for future cancer therapeutics. PMID:26436418

  10. Anticancer effects of imperatorin isolated from Angelica dahurica: induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both death-receptor- and mitochondria-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-wang; Sun, Jian-guo; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Yang, Lu; Wu, Shi-hua; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Liu, Fei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Imperatorin (IM) is a furanocoumarin isolated from the root of Angelica dahurica, which is reported to have anticonvulsant and anticancer effects. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of IM on 9 human cancer cell lines was examined, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were chosen as the target for preferential killing by IM. Particularly, the mechanism of IM-induced apoptosis and in vivo animal effects were also studied. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay, and apoptosis was detected by Hoechst staining, annexin V-PI staining, and DNA laddering assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining. Western blot analysis was employed to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. In addition, the in vivo anticancer effect of IM was examined in nude mice bearing HepG2 cells. IM inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells through apoptosis induction in a time- and dose-dependent manner by observation of the nuclear morphology, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into cytosol, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. As cell death could partly be prevented by the caspase-8 or caspase-9 inhibitor and was evidenced by the results of Western blot analysis, our results also suggest that IM-induced apoptosis is mediated through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. In the animal model, IM was found to effectively suppress tumor growth by 31.93 and 63.18% at dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, after treatment for 14 days. No significant weight loss or toxicity to the hosts was found. IM can function as a cancer suppressor by inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both death-receptor- and mitochondria-mediated pathways. Furthermore, the in vivo antitumor activities of IM are significant with negligible weight loss and damage to the host. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Maturation-dependent modulation of apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons by cytokines and neurotrophins.

    PubMed

    de Luca, A; Weller, M; Frei, K; Fontana, A

    1996-09-01

    Immature cerebellar granule neurons die by apoptosis within 1 week in vitro unless maintained in depolarizing (high) concentrations of potassium (25 mM K+). Neurons allowed to survive and differentiate in high K+ medium for several days in vitro are still induced to undergo apoptosis when switched back to physiological (low) concentrations of K+ (5 mM). Here we have investigated the effects of various cytokines and growth factors in these two well-defined paradigms of neuronal apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha, leukaemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, interleukin-10 and interleukin-13 delayed apoptosis and prolonged survival of cerebellar granule neurons maintained in low K+ medium. The effect observed required continuous exposure of the cultures to the cytokines and appeared not to involve modulation of Bcl-2 protein expression. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor accelerated neuronal death in low K+ medium. In contrast, when apoptosis of the neurons was precipitated by switching mature high K+ neurons to low K+ medium, neither tumour necrosis factor-alpha, leukaemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, interleukin-10 nor interleukin-13 prevented apoptosis. When testing the cytokines and growth factors for their capacity to alter N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity of differentiated cerebellar granule neurons, no significant effect was observed. These data appear to define a maturation-dependent modulation of cerebellar granule cell survival by cytokines and neurotrophic factors that are expressed in a developmental pattern in the mammalian brain.

  12. Pretreatment with paclitaxel enhances apo-2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by inducing death receptors 4 and 5 protein levels.

    PubMed

    Nimmanapalli, R; Perkins, C L; Orlando, M; O'Bryan, E; Nguyen, D; Bhalla, K N

    2001-01-15

    We have demonstrated that Apo-2 ligand (Apo-2L)/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis of human prostate cancer PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner, with PC-3 cells displaying the greatest sensitivity to Apo-2L/TRAIL. Susceptibility of the prostate cancer cell types to Apo-2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis did not appear to correlate with the levels of the Apo-2L/TRAIL receptors death receptor (DR) 4 (TRAIL receptor 1) or DR5 (TRAIL receptor 2), decoy receptor (DcR) 1 and DcR2, Flame-1, or the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins family of proteins. Apo-2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells was associated with the processing of caspase-8, caspase-10, and the proapoptotic Bid protein, resulting in the cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c as well as the processing of procaspase-9 and procaspase-3. Cotreatment with the caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk or DR4:Fc significantly inhibited Apo-2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Treatment with paclitaxel or taxotere increased DR4 and/or DR5 protein levels (up to 8-fold) without affecting the protein levels of DcR1 and DcR2, Apo-2L/TRAIL, Fas, or Fas ligand. Up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 was not preceded by the induction of their mRNA levels but was inhibited by cotreatment with cycloheximide. Importantly, sequential treatment of PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells with paclitaxel followed by Apo-2L/TRAIL induced significantly more apoptosis than Apo-2L/TRAIL treatment alone (P < 0.01). This was also associated with greater processing of procaspase-8 and Bid, as well as greater cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c and the processing of caspase-3. These findings indicate that up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 protein levels by treatment with paclitaxel enhances subsequent Apo-2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells.

  13. Characterization of HJ-PI01 as a novel Pim-2 inhibitor that induces apoptosis and autophagic cell death in triple-negative human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-qian; Yin, Yi-qiong; Liu, Jie; Wang, Gui-hua; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Ling-juan; Wang, Jin-hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Pim-2 is a short-lived serine/threonine kinase, which plays a key role in metastasis of breast cancer through persistent activation of STAT3. Although the crystal structure of Pim-2 has been reported, but thus far no specific Pim-2-targeted compounds have been reported. In this study, we identified a novel Pim-2 inhibitor, HJ-PI01, by in silico analysis and experimental validation. Methods: The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, chemical synthesis, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to design and discover the new Pim-2 inhibitor HJ-PI01. The anti-tumor effects of HJ-PI01 were evaluated in human breast MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-436, MCF-7 cells in vitro and in MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice, which were treated with HJ-PI01 (40 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) with or without lienal polypeptide (50 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 10 d. The apoptosis/autophage-inducing mechanisms of HJ-PI01 were elucidated using Western blots, immunoblots, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Results: Based on the PrePPI network, the potential partners interacting with Pim-2 in regulating apoptosis (160 protein pairs) and autophagy (47 protein pairs) were identified. Based on the structural characteristics of Pim-2, a total of 15 compounds (HJ-PI01 to HJ-P015) were synthesized, which showed moderate or remarkable anti-proliferative potency in the human breast cancer cell lines tested. The most effective compound HJ-PI01 exerted a robust inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells compared with chlorpromazine and the pan-Pim inhibitor PI003. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation revealed that HJ-PI01 had a good binding score with Pim-2. Moreover, HJ-PI01 (300 nmol/L) induced death receptor-dependent and mitochondrial apoptosis as well as autophagic death in MDA-MB-231 cells. In MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice, administration of HJ-PI01 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth and induced tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Co-administration of

  14. Screening of suppressors of bax-induced cell death identifies glycerophosphate oxidase-1 as a mediator of debcl-induced apoptosis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Colin, Jessie; Garibal, Julie; Clavier, Amandine; Szuplewski, Sébastien; Risler, Yanick; Milet, Cécile; Gaumer, Sébastien; Guénal, Isabelle; Mignotte, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family are key elements of the apoptotic machinery. In mammals, this multigenic family contains about twenty members, which either promote or inhibit apoptosis. We have previously shown that the mammalian pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax is very efficient in inducing apoptosis in Drosophila, allowing the study of bax-induced cell death in a genetic animal model. We report here the results of the screening of a P[UAS]-element insertion library performed to identify gene products that modify the phenotypes induced by the expression of bax in Drosophila melanogaster. We isolated 17 putative modifiers involved in various function or process: the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway; cell growth, proliferation and death; pathfinding and cell adhesion; secretion and extracellular signaling; metabolism and oxidative stress. Most of these suppressors also inhibit debcl-induced phenotypes, suggesting that the activities of both proteins can be modulated in part by common signaling or metabolic pathways. Among these suppressors, Glycerophosphate oxidase-1 is found to participate in debcl-induced apoptosis by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulation.

  15. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youhong; Chen, Lin; Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-02-20

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future.

  16. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M.; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future. PMID:25605010

  17. Inhibition of γ-secretase activity synergistically enhances tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induced apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells via upregulation of death receptor 5

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Lisa M.; Nathwani, Seema M.; Zisterer, Daniela M.

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a rare and aggressive hematopoietic malignancy prone to relapse and drug resistance. Half of all T-ALL patients exhibit mutations in Notch1, which leads to aberrant Notch1 associated signaling cascades. Notch1 activation is mediated by the γ-secretase cleavage of the Notch1 receptor into the active intracellular domain of Notch1 (NCID). Clinical trials of γ-secretase small molecule inhibitors (GSIs) as single agents for the treatment of T-ALL have been unsuccessful. The present study demonstrated, using immunofluorescence and western blotting, that blocking γ-secretase activity in T-ALL cells with N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl) acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenyl] glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl ester (DAPT) downregulated NCID and upregulated the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 5 (DR5). Upregulation of DR5 restored the sensitivity of T-ALL cells to TRAIL. Combination index revealed that the combined treatment of DAPT and TRAIL synergistically enhanced apoptosis compared with treatment with either drug alone. TRAIL combined with the clinically evaluated γ-secretase inhibitor 3-[(1r, 4s)-4-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-4-(2, 5-difluorophenyl) cyclohexyl] propanoic acid (MK-0752) also significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced cell death compared with either drug alone. DAPT/TRAIL apoptotic synergy was dependent on the extrinsic apoptotic pathway and was associated with a decrease in BH3 interacting-domain death agonist and x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. In conclusion, γ-secretase inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance for the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:27698877

  18. The Deubiquitinase Inhibitor PR-619 Sensitizes Normal Human Fibroblasts to Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-mediated Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Roslyn N.; Dicker, David T.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2016-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential cancer therapy that selectively targets cancer cell death while non-malignant cells remain viable. Using a panel of normal human fibroblasts, we characterized molecular differences in human foreskin fibroblasts and WI-38 TRAIL-resistant cells and marginally sensitive MRC-5 cells compared with TRAIL-sensitive human lung and colon cancer cells. We identified decreased caspase-8 protein expression and protein stability in normal fibroblasts compared with cancer cells. Additionally, normal fibroblasts had incomplete TRAIL-induced caspase-8 activation compared with cancer cells. We found that normal fibroblasts lack the ubiquitin modification of caspase-8 required for complete caspase-8 activation. Treatment with the deubiquitinase inhibitor PR-619 increased caspase-8 ubiquitination and caspase-8 enzymatic activity and sensitized normal fibroblasts to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, posttranslational regulation of caspase-8 confers resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death in normal cells through blockade of initiation of the extrinsic cell death pathway. PMID:26757822

  19. Electrochemical control of cell death by reduction-induced intrinsic apoptosis and oxidation-induced necrosis on CoCrMo alloy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Morteza; Wӧllert, Torsten; Langford, George M; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2012-09-01

    Electrochemical voltage shifts in metallic biomedical implants occur in-vivo due to a number of processes including mechanically assisted corrosion. These excursions may compromise the biocompatibility of metallic implants. Voltages can also be controlled to modulate cell function and fate. The in vitro effect of static voltages on the behavior of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cultured on CoCrMo alloy (ASTM-1537) was studied to determine the range of cell viability and mode of cell death beyond the viable range. Cell viability and morphology, changes in actin cytoskeleton, adhesion complexes and nucleus, and mode of cell death (necrosis, or intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis) were characterized at different voltages ranging from -1000 to +500 mV (Ag/AgCl). Moreover, electrochemical currents and metal ion concentrations at each voltage were measured and related to the observed responses. Results show that cathodic and anodic voltages outside the voltage viability range (-400 < V < +500) lead to primarily intrinsic apoptotic and necrotic cell death, respectively. Cell death is associated with cathodic current densities of 0.1 μA cm(-2) and anodic current densities of 10 μA cm(-2). Significant increase in metallic ions (Co, Cr, Ni, Mo) was seen at +500 mV, and -1000 mV (Cr only) compared to open circuit potential. The number and total projected area of adhesion complexes was also lower on the polarized alloy (p < 0.05). These results show that reduction reactions on CoCrMo alloys leads to apoptosis of cells on the surface and may be a relevant mode of cell death for metallic implants in-vivo.

  20. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1)-targeted TRAIL combines PD-L1-mediated checkpoint inhibition with TRAIL-mediated apoptosis induction

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Djoke; He, Yuan; Koopmans, Iris; Wiersma, Valerie R.; van Ginkel, Robert J.; Samplonius, Douwe F.; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibodies that block PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoints restore the activity of functionally-impaired antitumor T cells. These antibodies show unprecedented clinical benefit in various advanced cancers, particularly in melanoma. However, only a subset of cancer patients responds to current PD-L1/PD-1-blocking strategies, highlighting the need for further advancements in PD-L1/PD-1-based immunotherapy. Here, we report on a novel approach designed to combine PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition with the tumor-selective induction of apoptosis by TNF-related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). In brief, a new bi-functional fusion protein, designated anti-PD-L1:TRAIL, was constructed comprising a PD-L1-blocking antibody fragment genetically fused to the extracellular domain of the pro-apoptotic tumoricidal protein TRAIL. Treatment of PD-L1-expressing cancer cells with anti-PD-L1:TRAIL induced PD-L1-directed TRAIL-mediated cancer cell death. Treatment of T cells with anti-PD-L1:TRAIL augmented T cell activation, as evidenced by increased proliferation, secretion of IFNγ and enhanced killing of cancer cell lines and primary patient-derived cancer cells in mixed T cell/cancer cell culture experiments. Of note, elevated levels of IFNγ further upregulated PD-L1 on cancer cells and simultaneously sensitized cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by anti-PD-L1:TRAIL. Additionally, anti-PD-L1:TRAIL converted immunosuppressive PD-L1-expressing myeloid cells into pro-apoptotic effector cells that triggered TRAIL-mediated cancer cell death. In conclusion, combining PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition with TRAIL-mediated induction of apoptosis using anti-PD-L1:TRAIL yields promising multi-fold and mutually reinforcing anticancer activity that may be exploited to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint inhibition. PMID:27622071

  1. Heat-modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis-like cell death and autophagy in HepG2 and A549 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cote, Francois; Cambier, Pierre; Arnould, Thierry; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3) protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  2. Heat-Modified Citrus Pectin Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death and Autophagy in HepG2 and A549 Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cote, Francois; Cambier, Pierre; Arnould, Thierry; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3) protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments. PMID:25794149

  3. [Signal pathways of cell proliferation and death as targets of potential chemotherapeutics].

    PubMed

    Repický, A; Jantová, S; Milata, V

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current information concerning signal transduction pathways of cell proliferation and cell death applicable in the research of antitumor compounds with a specific effect. Actually, cancer counts among the world gravest diseases. Research of the mechanisms of action of chemotherapeutics helps us to find compounds with high cytotoxic activity to tumor cells and low or no cytotoxicity to normal cells. Many present studies deal with the ability of drugs to hit the proliferation signal pathways or cell death pathways specifically. Various proliferation signal pathways have been identified, e.g. pathways of mitogen-activated proteinkinases. In original studies, cell death was considered to perform in necrotic and apoptotic forms, whereas in contrast to necrosis, apoptosis represented the programmed process. However, other forms of programmed cell death were discovered, the programmed necrosis and autophagic cell death. Similarly, beside the intrinsic, mitochondrial-mediated, and extrinsic, receptor-mediated pathways, new mechanisms of induction of apoptosis were discovered: the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in which calcium plays an important role, the lysosomal pathway and the ceramide-induced pathway. Current information concerning transduction of antiproliferative and death stimuli in cells allows to explain the mechanisms of action of known drugs and also brings novel therapeutical targets which can serve in treatment of such diseases as cancer.

  4. Bleomycin induced sensitivity to TRAIL/Apo-2L-mediated apoptosis in human seminomatous testicular cancer cells is correlated with upregulation of death receptors.

    PubMed

    Timur, Mujgan; Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Sarikcioglu, Sureyya Bilmen; Sanlioglu, Salih; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad; Ozben, Tomris

    2015-01-01

    The most common solid tumor is testicular cancer among young men. Bleomycin is an antitumor antibiotic used for the therapy of testicular cancer. TRAIL is a proapoptotic cytokine that qualified as an apoptosis inducer in cancer cells. Killing cancer cells selectively via apoptosis induction is an encouraging therapeutic strategy in clinical settings. Combination of TRAIL with chemotherapeutics has been reported to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of different kinds of cancer cell lines. The molecular ground for sensitization of tumour cells to TRAIL by chemotherapeutics might involve upregulation of TRAIL-R1 (TR/1, DR4) and/or TRAIL-R2 (TR/2, DR5) receptors or activation of proapoptotic proteins including caspases. The curative potential of TRAIL to eradicate cancer cells selectively in testicular cancer has not been studied before. In this study, we investigated apoptotic effects of bleomycin, TRAIL, and their combined application in NTera-2 and NCCIT testicular cancer cell lines. We measured caspase 3 levels as an apoptosis indicator, and TRAIL receptor expressions using flow cytometry. Both NTera-2 and NCCIT cells were fairly resistant to TRAIL's apoptotic effect. Incubation of bleomycin alone caused a significant increase in caspase 3 activity in NCCIT. Combined incubation with bleomycin and TRAIL lead to elevated caspase 3 activity in Ntera-2. Exposure to 72 h of bleomycin increased TR/1, TR/2, and TR/3 cell-surface expressions in NTera-2. Elevation in TR/1 cell-surface expression was evident only at 24 h of bleomycin application in NCCIT. It can be concluded that TRAIL death receptor expressions in particular are increased in testicular cancer cells via bleomycin treatment, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis is initiated.

  5. Cell-permeable intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protect and rescue intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki-Horibuchi, Shiori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Nagako; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we constructed bacterial expression plasmids containing genes of XIAP (full-length, BIR2 domain and BIR3-RING domain with and without mutations of auto-ubiquitylation sites) and cIAP2 proteins fused to a protein-transduction domain (PTD) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) and purified these cell-permeable recombinant proteins. When the TAT-conjugated IAPs were added to rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC6, these proteins were effectively delivered into the cells and inhibited apoptosis, even when added after irradiation. Our results suggest that PTD-mediated delivery of IAPs may have clinical potential, not only for radioprotection but also for rescuing the GI system from radiation injuries.

  6. Cell-permeable intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protect and rescue intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki-Horibuchi, Shiori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Nagako; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we constructed bacterial expression plasmids containing genes of XIAP (full-length, BIR2 domain and BIR3-RING domain with and without mutations of auto-ubiquitylation sites) and cIAP2 proteins fused to a protein-transduction domain (PTD) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) and purified these cell-permeable recombinant proteins. When the TAT-conjugated IAPs were added to rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC6, these proteins were effectively delivered into the cells and inhibited apoptosis, even when added after irradiation. Our results suggest that PTD-mediated delivery of IAPs may have clinical potential, not only for radioprotection but also for rescuing the GI system from radiation injuries. PMID:25359904

  7. Receptor-mediated toxicity of pahutoxin, a marine trunkfish surfactant.

    PubMed

    Kalmanzon, Eliahu; Rahamim, Yocheved; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zlotkin, Eliahu

    2003-07-01

    Pahutoxin (PHN, choline chloride ester of 3-acetoxypalmitic acid) is a natural fish-killing (ichthyotoxic) agent derived from the defensive secretions of trunkfish. In spite of its obvious structural resemblance to synthetic cationic long-chain quaternary ammonium detergents, we show that PHN's action does not rely on its surfactant properties and is in fact, receptor-mediated. The above conclusion is supported by the following data: 1. Ichthyotoxicity is not related to its detergency or surfactivity, as indicated by the fact that the lethal concentration is about 1.5 orders of magnitude below its critical micelle concentration value (69 microM) and its liposomal/seawater partition coefficient is low (62-85); 2. The trunkfish is tolerant to its own pahutoxin; 3. Ichthyotoxicity occurs only upon application to the surrounding water, suggesting the existence of externally located receptors; 4. The receptor hypothesis was supported by the aid of equilibrium saturation binding assays revealing the presence of specific binding sites to PHN on the fish gill membranes; 5. The PHN tolerant trunkfish was shown to be devoid of PHN-binding sites. Some chemo-ecological, and environmental implications are discussed.

  8. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated hepatocyte targeting - strategies and applications.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anisha A; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-04-10

    Hepatocyte resident afflictions continue to affect the human population unabated. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is primarily expressed on hepatocytes and minimally on extra-hepatic cells. This makes it specifically attractive for receptor-mediated drug delivery with minimum concerns of toxicity. ASGPR facilitates internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and exhibits high affinity for carbohydrates specifically galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose. Isomeric forms of sugar, galactose density and branching, spatial geometry and galactose linkages are key factors influencing ligand-receptor binding. Popular ligands for ASGPR mediated targeting are carbohydrate polymers, arabinogalactan and pullulan. Other ligands include galactose-bearing glycoproteins, glycopeptides and galactose modified polymers and lipids. Drug-ligand conjugates provide a viable strategy; nevertheless ligand-anchored nanocarriers provide an attractive option for ASGPR targeted delivery and are widely explored. The present review details various ligands and nanocarriers exploited for ASGPR mediated delivery of drugs to hepatocytes. Nanocarrier properties affecting ASGPR mediated uptake are discussed at length. The review also highlights the clinical relevance of ASGPR mediated targeting and applications in diagnostics. ASGPR mediated hepatocyte targeting provides great promise for improved therapy of hepatic afflictions.

  9. Visualization of Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Jon; Konopka, James; Singer-Kruger, Birgit; Zerial, Marino; Botstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to α-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Δ. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to α-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes. PMID:10069819

  10. Purine receptor mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling of human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Nanna; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Langevin, Helene; Nedergaard, Maiken; Takano, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that activation of adenosine A1 receptors on peripheral pain fibers contributes to acupuncture-induced suppression of painful input. In addition to adenosine, acupuncture triggers the release of other purines, including ATP and ADP that may bind to purine receptors on nearby fibroblasts. We here show that purine agonists trigger increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ signaling in a cultured human fibroblasts cell line. The profile of agonist-induced Ca2+ increases indicates that the cells express functional P2yR2 and P2yR4 receptors, as well as P2yR1 and P2xR7 receptors. Unexpectedly, purine-induced Ca2+ signaling was associated with a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. ATP induced a transient loss in F-actin stress fiber. The changes of actin cytoskeleton occurred slowly and peaked at 10 min after agonist exposure. Inhibition of ATP-induced increases in Ca2+ by cyclopiazonic acid blocked receptor-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling. The Ca2+ ionophore failed to induce cytoskeletal remodeling despite triggering robust increases in cytosolic Ca2+. These observations indicate that purine signaling induces transient changes in fibroblast cytoarchitecture that could be related to the beneficial effects of acupuncture. PMID:23462235

  11. SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE RECEPTORS MEDIATE NEUROMODULATORY FUNCTIONS IN THE CNS

    PubMed Central

    Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Goforth, Paulette B.; Mba, Mba U.; Macdonald, Timothy L.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Satin, Leslie S.; Welch, Sandra P.; Selley, Dana E.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate is a ubiquitous, lipophilic cellular mediator that acts in part by activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Modulation of S1P signaling is an emerging pharmacotherapeutic target for immunomodulatory drugs. Although multiple S1P receptor types exist in the CNS, little is known about their function. Here we report that S1P stimulated G- protein activity in the CNS, and results from [35S]GTPγS autoradiography using the S1P1-selective agonist SEW2871 and the S1P1/3-selective antagonist VPC44116 show that in several regions a majority of this activity is mediated by S1P1 receptors. S1P receptor activation inhibited glutamatergic neurotransmission as determined by electrophysiological recordings in cortical neurons in vitro, and this effect was mimicked by SEW2871 and inhibited by VPC44116. Moreover, central administration of S1P produced in vivo effects resembling the actions of cannabinoids, including thermal antinociception, hypothermia, catalepsy and hypolocomotion, but these actions were independent of CB1 receptors. At least one of the central effects of S1P, thermal antinociception, is also at least partly S1P1 receptor mediated because it was produced by SEW2871 and attenuated by VPC44116. These results indicate that CNS S1P receptors are part of a physiologically relevant and widespread neuromodulatory system, and that the S1P1 receptor contributes to S1P-mediated antinociception. PMID:19493165

  12. Hemoglobin Uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. Is Receptor-Mediated

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; de Castro, Kelly Pacheco; Fonseca, Fernanda Lopes; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Báo, Sônia Nair; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for the proliferation of fungal pathogens during infection. The availability of iron is limited due to its association with host proteins. Fungal pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to acquire iron from host; however, little is known regarding how Paracoccidioides species incorporate and metabolize this ion. In this work, host iron sources that are used by Paracoccidioides spp. were investigated. Robust fungal growth in the presence of the iron-containing molecules hemin and hemoglobin was observed. Paracoccidioides spp. present hemolytic activity and have the ability to internalize a protoporphyrin ring. Using real-time PCR and nanoUPLC-MSE proteomic approaches, fungal growth in the presence of hemoglobin was shown to result in the positive regulation of transcripts that encode putative hemoglobin receptors, in addition to the induction of proteins that are required for amino acid metabolism and vacuolar protein degradation. In fact, one hemoglobin receptor ortholog, Rbt5, was identified as a surface GPI-anchored protein that recognized hemin, protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in vitro. Antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were used to generate mitotically stable Pbrbt5 mutants. The knockdown strain had a lower survival inside macrophages and in mouse spleen when compared with the parental strain, which suggested that Rbt5 could act as a virulence factor. In summary, our data indicate that Paracoccidioides spp. can use hemoglobin as an iron source most likely through receptor-mediated pathways that might be relevant for pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24831516

  13. Biologically bounded risk assessment for receptor-mediated nongenotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Gastel, J A; Sutter, T R

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a biologically bounded marginal effect model for use in risk assessment of human exposure to receptor-mediated nongenotoxic carcinogens. Schematically this model can be reduced to four components: CI, the absence of an observable biological response; CII, observable biochemical responses but no observable pathology; CIII, observable pathology; and CIV, both observable pathology and lethality. The inflection point in the marginal response curve between CI and CII is defined as the biologically evaluated scientifically tested no observable effect level (BESTNOEL). We demonstrate the utility of this approach by applying it to the well-studied nongenotoxic carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Using a well-developed mechanistic understanding of the initial interactions of TCDD with the cell, we justify the selection of the minimal effective dose for CYP1A1 mRNA induction as the BESTNOEL. With allowance for variation in human sensitivity to TCDD, the BESTNOEL is assigned a human liver tissue burden of approximately 0.25-25 ppt and an allowable daily intake level in the range of 15-1500 fg/kg/day. In the future, the BESTNOEL can help establish a lower boundary for acceptable extrapolation when using either statistical or biologically based attributable risk models.

  14. Hemoglobin uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. is receptor-mediated.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; de Castro, Kelly Pacheco; Fonseca, Fernanda Lopes; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Báo, Sônia Nair; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Iron is essential for the proliferation of fungal pathogens during infection. The availability of iron is limited due to its association with host proteins. Fungal pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to acquire iron from host; however, little is known regarding how Paracoccidioides species incorporate and metabolize this ion. In this work, host iron sources that are used by Paracoccidioides spp. were investigated. Robust fungal growth in the presence of the iron-containing molecules hemin and hemoglobin was observed. Paracoccidioides spp. present hemolytic activity and have the ability to internalize a protoporphyrin ring. Using real-time PCR and nanoUPLC-MSE proteomic approaches, fungal growth in the presence of hemoglobin was shown to result in the positive regulation of transcripts that encode putative hemoglobin receptors, in addition to the induction of proteins that are required for amino acid metabolism and vacuolar protein degradation. In fact, one hemoglobin receptor ortholog, Rbt5, was identified as a surface GPI-anchored protein that recognized hemin, protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in vitro. Antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were used to generate mitotically stable Pbrbt5 mutants. The knockdown strain had a lower survival inside macrophages and in mouse spleen when compared with the parental strain, which suggested that Rbt5 could act as a virulence factor. In summary, our data indicate that Paracoccidioides spp. can use hemoglobin as an iron source most likely through receptor-mediated pathways that might be relevant for pathogenic mechanisms.

  15. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) induces apoptosis and apparently a non-apoptotic programmed cell death (paraptosis) in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Asare, Nana Landvik, Nina E.; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Rissel, Mary; Tekpli, Xavier; Ask, Kjetil; Lag, Marit; Holme, Jorn A.

    2008-07-15

    Mechanistic studies of nitro-PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of interest might help elucidate which chemical characteristics are most important in eliciting toxic effects. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is the predominant nitrated PAH emitted in diesel exhaust. 1-NP-exposed Hepa1c1c7 cells exhibited marked changes in cellular morphology, decreased proliferation and different forms of cell death. A dramatic increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed already after 6 h of exposure and the cells started to round up at 12 h. The rate of cell proliferation was markedly reduced at 24 h and apoptotic as well as propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells appeared. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the vacuolization was partly due to mitochondria swelling. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited only the apoptotic cell death and Nec-1 (an inhibitor of necroptosis) exhibited no inhibitory effects on either cell death or vacuolization. In contrast, cycloheximide markedly reduced both the number of apoptotic and PI-positive cells as well as the cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting that 1-NP induced paraptotic cell death. All the MAPKs; ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, appear to be involved in the death process since marked activation was observed upon 1-NP exposure, and their inhibitors partly reduced the induced cell death. The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD 98057 completely blocked the induced vacuolization, whereas the other MAPKs inhibitors only had minor effects on this process. These findings suggest that 1-NP may cause apoptosis and paraptosis. In contrast, the corresponding amine (1-aminopyrene) elicited only minor apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and cells with characteristics typical of paraptosis were absent.

  16. Apoptosis of Theileria-infected lymphocytes induced upon parasite death involves activation of caspases 9 and 3.

    PubMed

    Guergnon, Julien; Dessauge, Frédéric; Langsley, Gordon; Garcia, Alphonse

    2003-08-01

    The intracellular parasite Theileria parva (T. parva) can infect bovine B and T-lymphocytes. T. parva-infected cells become transformed, and they survive and proliferate independently of exogenous growth factors. In vivo the uncontrolled cellular proliferation associated with lymphocyte transformation underlies the pathogenesis of the disease called East Coast Fever. The transformed state of parasitised cells can be reversed upon elimination of the parasite by specific theilericide drugs. In this study we found that elimination of the parasite by buparvaquone induces apoptosis of transformed B and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Apoptosis is accompanied by the activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and processing of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase and is inhibited by Z-VAD a general caspase inhibitor. Based on these observations, we propose that the lack of activation of a caspase 9 > caspase 3 > poly(ADP ribose) polymerase pathway is important and protects T. parva-transformed cells from spontaneous apoptosis.

  17. Cytomegalovirus cell death suppressor vMIA blocks Bax- but not Bak-mediated apoptosis by binding and sequestering Bax at mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Arnoult, Damien; Bartle, Laura M; Skaletskaya, Anna; Poncet, Delphine; Zamzami, Naoufal; Park, Peter U; Sharpe, Juanita; Youle, Richard J; Goldmacher, Victor S

    2004-05-25

    We report that the cytomegalovirus-encoded cell death suppressor vMIA binds Bax and prevents Bax-mediated mitochondrial membrane permeabilization by sequestering Bax at mitochondria in the form of a vMIA-Bax complex. vMIA mutants with a defective mitochondria-targeting domain retain their Bax-binding function but not their ability to suppress mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or cell death. vMIA does not seem to either specifically associate with Bak or suppress Bak-mediated mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Recent evidence suggests that the contribution of Bax and Bak in the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway depends on the distinct phenotypes of cells, and it appears from our data that vMIA is capable of suppressing apoptosis in cells in which this pathway is dominated by Bax, but not in cells where Bak also plays a role.

  18. TRAIL and DR5 promote thyroid follicular cell apoptosis in iodine excess-induced experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiujie; Li, Lanying; Li, Qingxin; Zang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Zebing

    2011-11-01

    Death receptor-mediated apoptosis has been implicated in target organ destruction in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Several apoptosis signaling pathways, such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), have been shown to be active in thyroid cells and may be involved in destructive thyroiditis. Thyroid toxicity of iodide excess has been demonstrated in animals fed with an iodide-rich diet, but its pathogenic role remains unclear. The effects of excessive iodine on TRAIL and its death receptor expression in thyroid were investigated. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) was induced by excessive iodine and thyroglobulin (Tg) in non-obese diabetic mice. The expression of TRAIL and its death receptor DR5 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Following administration of excessive iodine alone, Tg, and excessive iodine combined with Tg, TRAIL-positive cells appear not only in follicular cells but also in lymphocytes infiltrated in the thyroid, whereas DR5-positive cells appear only in follicular cells. Large numbers of CD3-positive cells and a few CD22-positive cells were detected in thyroid. A great amount of follicular cells were labeled specifically by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxynucleotide triphosphate nick-end labeling assay. Taken together, our results suggest that excessive iodine could induce TRAIL and DR5 abnormal expression in thyroid. TRAIL band with DR5 to promote follicular cells apoptosis thus mediate thyroid destruction in EAT.

  19. Polyamines modulate the roscovitine-induced cell death switch decision autophagy vs. apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Arisan, Elif Damla; Akkoç, Yunus; Akyüz, Kaan Gencer; Kerman, Ezgi Melek; Obakan, Pinar; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Palavan Ünsal, Narçin

    2015-06-01

    Current clinical strategies against breast cancer mainly involve the use of anti‑hormonal agents to decrease estrogen production; however, development of resistance is a major problem. The resistance phenotype depends on the modulation of cell‑cycle regulatory proteins, cyclins and cyclin‑dependent kinases. Roscovitine, a selective inhibitor of cyclin‑dependent kinases, shows high therapeutic potential by causing cell‑cycle arrest in various cancer types. Autophagy is a type of cell death characterized by the enzymatic degradation of macromolecules and organelles in double‑ or multi‑membrane autophagic vesicles. This process has important physiological functions, including the degradation of misfolded proteins and organelle turnover. Recently, the switch between autophagy and apoptosis has been proposed to constitute an important regulator of cell death in response to chemotherapeutic drugs. The process is regulated by several proteins, such as the proteins of the Atg family, essential for the initial formation of the autophagosome, and PI3K, important at the early stages of autophagic vesicle formation. Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic amines that play major roles in a number of eukaryotic processes, including cell proliferation. The PA levels are regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate‑limiting enzyme in PA biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PAs in roscovitine‑induced autophagic/apoptotic cell death in estrogen receptor‑positive MCF‑7 and estrogen receptor‑negative MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells. We show that MDA‑MB‑231 cells are more resistant to roscovitine than MCF‑7 cells. This difference was related to the regulation of autophagic key molecules in MDA‑MB‑231 cells. In addition, we found that exogenous PAs have a role in the cell death decision between roscovitine‑induced apoptosis or autophagy in MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cells.

  20. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Sunna; Moon, Bo Reum

    2016-02-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  1. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Moon, Bo Reum

    2015-01-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  2. Protein Kinase Cβ Modulates Ligand-induced Cell Surface Death Receptor Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Heldebrant, Michael P.; Flatten, Karen S.; Loegering, David A.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula A.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Peterson, Kevin L.; Trushin, Sergey A.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; Karp, Judith E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Although treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to protect a subset of cells from induction of apoptosis by death ligands such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, the mechanism of this protection is unknown. This study demonstrated that protection in short term apoptosis assays and long term proliferation assays was maximal when Jurkat or HL-60 human leukemia cells were treated with 2–5 nm PMA. Immunoblotting demonstrated that multiple PKC isoforms, including PKCα, PKCβ, PKCϵ, and PKCθ, translocated from the cytosol to a membrane-bound fraction at these PMA concentrations. When the ability of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs that specifically down-regulated each of these isoforms was examined, PKCβ shRNA uniquely reversed PMA-induced protection against cell death. The PKCβ-selective small molecule inhibitor enzastaurin had a similar effect. Although mass spectrometry suggested that Fas is phosphorylated on a number of serines and threonines, mutation of these sites individually or collectively had no effect on Fas-mediated death signaling or PMA protection. Further experiments demonstrated that PMA diminished ligand-induced cell surface accumulation of Fas and DR5, and PKCβ shRNA or enzastaurin reversed this effect. Moreover, enzastaurin sensitized a variety of human tumor cell lines and clinical acute myelogenous leukemia isolates, which express abundant PKCβ, to tumor necrosis factor-α related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced death in the absence of PMA. Collectively, these results identify a specific PKC isoform that modulates death receptor-mediated cytotoxicity as well as a small molecule inhibitor that mitigates the inhibitory effects of PKC activation on ligand-induced death receptor trafficking and cell death. PMID:19887445

  3. Cytotoxicity of atropine to human corneal epithelial cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cheng-Lei; Wen, Qian; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Atropine is an anticholinergic drug for mydriasis in eye clinic, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of atropine to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of atropine to corneal epithelium and its underlying mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected human corneal epithelial (HCEP) cells. Our results showed that atropine, above the concentration of 0.3125 g/l (1/32 of its therapeutic dosage in eye clinic), had a dose- and time-dependent toxicity to HCEP cells by inducing morphological abnormality, cytopathic effect, viability decline, and proliferation retardation. Moreover, the proliferation-retarding effect of atropine on the cells was achieved by inducing G1/S phase arrest and downregulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Besides, atropine also had an apoptosis-inducing effect on the cells by inducing phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, atropine could also induce activations of caspase-2, -3 and -9, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of Bax and Bad, and upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor, implying a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway is most probably involved in the apoptosis of HCEP cells induced by atropine. Taken together, our results suggest that atropine has remarkable cytotoxicity to HCEP cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis.

  4. Intracellular Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors contributes to AMPA receptor-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, A; Matute, C; Alberdi, E

    2010-01-01

    Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in oligodendrocytes induces cytosolic Ca2+ overload and excitotoxic death, a process that contributes to demyelination and multiple sclerosis. Excitotoxic insults cause well-characterized mitochondrial alterations and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, which is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of ER-Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) to excitotoxicity in oligodendrocytes in vitro. First, we observed that oligodendrocytes express all previously characterized RyRs and IP3Rs. Blockade of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release by TMB-8 following α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated insults attenuated both oligodendrocyte death and cytosolic Ca2+ overload. In turn, RyR inhibition by ryanodine reduced as well the Ca2+ overload whereas IP3R inhibition was ineffective. Furthermore, AMPA-triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxidative stress and activation of caspase-3, which in all instances was diminished by RyR inhibition. In addition, we observed that AMPA induced an ER stress response as revealed by α subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation, overexpression of GRP chaperones and RyR-dependent cleavage of caspase-12. Finally, attenuating ER stress with salubrinal protected oligodendrocytes from AMPA excitotoxicity. Together, these results show that Ca2+ release through RyRs contributes to cytosolic Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and cell death following AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in oligodendrocytes. PMID:21364659

  5. Mitomycin C potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through p53-independent upregulation of death receptors: evidence for the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hairong; Hong, Bo; Zhou, Lanlan; Allen, Joshua E; Tai, Guihua; Humphreys, Robin; Dicker, David T; Liu, Yingqiu Y; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2012-09-01

    The discovery of the molecular targets of chemotherapeutic medicines and their chemical footprints can validate and improve the use of such medicines. In the present report, we investigated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC), a classical chemotherapeutic agent on cancer cell apoptosis induced by TRAIL. We found that MMC not only potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 (p53-/-) colon cancer cells but also sensitized TRAIL-resistant colon cancer cells HT-29 to the cytokine both in vitro and in vivo. MMC also augmented the pro-apoptotic effects of two TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies, mapatumumab and lexatumumab. At a mechanistic level, MMC downregulated cell survival proteins, including Bcl2, Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, and upregulated pro-apoptotic proteins including Bax, Bim and the cell surface expression of TRAIL death receptors DR4 and DR5. Gene silencing of DR5 by short hairpin RNA reduced the apoptosis induced by combination treatment of MMC and TRAIL. Induction of DR4 and DR5 was independent of p53, Bax and Bim but was dependent on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) as JNK pharmacological inhibition and siRNA abolished the induction of the TRAIL receptors by MMC.

  6. Overendocytosis of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles increases apoptosis and triggers autophagic cell death in human osteosarcoma cell under a spinning magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaohua; Li, Jingxiong; Du, Chonghua; Huang, Zhongming; Chen, Guangnan; Yan, Weiqi

    2017-02-07

    The toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is still a vital topic of debate and the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, overdose SPIONs could induce osteosarcoma cell death and the effects were exaggerated when combined with spinning magnetic field (SMF). In the combination group, mitochondrial transmembrane potential decrease more obviously and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to generate much higher in line with that of the apoptosis ratio. Meantime, amount of autophagy was induced. Inhibiting the autophagy generation by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increase cell viability but decrease the caspase 3/7 and caspase 8 activities in combination groups, and inhibiting apoptosis took the same effect. In the end, the SPIONs effects on xenograft mice was examed by intratumoral injection. The result showed that the combination group could greatly decrease the tumor volume and prolong the lifespan of mice. In sum, the result indicated that overdose SPIONs induced ROS generation, and excessive ROS induced by combination of SPIONs and SMF contribute to autophagy formation, which play a apoptosis-promoting role that formed as a platform to recruits initiate the caspase activities.

  7. Preconditioning with low concentration NO attenuates subsequent NO-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells via HO-1-dependent mitochondrial death pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Seahyoung; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Go, Sang-Hee; Eom, Sang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Young . E-mail: hypark65@nih.go.kr

    2006-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways are important in both the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and disease progression. Overproduction of NO has been associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Growing evidences suggest that NO preconditioning has cytoprotective effects against I/R injury. However, the mechanism with which NO mediates these effects remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of how NO preconditioning inhibits subsequent NO-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), specifically focusing on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). According to our data, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased HO-1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Preconditioning with low concentration SNP (0.3 mM) inhibited subsequent high concentration SNP (1.5 mM)-induced apoptosis, and this effect was reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP. Low concentration SNP-mediated protection involved p38 kinase inactivation and increased Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was concomitantly increased with decreased expressions of Bax, Apaf-1, and activity of caspase-3, which was reversed by SnPP treatment. Our results show that low concentration SNP preconditioning suppresses subsequent high concentration SNP-induced apoptosis by inhibiting p38 kinase and mitochondrial death pathway via HO-1-dependent mechanisms in VSMC.

  8. A novel agonistic anti-human death receptor 5 monoclonal antibody with tumoricidal activity induces caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Yao-Wu; Chen, Ju-Gao; Bai, Hui-Ling; Huang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Jing; Li, Shu-Lian; Liu, Guang-Chao; Jiang, Qi; Chai, Jing; Zhao, Yue-Ping; Ma, Yuan-Fang

    2011-04-01

    An agonistic antibody against TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand death receptor 5 (DR5) is a practicable candidate drug for antitumor therapy. In this study, a novel murine anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody, mDRA-6(IgG1-κ), has been generated. This study aimed to explore the caspase-dependent and mitochondrial mechanisms of mDRA-6 in inducing apoptosis in human leukemia Jurkat cells. The apoptotic effects of mDRA-6 on Jurkat cells, which express DR5 on the cell surface, were detected by flow cytometry and western blot after exposure to different doses of mDRA-6 and at fixed doses of mDRA-6 at different times. It was demonstrated that mDRA-6 can induce Jurkat cell apoptosis via caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent pathways. These results indicate that the novel antibody mDRA-6 against DR5 has an antitumor function and may provide a new reagent for tumor therapy.

  9. Genistein inhibition of OGD-induced brain neuron death correlates with its modulation of apoptosis, voltage-gated potassium and sodium currents and glutamate signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Ling; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yu-Xiang; He, Cong-Cong; Tian, Kun; Wang, Hong-Gang; An, Di; Heng, Bin; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2016-07-25

    In the present study, we established an in vitro model of hypoxic-ischemia via exposing primary neurons of newborn rats to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and observing the effects of genistein, a soybean isoflavone, on hypoxic-ischemic neuron viability, apoptosis, voltage-activated potassium (Kv) and sodium (Nav) currents, and glutamate receptor subunits. The results indicated that OGD exposure reduced the viability and increased the apoptosis of brain neurons. Meanwhile, OGD exposure caused changes in the current-voltage curves and current amplitude values of voltage-activated potassium and sodium currents; OGD exposure also decreased GluR2 expression and increased NR2 expression. However, genistein at least partially reversed the effects caused by OGD. The results suggest that hypoxic-ischemia-caused neuronal apoptosis/death is related to an increase in K(+) efflux, a decrease in Na(+) influx, a down-regulation of GluR2, and an up-regulation of NR2. Genistein may exert some neuroprotective effects via the modulation of Kv and Nav currents and the glutamate signal pathway, mediated by GluR2 and NR2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in both type I (apoptosis) and type II (autophagy) cell death induced by sodium phenylacetate in MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Sébastien; Berard, Madeleine; Kellaf, Sabine; Peyri, Nicole; Fauvel-Lafève, Françoise; Legrand, Chantal; He, Lu; Crépin, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPa), an antitumoral molecule, on cell death and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and synthesis were investigated in two metastatic breast tumour cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, cultured on three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3-D cultures). In both cell lines, NaPa inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death as measured by TUNEL assay, with an IC(30) of 20 mM and 10 mM for MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, respectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, NaPa also induced (i) an autophagic process evidenced by the appearance of autophagic vacuoles and an increased phosphatase acid activity, (ii) the formation of pseudopodia and (iii) an increase in MMP-1 and MMP-9 secretion without affecting MT1-MMP. In NaPa-treated MDA-MB-435 cells, no autophagic vacuoles were formed but F-actin depolymerisation was observed. MMP-1, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP levels were strongly enhanced in these cells but MMPs were not secreted and accumulated intracellularly. When breast cancer cells were treated with NaPa in the presence of an MMP inhibitor (GM6001), apoptotic cell death decreased and the induction of autophagic vacuoles in MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that MMPs are involved in the autophagic cell death and/or apoptosis of breast tumour cells.

  11. Research of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced s180 ascitic tumor cells, death or apoptosis on cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Yan, Min; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Li, Enling; Luo, Hongyu

    2005-07-01

    To ascertain the adequate dosage of ALA combined with HpD-PDT which induced tumor cell death or apoptosis on cytology. And to study the different effect of ALA-PDT and HPD-PDT used only. Rat ascitic tumor cells(S180) were randomly divided into several groups and incubated with ALA(20μg/ml 、40μg/ml、80μg/ml 、160μg/ml)、HPD(2.5μg/ml、5μg/ml、10μg/ml)and their combination dosages. 630nm light (total output 2W) was delivered to tumor cells at a constant fluence rate: 200mw/cm2 and a constant irradiated time period: 20 minutes. We set 3 groups (no photosensitizers or no irradiation or neither) to be the control groups. We used inversion microscopy to observe the morphological change of tumor cells and flow cytometry technology to detect the death or apoptosis of tumor cells during the experiment. ..

  12. BCL6 mediates the effects of Gastrodin on promoting M2-like macrophage polarization and protecting against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and cell death in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Shi, Xiaojie; Jing, Xiaoqian; Li, Jianguo; Gao, Jie; Liu, Mengya; Lin, Chi-Iou; Guo, Xinzhi; Hua, Qian

    2017-03-16

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood disability worldwide, yet biomarkers for predicting CP are lacking. By subjecting peripheral blood samples from 62 CP patients and 30 healthy controls to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) PrimeView™ HumanGene Expression Microarray analysis, we identified the novel biomarker B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) as the most upregulated gene in the CP samples. Gastrodin is a traditional Chinese medicine and bioactive compound that promotes adductor angle release, as well as gross and fine motor performance by increasing Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and Fine Motor Function Measure-45 scores. Gastrodin upregulates the mRNA expression of Mgl2 and Mrc1, M2 macrophage markers, and arginase activity, an M2 polarization indicator, in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, these effects were blocked by BCL6 siRNA, which also abrogated the protective effects of Gastrodin against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and death in RAW264.7 cells. Our work identified BCL6 as a novel biomarker for early prediction of CP. Moreover, we demonstrated that Gastrodin not only stimulated polarization toward M2-like macrophages, which promote tissue repair, but also rescued macrophages from oxidative stress, apoptosis and death by inducing BCL6 expression. BCL6-targeted therapeutic strategies have promise for improving motor performance in CP patients.

  13. ADP and Other Metabolites Released from Acanthamoeba castellanii Lead to Human Monocytic Cell Death through Apoptosis and Stimulate the Secretion of Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, A.; Cappai, V.; Alberti, L.; Serra, C.; Fiori, P. L.; Cappuccinelli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections. The aim of this work was to study whether soluble metabolites (ADP and other compounds) released by Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites could induce morphological and biochemical changes in human monocytic cells in vitro. We demonstrate here that ADP constitutively released in the medium by A. castellanii, interacting with specific P2y2 purinoceptors expressed on the monocytic cell membrane, caused a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i, morphological changes characteristics of cells undergoing apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The same results were found in monocytes exposed to purified ADP. Cell damage and TNF-α release induced by amoebic ADP were blocked by the P2y2 inhibitor suramin. Other metabolites contained in amoebic cell-free supernatants, with molecular masses of, respectively, >30 kDa and between 30 and 10 kDa, also caused morphological modifications and activation of intracellular caspase-3, characteristics of programmed cell death. Nevertheless, mechanisms by which these molecules trigger cell damage appeared to differ from that of ADP. In addition, other amoebic thermolable metabolites with molecular masses of <10 kDa caused the secretion of interleukin-1β. These findings suggest that pathogenic free-living A. castellanii by release of ADP and other metabolites lead to human monocytic cell death through apoptosis and stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:12117953

  14. Cytotoxic L-amino-acid oxidases from Amanita phalloides and Clitocybe geotropa induce caspase-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pišlar, A; Sabotič, J; Šlenc, J; Brzin, J; Kos, J

    2016-01-01

    L-amino-acid oxidases (LAO) purified from fungi induce cell death in various mammalian cells including human tumor cell lines. The mechanism, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to define a precise mechanism of cell death induced in Jurkat and MCF7 cancer cell lines by ApLAO and CgLAO, LAOs isolated from Amanita phalloides and Clitocybe geotropa, respectively. Cell death induced by both LAOs is shown to be concentration- and time-dependent, with higher toxic effects in Jurkat cells. LAO activity is required for the cytotoxicity. Detailed study on Jurkat cells further demonstrated that ApLAO and CgLAO both induce the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, accompanied by a time-dependent depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment with the LAOs resulted in an increased ratio of the expression of proapoptotic Bax to that of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, subsequently leading to the activation of caspase-9 and -3. However, the pancaspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, did not completely abolish the cell death induced by either ApLAO or CgLAO, suggesting an alternative pathway for LAO-induced apoptosis. Indeed, caspase-8 activity in ApLAO- and CgLAO-treated cells was increased. Further, Fas/FasL (Fas ligand) antagonist caused a slight reduction in toxin-induced cell death, supporting the involvement of ApLAO and CgLAO in death-receptor-mediated apoptosis. These results thus provide new evidence that ApLAO and CgLAO induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, although the significantly higher increase of caspase-9 over caspase-8 activity suggests that it is the intrinsic pathway that is the predominant mode of ApLAO- and CgLAO-induced apoptosis. PMID:27551514

  15. Palladium(II) saccharinate complexes with bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine induce cell death by apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ferda; Ulukaya, Engin; Sarimahmut, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Veysel T

    2013-06-01

    The outcomes of breast cancer patients are still poor although new compounds have recently been introduced into the clinic. Therefore, novel chemical approaches are required. In the present study, palladium(II) and corresponding platinum(II) complexes containing bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (bpma) and saccharine were synthesized and tested against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, in vitro. Cytotoxicity was first screened by the MTT assay and the results were further confirmed by the ATP assay. The palladium complexes 1 and 3 yielded stronger cytotoxicity than the corresponding platinum complexes 2 and 4 at the same doses. The palladium complex 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic one. Therefore, a more comprehensive study was carried out with this complex only. The mode of cell death was determined morphologically under fluorescent microscope and biochemically with detection of active caspase-3 and PARP cleavage by Western blot. Changes in apoptosis-related gene expressions were measured with qPCR. It was demonstrated that complex 3 caused cell death by apoptosis determined by fluorescence imaging and Western blot. As a sign of apoptosis, PARP was cleaved in both of the cell lines. In addition, caspase-3 was cleaved in MDA-MB-231 cells while this cleavage was not observed in MCF-7. The results show that the complex 3 is a promising anti-cancer compound against breast cancer with an IC50 value of 3.9 μM for MCF-7 and 4.2 μM for MDA-MB-231 cells, which warrants further animal experiments.

  16. c-Met Inhibitor Synergizes with Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Induced Ligand to Induce Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Rong; Uddin, Shahab; Ahmed, Maqbool; Hussain, Azhar R; Alsobhi, Saif; Amin, Tarek; Al-Nuaim, Abdurahman; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Abubaker, Jehad; Bavi, Prashant; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2012-01-01

    The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed and/or activated in variety of human malignancies. Previously we have shown that c-Met is overexpressed in Middle Eastern papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and significantly associated with an aggressive phenotype, but its role has not been fully elucidated in PTC. The aim of this study was to determine the functional link between the c-Met/AKT signaling pathway and death receptor 5 (DR5) in a large cohort of PTC in a tissue microarray format followed by functional studies using PTC cell lines and nude mice. Our data showed that high expressions of p-Met and DR5 were significantly associated with an aggressive phenotype of PTC and correlated with BRAF mutation. Treatment of PTC cell lines with PHA665752, an inhibitor of c-Met tyrosine kinase, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in PTC cell lines. PHA665752 treatment or expression of c-Met small interfering (si)RNA resulted in dephosphorylation of c-Met, AKT and its downstream effector molecules. Furthermore, PHA665752 treatment upregulated DR5 expression via generation of reactive oxygen species in PTC cell lines, and synergistically potentiated death receptor–induced apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Finally, cotreatment with PHA665752 and TRAIL caused more pronounced effects on PTC xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Our data suggest that the c-Met/AKT pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for treatment of PTC refractory to conventionally therapeutic modalities. PMID:22113498

  17. Bombesin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity: review and current status

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Veronica; Di Florio, Alessia; Moody, Terry W.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The three mammalian bombesin (Bn) receptors (gastrin-releasing peptide [GRP] receptor, neuromedin B [NMB] receptor, BRS-3) are one of the classes of G protein-coupled receptors that are most frequently over-express/ectopically expressed by common, important malignancies. Because of the clinical success of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity with neuroendocrine tumors, there is now increasing interest in pursuing a similar approach with Bn receptors. In the last few years then have been more than 200 studies in this area. In the present paper, the in vitro and in vivo results, as well as results of human studies from many of these studies are reviewed and the current state of Bn receptor-mediated imaging or cytotoxicity is discussed. Both Bn receptor-mediated imaging studies as well as Bn receptor-mediated tumoral cytotoxic studies using radioactive and non-radioactive Bn-based ligands are covered. PMID:21034419

  18. Histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Schlicker, E; Werthwein, S; Zentner, J

    1999-01-01

    Stimulation-evoked 3H-noradrenaline release in human cerebrocortical slices was inhibited by histamine (in a manner sensitive to clobenpropit) and by imetit, suggesting H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release in human brain.

  19. Evidence that somatostatin sst2 receptors mediate striatal dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Hathway, G J; Humphrey, P P A; Kendrick, K M

    1999-01-01

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is a cyclic tetradecapeptide present in medium-sized aspiny interneurones in the rat striatum. We have previously shown that exogenous SRIF potently stimulates striatal dopamine (DA) release via a glutamate-dependent mechanism. We now report the ability of the selective sst2 receptor agonist, BIM-23027, to mimic this effect of SRIF.In vivo microdialysis studies were performed in anaesthetized male Wistar rats. In most experiments, compounds were administered by retrodialysis into the striatum for 15 min periods, 90 min and 225 min after sampling commenced, with levels of neurotransmitters being measured by HPLC with electrochemical and fluorescence detection.BIM-23027 (50 and 100 nM) stimulated DA release with extracellular levels increasing by up to 18 fold.Prior retrodialysis of BIM-23027 (50 nM) abolished the effects of subsequent administration of SRIF (100 nM).The agonist effects of both BIM-23027 and SRIF were abolished by the selective sst2 receptor antagonist, L-Tyr8-CYN-154806 (100 nM).The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, DNQX (100 μM), abolished the agonist effects of BIM-23027 as previously shown for SRIF.This study provides evidence that the sst2 receptor mediates the potent dopamine-releasing actions observed with SRIF in the rat striatum. Dopamine release evoked by both peptides appears to be mediated indirectly via a glutamatergic pathway. Other subtype-specific somatostatin receptor ligands were unable to elicit any effects and therefore we conclude that no other somatostatin receptor types are involved in mediating the dopamine-releasing actions of SRIF in the striatum. PMID:10578151

  20. Dinitro-o-cresol induces apoptosis-like cell death but not alternative oxidase expression in soybean cells.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Márcia M; Matos, Ana R; Teresa Mendes, Ana; Vaz Pinto, Vera; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Arrabaça, João D

    2007-06-01

    In plants, programmed cell death is thought to be activated during differentiation and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although its mechanisms are far less clear, several morphological and biochemical features have been described in different experimental systems, including DNA laddering and cytosolic protease activation. Moreover, plant mitochondria have an alternative terminal oxidase (AOX), which is thought to be involved in protection against increased reactive oxygen species production, perhaps representing a mechanism to prevent programmed cell death. In this study, we analysed cell death induced by the herbicide dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) in soybean (Glycine max) suspension cell cultures and evaluated biochemical and molecular events associated with programmed cell death. AOX capacity and expression were also determined. DNOC-treated cells showed fragmented nuclear DNA as assessed by an in situ assay that detects 3'-OH ends. In addition, specific colorimetric assays and immunoblot analysis revealed activation of caspase-3-like proteins and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, respectively, confirming the apoptotic-like phenotype. Surprisingly, AOX capacity and protein levels decreased in DNOC-treated cells, suggesting no association between cell death and AOX under these experimental conditions. In conclusion, the results show that DNOC induces programmed cell death in soybean cells, suggesting that plants and animals might share similar pathways. Further, the role of AOX in cell death has not been confirmed, and may depend on the nature and intensity of stress conditions.

  1. TRAIL induces apoptosis in oral squamous carcinoma cells--a crosstalk with oncogenic Ras regulated cell surface expression of death receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Mikelis, Constantinos M; Zhang, Yaqin; Gutkind, J Silvio; Zhang, Baolin

    2013-02-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the surface of target cells. The selectivity of TRAIL towards cancer cells has promoted clinical evaluation of recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) and its agonistic antibodies in treating several major human cancers including colon and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, little is known about their ability in killing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we tested the apoptotic responses of a panel of seven human OSCC cell lines (HN31, HN30, HN12, HN6, HN4, Cal27, and OSCC3) to rhTRAIL and monoclonal antibodies against DR4 or DR5. We found that rhTRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most of the oral cancer cell lines tested both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that DR5 was expressed on the surface of the tested cell lines which correlated with the cellular susceptibility to apoptosis induced by rhTRAIL and anti-DR5 antibody. By contrast, little or no DR4 was detected on the surface of OSCC3 and HN6 cells rendering cellular resistance to DR4 antibody and a reduced sensitivity to rhTRAIL. Notably, the overall TRAIL sensitivity correlated well with the levels of endogenous active Ras in the cell lines tested. Expression of a constitutively active Ras mutant (RasV12) in OSCC3 cells selectively upregulated surface expression of DR5, but not DR4, and restored TRAIL sensitivity. Our findings could have implications for the use of TRAIL receptor targeted therapies in the treatment of human OSCC tumors particularly the ones harboring constitutively active Ras mutant.

  2. EP2 receptor mediates PGE2-induced cystogenesis of human renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Elberg, Gerard; Elberg, Dorit; Lewis, Teresa V; Guruswamy, Suresh; Chen, Lijuan; Logan, Charlotte J; Chan, Michael D; Turman, Martin A

    2007-11-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by formation of cysts from tubular epithelial cells. Previous studies indicate that secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) into cyst fluid and production of cAMP underlie cyst expansion. However, the mechanism by which PGE2 directly stimulates cAMP formation and modulates cystogenesis is still unclear, because the particular E-prostanoid (EP) receptor mediating the PGE2 effect has not been characterized. Our goal is to define the PGE2 receptor subtype involved in ADPKD. We used a three-dimensional cell-culture system of human epithelial cells from normal and ADPKD kidneys in primary cultures to demonstrate that PGE2 induces cyst formation. Biochemical evidence gathered by using real-time RT-PCR mRNA analysis and immunodetection indicate the presence of EP2 receptor in cystic epithelial cells in ADPKD kidney. Pharmacological evidence obtained by using PGE2-selective analogs further demonstrates that EP2 mediates cAMP formation and cystogenesis. Functional evidence for a role of EP2 receptor in mediating cAMP signaling was also provided by inhibiting EP2 receptor expression with transfection of small interfering RNA in cystic epithelial cells. Our results indicate that PGE2 produced in cyst fluid binds to adjacent EP2 receptors located on the apical side of cysts and stimulates EP2 receptor expression. PGE2 binding to EP2 receptor leads to cAMP signaling and cystogenesis by a mechanism that involves protection of cystic epithelial cells from apoptosis. The role of EP2 receptor in mediating the PGE2 effect on stimulating cyst formation may have direct pharmacological implications for the treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

  3. Inactivation of BRCA2 in human cancer cells identifies a subset of tumors with enhanced sensitivity towards death receptormediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    De Toni, Enrico N.; Ziesch, Andreas; Rizzani, Antonia; Török, Helga-Paula; Hocke, Sandra; Lü, Shuai; Wang, Shao-Chun; Hucl, Tomas; Göke, Burkhard; Bruns, Christiane; Gallmeier, Eike

    2016-01-01

    Purpose DNA repair defects due to detrimental BRCA2-mutations confer increased susceptibility towards DNA interstrand-crosslinking (ICL) agents and define patient subpopulations for individualized genotype-based cancer therapy. However, due to the side effects of these drugs, there is a need to identify additional agents, which could be used alone or in combination with ICL-agents. Therefore, we investigated whether BRCA2-mutations might also increase the sensitivity towards TRAIL-receptors (TRAIL-R)-targeting compounds. Experimental design Two independent model systems were applied: a BRCA2 gene knockout and a BRCA2 gene complementation model. The effects of TRAIL-R-targeting compounds and ICL-agents on cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were compared in BRCA2-proficient versus-deficient cancer cells in vitro. In addition, the effects of the TRAIL-R2-targeting antibody LBY135 were assessed in vivo using a murine tumor xenograft model. Results BRCA2-deficient cancer cells displayed an increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-R-targeting agents. These effects exceeded and were mechanistically distinguishable from the well-established effects of ICL-agents. In vitro, ICL-agents expectedly induced an early cell cycle arrest followed by delayed apoptosis, whereas TRAIL-R-targeting compounds caused early apoptosis without prior cell cycle arrest. In vivo, treatment with LBY135 significantly reduced the tumor growth of BRCA2-deficient cancer cells in a xenograft model. Conclusions BRCA2 mutations strongly increase the in vitro- and in vivo-sensitivity of cancer cells towards TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis. This effect is mechanistically distinguishable from the well-established ICL-hypersensitivity of BRCA2-deficient cells. Our study thus defines a new genetic subpopulation of cancers susceptible towards TRAIL-R-targeting compounds, which could facilitate novel therapeutic approaches for patients with BRCA2-deficient tumors. PMID:26843614

  4. Brazilian red propolis induces apoptosis-like cell death and decreases migration potential in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Moura de Leon, Priscila Marques; Thurow, Helena; Schultze, Eduarda; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Martins Rodrigues, Fernanda; Borsuk, Sibele; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Savegnago, Lucielli; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Moura, Sidnei; Padilha, Francine F; Collares, Tiago; Pêgas Henriques, João Antonio; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2014-01-01

    Natural products continue to be an invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery in recent years. Propolis is known for its biological activities such as antimicrobial and antitumor effects. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian red propolis (BRP) on apoptosis and migration potential in human bladder cancer cells. The effect of BRP ethanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) on 5637 cells was determined by MTT, LIVE/DEAD, and migration (scratch assay) assays. Apoptosis induction was investigated through flow cytometry and gene expression profile was investigated by qRT-PCR. Results showed cytotoxicity on MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays, with IC50 values of 95 μg/mL in 24 h of treatment. Cellular migration of 5637 cells was significantly inhibited through lower doses of BRP ethanolic extract (25 and 50 μg/mL). Flow cytometry analyses showed that BRP induced cytotoxicity through apoptosis-like mechanisms in 5637 cells and qRT-PCR revealed increased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, p53, AIF, and antioxidant enzymes genes. Data suggest that BRP may be a potential source of drugs to bladder cancer treatment.

  5. Induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogen receptor-mediated activities, and modulation of cell proliferation by dinaphthofurans.

    PubMed

    Vondrácek, Jan; Chramostová, Katerina; Plísková, Martina; Bláha, Ludek; Brack, Werner; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2004-09-01

    A group of heterocyclic aromatic compounds, dinaphthofurans (DNFs), recently have been identified as potentially significant contaminants in freshwater sediments. In the present study, a battery of in vitro assays was used for detection of toxic effects of DNFs that are potentially associated with endocrine disruption and tumor promotion. Dinaphthofurans were found to act as relatively potent inducers of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity in the chemical-activated luciferase reporter gene expression DR-CALUX assay. The relative AhR-inducing potencies of DNFs were similar or even higher than relative potencies of unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with dinaphtho[1,2-b;2'3'-d]furan being the most potent AhR agonist. Two compounds, dinaphtho[2,1-b;2'3'-d]furan and dinaphtho[1,2-b;1'2'-d]furan, induced estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated activity in the estrogen receptor-mediated CALUX (the ER-CALUX) assay. Two types of potential tumor-promoting effects of DNFs were investigated, using in vitro bioassays for detection of inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication and detection of a release from contact inhibition. Although the acute inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication was not observed, all six tested DNFs were able to release rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells from contact inhibition at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In summary, the present study indicated that DNFs can exert multiple biological effects in vitro, including induction of the AhR-mediated activity, release of cells from contact inhibition, and induction of ER-mediated activity.

  6. Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV induces PC12 apoptotic cell death via JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Chernoff, Jonathan; Korobko, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate numerous cellular processes including apoptosis. Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase which functions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Chp in regulation of cell viability using PC12 cells with inducible expression of Chp as a model. We found that expression of Chp results in apoptosis in PC12 cells. Chp-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of JNK signaling and both death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as justified by caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 rescued PC12 cells from Chp-triggered cell death and attenuated activation of caspases-9 and -3/7 suggesting that activation of JNK mediates pro-apoptotic effect of Chp. Expression of Chp resulted in increased phosphorylation of c-Jun in PC12 cells, and Chp expression in HE K293 cells upregulated AP-1-dependent transcription in a JNK-dependent manner. Together results of our study reveal the role of Chp GTPase as a putative regulator of JNK-dependent apoptotic death in PC12 cells, similarly to previously described pro-apoptotic activity of the related Cdc42 and Rac1 GTPases. PMID:21686277

  7. Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV induces PC12 apoptotic cell death via JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Shepelev, Mikhail V; Chernoff, Jonathan; Korobko, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate numerous cellular processes including apoptosis. Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase which functions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Chp in regulation of cell viability using PC12 cells with inducible expression of Chp as a model. We found that expression of Chp results in apoptosis in PC12 cells. Chp-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of JNK signaling and both death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as justified by caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of JNK by SP600125 rescued PC12 cells from Chp-triggered cell death and attenuated activation of caspases-9 and -3/7 suggesting that activation of JNK mediates pro-apoptotic effect of Chp. Expression of Chp resulted in increased phosphorylation of c-Jun in PC12 cells, and Chp expression in HE K293 cells upregulated AP-1-dependent transcription in a JNK-dependent manner. Together results of our study reveal the role of Chp GTPase as a putative regulator of JNK-dependent apoptotic death in PC12 cells, similarly to previously described pro-apoptotic activity of the related Cdc42 and Rac1 GTPases.

  8. Reduction of trophic support enhances apoptosis in PC12 cells expressing Alzheimer's APP mutation and sensitizes cells to staurosporine-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Leutz, Steffen; Steiner, Barbara; Marques, Celio A; Haass, Christian; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Anne

    2002-06-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene are known as causative factors in the pathogenesis of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In this study, the influence of the Swedish double-mutation form of APP (APPsw; KM670/671NL) on apoptosis regulation in PC12 cells was investigated. APPsw-transfected PC12 cells were compared with wild-type APP (APPwt)-expressing and vector-transfected PC12 cells with regard to their susceptibility to cell death induced by the reduction of trophic support or by additional treatment with staurosporine. Expression of APPsw markedly enhanced the level of apoptotic PC12 cells induced by serum reduction. A similar hypersensitivity of APPsw-expressing PC12 cells could be detected after differentiation with nerve growth factor under serum-reduced conditions. Likewise, the expression of APPsw rendered PC12 cells more vulnerable to staurosporine but only under serum-reduced conditions. This APPsw-effect disappeared in high serum-containing medium. Thus, expression of APPsw seems to enhance cellular sensitivity not in general but after the reduction of trophic factors probably by causing oxidative stress. This, in turn, may sensitize cells to secondary apoptotic stimuli. Moreover, the mutation-specific increase in vulnerability to cell death was only seen at the stage of apoptotic nuclei, but not using methods measuring cell death by determining metabolic activity or membrane integrity. Therefore, the expression of APPsw seems to affect specifically apoptotic cell death rather than overall cell death in vitro. Our study further emphasizes the pathogenic role of mutant APP and may provide new insights in the mechanisms underlying the massive neurodegeneration in brain from patients bearing the APPsw mutation.

  9. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species do not elicit hypersensitive cell death but induce apoptosis in the adjacent cells during the defense response of oat.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yasuomi; Mori, Tomoyo; Shinogi, Takeshi; Yao, Nan; Takahashi, Satsuki; Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki; Sakamoto, Masaru; Park, Pyoyun; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2004-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in many cellular responses in plants and animals. Oat plants (Avena sativa L.) evoke the hypersensitive response (HR), which shares morphological and biochemical features with mammalian apoptosis, such as DNA laddering and heterochromatin condensation, in response to the avirulent crown rust fungus (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae). We examined the role of NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the initiation of hypersensitive cell death, which is induced by direct contact with the pathogen, and apoptotic cell death in the adjacent cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis using the fluorescent NO probe DAF and the H2O2 probe DCF demonstrated that NO and H2O2 were generated simultaneously in primary leaves at an early stage of the defense response. The NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) markedly enhanced H2O2 accumulation detected by 3,3-diaminobenzidine staining and DCF, whereas treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) strongly suppressed it. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased NO accumulation, suggesting that endogenous NO may modulate the level of H2O2 by interacting with O2- in the HR lesion. Cytological observation showed that administration of cPTIO, SNAP, or SOD had no effect on elicitation of hypersensitive cell death, but clearly reduced heterochromatin condensation in the nearby cells and DNA laddering. These findings indicate that NO and ROS are not essential mediators for the initiation of hypersensitive cell death. However, NO and O2- but not H2O2 are required for the onset of apoptotic cell death in the adjacent cells, where excess NO may exert its anti-apoptotic function by regulating cellular redox state.

  10. Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Park, Sejin; Chung, Yoon Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Byung Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia.

  11. Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cheol; Park, Sejin; Chung, Yoon Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Byung Woo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. CONCLUSIONS Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:24741395

  12. Apoptosis and autophagy: BIM as a mediator of tumour cell death in response to oncogene-targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Annette S; Balmanno, Kathryn; Wiggins, Ceri M; Johnson, Mark; Cook, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    The BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) is a potent pro-apoptotic protein belonging to the B-cell lymphoma 2 protein family. In recent years, advances in basic biology have provided a clearer picture of how BIM kills cells and how BIM expression and activity are repressed by growth factor signalling pathways, especially the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B pathways. In tumour cells these oncogene-regulated pathways are used to counter the effects of BIM, thereby promoting tumour cell survival. In parallel, a new generation of targeted therapeutics has been developed, which show remarkable specificity and efficacy in tumour cells that are addicted to particular oncogenes. It is now apparent that the expression and activation of BIM is a common response to these new therapeutics. Indeed, BIM has emerged from this marriage of basic and applied biology as an important mediator of tumour cell death in response to such drugs. The induction of BIM alone may not be sufficient for significant tumour cell death, as BIM is more likely to act in concert with other BH3-only proteins, or other death pathways, when new targeted therapeutics are used in combination with traditional chemotherapy agents. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding BIM regulation and review the role of BIM as a mediator of tumour cell death in response to novel oncogene-targeted therapeutics.

  13. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits Nuclear Translocation of Apoptosis Inducing Factor and Cell Death Caused by Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haining; Chen, Guisheng; Ma, Wanrui; Li, Ping-An Andy

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to explore the mechanism of rotenone-induced cell damage and to examine the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the toxic effects of rotenone. Murine hippocampal HT22 cells were cultured with mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Water-soluble CoQ10 was added to the culture media 3 h prior to the rotenone incubation. Cell viability was determined by alamar blue, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by dihydroethidine (DHE) and mitochondrial membrane potential by tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM). Cytochrome c, caspase-9 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were measured using Western blotting after 24 h rotenone incubation. Rotenone caused more than 50% of cell death, increased ROS production, AIF nuclear translocation and reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, but failed to cause mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Pretreatment with water-soluble CoQ10 enhanced cell viability, decreased ROS production, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented AIF nuclear translocation. The results suggest that rotenone activates a mitochondria-initiated, caspase-independent cell death pathway. Water-soluble CoQ10 reduces ROS accumulation, prevents the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibits AIF translocation and subsequent cell death. PMID:25089873

  14. Sanguinarine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis-like programmed cell death(AL-PCD) in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Żabka, Aneta; Winnicki, Konrad; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    A vast number of studies on plant cell systems clearly indicate that various biotic and abiotic stresses give rise to the uncontrolled increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess concentrations of ROS result in damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA, which may lead, in consequence, to the apoptotic cell death. The current study investigates the effects of sanguinarine (SAN), a natural alkaloid derived from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis, on root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. It is shown that SAN treatment generated large amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2·-). Oxidative stress induced in SAN-treated cells was correlated with DNA fragmentation, formation of micronuclei (MN), altered and 'degenerated' chromatin structures characteristic of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). The experiments with SAN + MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavable complexes) and SAN + ascorbic acid (AA; H2O2 scavenger) seem to suggest, however, that the high level of H2O2 is not the only factor responsible for changes observed at the chromatin level and for the consequent cell death. Our findings imply that Topo II-DNA covalent complexes and 26S proteasomes are also involved in SAN-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Up-regulation of FLIP in cisplatin-selected HeLa cells causes cross-resistance to CD95/Fas death signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Sun, Nian-Kang; Chao, Chuck C-K

    2003-01-01

    Cisplatin-selected cervix carcinoma HeLa cell lines induced less apoptosis, and weaker activation by cisplatin or Fas-activating antibody, of mitochondrial-associated caspase-9 and death receptor-mediated caspase-8 than did parental cells. Furthermore, less DISC (death-inducing signalling complex) was formed in cisplatin-selected cell lines than in parental cells. Ac-IETD-CHO (acetyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-aldehyde), which has a certain preference for inhibiting caspase-8, or Fas-antagonistic antibody, significantly inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis in both parental and cisplatin-selected HeLa cell lines. These results imply that cell-surface death signalling is inducible by cisplatin; that reduction of this pathway is associated with drug resistance, and that cisplatin-selected cells acquire cross-resistance to cell-surface death signalling. Sequential up-regulation of FLIP (FLICE-like inhibitory protein), but not Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L) or inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAPs), was observed in resistant cells but not in parental cells. The inhibition of FLIP by FLIP antisense oligonucleotides promotes cisplatin and Fas-antibody-induced apoptosis. However, the modulation of apoptosis by FLIP antisense oligonucleotides in resistant cells is greater than that in parental cells. The presented data reveal that the up-regulation of FLIP may contribute to the suppression of apoptosis and thereby change cells that are resistant to cisplatin and Fas-mediated death signals. The results also show that cancer cells that have undergone long-term chemotherapy and become chemoresistant may change the FLIP level, becoming cross-resistant to death factors such as Fas. PMID:12911332

  16. Geraniin-mediated apoptosis by cleavage of focal adhesion kinase through up-regulation of Fas ligand expression in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Chang; Tsai, Chih-Yen; Kao, Jung-Yie; Kao, Ming-Ching; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Jen-Kun; Way, Tzong-Der

    2008-06-01

    Geraniin, a form of tannin separated from geranium, causes cell death through induction of apoptosis; however, cell death characteristics for geraniin have not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of geraniin-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells and demonstrated that geraniin was able to induce cell apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also examined the signaling pathway related to geraniin-induced apoptosis. To clarify the relationship between focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and geraniin-induced apoptosis, we treated human melanoma cells with geraniin and found that this resulted dose- and time-dependent degradation in FAK. However, FAK cleavage was significantly inhibited when cells were pretreated with a selective inhibitor of caspase-3 (Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO). Here, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin triggered cell death by caspase-3-mediated cleavage of FAK. There were two possible mechanisms for activating caspase-3, mitochondria-mediated and receptor-mediated apoptosis. To confirm the geraniin-relevant signaling pathway, using immunoblot analysis we found that geraniin-induced apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation of Fas ligand expression, the activation of caspase-8, the cleavage of Bid, and the induction of cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Treatment with geraniin caused induction of caspase-3 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner followed by proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and DNA fragmentation factor 45. The geraniin-induced apoptosis may provide a pivotal mechanism for its cancer-chemopreventive action.

  17. Physangulidine A, a withanolide from Physalis angulata, perturbs the cell cycle and induces cell death by apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Reyes, E Merit; Jin, Zhuang; Vaisberg, Abraham J; Hammond, Gerald B; Bates, Paula J

    2013-01-25

    Recently, our group reported the discovery of three new withanolides, physangulidines A-C, from Physalis angulata. In this study, the biological effects of physangulidine A (1), which was the most active and abundant of the three new constituents, are described. It was found that 1 significantly reduces survival in clonogenic assays for two hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies in DU145 human prostate cancer cells indicated that 1 induces cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase and causes defective mitosis. It was determined also that 1 produces programed cell death by apoptosis, as evidenced by biochemical markers and distinct changes in cell morphology. These results imply that the antimitotic and proapoptotic effects of 1 may contribute significantly to the biological activities and potential medicinal properties of its plant of origin.

  18. Long-term blue light exposure induces RGC-5 cell death in vitro: involvement of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, oxidative stress, and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yongsheng; Wang, Minshu; Chen, Xiaoyong; Dong, Xuran

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of blue light-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury is poorly understood. In this study, we established a patented light-emitting diode-based system to study the effects of long-term blue light exposure under culture conditions on RGC-5 cells. Long-term blue light exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis and necrosis in RGC-5 cells. Long-term blue light exposure marked an increase in the expression of Bax and active Caspase-3 (p17), which was accompanied by Bcl-2 down-regulation, and displayed features of the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. Blue light exposure also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and was a strong inducer of ROS-sensitive protein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, blue light exposure constitutively activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the early phase, in blue light-exposed RGC-5 cells. The protein expression of c-jun and c-fos was further enhanced after RGC-5 cells were exposed to blue light. Taken together, these findings indicated that blue light induced RGC-5 cell line death in dependence upon exposure duration. The potential mechanisms for this phenomenon might be via activated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, increased ROS production and protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1, and activated JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

  19. A possible role of oxidative stress in the switch mechanism of the cell death mode from apoptosis to necrosis--studies on rho0 cells.

    PubMed

    Wochna, Agnieszka; Niemczyk, Edyta; Kurono, Chieko; Masaoka, Makoto; Kedzior, Jakub; Słomińska, Ewa; Lipiński, Marcin; Wakabayashi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis is induced not only during morphogenesis and embryogenesis but also under various pathological conditions, especially related to oxidative stress. Apoptotic cells are phagocytized by neighboring cells while necrotic cells cause local and general reactions sometimes lethal to our bodies. Data have been accumulated to demonstrate that the switch of the cell death mode from apoptosis to necrosis does occur. However, detailed mechanisms involved in the switch mechanism remain unsolved although decreases in the intracellular level of ATP and a burst in the cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed. Recently, we have shown that the population of apoptotic cells reaches maximum in human osteosarcoma 143B cells treated for 6h with menadione (MEN) while necrotic cells become predominant at 9h of the treatment. In the present study we have attempted to clarify the role of cellular ATP in the switch mechanism using rho(0) cells derived from human osteosarcoma rho+ cells. Results are summarized as follows: (1) Apoptotic and necrotic changes in rho(0) cells are much faster than rho+ cells after the treatment with MEN. (2) Cellular level of ATP in rho(0) cells remains essentially in the same level before and after the MEN-treatment while intracellular levels of superoxide continuously increase after the MEN-treatment. (3) rho+ cells treated with MEN in the presence of antimycin A plus oligomycin show similar changes to those of MEN-treated rho(0) cells. (4) MEN-induced increases in the cellular level of superoxide are distinctly suppressed by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. These results suggest that the intracellular level of superoxide may be a key factor directly related to the switch mechanism from apoptosis to necrosis, and that decreases in cellular level of ATP accelerate both apoptotic and necrotic changes of the cells.

  20. Role of mitochondria in the switch mechanism of the cell death mode from apoptosis to necrosis--studies on rho0 cells.

    PubMed

    Wochna, Agnieszka; Niemczyk, Edyta; Kurono, Chieko; Masaoka, Makoto; Majczak, Anna; Kedzior, Jakub; Slominska, Ewa; Lipinski, Marcin; Wakabayashi, Takashi

    2005-04-01

    Detailed mechanisms of the switch of the cell death mode from apoptosis to necrosis remain to be solved, although the intracellular level of ATP and that of free radicals have been postulated to be the major factors involved in the mechanisms. In the present study menadione (MEN)-induced cell injury processes were studied using rho0 cells derived from human osteosarcoma 143B cells and parental rho+ cells co-treated with inhibitors of electron transfer chain of mitochondria or oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP synthesis. Treatment of rho+ cells with 100 microM MEN induced apoptosis, which reached the maximum at 6 h, and was followed by an abrupt decrease thereafter, while necrotic cells (NC) increased continuously when they were judged by Annexin V and PI double staining. On the other hand, MEN induced apoptotic and necrotic changes much faster in rho0 cells compared to rho+ cells. The frequency to find apoptotic cells (AP) in the former cells was distinctly smaller than that to find NC judged by Annexin V and PI double staining. Electron microscopically, a major population of rho0 cells treated with MEN for 6 h consisted of intermediate cells, and a small number of AP co-existed. At 9 h of the treatment intermediate cells were exclusively seen, and AP were hardly detected. When parental rho+ cells were treated with MEN in the presence of oligomycin or oligomycin plus antimycin A both apoptotic and necrotic changes of the cells were distinctly accelerated. The intracellular level of superoxide in rho0 cells continuously increased after the MEN treatment, whereas that of ATP remained distinctly low before and after the MEN treatment compared to that in rho+ cells. These data suggest that the intracellular level of superoxide may be a key factor controlling the switch from apoptosis to necrosis.

  1. X protein variants of the autochthonous Latin American hepatitis B virus F genotype promotes human hepatocyte death by the induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, María Mercedes; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor; Barbini, Luciana

    2017-10-03

    The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBV-X) is a multifunctional regulatory protein associated with the pathogenesis of liver disease in chronic HBV infection. Basal core promoter mutations (BCP), associated with the clinical course of chronic HBV infection, affect HBV-X at 130-131 positions. The role of these mutations on HBV-X biological activity remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the presence of different amino acids at 130-131 positions of HBV-X on the biological activity of the protein. Transient expression of wild type and mutant F1b and F4 HBV-X increased cell mortality by the induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. The wild type and mutant HBV-X differentially modulate the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-X) regulatory proteins of the Bcl-2 family. Furthermore, the expression of HBV-X variants of both subgenotypes induced autophagy of human tumoral hepatocytes. In conclusion, HBV-X variants of the Latin American HBV F genotype promotes human hepatocytes death by the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The results of this work describe some of the molecular mechanisms by which HBV-X variants contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases in the infected liver and help to the biological characterization of genotype F, responsible of the majority of HBV infections in Argentina. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Green tea polyphenols induce cell death in breast cancer MCF-7 cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Min; Ou, Shi-Yi; Huang, Hui-Hua

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in treatment or prevention of breast cancer, the cytotoxic effects of GTPs on five human cell lines (MCF-7, A549, Hela, PC3, and HepG2 cells) were determined and the antitumor mechanisms of GTPs in MCF-7 cells were analyzed. The results showed that GTPs exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against the detected cancer cell lines, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Studies on the mechanisms revealed that the main modes of cell death induced by GTPs were cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that GTPs mediated cell cycle arrest at both G1/M and G2/M transitions. GTP dose dependently led to apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathways, as evidenced by induction of chromatin condensation, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), improvement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of DNA fragmentation, and activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the present paper.

  3. Synergism of ursolic acid derivative US597 with 2-deoxy-D-glucose to preferentially induce tumor cell death by dual-targeting of apoptosis and glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichuang; Jiang, Zhou; Xiang, Liping; Li, Yuanfang; Ou, Minrui; Yang, Xiang; Shao, Jingwei; Lu, Yusheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Jianzhong; Dai, Yun; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally bioactive product that exhibits potential anticancer effects. The relatively safe and effective molecule intrigued us to explore a way to further improve its anti-cancer activity and tumor-targeting specificity. In the present study, a series of structural modifications of UA was achieved, which resulted in significant increase in growth inhibition on various cancer cell lines with minimal effects on normal cells. The leading molecule US597 (UA-4) caused depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell arrest in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis/necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Structural docking suggested that the carbon chains of the modified UA derivatives compete strongly with glucose for binding to glucokinase, the key glycolysis enzyme presumably active in cancer cells. The combination of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and UA-4 induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, promoted caspase-dependent cell death, reduced hexokinase activity, aggravated depletion of intracellular ATP, decreased lactate production and synergistically inhibited cancer cell growth in vitro (HepG2) and in vivo (H22). Collectively, our findings suggest that the structural modification enhances efficacy and selectivity of UA, and the combination of UA-4 with 2-DG produces synergistic inhibition on hepatoma cell proliferation by dual targeting of apoptosis and glycolysis. PMID:25833312

  4. Green tea polyphenols induce cell death in breast cancer MCF-7 cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-min; Ou, Shi-yi; Huang, Hui-hua

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in treatment or prevention of breast cancer, the cytotoxic effects of GTPs on five human cell lines (MCF-7, A549, Hela, PC3, and HepG2 cells) were determined and the antitumor mechanisms of GTPs in MCF-7 cells were analyzed. The results showed that GTPs exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against the detected cancer cell lines, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Studies on the mechanisms revealed that the main modes of cell death induced by GTPs were cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that GTPs mediated cell cycle arrest at both G1/M and G2/M transitions. GTP dose dependently led to apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathways, as evidenced by induction of chromatin condensation, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m), improvement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of DNA fragmentation, and activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the present paper. PMID:28124838

  5. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  6. PGE2 Promotes Apoptosis Induced by Cytokine Deprivation through EP3 Receptor and Induces Bim in Mouse Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kovarova, Martina; Koller, Beverly H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased mast cell numbers are observed at sites of allergic inflammation and restoration of normal mast cell numbers is critical to the resolution of these responses. Early studies showed that cytokines protect mast cells from apoptosis, suggesting a simple model in which diminished cytokine levels during resolution leads to cell death. The report that prostaglandins can contribute both to recruitment and to the resolution of inflammation together with the demonstration that mast cells express all four PGE2 receptors raises the question of whether a single PGE2 receptor mediates the ability of PGE2 to regulate mast cell survival and apoptosis. We report here that PGE2 through the EP3 receptor promotes cell death of mast cells initiated by cytokine withdrawal. Furthermore, the ability of PGE2 to limit reconstitution of tissues with cultured mast cells is lost in cell lacking the EP3 receptor. Apoptosis is accompanied by higher dissipation of mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), increased caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation, and low molecular weight DNA cleavage. PGE2 augmented cell death is dependent on an increase in intracellular calcium release, calmodulin dependent kinase II and MAPK activation. Synergy between the EP3 pathway and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway results in increased Bim expression and higher sensitivity of mast cells to cytokine deprivation. This supports a model in which PGE2 can contribute to the resolution of inflammation in part by augmenting the removal of inflammatory cells in this case, mast cells. PMID:25054560

  7. Activation of the intrinsic cell death pathway, increased apoptosis and modulation of astrocytes in the cerebellum of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Arroba, Ana I; Frago, Laura M; Pañeda, Covadonga; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Delgado Rubín de Célix, Arancha; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2006-08-01

    Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus results in structural and functional changes in many brain regions. We demonstrate that in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats cell death is increased and proliferation decreased in the cerebellum, indicating overall cell loss. Levels of both the proform and cleaved forms of caspases 3, 6 and 9 are increased, with no change in caspases 7, 8 or 12. Colocalization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cleaved caspase 3 and GFAP in TUNEL-positive cells increased in diabetic rats. Changes in GFAP levels paralleled modifications in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), increasing at 1 week of diabetes and decreasing thereafter, and proliferating GFAP-positive cells were decreased in the cerebellum of diabetic rats. These results suggest that astrocytes are dramatically affected in the cerebellum, including an increase in cell death and a decrease in proliferation, and this could play a role in the structural and functional changes in this brain area in diabetes.

  8. Newly synthesized quinazolinone HMJ-38 suppresses angiogenetic responses and triggers human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis through p53-modulated Fas/death receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Jo-Hua; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-06-01

    The current study aims to investigate the antiangiogenic responses and apoptotic death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by a newly synthesized compound named 2-(3′-methoxyphenyl)-6-pyrrolidinyl-4-quinazolinone (HMJ-38). This work attempted to not only explore the effects of angiogenesis on in vivo and ex vivo studies but also hypothesize the implications for HUVECs (an ideal cell model for angiogenesis in vitro) and further undermined apoptotic experiments to verify the underlying molecular signaling by HMJ-38. Our results demonstrated that HMJ-38 significantly inhibited blood vessel growth and microvessel formation by the mouse Matrigel plug assay of angiogenesis, and the suppression of microsprouting from the rat aortic ring assay was observed after HMJ-38 exposure. In addition, HMJ-38 disrupted the tube formation and blocked the ability of HUVECs to migrate in response to VEGF. We also found that HMJ-38 triggered cell apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. HMJ-38 concentration-dependently suppressed viability and induced apoptotic damage in HUVECs. HMJ-38-influenced HUVECs were performed by determining the oxidative stress (ROS production) and ATM/p53-modulated Fas and DR4/DR5 signals that were examined by flow cytometry, Western blotting, siRNA and real-time RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that p53-regulated extrinsic pathway might fully contribute to HMJ-38-provoked apoptotic death in HUVECs. In view of these observations, we conclude that HMJ-38 reduces angiogenesis in vivo and ex vivo as well as induces apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. Overall, HMJ-38 has a potent anti-neovascularization effect and could warrant being a vascular targeting agent in the future. - Highlights: • HMJ-38 suppresses angiogenic actions in vivo and ex vivo. • Inhibitions of blood vessel and microvessel formation by HMJ-38 are acted. • Cytotoxic effects of HUVECs occur by HMJ-38 challenge. • p53-modulated extrinsic pathway contributes to HMJ-38

  9. FLIP the Switch: Regulation of Apoptosis and Necroptosis by cFLIP

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Nakabayashi, Osamu; Nakano, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    cFLIP (cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein) is structurally related to caspase-8 but lacks proteolytic activity due to multiple amino acid substitutions of catalytically important residues. cFLIP protein is evolutionarily conserved and expressed as three functionally different isoforms in humans (cFLIPL, cFLIPS, and cFLIPR). cFLIP controls not only the classical death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptosis pathway, but also the non-conventional pattern recognition receptor-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, cFLIP regulates the formation of the death receptor-independent apoptotic platform named the ripoptosome. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that cFLIP is also involved in a non-apoptotic cell death pathway known as programmed necrosis or necroptosis. These functions of cFLIP are strictly controlled in an isoform-, concentration- and tissue-specific manner, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in regulating the stability of cFLIP. In this review, we summarize the current scientific findings from biochemical analyses, cell biological studies, mathematical modeling, and gene-manipulated mice models to illustrate the critical role of cFLIP as a switch to determine the destiny of cells among survival, apoptosis, and necroptosis. PMID:26694384

  10. Balance between short and long isoforms of cFLIP regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Daniel R.; Ilyukha, Vladimir; Volkova, Tatyana; Buzdin, Anton; Tai, Albert; Smirnova, Irina; Poltorak, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    cFLIP, an inhibitor of apoptosis, is a crucial regulator of cellular death by apoptosis and necroptosis; its importance in development is exemplified by the embryonic lethality in cFLIP–deficient animals. A homolog of caspase 8 (CASP8), cFLIP exists in two main isoforms: cFLIPL (long) and cFLIPR (short). Although both splice variants regulate death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis by CASP8, the specific role of each isoform is poorly understood. Here, we report a previously unidentified model of resistance to Fas receptor-mediated liver failure in the wild-derived MSM strain, compared with susceptibility in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Linkage analysis in F2 intercross (B6 x MSM) progeny identified several MSM loci controlling resistance to Fas-mediated death, including the caspase 8- and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (Cflar) locus encoding cFLIP. Furthermore, we identified a 21-bp insertion in the 3′ UTR of the fifth exon of Cflar in MSM that influences differential splicing of cFLIP mRNA. Intriguingly, we observed that MSM liver cells predominantly express the FLIPL variant, in contrast to B6 liver cells, which have higher levels of cFLIPR. In keeping with this finding, genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed a relative abundance of FLIPL transcripts in MSM hepatocytes whereas B6 liver cells had significantly more FLIPR mRNA. Importantly, we show that, in the MSM liver, CASP8 is present exclusively as its cleaved p43 product, bound to cFLIPL. Because of partial enzymatic activity of the heterodimer, it might prevent necroptosis. On the other hand, it prevents cleavage of CASP8 to p10/20 necessary for cleavage of caspase 3 and, thus, apoptosis induction. Therefore, MSM hepatocytes are predisposed for protection from DR-mediated cell death. PMID:26798068

  11. OSTEOCYTE APOPTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Jilka, Robert L.; Noble, Brendon; Weinstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic death of osteocytes was recognized over 15 years ago, but its significance for bone homeostasis has remained elusive. A new paradigm has emerged that invokes osteocyte apoptosis as a critical event in the recruitment of osteoclasts to a specific site in response to skeletal unloading, fatigue damage, estrogen deficiency and perhaps in other states where bone must be removed. This is accomplished by yet to be defined signals emanating from dying osteocytes, which stimulate neighboring viable osteocytes to produce osteoclastogenic cytokines. The osteocyte apoptosis caused by chronic glucocorticoid administration does not increase osteoclasts; however, it does negatively impact maintenance of bone hydration, vascularity, and strength. PMID:23238124

  12. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis.

  13. Cleavage of DFNA5 by caspase-3 during apoptosis mediates progression to secondary necrotic/pyroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Corey; Fernandes-Alnemri, Teresa; Mayes, Lindsey; Alnemri, Diana; Cingolani, Gino; Alnemri, Emad S.

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when DFNA5 is deleted. Our findings identify DFNA5 as a central molecule that regulates apoptotic cell disassembly and progression to secondary necrosis, and provide a molecular mechanism for secondary necrosis. Because DFNA5-induced secondary necrosis and GSDMD-induced pyroptosis are dependent on caspase activation, we propose that they are forms of programmed necrosis. PMID:28045099

  14. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis. PMID:26731663

  15. Receptor-mediated endocytosis for drug delivery in African trypanosomes: fulfilling Paul Ehrlich's vision of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alsford, Sam; Field, Mark C; Horn, David

    2013-05-01

    Bloodstream-form cells of Trypanosoma brucei exhibit massively increased endocytic activity relative to the insect midgut stage, enabling rapid recycling of variant surface glycoprotein and antibody clearance from the surface. In addition, recent advances have identified a role for receptor-mediated endocytosis in the uptake of the antitrypanosomal drug, suramin, via invariant surface glycoprotein 75, and in the uptake of trypanosome lytic factor 1 via haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor. Here, we argue that receptor-mediated endocytosis represents both a validated drug target and a promising route for the delivery of novel therapeutics into trypanosomes.

  16. The regulation of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis by JNK/c-Jun pathway in β-amyloid-induced neuron death.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Rumana; Sanphui, Priyankar; Das, Hrishita; Saha, Pampa; Biswas, Subhas Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal loss in selective areas of brain underlies the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidences place oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) central to the disease. However, mechanism of neuron death in response to Aβ remains elusive. Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and induction of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun are reported in AD. However, targets of JNK/c-Jun in Aβ-induced neuron death are mostly unknown. Our study shows that pro-apoptotic proteins, Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) and Puma (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) are targets of c-Jun in Aβ-treated neurons. We demonstrate that the JNK/c-Jun pathway is activated, in cultures of cortical neurons following treatment with oligomeric Aβ and in AD transgenic mice, and that inhibition of this pathway by selective inhibitor blocks induction of Puma by Aβ. We also find that both JNK and p53 pathways co-operatively regulate Puma expression in Aβ-treated neurons. Moreover, we identified a novel AP1-binding site on rat puma gene which is necessary for direct binding of c-Jun with Puma promoter. Finally, we find that knocking down of c-Jun by siRNA provides significant protection from Aβ toxicity and that induction of Bim and Puma by Aβ in neurons requires c-Jun. Taken together, our results suggest that both Bim and Puma are target of c-Jun and elucidate the intricate regulation of Puma expression by JNK/c-Jun and p53 pathways in neurons upon Aβ toxicity. JNK/c-Jun pathway is shown to be activated in neurons of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and plays a vital role in neuron death in AD models. However, downstream targets of c-Jun in this disease have not been thoroughly elucidated. Our study shows that two important pro-apoptotic proteins, Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) and Puma (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) are targets of c-Jun in Aβ-treated neurons. We demonstrate that the JNK/c-jun pathway is activated, in cultures

  17. BARC: A Novel Apoptosis Regulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    turnover is normally achieved through programmed cell death , also known as apoptosis. Effects in apoptosis occur in breast cancers and other types of...malignancies, making tumor cells difficult to kill by chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiation. Restoring function of cell death pathways is a strategy...These findings provide new insights into cell death regulation in breast cancer.

  18. Deletion of the kinase domain in death-associated protein kinase attenuates tubular cell apoptosis in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Masanori; Yukawa, Kazunori; Hoshino, Katsuaki; Kimura, Akihiko; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Otani, Haruhisa; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Owada-Makabe, Kyoko; Tsubota, Yuji; Maeda, Masanobu; Ichinose, Masakazu; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Mune, Masatoshi

    2004-07-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase localized to renal tubular epithelial cells. To elucidate the contribution of DAPK activity to apoptosis in renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, wild-type (WT) mice and DAPK-mutant mice, which express a DAPK deletion mutant that lacks a portion of the kinase domain, were subjected to renal pedicle clamping and reperfusion. After IR, DAPK activity was elevated in WT kidneys but not in mutant kidneys (1785.7 +/- 54.1 pmol/min/mg versus 160.7 +/- 60.6 pmol/min/mg). Furthermore, there were more TUNEL-positive nuclei and activated caspase 3-positive cells in WT kidneys than in mutant kidneys after IR (24.0 +/- 5.9 nuclei or 9.4 +/- 0.6 cells per high-power field [HPF] versus 6.3 +/- 2.2 nuclei or 4.4 +/- 0.7 cells/HPF at 40 h after ischemia). In addition, the increase in p53-positive tubule cells after IR was greater in WT kidney than in mutant kidneys (9.9 +/- 1.4 cells/HPF versus 0.8 +/- 0.4 cells/HPF), which is consistent with the theory that DAPK activity stabilizes p53 protein. Finally, serum creatinine levels after IR were higher in WT mice than in mutant mice (2.54 +/- 0.34 mg/dl versus 0.87 +/- 0.24 mg/dl at 40 h after ischemia). Thus, these results indicate that deletion of the kinase domain from DAPK molecule can attenuate tubular cell apoptosis and renal dysfunction after IR injury.

  19. Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial death pathway in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-Hao; Fu, Song-Bin; Leng, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xinying; Dong, Shiyun; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Ren, Huan; Li, Hulun; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in calcium homeostasis in the intracellular endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) and mitochondria of cardiomyocytes cause cell death via the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, contributing to ventricular dysfunction. However, the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure has not been studied. This study examined the possible involvement of CaR in the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in an experimental model of heart failure. In Wistar rats, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure were induced by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (Iso). Calindol, an activator of CaR, and calhex231, an inhibitor of CaR, were administered by caudal vein injection. Cardiac remodeling and left ventricular function were then analyzed in these rats. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the administration of Iso, the rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and failure. The cardiac expression of ER chaperones and related apoptotic proteins was significantly increased in the failing hearts. Furthermore, the expression of ER chaperones and the apoptotic rate were also increased with the administration of calindol, whereas the expression of these proteins was reduced with the treatment of calhex231. We also induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure via thoracic aorta constriction (TAC) in mice. After 2 and 4 weeks of TAC, the expression of ER chaperones and apoptotic proteins were increased in the mouse hearts. Furthermore, Iso induced ER stress and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, while pretreatment with calhex231 prevented ER stress and protected the myocytes against apoptosis. To further investigate the effect of CaR on the concentration of intracellular calcium, the calcium concentration in the SR and mitochondria was determined with Fluo-5N and x-rhod-1 and the mitochondrial membrane potential was examined with JC-1 using laser confocal microscopy. After treatment with Iso for 48 hours, activation of CaR reduced [Ca(2+)]SR

  20. Pinus radiata bark extract induces caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Thamizhiniyan; Choi, Young-Woong; Mun, Sung-Phil; Kim, Young-Kyoon

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of Pinus radiata bark extract (PRE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. First, we observed that PRE induces potent cytotoxic effects in MCF-7 cells. The cell death had features of cytoplasmic vacuolation, plasma membrane permeabilization, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, absence of executioner caspase activation, insensitivity to z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), increased accumulation of autophagic markers, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). Both the inhibition of early stage autophagy flux and lysosomal cathepsins did not improve cell viability. The antioxidant, n-acetylcysteine, and the iron chelator, deferoxamine, failed to restore the lysosomal integrity indicating that PRE-induced LMP is independent of oxidative stress. This was corroborated with the absence of enhanced ROS production in PRE-treated cells. Chelation of both intracellular calcium and zinc promotes PRE-induced LMP. Geranylgeranylacetone, an inducer of Hsp70 expression, also had no significant protective effect on PRE-induced LMP. Moreover, we found that PRE induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in MCF-7 cells. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-PBA, did not restore the mitochondrial membrane integrity, whereas cathepsin inhibitors demonstrated significant protective effects. Collectively, our results suggest that PRE induces an autophagic block, LMP, ER stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in MCF-7 cells. However, further studies are clearly warranted to explore the exact mechanism behind the anticancer activity of PRE in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

  1. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Navanesan, Suerialoasan; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Manickam, Sugumaran; Sim, Kae Shin

    2015-01-01

    Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae), locally known as ‘Senna makki’ is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1) were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299) using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death. PMID:26287817

  2. A methyl jasmonate derivative, J-7, induces apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cheong, JaeHun; Jung, Jee H; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2010-10-01

    The pro-apoptotic activity of J-7, a synthetic methyl jasmonate derivative, on the Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cell line was investigated. Treatment of Hep3B cells with J-7 resulted in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis as measured by trypan blue-excluding cells, MTT assay, nuclear staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis. The increased apoptotic events in Hep3B cells caused by J-7 were associated with the alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. J-7 treatment induced the expression of death receptor-related proteins such as death receptor 5, which triggered the activation of caspase-8 and the down-regulation of the whole Bid expression. In addition, the apoptosis induction by J-7 was correlated with the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, down-regulation IAP family proteins such as XIAP and cIAP-1, and concomitant degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects induced by J-7 were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrates the important role that caspase-3 plays in the process. Furthermore, blocking the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways showed increased apoptosis and the activation of caspases in J-7-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that J-7 induces the apoptosis of Hep3B cells through a signaling cascade of death-receptor-mediated extrinsic as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic caspase pathways, which are associated with the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathway.

  3. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Keiko; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Okamura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Goto, Motohito; Ota, Takeharu; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased expression of IL-7R{alpha}, IL-2R{alpha} and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7R{alpha} and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2R{alpha} expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  4. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; Boichuk, Sergei V.; Palotás, András; Jeor, Stephen St.; Lombardi, Vincent C.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts.

  5. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Musiałek, Marcelina Weronika; Balcerczyk, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD) was a secondary result of caffeine (CF) induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) [double-stranded breaks (DSBs) mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs) mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant–DSBs versus alkaline–DSBs or SSBs). The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i) extensive vacuolization; (ii) abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii) formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv) protoplast shrinkage (v) fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi) extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD. PMID:26545248

  6. Nanomaterial-induced cell death in pulmonary and hepatic cells following exposure to three different metallic materials: The role of autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jantzen, Kim; Ward, Michael B; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Juel Rasmussen, Lene; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy is the catabolic process involving the sequestration of the cytoplasm within double-membrane vesicles, which fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes in which autophagic targets are degraded. Since most endocytic routes of nanomaterial uptake converge upon the lysosome and the possibility that autophagy induction by NMs may be an attempt by the cell to self-preserve following the external challenge, this study investigated the role of autophagy following exposure to a panel of widely used metal-based NMs with high toxicity (Ag and ZnO) or low toxicity (TiO2) in a pulmonary (A549) and hepatic (HepG2) cell line. The in vitro exposure to the Ag and ZnO NMs resulted in the induction of both apoptosis and autophagy pathways in both cell types. However, the progression of autophagy was blocked in the formation of the autolysosome, which coincided with morphologic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. This response was not observed following the exposure to low-toxicity TiO2 NMs. Overall, the results show that high toxicity NMs can cause a dysfunction in the autophagy pathway which is associated with apoptotic cell death.

  7. The inhibition of voltage-gated H(+) channel (HVCN1) induces acidification of leukemic Jurkat T cells promoting cell death by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Asuaje, Agustín; Smaldini, Paola; Martín, Pedro; Enrique, Nicolás; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A; Gonzalez León, Carlos; Docena, Guillermo; Milesi, Verónica

    2017-02-01

    Cellular energetic deregulation is widely known to produce an overproduction of acidic species in cancer cells. This acid overload must be counterbalanced with a high rate of H(+) extrusion to maintain cell viability. In this sense, many H(+) transporters have been reported to be crucial for cell survival and proposed as antineoplastic target. By the way, voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) mediate highly selective H(+) outward currents, capable to compensate acid burden in brief periods of time. This structure is canonically described acting as NADPH oxidase counterbalance in reactive oxygen species production. In this work, we show, for the first time in a oncohematologic cell line, that inhibition of Hv1 channels by Zn(2+) and the more selective blocker 2-(6-chloro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)guanidine (ClGBI) progressively decreases intracellular pH in resting conditions. This acidification is evident minutes after blockade and progresses under prolonged exposure (2, 17, and 48 h), and we firstly demonstrate that this is followed by cell death through apoptosis (annexin V binding). Altogether, these results contribute strong evidence that this channel might be a new therapeutic target in cancer.

  8. First description of programmed cell death10 (PDCD10) in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Potential relations to the regulation of apoptosis by several pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Won; Jeong, Ji-Min; Bae, Jin-Sol; Cho, Dong-Hee; Jung, Sung Hee; Hwang, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Baeck, Gun-Wook; Park, Chan-Il

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized programmed cell death10 (PDCD10), which is known to be related to apoptosis, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). The full-length rock bream PDCD10 (RbPDCD10) cDNA (1459 bp) contains an open reading frame of 633 bp that encodes 210 amino acids. Furthermore, multiple alignments revealed that the six of the α-helix bundles were well conserved among the other PDCD10 sequences tested. RbPDCD10 was significantly expressed in the liver, RBC (red blood cell), gill, intestine, trunk kidney and spleen. RbPDCD10 gene expression was also examined in several tissues, including the kidney, spleen, liver, and gill, under bacterial and viral challenges. Generally, all of the examined tissues from the fish that were infected with Edwardsiella tarda and the red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) exhibited significant up-regulations of RbPDCD10 expression compared to the controls. However, RbPDCD10 expression exhibited dramatic down-regulations in all of the examined tissues following injections of Streptococcus iniae, which is major bacterial pathogen that is responsible for mass mortality in rock bream. Our results revealed that rock bream PDCD10 may be involved in the apoptotic regulation of rock bream immune responses.

  9. BIM (BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death) SAHB (stabilized α helix of BCL2) not always convinces BAX (BCL-2-associated X protein) for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sharad; Goyal, Sukriti; Tyagi, Chetna; Jamal, Salma; Singh, Aditi; Grover, Abhinav

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of BAX (BCL-2-associated X protein) with BIM (BCL-2 interacting mediator of cell death) SAHB (stabilized α helix of BCL2) directly initiates BAX-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. This molecular dynamics study reveals that BIM SAHB forms a stable complex with BAX but it remains in a non-functional conformation. N terminal of BAX folds towards the core which has been reported exposed in the functional monomer. The α1-α2 loop, which has been reported in open conformation in functional BAX, acquires a closed conformation during the simulation. BH3/α2 remains less exposed as compared to initial structure. The hydrophobic residues of BIM accommodates in the rear pocket of BAX during the simulation. A steep decrease in radius of gyration and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) indicates the complex folding to acquire a more stable but inactive conformation. Further the covariance matrix reveals that the backbone atoms' motions favour the inactive conformation of the complex. This is the first report on the non-functional BAX-BIM SAHB complex by molecular dynamics simulation in the best of our knowledge.

  10. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling in neuroglia

    PubMed Central

    Loane, David J.; Stoica, Bogdan A.; Faden, Alan I.

    2011-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors, which include eight subtypes that have been classified into three groups (I–III) based upon sequence homology, signal transduction mechanism and pharmacological profile. Although most studied with regard to neuronal function and modulation, mGlu receptors are also expressed by neuroglia-including astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Activation of mGlu receptors on neuroglia under both physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions mediates numerous actions that are essential for intrinsic glial cell function, as well as for glial–neuronal interactions. Astrocyte mGlu receptors play important physiological roles in regulating neurotransmission and maintaining neuronal homeostasis. However, mGlu receptors on astrocytes and microglia also serve to modulate cell death and neurological function in a variety of pathophysiological conditions such as acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. The latter effects are complex and bi-directional, depending on which mGlu receptor sub-types are activated. PMID:22662309

  11. Cinnabar-Induced Subchronic Renal Injury Is Associated with Increased Apoptosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Dapeng; Wu, Jie; Wang, Bohan; Gao, Xianhui; Wang, Liangjun; Ma, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of apoptosis in cinnabar-induced renal injury in rats. To test this role, rats were dosed orally with cinnabar (1 g/kg/day) for 8 weeks or 12 weeks, and the control rats were treated with 5% carboxymethylcellulose solution. Levels of urinary mercury (UHg), renal mercury (RHg), serum creatinine (SCr), and urine kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) were assessed, and renal pathology was analyzed. Apoptotic cells were identified and the apoptotic index was calculated. A rat antibody array was used to analyze expression of cytokines associated with apoptosis. Results from these analyses showed that UHg, RHg, and urine KIM-1, but not SCr, levels were significantly increased in cinnabar-treated rats. Renal pathological changes in cinnabar-treated rats included vacuolization of tubular cells, formation of protein casts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and increase in the number of apoptotic tubular cells. In comparison to the control group, expression of FasL, Fas, TNF-α, TRAIL, activin A, and adiponectin was upregulated in the cinnabar-treated group. Collectively, our results suggest that prolonged use of cinnabar results in kidney damage due to accumulation of mercury and that the underlying mechanism involves apoptosis of tubular cells via a death receptor-mediated pathway. PMID:25629042

  12. Correlation of the expression of YY1 and Fas cell surface death receptor with apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the development of multiple organ dysfunction in children with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Reséndiz-Martínez, Judith; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Vega, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) is a lethal complication in children with sepsis. Apoptosis of several cell types is involved in this process, and it is associated with increased Fas cell surface death receptor (Fas) expression. As YY1 transcription factor (YY1) negatively regulates the expression of Fas in cancer models, and is associated with the clinical outcome, it may be important in MOD. The present study aimed to determine the association between the expression of Fas, YY1 and apoptosis in children with sepsis, and its association with MOD, these factors were analyzed in 30 pediatric patients that had been diagnosed with sepsis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from patients, and YY1 and Fas protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. Sepsis was monitored using clinical parameters, pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) score and the pediatric mortality index. The results demonstrated that Fas expression was directly correlated with apoptosis levels and the expression of YY1 was inversely correlated with apoptosis levels. Patients with high levels of apoptosis exhibited increased disease severity and poor clinical outcome. Notably, the findings of the present study demonstrated that there were higher survival rates in patients with high YY1 expression, compared with those with low YY1 expression. Additionally, patients with MOD exhibited lower proportions of apoptotic cells compared with sepsis patients without MOD. Furthermore, the PELOD score was positively correlated with Fas and inversely correlated with YY1 expression. Finally, high apoptosis and low YY1 expression were prognostic factors associated with poor survival rates. These data suggested that YY1 may be important for apoptosis induction via the regulation of Fas during sepsis. Therefore, Fas may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent MOD through regulation of YY1

  13. Effect of UVC radiation on mouse fibroblasts deficient for FAS-associated protein with death domain.

    PubMed

    Begović, Lidija; Antunovic, Maja; Matic, Igor; Furcic, Ivana; Baricevic, Ana; Vojvoda Parcina, Valerija; Peharec Štefanić, Petra; Nagy, Biserka; Marijanovic, Inga

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced apoptosis enabled us to study the mechanism of DNA damage and to investigate how cells avoid consequences of damaged DNA. Cells with extensive DNA damage activate extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The extrinsic pathway is coupled to a FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD), an adaptor protein molecule necessary for mediating apoptotic signals through the cell. Viability and apoptosis of wild-type and FADD-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts were investigated 1, 3, 24 and 48 h after exposure to three doses (50, 75 and 300 J/m(2)) of UVC radiation. Morphological changes were observed using DNA binding dyes (Hoechst and propidium iodide) while biochemical changes were monitored using immunodetection of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein cleavage and caspase-3 activity assay. Results showed that the difference in cell death response between wild-type and FADD-deficient cells depended on dose and incubation time after exposure to UVC radiation. FADD-deficient cells are more sensitive to UVC radiation. Even though FADD-deficient cells lack an adapter protein of apoptotic extrinsic pathway, higher doses of UVC triggered their apoptotic response, while wild-type cells die mainly due to necrosis. A different pattern of caspase 3 activity and PARP cleavage was observed 24 h after radiation between two cell lines confirming higher apoptotic response in FADD-deficient cells. Wild-type cells can execute apoptosis via both, the mitochondrial and the receptor-mediated pathway whereas FADD-deficient cells can only activate the intrinsic pathway. There is a difference in UVC radiation response between two cell lines indicating the role of FADD in the selection of cell death modality.

  14. Extracellular signal‑regulated kinase inhibition is required for methanol extract of Smilax china L.‑induced apoptosis through death receptor 5 in human oral mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Ji-Ae; Lee, Syng-Ook; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2014-02-01

    Smilax china L., a well‑known Chinese traditional medicine, has been used as an anti‑inflammatory, anti‑cancer and analgesic agent, but its role has not yet been fully elucidated in oral mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The present study focused on addressing the anticancer activity and molecular mechanism of methanol extract of Smilax china L. (MESC) in MC‑3 human oral MEC cells. The results indicated that MESC inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MC‑3 cells. These observations were found to correlate with increases in truncated BH3 interacting‑domain death agonist and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) interacting mediator of cell death, but not Bcl‑2 homologous antagonist killer, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2, B‑cell lymphoma‑extra large and induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein levels. MESC also damaged the mitochondrial membrane potential, cleaved caspase‑8 protein and increased death receptor 5 (DR5) protein levels by enhancing the stability of DR5 protein. Furthermore, MESC affected the phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) only, and did not affect c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase or p38 phosphorylation. Co‑treatment with MESC and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) significantly increased the expression of DR5 to induce apoptosis in MC‑3 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that MESC may induce apoptosis via the ERK pathway and may be a potential anticancer drug candidate against human oral MEC.

  15. Nicotine effects on muscarinic receptor-mediated free Ca[Formula: see text] level changes in the facial nucleus following facial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Anbing; Sun, Wenhai; Zhang, Hongmei; Tang, Limin

    2016-06-01

    It was suggested that muscarinic, and nicotinic receptors increase free Ca[Formula: see text] levels in the facial nerve nucleus via various channels following facial nerve injury. However, intracellular Ca[Formula: see text] overload can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. It is assumed that, following facial nerve injury, the interactions of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in facial nerve nucleus may negatively regulate free Ca[Formula: see text] concentrations in the facial nerve nucleus, which provide important information for the repair and regeneration of the facial nerve. The present study investigated the regulatory effects of nicotine on muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion level changes in the facial nucleus in a rat model of facial nerve injury at 7, 30, and 90 days following facial nerve injury using laser confocal microscopy. The dose-dependent regulation of nicotine on muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion level changes in the facial nucleus may decrease the range of free Ca[Formula: see text] increases following facial nerve injury, which is important for nerve cell regeneration. It is concluded that the negative effects of nicotine on muscarinic receptors are related to the [Formula: see text] subtype of nicotinic receptors.

  16. Antiphospholipid reactivity against cardiolipin metabolites occurring during endothelial cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Cristiano; Sorice, Maurizio; Bombardieri, Michele; Conigliaro, Paola; Longo, Agostina; Garofalo, Tina; Manganelli, Valeria; Conti, Fabrizio; Esposti, Mauro Degli; Valesini, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We have recently shown that cardiolipin (CL) and its metabolites move from mitochondria to other cellular membranes during death receptor-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we investigate the immunoreactivity to CL derivatives occurring during endothelial apoptosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We compared the serum immunoreactivity to CL with that of its derivatives monolysocardiolipin (MCL), dilysocardiolipin (DCL), and hydrocardiolipin (HCL) by means of both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) immunostaining. In addition, we investigated the composition of phospholipid extracts from the plasma membrane of apoptotic endothelial cells and the binding of patients' sera to the surface of the same cells by using high-performance TLC and immunofluorescence analysis. The average reactivity to MCL was comparable with that of CL and significantly higher than that for DCL and HCL in patients studied, both in the presence or in the absence of beta2-glycoprotein I. Of relevance for the pathogenic role of these autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G from patients' sera showed an increased focal reactivity with the plasma membrane of endothelial cells undergoing apoptosis. Interestingly, the phospholipid analysis of these light membrane fractions showed an accumulation of both CL and MCL. Our results demonstrated that a critical number of acyl chains in CL derivatives is important for the binding of antiphospholipid antibodies and that MCL is an antigenic target with immunoreactivity comparable with CL in APS and SLE. Our finding also suggests a link between apoptotic perturbation of CL metabolism and the production of these antibodies. PMID:17150088

  17. Apoptosis-like cell death induced by nematocyst venom from Chrysaora helvola Brandt jellyfish and an in vitro evaluation of commonly used antidotes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xianghua; Lai, Zefeng; Zhong, Taozheng; Li, Gang; Fan, Lanlan; Shu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The present work investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of nematocyst venom (NV) from Chrysaora helvola Brandt (C. helvola) jellyfish against human MCF-7 and CNE-2 tumor cell lines. Potent cytotoxicity was quantified using the MTT assay (LC50=12.07±3.13 and 1.6±0.22μg/mL (n=4), respectively). Apoptosis-like cell death was further confirmed using the LDH release assay and Annexin V/PI double staining-based flow cytometry analysis. However, only activation of caspase-4 was observed. It is possible that some caspase-independent pathways were activated by the NV treatment. Since no reference or antivenom is available, the effects of several commonly used antidotes on the cytotoxicity of NV were examined on more sensitive CNE-2 cells to determine the appropriate emergency measures for envenomation by C. helvola. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor para-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) showed no protective effect, while Mg(2+) potentiated cytotoxicity. Voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers (verapamil, nifedipine and felodipine) and Na-Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor KB-R7943 also showed no effect. Assays using Ca(2+)-free culture media or the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA also could not inhibit the cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that PLA2 and Ca(2+) are not directly involved in the cytotoxicity of NV from C. helvola. Our work also suggests caution regarding the choice for first aid for envenomation by C. helvola jellyfish.

  18. Ethanol inhibits epileptiform activity and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in rat amygdaloid slices

    SciTech Connect

    Gean, P.W. )

    1992-02-26

    The effect of ethanol on the epileptiform activity induced by Mg{sup ++}-free solution was studied in rat amygdalar slices using intracellular recording techniques. The spontaneous and evoked epileptiform discharges consisting of an initial burst followed by afterdischarges were observed 20-30 min after switching to Mg{sup ++}-free medium. Superfusion with ethanol reversibly reduced the duration of spontaneous and evoked bursting discharges in a concentration-dependent manner. Synaptic response mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation was isolated by application of a solution containing the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and either in Mg{sup ++}-free solution or in the presence of 50 {mu}M bicuculline. Application of ethanol reversibly suppressed the duration of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic response. These results suggest that intoxicating concentrations of ethanol possess anticonvulsant activity through blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic excitation.

  19. Menthol enhances phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benjamin K; Karim, Shafinaz; Goodchild, Ann K; Vaughan, Christopher W; Drew, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Menthol, a naturally occurring compound in the essential oil of mint leaves, is used for its medicinal, sensory and fragrant properties. Menthol acts via transient receptor potential (TRPM8 and TRPA1) channels and as a positive allosteric modulator of recombinant GABAA receptors. Here, we examined the actions of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated currents in intact midbrain slices. Experimental Approach Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in midbrain slices from rats to determine the effects of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated phasic IPSCs and tonic currents. Key Results Menthol (150–750 μM) produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of spontaneous GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, but not non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs throughout the PAG. Menthol actions were unaffected by TRPM8 and TRPA1 antagonists, tetrodotoxin and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Menthol also enhanced a tonic current, which was sensitive to the GABAA receptor antagonists, picrotoxin (100 μM), bicuculline (30 μM) and Zn2+ (100 μM), but unaffected by gabazine (10 μM) and a GABAC receptor antagonist, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid hydrate (TPMPA; 50 μM). In addition, menthol potentiated currents induced by the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP/gaboxadol (10 μM). Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that menthol positively modulates both synaptic and extrasynaptic populations of GABAA receptors in native PAG neurons. The development of agents that potentiate GABAA-mediated tonic currents and phasic IPSCs in a manner similar to menthol could provide a basis for novel GABAA-related pharmacotherapies. PMID:24460753

  20. P53 Is Essential for Developmental Neuron Death as Regulated by the TrkA and p75 Neurotrophin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Aloyz, Raquel S.; Bamji, Shernaz X.; Pozniak, Christine D.; Toma, Jean G.; Atwal, Jasvinder; Kaplan, David R.; Miller, Freda D.

    1998-01-01

    Naturally occurring sympathetic neuron death is the result of two apoptotic signaling events: one normally suppressed by NGF/TrkA survival signals, and a second activated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Here we demonstrate that the p53 tumor suppressor protein, likely as induced by the MEKK-JNK pathway, is an essential component of both of these apoptotic signaling cascades. In cultured neonatal sympathetic neurons, p53 protein levels are elevated in response to both NGF withdrawal and p75NTR activation. NGF withdrawal also results in elevation of a known p53 target, the apoptotic protein Bax. Functional ablation of p53 using the adenovirus E1B55K protein inhibits neuronal apoptosis as induced by either NGF withdrawal or p75 activation. Direct stimulation of the MEKK-JNK pathway using activated MEKK1 has similar effects; p53 and Bax are increased and the subsequent neuronal apoptosis can be rescued by E1B55K. Expression of p53 in sympathetic neurons indicates that p53 functions downstream of JNK and upstream of Bax. Finally, when p53 levels are reduced or absent in p53+/− or p53−/− mice, naturally occurring sympathetic neuron death is inhibited. Thus, p53 is an essential common component of two receptor-mediated signal transduction cascades that converge on the MEKK-JNK pathway to regulate the developmental death of sympathetic neurons. PMID:9852160

  1. Mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into antigen presenting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Sandra S; Plank, Christian; Cotten, Matt; Wagner, Ernst; Zenke, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells and are unique in their ability to prime naïve T cells. Gene modification of dendritic cells is of particular interest for immunotherapy of diseases where the immune system has failed or is aberrantly regulated, such as in cancer or autoimmune disease, respectively. Dendritic cells abundantly express mannose receptor and mannose receptor-related receptors, and receptor-mediated gene transfer via mannose receptor offers a versatile tool for targeted gene delivery into these cells. Accordingly, mannose polyethylenimine DNA transfer complexes were generated and used for gene delivery into dendritic cells. Mannose receptor belongs to the group of scavenger receptors that allow dendritic cells to take up pathogenic material, which is directed for degradation and MHC class II presentation. Therefore, a limiting step of transgene expression by mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery is endosomal degradation of DNA. Several strategies have been explored to overcome this limitation including the addition of endosomolytic components to DNA transfer complexes like adenovirus particles and influenza peptides. Here, we review the current understanding of mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into dendritic cells and discuss strategies to identify appropriate endosomolytic agents to improve DNA transfer efficacy.

  2. Size of single-wall carbon nanotube affects the folate receptor-mediated cancer cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Charbgoo, Fahimeh; Nikkhah, Maryam; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

    2017-08-30

    Advances in nanobiotechnology and targeting strategy could improve the delivery of therapeutic molecules into cancer cells, leading to improved treatment efficiency with minimal side effects on normal cells. To design an efficient nanocarrier, consideration of parameters that facilitate direct drug delivery into the target cells is important. We studied the effect of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) size on their cell internalization level via the folate receptor-mediated pathway through folic acid targeting. Folate-SWNTs were covalently synthesized and characterized. Folate-SWNTs ≤ 450 nm had lower cell internalization level than folate-SWNTs >450 nm with a P value of ≤0.01. This indicated that using folate-SWNT with an average length of ≤450 nm was not suitable for receptor-mediated cancer cell targeting. Receptor-mediated uptake of folate-SWNTs is dependent on the nanoparticle length. However, sub-450 nm SWNTs could serve as a vehicle to transfer nucleic acids into the cells due to direct cell penetrance based on their needle-like structure. We find that SWNTs larger than 450 nm were suitable to target the cells through receptors. These results might provide a promising approach for designing more effective targeted delivery systems based on SWNTs. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Nanoscale imaging and mechanical analysis of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2014-02-18

    Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells is an important mechanism in the immune therapy of cancers. Traditional research about macrophage phagocytosis was based on optical microscopy, which cannot reveal detailed information because of the 200-nm-resolution limit. Quantitatively investigating the macrophage phagocytosis at micro- and nanoscale levels is still scarce. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers an excellent analytical instrument for quantitatively investigating the biological processes at single-cell and single-molecule levels under native conditions. In this work, we combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy to visualize and quantify the detailed changes in cell morphology and mechanical properties during the process of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells. Lymphoma cells were discernible by fluorescence staining. Then, the dynamic process of phagocytosis was observed by time-lapse optical microscopy. Next, AFM was applied to investigate the detailed cellular behaviors during macrophage phagocytosis under the guidance of fluorescence recognition. AFM imaging revealed the distinct features in cellular ultramicrostructures for the different steps of macrophage phagocytosis. AFM cell mechanical property measurements indicated that the binding of cancer cells to macrophages could make macrophages become stiffer. The experimental results provide novel insights in understanding the Fc-receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis.

  4. Slowly developing depression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediated responses in young rat hippocampi

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Mikhail; Li, Rui; Xu, Hui-Ping; Jilderos, Barbro; Wigström, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Background Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors is essential in triggering various forms of synaptic plasticity. A critical issue is to what extent such plasticity involves persistent changes of glutamate receptor subtypes and many prior studies have suggested a main role for alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in mediating the effect. Our previous work in hippocampal slices revealed that, under pharmacological unblocking of NMDA receptors, both AMPA and NMDA receptor mediated responses undergo a slowly developing depression. In the present study we have further adressed this phenomenon, focusing on the contribution via NMDA receptors. Pharmacologically isolated NMDA receptor mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded for two independent synaptic pathways in CA1 area using perfusion with low Mg2+ (0.1 mM) to unblock NMDA receptors. Results Following unblocking of NMDA receptors, there was a gradual decline of NMDA receptor mediated EPSPs for 2–3 hours towards a stable level of ca. 60–70 % of the maximal size. If such an experimental session was repeated twice in the same pathway with a period of NMDA receptor blockade in between, the depression attained in the first session was still evident in the second one and no further decay occurred. The persistency of the depression was also validated by comparison between pathways. It was found that the responses of a control pathway, unstimulated in the first session of receptor unblocking, behaved as novel responses when tested in association with the depressed pathway under the second session. In similar experiments, but with AP5 present during the first session, there was no subsequent difference between NMDA EPSPs. Conclusions Our findings show that merely evoking NMDA receptor mediated responses results in a depression which is input specific, induced via NMDA receptor activation, and is maintained for several hours through

  5. Site of action of the general anesthetic propofol in muscarinic M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Murasaki, Osamu; Kaibara, Muneshige; Nagase, Yoshihisa; Mitarai, Sayaka; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Sumikawa, Koji; Taniyama, Kohtaro

    2003-12-01

    Although a potential target site of general anesthetics is primarily the GABA A receptor, a chloride ion channel, a previous study suggested th