Science.gov

Sample records for debate subgroup analyses

  1. Debate: Subgroup analyses in clinical trials: fun to look at - but don't believe them!

    PubMed Central

    Sleight, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of subgroup results in a clinical trial is surprisingly unreliable, even in a large trial. This is the result of a combination of reduced statistical power, increased variance and the play of chance. Reliance on such analyses is likely to be more erroneous, and hence harmful, than application of the overall proportional (or relative) result in the whole trial to the estimate of absolute risk in that subgroup. Plausible explanations can usually be found for effects that are, in reality, simply due to the play of chance. When clinicians believe such subgroup analyses, there is a real danger of harm to the individual patient. PMID:11714402

  2. A comparison of subgroup analyses in grant applications and publications.

    PubMed

    Boonacker, Chantal W B; Hoes, Arno W; van Liere-Visser, Karen; Schilder, Anne G M; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, the authors compare subgroup analyses as outlined in grant applications and their related publications. Grants awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) from 2001 onward that were finalized before March 1, 2010, were studied. Of the 79 grant proposals, 50 (63%) were intervention studies, 18 (23%) were diagnostic studies, and 6 (8%) were prognostic studies. Subgroups were mentioned in 49 (62%) grant applications and in 53 (67%) publications. In 20 of the 79 projects (25%), the publications were completely in agreement with the grant proposal; that is, subgroups that were prespecified in the grant proposal were reported and no new subgroup analyses were introduced in the publications. Of the 149 prespecified subgroups, 46 (31%) were reported in the final report or scientific publications, and 143 of the 189 (76%) reported subgroups were based on post-hoc findings. For 77% of the subgroup analyses in the publications, there was no mention of whether these were prespecified or post hoc. Justification for subgroup analysis and methods to study subgroups were rarely reported. The authors conclude that there is a large discrepancy between grant applications and final publications regarding subgroup analyses. Both nonreporting prespecified subgroup analyses and reporting post-hoc subgroup analyses are common. More guidance is clearly needed.

  3. Valid randomization-based p-values for partially post hoc subgroup analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph J.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    By ‘partially post-hoc’ subgroup analyses, we mean analyses that compare existing data from a randomized experiment—from which a subgroup specification is derived—to new, subgroup-only experimental data. We describe a motivating example in which partially post hoc subgroup analyses instigated statistical debate about a medical device’s efficacy. We clarify the source of such analyses’ invalidity and then propose a randomization-based approach for generating valid posterior predictive p-values for such partially post hoc subgroups. Lastly, we investigate the approach’s operating characteristics in a simple illustrative setting through a series of simulations, showing that it can have desirable properties under both null and alternative hypotheses. PMID:25959735

  4. Performance of Stratified and Subgrouped Disproportionality Analyses in Spontaneous Databases.

    PubMed

    Seabroke, Suzie; Candore, Gianmario; Juhlin, Kristina; Quarcoo, Naashika; Wisniewski, Antoni; Arani, Ramin; Painter, Jeffery; Tregunno, Philip; Norén, G Niklas; Slattery, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Disproportionality analyses are used in many organisations to identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from spontaneous report data. Reporting patterns vary over time, with patient demographics, and between different geographical regions, and therefore subgroup analyses or adjustment by stratification may be beneficial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of subgroup and stratified disproportionality analyses for a number of key covariates within spontaneous report databases of differing sizes and characteristics. Using a reference set of established ADRs, signal detection performance (sensitivity and precision) was compared for stratified, subgroup and crude (unadjusted) analyses within five spontaneous report databases (two company, one national and two international databases). Analyses were repeated for a range of covariates: age, sex, country/region of origin, calendar time period, event seriousness, vaccine/non-vaccine, reporter qualification and report source. Subgroup analyses consistently performed better than stratified analyses in all databases. Subgroup analyses also showed benefits in both sensitivity and precision over crude analyses for the larger international databases, whilst for the smaller databases a gain in precision tended to result in some loss of sensitivity. Additionally, stratified analyses did not increase sensitivity or precision beyond that associated with analytical artefacts of the analysis. The most promising subgroup covariates were age and region/country of origin, although this varied between databases. Subgroup analyses perform better than stratified analyses and should be considered over the latter in routine first-pass signal detection. Subgroup analyses are also clearly beneficial over crude analyses for larger databases, but further validation is required for smaller databases.

  5. The Importance of “Shrinkage” in Subgroup Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Ari M.; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Vienna, Muna; Lewis, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Subgroup analyses examine associations (e.g., between treatment and outcome) within subsets of a larger study sample. The traditional approach evaluates the data in each of the subgroups independently. More accurate answers, however, may be expected when the rest of the data are considered in the analysis of each subgroup, provided there are three or more subgroups. Methods We present a conceptual introduction to subgroup analysis that makes use of all the available data, and then illustrate the technique by applying it to a previously published study of pediatric airway management. Using WinBUGS, freely available computer software, we perform an empirical Bayesian analysis of the treatment effect in each of the subgroups. This approach corrects the original subgroup treatment estimates toward a weighted average treatment effect across all subjects. Results The revised estimates of the subgroup treatment effects demonstrate markedly less variability than the original estimates. Further, using these estimates will reduce our total expected error in parameter estimation, as compared to using the original, independent subgroup estimates. While any particular estimate may be adjusted inappropriately, adopting this strategy will, on average, lead to results that are more accurate. Conclusions When considering multiple subgroups, it is often inadvisable to ignore the rest of the study data. Authors or readers who wish to examine associations within subgroups are encouraged to use techniques that reduce the total expected error. PMID:20138396

  6. Subgroup analyses of clinical effectiveness to support health technology assessments.

    PubMed

    Paget, Marie-Ange; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Fletcher, Christine; Reid, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Subgroup analysis is an integral part of access and reimbursement dossiers, in particular health technology assessment (HTA), and their HTA recommendations are often limited to subpopulations. HTA recommendations for subpopulations are not always clear and without controversies. In this paper, we review several HTA guidelines regarding subgroup analyses. We describe good statistical principles for subgroup analyses of clinical effectiveness to support HTAs and include case examples where HTA recommendations were given to subpopulations only. Unlike regulatory submissions, pharmaceutical statisticians in most companies have had limited involvement in the planning, design and preparation of HTA/payers submissions. We hope to change this by highlighting how pharmaceutical statisticians should contribute to payers' submissions. This includes early engagement in reimbursement strategy discussions to influence the design, analysis and interpretation of phase III randomized clinical trials as well as meta-analyses/network meta-analyses. The focus on this paper is on subgroup analyses relating to clinical effectiveness as we believe this is the first key step of statistical involvement and influence in the preparation of HTA and reimbursement submissions.

  7. Rainbow: A Framework for Analysing Computer-Mediated Pedagogical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Andriessen, Jerry; Lund, Kristine; van Amelsvoort, Marie; Quignard, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for analysing when and how students engage in a specific form of interactive knowledge elaboration in CSCL environments: broadening and deepening understanding of a space of debate. The framework is termed "Rainbow," as it comprises seven principal analytical categories, to each of which a colour is assigned,…

  8. Rainbow: A Framework for Analysing Computer-Mediated Pedagogical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Andriessen, Jerry; Lund, Kristine; van Amelsvoort, Marie; Quignard, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for analysing when and how students engage in a specific form of interactive knowledge elaboration in CSCL environments: broadening and deepening understanding of a space of debate. The framework is termed "Rainbow," as it comprises seven principal analytical categories, to each of which a colour is assigned,…

  9. Subgroup analyses with special reference to the effect of antiplatelet agents in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aronson, D

    2014-07-03

    Controlled trials estimate treatment effects averaged over the reference population of subjects. However, physicians are interested in whether the treatment effect varies across subgroups (effect heterogeneity) in order to target specific subgroups to maximise the benefit of treatment and minimise harm. Therefore, large clinical trials of antiplatelet agents include subgroup analyses that examine whether treatment effects differ between subgroups of subjects identified by baseline characteristics. Reporting subgroup is pervasive and often accompanied by claims of difference of treatment effects between subgroups with potential important implications for clinical practice. However, subgroup-specific analyses of clinical trial data have inherent limitations that reduce their reliability. These include reduced statistical power, failure to specify the subgroups of interest a priori, failure to account for examining large numbers of subgroups, lack of strong rationale for biological response modification, and performing analyses based on variables measured post randomisation or in trials showing no overall difference between treatments. Rules for interpretation of subgroup findings in subgroups have been suggested but are frequently not applied. In this article we draw attention to the pitfalls of subgroup analyses in the context of recent trials of antiplatelet agents.

  10. Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications.

    PubMed

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Sun, Xin; von Elm, Erik; You, John; Blümle, Anette; Tomonaga, Yuki; Saccilotto, Ramon; Amstutz, Alain; Bengough, Theresa; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Stegert, Mihaela; Olu, Kelechi K; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Faulhaber, Markus; Mulla, Sohail M; Mertz, Dominik; Akl, Elie A; Bassler, Dirk; Busse, Jason W; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Lamontagne, Francois; Nordmann, Alain; Gloy, Viktoria; Raatz, Heike; Moja, Lorenzo; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ebrahim, Shanil; Vandvik, Per O; Johnston, Bradley C; Walter, Martin A; Burnand, Bernard; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Hemkens, Lars G; Bucher, Heiner C; Guyatt, Gordon H; Briel, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. © The DISCO study group 2014.

  11. Subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials: time to be specific about their purposes.

    PubMed

    Tanniou, Julien; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Teerenstra, Steven; Roes, Kit C B

    2016-02-18

    It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III) clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold. Subgroup analyses can have different and distinct purposes, requiring specific design and analysis solutions. It is relevant to evaluate methodological developments in subgroup analyses against these purposes to guide health care professionals and regulators as well as to identify gaps in current methodology. We defined four purposes for subgroup analyses: (1) Investigate the consistency of treatment effects across subgroups of clinical importance, (2) Explore the treatment effect across different subgroups within an overall non-significant trial, (3) Evaluate safety profiles limited to one or a few subgroup(s), (4) Establish efficacy in the targeted subgroup when included in a confirmatory testing strategy of a single trial. We reviewed the methodology in line with this "purpose-based" framework. The review covered papers published between January 2005 and April 2015 and aimed to classify them in none, one or more of the aforementioned purposes. In total 1857 potentially eligible papers were identified. Forty-eight papers were selected and 20 additional relevant papers were identified from their references, leading to 68 papers in total. Nineteen were dedicated to purpose 1, 16 to purpose 4, one to purpose 2 and none to purpose 3. Seven papers were dedicated to more than one purpose, the 25 remaining could not be classified unambiguously. Purposes of the methods were often not specifically indicated, methods for subgroup analysis for safety purposes were almost absent and a multitude of diverse methods were developed for purpose (1). It is important that researchers developing methodology for subgroup analysis explicitly clarify the objectives of their methods in terms that can be

  12. A proposed statistical framework for the management of subgroup analyses for large clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaolong; Chen, Peng; Wu, Alan Chengqing; Pan, Guohua; Li, Mingyu; Chen, Guang; Dong, Qian; Cline, Gary A; Dornseif, Bruce E; Jin, Zhezhen

    2015-11-01

    Planned and unplanned subgroup analyses of large clinical trials are frequently performed and the results are sometimes difficult to interpret. The source of a nominal significant finding may come from a true signal, variation of the clinical trial outcome or the observed data structure. Quantitative assessment is critical to the interpretation of the totality of the clinical data. In this article we provide a general framework to manage subgroup analyses and to interpret the findings through a set of supplement analyses to planned main (primary and secondary) analyses, as an alternative to the commonly used multiple comparison framework. The proposed approach collectively and coherently utilizes several quantitative methods and enhances the credibility and interpretability of subgroup analyses. A case study is used to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  13. Racial differences in depression in the United States: how do subgroup analyses inform a paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Bates, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Non-Hispanic Blacks in the US have lower rates of major depression than non-Hispanic Whites, in national household samples. This has been termed a “paradox,” as Blacks suffer greater exposure to social stressors, a risk factor for depression. Subgroup analyses can inform hypotheses to explain this paradox. For example, it has been suggested that selection bias in household samples undercounts depression in Blacks; if selection is driving the paradox, Black–White differences should be most pronounced among young men with low education. Methods We examined Black–White differences in lifetime major depression in subgroups defined simultaneously by sex, age, and education using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Results In NESARC and CPES, Blacks had lower odds than Whites of lifetime major depression in 21 and 23 subgroups, respectively, of 24. All statistically significant differences were in subgroups favoring Blacks, and lower odds in Blacks were more pronounced among those with more education. Conclusions These results suggest that hypotheses to explain the paradox must posit global mechanisms that pertain to all subgroups defined by sex, age, and education. Results do not lend support for the selection bias hypothesis. PMID:23732705

  14. Interaction effects and subgroup analyses in clinical trials: more than meets the eye?

    PubMed

    Sevdalis, Nick; Jacklin, Rosamond

    2008-10-01

    In clinical trials, it is common practice to follow up significant interactions between the factors under investigation with subgroup analyses. Such analyses pose at least two analytical and interpretational challenges. The first challenge is that performing multiple subgroup analyses increases the likelihood of obtaining spuriously significant results. This has been acknowledged and relevant guidance exists in the medical literature. The second challenge is that the effects that are obtained at the level of subgroup are composite. This has yet to be fully acknowledged and discussed in the context of medical research. This paper aims to fill this lacuna. Using a simple additive model, we use recent findings from the CHARISMA trial on the efficacy of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in the treatment of patients at risk for atherothrombotic events to demonstrate quantitatively the composition of effects at the level of subgroups. In the simplest case of a design involving an interaction (two crossed factors, with two levels each, i.e. a 2 x 2 design), effects at the level of subgroup consist of influences that stem (i) from the incidence of the measured outcome in the study population as a whole; (ii) from the factor of interest (e.g. treatment vs. placebo); (iii) from the second factor (e.g. patient group membership); (iv) from the interaction between the two factors; and (v) from random error in the measured outcome. The value of the approach illustrated here is that it is generalizable to any research design irrespective of its complexity and that it prompts clinicians to consider the multiple causality underlying medical research findings.

  15. Pharmacotherapy for pain: efficacy and safety issues examined by subgroup analyses.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Albert; Olofsen, Erik; Niesters, Marieke

    2015-04-01

    Responses to pharmacotherapy for acute and chronic pain are highly variable, and efficacy is often compromised by some form of toxicity. To increase our understanding of complexities of pharmacotherapy, the authors discuss an approach to identify analgesic responder subgroups and predictors of response. Additionally, analgesic efficacy and toxicity were combined in a single risk-benefit index (utility function) to quantify the probability of side effects in high- vs low-analgesic responders. The subgroup analysis consists of a mathematical description or time series analysis, mixture analysis, and covariate analysis. Applied to ketamine treatment of chronic pain in complex regional pain syndrome and capsaicin 8% patch treatment in post-herpetic neuralgia patients, the analyses yielded homogenous subgroups that differed in distribution frequency between treatments. For capsaicine, a high variability in pretreatment pain reporting was associated with a high probability of falling into a full analgesic subgroup, irrespective of treatment. The utility function was applied to opioid-induced analgesia and respiratory depression. An important observation was that, irrespective of dose, low-analgesic responders to fentanyl had a greater probability of respiratory depression than analgesia while the reverse was true for high-analgesic responders. These data show dissociation between 2 μ-opioid end-points and explain the danger of treating poor analgesic responders with increasingly higher opioid doses. Apart from being valuable in drug development programs, the outlined approach can be used to determine the choice of drug and dose in the treatment of pain in patients with potent and toxic analgesics.

  16. Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wallach, Joshua D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Trepanowski, John F; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency, validity, and relevance of statistically significant (P<0.05) sex-treatment interactions in randomized controlled trials in Cochrane meta-analyses. Design Meta-epidemiological study. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and PubMed. Eligibility criteria for study selection Reviews published in the CDSR with sex-treatment subgroup analyses in the forest plots, using data from randomized controlled trials. Data extraction Information on the study design and sex subgroup data were extracted from reviews and forest plots that met inclusion criteria. For each statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, the potential for biological plausibility and clinical significance was considered. Results Among the 41 reviews with relevant data, there were 109 separate treatment-outcome analyses (“topics”). Among the 109 topics, eight (7%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. The 109 topics included 311 randomized controlled trials (162 with both sexes, 46 with males only, 103 with females only). Of the 162 individual randomized controlled trials that included both sexes, 15 (9%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. Of four topics where the first published randomized controlled trial had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, no meta-analyses that included other randomized controlled trials retained the statistical significance and no meta-analyses showed statistical significance when data from the first published randomized controlled trial were excluded. Of the eight statistically significant sex-treatment interactions from the overall analyses, only three were discussed by the CDSR reviewers for a potential impact on different clinical management for males compared with females. None of these topics had a sex-treatment interaction that influenced treatment recommendations in recent guidelines. UpToDate, an online physician-authored clinical

  17. Subgroup analyses of maraviroc in previously treated R5 HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Nelson, Mark; Lazzarin, Adriano; Konourina, Irina; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Lampiris, Harry; Hirschel, Bernard; Tebas, Pablo; Raffi, François; Trottier, Benoit; Bellos, Nicholaos; Saag, Michael; Cooper, David A; Westby, Mike; Tawadrous, Margaret; Sullivan, John F; Ridgway, Caroline; Dunne, Michael W; Felstead, Steve; Mayer, Howard; van der Ryst, Elna

    2008-10-02

    We conducted subanalyses of the combined results of the Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) 1 and MOTIVATE 2 studies to better characterize the efficacy and safety of maraviroc in key subgroups of patients. We analyzed pooled data from week 48 from the two studies according to sex, race or ethnic group, clade, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) delta32 genotype, viral load at the time of screening, the use or nonuse of enfuvirtide in optimized background therapy (OBT), the baseline CD4 cell count, the number of active antiretroviral drugs coadministered, the first use of selected background agents, and tropism at baseline. Changes in viral tropism and the CD4 count at treatment failure were evaluated. Data on aminotransferase levels in patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) were also analyzed. A treatment benefit of maraviroc plus OBT over placebo plus OBT was shown in all subgroups, including patients with a low CD4 cell count at baseline, those with a high viral load at screening, and those who had not received active agents in OBT. Analyses of the virologic response according to the first use of selected background drugs showed the additional benefit of adding a potent new drug to maraviroc at the initiation of maraviroc therapy. More patients in whom maraviroc failed had a virus binding to the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) at failure, but there was no evidence of a decrease in the CD4 cell count at failure in such patients as compared with those in whom placebo failed. Subanalyses involving patients coinfected with HBV or HCV revealed no evidence of excess hepatotoxic effects as compared with baseline. Subanalyses of pooled data from week 48 indicate that maraviroc provides a valuable treatment option for a wide spectrum of patients with R5 HIV-1 infection who have been treated previously. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00098306 and NCT00098722.) 2008

  18. A photometric study of the Orion OB 1 association. 3: Subgroup analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.; Hesser, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The four principal subgroups of the association were examined in detail using individual distances and reddening values determined for their B type members. Subgroup 1a appeared not to show a spread in age nor did it show a systematic distance increase with right ascension when fainter members were considered. An eastwardly increase in distance was found for subgroup 1b but the reddening law for the east Belt appeared normal. Small subclusterings in the vicinity of the Orion Nebula appeared not to differ in the evolutionary state but their ages were considerably greater than those of stars in the nebulae and its associated cluster.

  19. Extended Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol Dependence: 24 Month Outcomes and Subgroup Analyses

    PubMed Central

    McKay, James R.; Van Horn, Deborah; Oslin, David; Ivey, Megan; Drapkin, Michelle; Coviello, Donna; Yu, Qin; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Determine whether 18 months of telephone continuing care improves 24 month outcomes for patients with alcohol dependence. Subgroup analyses were done to identify patients who would most benefit from continuing care. Design Comparative effectiveness trial of continuing care that consisted of monitoring and feedback only (TM) or monitoring and feedback plus counseling (TMC). Patients were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU), TAU plus TM, or TAU plus TMC, and followed quarterly for 24 months. Setting Publicly funded intensive outpatient programs (IOP) Participants 252 alcohol dependent patients (49% with current cocaine dependence) who completed 3 weeks of IOP. Measurements Percent days drinking, any heavy drinking, and a composite good clinical outcome. Findings In the intent to treat sample, group differences in alcohol outcomes out to 18 months favoring TMC over TAU were no longer present in months 19–24. Approximately 50% of participants met criteria for Good Clinical Outcomes throughout treatment and follow-up with a non-significant trend for TMC to perform better than usual care. Overall significant effects favoring TMC and TM over TAU were seen for women; and TMC was also superior to TAU for participants with social support for drinking, low readiness to change, and prior alcohol treatments. Most of these effects were obtained on at least 2 of 3 outcomes. However, no effects remained significant at 24 months. Conclusions The benefits of an extended telephone-based continuing care programme to treat alcohol dependence did not persist after the end of the intervention. A post-hoc analysis suggested that women and individuals with social support for drinking, low readiness to change, or prior alcohol treatments may benefit from the intervention. PMID:21545667

  20. Integrated (epi)-Genomic Analyses Identify Subgroup-Specific Therapeutic Targets in CNS Rhabdoid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Torchia, Jonathon; Golbourn, Brian; Feng, Shengrui; Ho, King Ching; Sin-Chan, Patrick; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Norman, Joseph D; Guilhamon, Paul; Garzia, Livia; Agamez, Natalia R; Lu, Mei; Chan, Tiffany S; Picard, Daniel; de Antonellis, Pasqualino; Khuong-Quang, Dong-Anh; Planello, Aline C; Zeller, Constanze; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Letourneau, Louis; Bourgey, Mathieu; Yu, Man; Gendoo, Deena M A; Dzamba, Misko; Barszczyk, Mark; Medina, Tiago; Riemenschneider, Alexandra N; Morrissy, A Sorana; Ra, Young-Shin; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Dunham, Christopher P; Yip, Stephen; Ng, Ho-Keung; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Mehta, Vivek; Albrecht, Steffen; Pimentel, Jose; Chan, Jennifer A; Somers, Gino R; Faria, Claudia C; Roque, Lucia; Fouladi, Maryam; Hoffman, Lindsey M; Moore, Andrew S; Wang, Yin; Choi, Seung Ah; Hansford, Jordan R; Catchpoole, Daniel; Birks, Diane K; Foreman, Nicholas K; Strother, Doug; Klekner, Almos; Bognár, Laszló; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Péter; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Wilson, Beverly; Hukin, Juliette; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Van Meter, Timothy E; Hwang, Eugene I; Gajjar, Amar; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Nakamura, Hideo; Toledano, Helen; Fried, Iris; Fults, Daniel; Wataya, Takafumi; Fryer, Chris; Eisenstat, David D; Scheinemann, Katrin; Fleming, Adam J; Johnston, Donna L; Michaud, Jean; Zelcer, Shayna; Hammond, Robert; Afzal, Samina; Ramsay, David A; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Hongeng, Suradej; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol; Grundy, Richard G; Lulla, Rishi R; Fangusaro, Jason R; Druker, Harriet; Bartels, Ute; Grant, Ronald; Malkin, David; McGlade, C Jane; Nicolaides, Theodore; Tihan, Tarik; Phillips, Joanna; Majewski, Jacek; Montpetit, Alexandre; Bourque, Guillaume; Bader, Gary D; Reddy, Alyssa T; Gillespie, G Yancey; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Rutkowski, Stefan; Tabori, Uri; Lupien, Mathieu; Brudno, Michael; Schüller, Ulrich; Pietsch, Torsten; Judkins, Alexander R; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Bouffet, Eric; Kim, Seung-Ki; Dirks, Peter B; Taylor, Michael D; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; De Carvalho, Daniel D; Rutka, James T; Jabado, Nada; Huang, Annie

    2016-12-12

    We recently reported that atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) comprise at least two transcriptional subtypes with different clinical outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying therapeutic heterogeneity remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed 191 primary ATRTs and 10 ATRT cell lines to define the genomic and epigenomic landscape of ATRTs and identify subgroup-specific therapeutic targets. We found ATRTs segregated into three epigenetic subgroups with distinct genomic profiles, SMARCB1 genotypes, and chromatin landscape that correlated with differential cellular responses to a panel of signaling and epigenetic inhibitors. Significantly, we discovered that differential methylation of a PDGFRB-associated enhancer confers specific sensitivity of group 2 ATRT cells to dasatinib and nilotinib, and suggest that these are promising therapies for this highly lethal ATRT subtype.

  1. Time trends in prevalence of gastroschisis in Texas, 1999 to 2011: Subgroup analyses by maternal and infant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vo, Loc-Uyen T; Langlois, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of gastroschisis, a birth defect of the abdominal wall, has been increasing in several areas around the world. Suggested risk factors for gastroschisis include maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. Data for cases of gastroschisis and live births were taken from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and Texas vital records for deliveries between 1999 and 2011. Prevalence by subgroups over time was calculated for: infant sex, maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, parity, plurality, body mass index, and payer type. Stratified, adjusted, and interaction analyses of the trends were conducted using Poisson regression. A joinpoint trend analysis was also conducted for each subgroup. A total of 2,549 gastroschisis cases and 4,970,979 live births were delivered in 1999 to 2011, for an overall prevalence of 5.13 cases per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 4.93-5.33). On average, the prevalence increased 4.8% each year; this overall time trend was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001). The time trend remained significant after adjusting for all variables, except payer type. The stratified analysis showed the increasing time trend was significant in many of the subgroups. However, there were no significant differences in the magnitude of the time trends between subgroups according to the interaction analysis. This study confirms the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis over the time period 1999 to 2011 in Texas. The results suggest that no population subgroups are experiencing a significantly different increase in gastroschisis prevalence over time than others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Species delimitation and phylogeographic analyses in the Ectocarpus subgroup siliculosi (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Montecinos, Alejandro E; Couceiro, Lucia; Peters, Akira F; Desrut, Antoine; Valero, Myriam; Guillemin, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-01

    The genus Ectocarpus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) contains filamentous algae widely distributed in marine and estuarine habitats of temperate regions in both hemispheres. While E. siliculosus has become a model organism for genomics and genetics of the brown macroalgae, accurate species delineation, distribution patterns and diversity for the genus Ectocarpus remain problematic. In this study, we used three independent species delimitation approaches to generate a robust species hypothesis for 729 Ectocarpus specimens collected mainly along the European and Chilean coasts. These approaches comprised phylogenetic reconstructions and two bioinformatics tools developed to objectively define species boundaries (General Mixed Yule Coalescence Method and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery). Our analyses were based on DNA sequences of two loci: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 of the ribosomal DNA. Our analyses showed the presence of at least 15 cryptic species and suggest the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or introgression between five of them. These results suggested the possible existence of different levels of reproductive barriers within this species complex. We also detected differences among species in their phylogeographic patterns, range and depth distributions, which may suggest different biogeographic histories (e.g., endemic species or recent introductions).

  3. The influence of industry sponsorship on the reporting of subgroup analyses within phase III randomised controlled trials in gastrointestinal oncology.

    PubMed

    Barton, Sarah; Peckitt, Clare; Sclafani, Francesco; Cunningham, David; Chau, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Correct interpretation of subgroup analyses (SGA) is important as it influences selection of therapeutic interventions for patient subsets. The primary aim of our study was to compare reporting of SGA between industry and non-industry sponsored trials. We performed a systematic literature review and extracted data from journal articles (JA) and conference abstracts (CA) published over a decade reporting SGA results of phase III randomised controlled gastrointestinal (GI) oncology trials with patient participants of ≥150. In JA, SGA was reported in 100/145 (69%) trials: 41/54 industry sponsored (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 63-86%) and 59/91 non-industry sponsored (65%; 95% CI: 55-74%) trials (p = 0.16). In CA, SGA was reported in 86/204 (42%) trials: 43/83 industry sponsored (52%; 95% CI: 41-62%) and 43/121 non-industry sponsored (36%; 95% CI: 28-44%) trials (p = 0.02). Number of SGA performed per trial was significantly larger for industry compared to non-industry sponsored trials in both JA (median 6 versus 2, p = 0.003) and CA (median 1 versus 0, p = 0.023). Claims of subgroup effect were made in 52% of trials in JA and 50% in CA, with significant test of interaction evident in only 25% of JA and 16% of CA, with no difference between industry and non-industry trials. Industry sponsored trials with a significant primary end-point reported more SGA (p < 0.001 JA; p = 0.046 CA). Industry sponsored trials reported more SGA. Claimed subgroup effects were often not accompanied by significant interaction test; thus circumspection should be adopted when using SGA to deviate from standard therapeutic decision-making in GI oncology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the quality of subgroup analyses in randomized controlled trials of therapist-delivered interventions for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Dipesh; Patel, Shilpa; Hee, Siew Wan; Stallard, Nigel; Underwood, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Systematic review. To evaluate the quality, conduct, and reporting of subgroup analyses performed in randomized controlled trials of therapist-delivered interventions for nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP). Randomized controlled trials of therapist-delivered interventions for NSLBP to date have, at best, shown small to moderate positive effects. Identifying subgroups is an important research priority. This review evaluates the quality, conduct, and reporting of subgroup analyses performed in the NSLBP literature. Multiple electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of therapist-delivered interventions for NSLBP. Of the identified articles, only articles reporting subgroup analyses (confirmatory or exploratory) were included in the final review. Methodological criteria were used to evaluate the quality of subgroup analyses. The quality of conduct and reporting was also evaluated. Thirty-nine articles were included in the final review. Of these, only 3 (8%) tested hypotheses about moderators (confirmatory findings), 18 (46%) generated hypotheses about moderators to inform future research (exploratory findings), and 18 (46%) provided insufficient findings. The appropriate statistical test for interaction was performed in 27 of the articles, of which 10 reported results from interaction tests, 4 incorrectly reported results within individual subgroups, and the remaining articles reported either P values or nothing at all. Subgroup analyses performed in NSLBP trials have been severely underpowered, are only able to provide exploratory or insufficient findings, and have rather poor quality of reporting. Using current approaches, few definitive trials of subgrouping in back pain are very likely to be performed. There is a need to develop new approaches to subgroup identification in back pain research.

  5. Meta-Analyses of Cisapride, Omeprazole and Ranitidine in the Treatment of GORD: Implications for Treating Patient Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Iskedjian, M; Einarson, T R

    1998-01-01

    Meta-analyses of efficacy results reported in trials of the pharmacological treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) with cisapride, omeprazole or ranitidine were performed using randomised, double-blind studies identified by a Medline search covering the years 1984 to 1995. The overall order of efficacy following 12 weeks of acute treatment was omeprazole 40 mg/day (95% cured) > ranitidine 600 mg/day (81% cured) > cisapride 40 mg/day or ranitidine 300 mg/day (approximately 60% cured). However, important differences emerged regarding efficacy in mild versus severe GORD, and in the frequency of relapse. In mild GORD, the cure rate with cisapride 40 mg/day was greater than the cure rate with ranitidine 300 mg/day (56 vs 38%, respectively), and the cure rate with cisapride 80 mg/day was similar to the cure rate with omeprazole 20 mg/day (82 vs 75%, respectively). In severe GORD, the cure rate with cisapride 80 mg/day was half that of omeprazole 20 mg/day (43 vs 87%, respectively) and comparable with that of ranitidine 300 mg/day (50%). Among patients treated acutely with omeprazole, 6-month relapse rates were 17% with omeprazole 20 mg/day maintenance therapy, but 76 to 80% without maintenance therapy. Among patients treated acutely with cisapride, 6-month relapse rates were 33% with 20 mg/day maintenance therapy and only 40% without maintenance therapy, which compare favourably with those following 6 months' maintenance therapy with ranitidine 300 mg/day (49%). These results indicate that omeprazole is clearly the treatment of choice for severe GORD, suggest that cisapride may be the treatment of choice for mild GORD, and indicate that either of these two treatments is superior to ranitidine for the prevention of relapse. Further comparative clinical studies are needed, designed specifically to delineate the most appropriate drug therapy for various subgroups of GORD patients.

  6. How should subgroup analyses affect clinical practice? Insights from the Metoprolol Succinate Controlled-Release/Extended-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF).

    PubMed

    Wikstrand, John; Wedel, Hans; Ghali, Jalal; Deedwania, Prakash; Fagerberg, Björn; Goldstein, Sidney; Gottlieb, Stephen; Hjalmarson, Ake; Kjekshus, John; Waagstein, Finn

    2003-09-01

    The Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Chronic Heart Failure (MERIT-HF), the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II), and the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study (COPERNICUS) have all demonstrated highly significant positive effects on total mortality as well as total mortality plus all-cause hospitalization in patients with heart failure. While none of these trials are large enough to provide definitive results in any particular subgroup, it is of interest for physicians to examine the consistency of results as regards efficacy and safety for various subgroups or risk groups. To summarize results from both predefined as well as post-hoc subgroup analyses performed in the MERIT-HF trial, and to provide guidance as to whether any subgroup is at increased risk, despite an overall strongly positive effect, and to discuss the difficulties and limitations in conducting such subgroup analyses. For some subgroups we performed metaanalyses with data from the CIBIS II and COPERNICUS trials in order to obtain more robust data on mortality in subgroups with a small number of deaths (e.g. for women). MERIT-HF was run in 14 countries, and randomized a total of 3,991 patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (NYHA class II to IV with ejection fraction < or =0.40). Treatment was initiated with a very low dose with careful titration to a maximum target dose of 200 mg metoprolol succinate controlled release/extended release (CR/XL), or highest tolerated dose. Total mortality (first primary endpoint), total mortality plus all-cause hospitalization (second primary endpoint), and total mortality plus hospitalization for heart failure (first secondary endpoint) analyzed on a time to first event basis. Overall, MERIT-HF demonstrated a 34% reduction in total mortality ( p = 0.00009 nominal) and a 19% reduction for mortality plus all-cause hospitalization ( p = 0.00012). The first secondary endpoint of mortality plus

  7. Subgroup analyses of the effectiveness of oral glucosamine for knee and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis from the OA trial bank.

    PubMed

    Runhaar, Jos; Rozendaal, Rianne M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Bijlsma, Hans J W; Doherty, Michael; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Lohmander, L Stefan; McAlindon, Timothy; Zhang, Weiya; Bierma Zeinstra, Sita

    2017-07-28

    To evaluate the effectiveness of oral glucosamine in subgroups of people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) based on baseline pain severity, body mass index (BMI), sex, structural abnormalities and presence of inflammation using individual patient data. After a systematic search of the literature and clinical trial registries, all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of any oral glucosamine substance in patients with clinically or radiographically defined hip or knee OA were contacted. As a minimum, pain, age, sex and BMI at baseline and pain as an outcome measure needed to be assessed. Of 21 eligible studies, six (n=1663) shared their trial data with the OA Trial Bank. Five trials (all independent of industry, n=1625) compared glucosamine with placebo, representing 55% of the total number of participants in all published placebo-controlled RCTs. Glucosamine was no better than placebo for pain or function at short (3 months) and long-term (24 months) follow-up. Glucosamine was also no better than placebo among the predefined subgroups. Stratification for knee OA and type of glucosamine did not alter these results. Although proposed and debated for several years, open trial data are not widely made available for studies of glucosamine for OA, especially those sponsored by industry. Currently, there is no good evidence to support the use of glucosamine for hip or knee OA and an absence of evidence to support specific consideration of glucosamine for any clinically relevant OA subgroup according to baseline pain severity, BMI, sex, structural abnormalities or presence of inflammation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Clinical efficacy of BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: subgroup analyses of the DEFINE study.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, Amit; Gold, Ralf; Kappos, Ludwig; Arnold, Douglas L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Selmaj, Krzysztof; O'Gorman, John; Stephan, Monica; Dawson, Katherine T

    2013-09-01

    In the double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 DEFINE study in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, oral BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) significantly reduced the proportion of patients relapsed (primary endpoint), the annualized relapse rate (ARR), and confirmed disability progression (secondary endpoints) at two years compared with placebo. We investigated the efficacy of BG-12 240 mg twice daily (BID) and three times daily (TID) in patient subgroups stratified according to baseline demographic and disease characteristics including gender, age, relapse history, McDonald criteria, treatment history, expanded disability status scale score, T2 lesion volume, and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. The clinical efficacy of BG-12 was generally consistent across patient subgroups and reflected positive findings in the overall DEFINE study population. Treatment with BG-12 BID and TID reduced the proportion of patients relapsed and the ARR at two years compared with placebo in all patient subgroups. Reductions in the risk of relapse with BG-12 BID vs. placebo ranged from 68% [hazard ratio 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.62)] to 26% [0.74 (0.51-1.09)] and from 66% [0.34 (0.23-0.50)] to 25% [0.75 (0.42-1.36)] with BG-12 TID vs. placebo. BG-12 also reduced the risk of disability progression at two years compared with placebo in most subgroups of patients treated with the BID dosing regimen and in all subgroups treated with the TID regimen. These analyses indicate that treatment with BG-12 is consistently effective across a wide spectrum of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis with varied demographic and disease characteristics.

  9. Multiple Deprivation, Severity and Latent Sub-Groups: Advantages of Factor Mixture Modelling for Analysing Material Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Najera Catalan, Hector E

    2017-01-01

    Material deprivation is represented in different forms and manifestations. Two individuals with the same deprivation score (i.e. number of deprivations), for instance, are likely to be unable to afford or access entirely or partially different sets of goods and services, while one individual may fail to purchase clothes and consumer durables and another one may lack access to healthcare and be deprived of adequate housing . As such, the number of possible patterns or combinations of multiple deprivation become increasingly complex for a higher number of indicators. Given this difficulty, there is interest in poverty research in understanding multiple deprivation, as this analysis might lead to the identification of meaningful population sub-groups that could be the subjects of specific policies. This article applies a factor mixture model (FMM) to a real dataset and discusses its conceptual and empirical advantages and disadvantages with respect to other methods that have been used in poverty research . The exercise suggests that FMM is based on more sensible assumptions (i.e. deprivation covary within each class), provides valuable information with which to understand multiple deprivation and is useful to understand severity of deprivation and the additive properties of deprivation indicators.

  10. 4G/5G variant of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and severe pregnancy-induced hypertension: subgroup analyses of variants of angiotensinogen and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Gen; Ohta, Kaori; Yamada, Hideto; Hata, Akira; Minakami, Hisanori; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tamashiro, Hiko; Fujimoto, Seiichiro

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common cause of perinatal mortality. It is believed to result from the interaction of several factors, including those related to the blood coagulation system. We performed genotyping and subgroup analyses to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1) play a role in the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with those of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3). An association study of PAI-1 polymorphism, and subgroup analyses of common variants of AGT and NOS3, among 128 patients with PIH and 376 healthy pregnant controls. No significant differences were found between the cases and controls in the frequencies of allele 4G or the 4G/4G genotype. In subgroup analyses, after adjustment for multiple comparison, a significant association with the AGT TT genotype was found among women with the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype, and an association with the NOS3 GA+AA genotype was found among women with the 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotypes. Our findings suggest that there are at least 2 pathways in the pathogenesis of severe PIH. However, with respect to early prediction and prevention of severe PIH, although the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype alone was not a risk factor for severe PIH, the fact that PAI-1 genotypes are associated with varying risks for severe PIH suggests that PAI-1 genotyping of pregnant women, in combination with other tests, may be useful in the development of individualized measures that may prevent severe PIH.

  11. Clinical efficacy of BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: subgroup analyses of the CONFIRM study.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Michael; Fox, Robert J; Miller, David H; Phillips, J Theodore; Kita, Mariko; Havrdova, Eva; O'Gorman, John; Zhang, Ray; Novas, Mark; Viglietta, Vissia; Dawson, Katherine T

    2013-09-01

    In the phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled and active reference (glatiramer acetate) comparator CONFIRM study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, oral BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR; primary endpoint), as well as the proportion of patients relapsed, magnetic resonance imaging lesion activity, and confirmed disability progression, compared with placebo. We investigated the clinical efficacy of BG-12 240 mg twice daily (BID) and three times daily (TID) in patient subgroups stratified according to baseline demographic and disease characteristics including gender, age, relapse history, McDonald criteria, treatment history, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, T2 lesion volume, and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. BG-12 treatment demonstrated generally consistent benefits on relapse-related outcomes across patient subgroups, reflecting the positive findings in the overall CONFIRM study population. Treatment with BG-12 BID and TID reduced the ARR and the proportion of patients relapsed at 2 years compared with placebo in all subgroups analyzed. Reductions in ARR with BG-12 BID versus placebo ranged from 34% [rate ratio 0.664 (95% confidence interval 0.422-1.043)] to 53% [0.466 (0.313-0.694)] and from 13% [0.870 (0.551-1.373)] to 67% [0.334 (0.226-0.493)] with BG-12 TID versus placebo. Treatment with glatiramer acetate reduced the ARR and the proportion of patients relapsed at 2 years compared with placebo in most patient subgroups. The results of these analyses indicate that treatment with BG-12 is effective on relapses across a broad range of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with varied demographic and disease characteristics.

  12. Aflibercept versus placebo in combination with fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan in the treatment of previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer: prespecified subgroup analyses from the VELOUR trial.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Josep; Van Cutsem, Eric; Lakomý, Radek; Prausová, Jana; Ruff, Paul; van Hazel, Guy A; Moiseyenko, Vladimir M; Ferry, David R; McKendrick, Joseph J; Soussan-Lazard, Karen; Chevalier, Soazig; Allegra, Carmen J

    2014-01-01

    The antiangiogenic agent aflibercept (ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) significantly improved survival in a phase III study of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) previously treated with an oxaliplatin-based regimen. In the present analysis, outcomes were evaluated in prespecified subgroups to assess the consistency of the treatment effect. Patients were randomised to receive FOLFIRI plus aflibercept or placebo every 2weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Efficacy and safety outcomes were analysed with respect to demographic and baseline characteristics, and stratification factors (prior bevacizumab treatment and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status). Median overall survival (OS, months [95.34% confidence interval (CI)]) for aflibercept versus placebo was 12.5 (10.8-15.5) versus 11.7 (9.8-13.8) in patients with prior bevacizumab treatment and 13.9 (12.7-15.6) versus 12.4 (11.2-13.5) in patients with no prior bevacizumab treatment. The p value for interaction was 0.5668, indicating there was no heterogeneity in these subgroups. For OS and progression-free survival (PFS), there was a significantly greater benefit (at the 2-sided 10% level) of treatment for patients with liver only metastases versus patients with no liver metastases/liver metastases with other organ involvement (p value for interaction: 0.0899 [OS]; 0.0076 [PFS]). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in treatment effect in any of the other subgroups examined. The benefits of aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI in patients with mCRC previously treated with oxaliplatin were maintained across the specified patient subgroups, including in patients with or without prior bevacizumab treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysing the Present: Drawing on the Legacy of Vere Foster in Public Policy Debate on Futures of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John; Beckett, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out a framing analysis for a public policy debate on the future of schools that resonates with practitioners in teaching and teacher education on the island of Ireland, north and south, but also in other countries. This is informed by a democratic impulse to facilitate public policy debates, particularly on the ways schools and…

  14. Analysing the Present: Drawing on the Legacy of Vere Foster in Public Policy Debate on Futures of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John; Beckett, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out a framing analysis for a public policy debate on the future of schools that resonates with practitioners in teaching and teacher education on the island of Ireland, north and south, but also in other countries. This is informed by a democratic impulse to facilitate public policy debates, particularly on the ways schools and…

  15. Dosage Effects of Neuromuscular Training Intervention to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Athletes: Meta-and Sub-group Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a series of meta-analysis demonstrated neuromuscular training (NMT) is an effective intervention to reduce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes, the potential existence of a dosage effect remains unknown. Objective To systematically review previously published clinical trials and evaluate potential dosage effects of NMT for ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Design Meta- and Sub-group analyses Setting The key words “knee”, “anterior cruciate ligament”, “ACL”, “prospective”, “neuromuscular”, “training”, “female”, and “prevention” were utilized in PubMed and EBSCO host for studies published between 1995 and May 2012. Participants Inclusion criteria set for studies in the current analysis were: 1) recruited female athletes as subjects, 2) documented the number of ACL injuries, 3) employed a NMT intervention aimed to reduce ACL injuries, 4) had a control group, 5) used a prospective control trial design and 6) provided NMT session duration and frequency information. Main outcome measures The number of ACL injuries and female athletes in each group (control and intervention) were compared based on duration, frequency, and volume of NMT through odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 14 studies were reviewed. Analyses that compared the number of ACL injuries with short versus long NMT duration showed greater ACL injury reduction in female athletes who were in the long NMT duration (OR:0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) than the short NMT duration (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.90, p=0.013) group. Analysis that compared single versus multi NMT frequency indicated greater ACL injury reduction in multi NMT frequency (OR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) compared to single NMT frequency (OR: 0.62, 95%CI:0.41, 0.94, p=0.024). Combining the duration and frequency of NMT programs, an inverse dose-response association emerged among low (OR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.43, 0.99, p=0.045), moderate (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21, 1

  16. Effect of BG-12 on contrast-enhanced lesions in patients with relapsing--remitting multiple sclerosis: subgroup analyses from the phase 2b study.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Ludwig; Gold, Ralf; Miller, David H; MacManus, David G; Havrdova, Eva; Limmroth, Volker; Polman, Chris H; Schmierer, Klaus; Yousry, Tarek A; Eraksoy, Mefkure; Meluzinova, Eva; Dufek, Michal; Yang, Minhua; Dawson, Kate; O'Neill, Gilmore N

    2012-03-01

    In a phase 2b study in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), BG-12 240 mg three times daily significantly reduced the number of new gadolinium-enhanced (Gd+) lesions from weeks 12 to 24 (primary end point) by 69% compared with placebo. In this analysis, the effect of BG-12 240 mg three times daily on the number of Gd+ lesions from weeks 12 to 24 was evaluated in subgroups based on baseline disease characteristics and demographics. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were randomized equally to receive BG-12 (120 mg once daily or three times daily or 240 mg three times daily) or placebo. BG-12 240 mg three times daily significantly reduced the number of new Gd+ lesions compared with placebo in the following subgroups: Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤ 2.5 (74%), EDSS score > 2.5 (63%), no Gd+ lesions (80%), ≥ 1 Gd+ lesion (55%), age < 40 years (49%), age ≥ 40 years (89%), female patients (81%), disease duration ≤ 6 years (81%) and disease duration > 6 years (54%) (all comparisons p < 0.05). BG-12 demonstrated efficacy in patients with RRMS by decreasing new Gd+ lesion development across a range of subgroups defined by baseline disease characteristics or demographics.

  17. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy MM; Stalmeier, Peep FM; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra JFJ; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. Aim: To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year’s value for palliative care. Design: The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. Data sources: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Findings: Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. Conclusion: The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to—in addition to the EQ-5D— make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year. PMID:28190374

  18. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy Mm; Stalmeier, Peep Fm; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra Jfj; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-04-01

    In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year's value for palliative care. The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to-in addition to the EQ-5D- make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year.

  19. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon–intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  20. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  1. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Leach, Beryl; Price, Janet; Robinson, Jude; Ettore, Elizabeth; Scott-Samuel, Alex; Kilonzo, Nduku; Sabuni, Louis P; Robertson, Steve; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Bristow, Katie; Lang, Raymond; Romao, Francelina; Theobald, Sally

    2012-06-01

    Critiques of gender mainstreaming (GM) as the officially agreed strategy to promote gender equity in health internationally have reached a critical mass. There has been a notable lack of dialogue between gender advocates in the global north and south, from policy and practice, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper contributes to the debate on the shape of future action for gender equity in health, by uniquely bringing together the voices of disparate actors, first heard in a series of four seminars held during 2008 and 2009, involving almost 200 participants from 15 different country contexts. The series used (Feminist) Participatory Action Research (FPAR) methodology to create a productive dialogue on the developing theory around GM and the at times disconnected empirical experience of policy and practice. We analyse the debates and experiences shared at the seminar series using concrete, context specific examples from research, advocacy, policy and programme development perspectives, as presented by participants from southern and northern settings, including Kenya, Mozambique, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada and Australia. Focussing on key discussions around sexualities and (dis)ability and their interactions with gender, we explore issues around intersectionality across the five key themes for research and action identified by participants: (1) Addressing the disconnect between gender mainstreaming praxis and contemporary feminist theory; (2) Developing appropriate analysis methodologies; (3) Developing a coherent theory of change; (4) Seeking resolution to the dilemmas and uncertainties around the 'place' of men and boys in GM as a feminist project; and (5) Developing a politics of intersectionality. We conclude that there needs to be a coherent and inclusive strategic direction to improve policy and practice for promoting gender equity in health which requires the full and equal participation of practitioners and

  2. The Effect of Age, Parity and Body Mass Index on the Efficacy, Safety, Placement and User Satisfaction Associated With Two Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive Systems: Subgroup Analyses of Data From a Phase III Trial.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Apter, Dan; Hauck, Brian; Schmelter, Thomas; Rybowski, Sarah; Rosen, Kimberly; Nelson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems (LNG-IUSs; total content 13.5 mg [average approx. 8 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 8] and total content 19.5 mg [average approx. 13 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 13]) have previously been shown to be highly effective (3-year Pearl Indices: 0.33 and 0.31, respectively), safe and well tolerated. The present subgroup analyses evaluated whether or not outcomes were affected by parity, age (18-25 vs 26-35 years), or body mass index (BMI, <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). Nulliparous and parous women aged 18‒35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21‒35 days) requesting contraception were randomized to 3 years of LNG-IUS 8 or LNG-IUS 13 use. In the LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 groups, 1432 and 1452 women, respectively, had a placement attempted and were included in the full analysis set; 39.2%, 39.2% and 17.1% were 18-25 years old, nulliparous and had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Both systems were similarly effective regardless of age, parity or BMI; the subgroup Pearl Indices had widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Placement of LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 was easier (p < 0.0001) and less painful (p < 0.0001) in women who had delivered vaginally than in women who had not. The complete/partial expulsion rate was 2.2-4.2% across all age and parity subgroups and higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 0.1-0.6% across all age and parity subgroups: nulliparous and younger women were not at higher risk than parous and older women, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rate was 0.3-0.4% across all age and parity subgroups. Across all age and parity subgroups, the 3-year completion rate was 50.9-61.3% for LNG-IUS 8 and 57.9-61.1% for LNG-IUS 13, and was higher (p = 0.0001) among older than younger women in the LNG-IUS 8 group only. LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 were highly effective, safe and well tolerated regardless of age or parity

  3. The Effect of Age, Parity and Body Mass Index on the Efficacy, Safety, Placement and User Satisfaction Associated With Two Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive Systems: Subgroup Analyses of Data From a Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Apter, Dan; Hauck, Brian; Schmelter, Thomas; Rybowski, Sarah; Rosen, Kimberly; Nelson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objective Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems (LNG-IUSs; total content 13.5 mg [average approx. 8 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 8] and total content 19.5 mg [average approx. 13 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 13]) have previously been shown to be highly effective (3-year Pearl Indices: 0.33 and 0.31, respectively), safe and well tolerated. The present subgroup analyses evaluated whether or not outcomes were affected by parity, age (18–25 vs 26–35 years), or body mass index (BMI, <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). Methods Nulliparous and parous women aged 18‒35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21‒35 days) requesting contraception were randomized to 3 years of LNG-IUS 8 or LNG-IUS 13 use. Results In the LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 groups, 1432 and 1452 women, respectively, had a placement attempted and were included in the full analysis set; 39.2%, 39.2% and 17.1% were 18–25 years old, nulliparous and had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Both systems were similarly effective regardless of age, parity or BMI; the subgroup Pearl Indices had widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Placement of LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 was easier (p < 0.0001) and less painful (p < 0.0001) in women who had delivered vaginally than in women who had not. The complete/partial expulsion rate was 2.2–4.2% across all age and parity subgroups and higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 0.1–0.6% across all age and parity subgroups: nulliparous and younger women were not at higher risk than parous and older women, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rate was 0.3–0.4% across all age and parity subgroups. Across all age and parity subgroups, the 3-year completion rate was 50.9–61.3% for LNG-IUS 8 and 57.9–61.1% for LNG-IUS 13, and was higher (p = 0.0001) among older than younger women in the LNG-IUS 8 group only. Conclusions LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 were highly effective

  4. Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Who Develop Everolimus-Related Hyperglycemia and Hypercholesterolemia: Combined Subgroup Analyses of the RECORD-1 and REACT Trials.

    PubMed

    Bono, Petri; Oudard, Stephane; Bodrogi, Istvan; Hutson, Thomas E; Escudier, Bernard; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Thompson, John A; Figlin, Robert A; Ravaud, Alain; Basaran, Mert; Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio; Brechenmacher, Thomas; Lin, Chinjune; Voi, Maurizio; Grunwald, Viktor; Motzer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are class effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safety and efficacy of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus in RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) who developed these events. Adults with vascular endothelial growth factor-refractory mRCC received everolimus 10 mg/d in the randomized RECORD-1 (n = 277) and open-label REACT (n = 1367) studies. Outcomes included safety, treatment duration, overall response, and progression-free survival for patients who developed hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycemia. In RECORD-1, 12% (33 of 277) and 20% (55 of 277) of patients developed any grade hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, respectively, with only 6% (78 of 1367) and 1% (14 of 1367) of the same events, respectively, in REACT. Median everolimus treatment duration was similar for patients with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia (RECORD-1, 6.2 and 6.2 months, respectively; REACT, 4.4 and 4.5 months, respectively), but longer than the overall populations (RECORD-1, 4.6 months; REACT, 3.2 months). In RECORD-1/REACT, 82%/68% of patients with hyperglycemia and 75%/71% of patients with hypercholesterolemia achieved partial response or stable disease. The incidence of clinically notable Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, other than anemia and lymphopenia, appeared to be similar across trials and subgroups. Although there was a trend for improved progression-free survival with development of hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, the association was not statistically significant. Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed in low numbers of patients, and although these events might be associated with improved response to everolimus, the differences were not significant. These findings should be validated with prospective biomarker studies. Copyright

  5. Safety and efficacy of canagliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc subgroup analyses according to body mass index in a 52-week open-label study.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Nobuya; Goda, Maki; Yokota, Shoko; Maruyama, Nobuko; Iijima, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in non-obese compared with obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown. We conducted post hoc analyses of the results of a 52-week open-label study of Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with 100 or 200 mg canagliflozin. Patients were divided into four subgroups according to their baseline body mass index (BMI): group I, BMI < 22 kg/m(2); group II, BMI ≥ 22 to < 25 kg/m(2); group III, BMI ≥ 25 to < 30 kg/m(2) and group IV, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). The overall safety was similar among the four BMI subgroups, although there were slight differences in terms of the incidences of hypoglycemia, asymptomatic hypoglycemia, female genital infections and proportions of patients with total ketone body levels exceeding 1000 μmol/l at any time for both canagliflozin doses. Hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose and body weight decreased significantly from baseline to week 52 at both canagliflozin doses. The changes in hemoglobin A1c, and fasting plasma glucose were not significantly different among the four BMI subgroups for either dose. Canagliflozin was tolerated in patients irrespective of their BMI at the start of treatment, although some caution may be needed.

  6. Efficacy of aripiprazole augmentation in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: a subgroup analysis and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression item analyses of the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Norio; Otsubo, Tempei; Kato, Masaki; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Ono, Hiroaki; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Results from this randomized, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole augmentation to antidepressant therapy (ADT) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (the Aripiprazole Depression Multicenter Efficacy [ADMIRE] study) revealed that aripiprazole augmentation was superior to ADT alone and was well tolerated. In subgroup analyses, we investigated the influence of demographic- and disease-related factors on the observed responses. We also examined how individual symptom improvement was related to overall improvement in MDD. Data from the ADMIRE study were analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed on the primary outcome measures: the mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score from the end of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) treatment to the end of the randomized treatment. Changes in the MADRS total scores were consistently greater with aripiprazole than placebo in each of the subgroups. Efficacy was not related to sex, age, number of adequate ADT trials in the current episode, MDD diagnosis, number of depressive episodes, duration of the current episode, age at first depressive episode, time since the first depressive episode, type of SSRI/SNRI, or severity at the end of SSRI/SNRI treatment phase. Compared to placebo, aripiprazole resulted in significant and rapid improvement on seven of the 10 MADRS items, including sadness. These post-hoc analyses indicated that aripiprazole was effective for a variety of Japanese patients with MDD who had exhibited inadequate responses to ADT. Additionally, we suggest that aripiprazole significantly and rapidly improved the core depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Efficacy of extended release quetiapine fumarate monotherapy in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: secondary analyses in subgroups of patients according to baseline anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain levels.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Altamura, A Carlo; Katila, Heikki; Datto, Catherine; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to baseline levels of anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain. Post-hoc analyses of data from an 11-week (9-week randomized-treatment, 2-week post-treatment phase), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) monotherapy in elderly (≥66 years) patients (n=338) with MDD were carried out. Outcomes included randomization to week 9 change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score and week 9 response (≥50% MADRS score reduction) rates. Post-hoc analyses were carried out to assess subgroups of patients with MDD according to baseline levels in terms of the following: higher or lower anxiety (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety total score≥20 or < 20, respectively); high or low sleep disturbance [Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression sleep disturbance factor (items 4+5+6) score≥5 or <5, respectively]; and pain visual analog scale total score 40 mm or higher or less than 40 mm. At week 9, quetiapine XR reduced the MADRS total score compared with placebo in the higher anxiety (least squares mean change -17.8 vs. -8.5; P<0.001) and lower anxiety (-14.8 vs. -8.8; P<0.001) subgroups. MADRS total score was also reduced with quetiapine XR compared with placebo in the high (-17.6 vs. -8.7; P<0.001) and low (-14.4 vs. -9.2; P<0.001) sleep disturbance subgroups, as well as in the pain visual analog scale subgroups [≥40 mm (-16.6 vs. -8.9; P<0.001) and <40 mm (-15.7 vs. -8.7; P<0.001)]. Quetiapine XR response rates were higher than those of placebo in all subgroups analyzed. In this study, quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) monotherapy was shown to be effective against depressive symptoms in elderly patients with MDD, irrespective of baseline levels of anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain.

  8. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Therapy for Substance Dependence Using Breaking Free Online: Subgroup Analyses of a Heterogeneous Sample of Service Users

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Glyn; Ward, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance misuse services within the United Kingdom have traditionally been oriented to opiate and crack users, and attended predominantly by male service users. Groups who do not fit this demographic, such as women or those whose primary drug of choice is neither heroin nor crack, have tended to be underrepresented in services. In addition, there can be stigma associated with traditional opiate and crack-centric services. Therefore, the computerized treatment and recovery program, Breaking Free Online (BFO), was developed to enable service users to access confidential support for dependence on a wide range of substances. BFO is delivered as computer-assisted therapy (CAT), or, where appropriate, used as self-help. Objective The aim of this study was to report psychometric outcomes data from 393 service users accessing online support for substance misuse via BFO. Methods Following initial referral to substance misuse services, all participants were supported in setting up a BFO login by a practitioner or peer mentor, and, where required, assisted as they completed an online baseline assessment battery contained within the BFO program. Following a period of engagement with BFO, all participants completed the same battery of assessments, and changes in the scores on these assessments were examined. Results Significant improvements were found across the 393 service users in several areas of psychosocial functioning, including quality of life, severity of alcohol and drug dependence, depression, and anxiety (P=<.001 across all aspects of functioning). Additionally, significant improvements were found within specific subgroups of participants, including females (P=.001-<.001), males (P=.004-<.001), service users reporting alcohol dependence (P=.002-<.001), opiate and crack dependence (P=.014-<.001), and those seeking support for other substances that may be less well represented in the substance misuse sector (P=.001-<.001). Conclusions Data from this study

  9. London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): Exploring Negative and Null Effects of a Cluster-Randomised School-Intervention to Reduce School Exclusion—Findings from Protocol-Based Subgroup Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Cope, Aiden; Sutherland, Alex; Pilbeam, Liv; Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents subgroup analyses from the London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP). LEIP was a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention called Engage in Education-London (EiE-L) which aimed to reduce school exclusions in those at greatest risk of exclusion. Pupils in the control schools attended an hour-long employability seminar. Minimisation was used to randomly assign schools to treatment and control following baseline data collection. The study involved 36 schools (17 in treatment—373 pupils; 19 in control—369 pupils) with >28% free school meal eligibility across London and utilised on pupil self-reports, teacher reports as well as official records to assess the effectiveness of EiE-L. Due to multiple data sources, sample sizes varied according to analysis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups revealed null and negative effects on school exclusion following the intervention. Our findings suggest that the design and implementation of EiE-L may have contributed to the negative outcomes for pupils in the treatment schools when compared to those in the control schools. These findings call into question the effectiveness of bolt-on short-term interventions with pupils, particularly those at the highest risk of school exclusion and when they are faced with multiple problems. This is especially pertinent given the possibility of negative outcomes. Trial Registration: Controlled Trials: ISRCTN23244695 PMID:27045953

  10. Cytogenetic Prognostication Within Medulloblastoma Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David J.H.; Northcott, Paul A.; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C.; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M.G.; Jones, David T.W.; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C.; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G.; Liau, Linda M.; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M.C.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M.; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G.; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F.; Weiss, William A.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M.; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J.; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L.; French, Pim J.; Kloosterhof, Nanne K.; Kros, Johan M.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Clifford, Steven C.; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F.; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A.; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Patients and Methods Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Results Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Conclusion Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials. PMID

  11. Cytogenetic prognostication within medulloblastoma subgroups.

    PubMed

    Shih, David J H; Northcott, Paul A; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M G; Jones, David T W; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G; Liau, Linda M; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K; Thompson, Reid C; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M C; Scherer, Stephen W; Phillips, Joanna J; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F; Weiss, William A; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L; French, Pim J; Kloosterhof, Nanne K; Kros, Johan M; Van Meir, Erwin G; Clifford, Steven C; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D

    2014-03-20

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials.

  12. Treatment of older patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel: subgroup analyses from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial (CLEOPATRA).

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Baselga, José; Amadori, Dino; Sunpaweravong, Patrapim; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Knott, Adam; Clark, Emma; Ross, Graham; Swain, Sandra M

    2013-11-01

    Although the incidence of cancer increases with age, older patients are under-represented in cancer treatment trials, resulting in limited data availability in this patient population. Here we present results from pre-defined subgroup analyses conducted by age group (<65 vs ≥ 65 years) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients who had not received previous chemotherapy or biological therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent, unresectable or metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel or with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. Primary endpoint was independently assessed progression-free survival. We performed pre-specified subgroup analyses of progression-free survival according to age. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00567190. 808 patients were enrolled. Of those, 127 patients were 65 years of age or older (placebo arm: 67, pertuzumab arm: 60). Patients in both age groups experienced progression-free survival benefit with treatment in the pertuzumab arm (<65 years: HR: 0.65; 95 % CI 0.53-0.80; ≥65 years: HR: 0.52; 95 % CI 0.31-0.86). Diarrhoea, fatigue, asthenia, decreased appetite, vomiting, and dysgeusia were reported more frequently in patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were reported less frequently in the older age group. The efficacy and safety data reported in CLEOPATRA suggest that the combined use of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel should not be limited by patient age.

  13. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This debate is part of a larger discussion on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language and focuses on assessing the quality of source texts and target texts in translation, the nature of translation versus the changing job profile of the translator, the…

  14. Debating Paul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbett, David

    2007-01-01

    This classroom note describes the lessons I learned from the use of formal debates during the two semesters I taught "Paul and Early Christianity" to undergraduates at a liberal arts college in Ohio. The purpose of the course was primarily to give students the exegetical skills to understand Paul in his own context. The secondary purpose…

  15. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The transcript of a debate within a group of specialists in translation is presented. The discussion addresses: translator "visibility" in translations and reader reception; the relationship of functionalism in translation, comparative linguistics, and intercultural communication; the client's power; literary translation; the…

  16. Parabolically connected subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Netai, Igor V

    2011-08-31

    All reductive spherical subgroups of the group SL(n) are found for which the intersections with every parabolic subgroup of SL(n) are connected. This condition guarantees that open equivariant embeddings of the corresponding homogeneous spaces into Moishezon spaces are algebraic. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  17. Automata for subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Fong Wan; Siang, Gan Yee; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the relation of automata and groups has been studied. It was shown that properties of groups can be studied using state diagrams of modified automata and modified Watson-Crick automata. In this work, we investigate the relation of subgroups with the modified finite and Watson-Crick automata. We also establish the conditions for the recognition of subgroups by using the modified automata.

  18. Sub-group Analyses from a Trial of a Fixed Combination of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2% and Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% Gel for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Korotzer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is commonplace and can be difficult to manage. Providing an effective and well-tolerated treatment may lead to improved adherence, increased patient satisfaction, and improved clinical outcomes. Methods: A review of efficacy, safety, and cutaneous tolerability of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel in 498 patients with moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris enrolled in a multicenter Phase III study randomized to receive active or vehicle once daily for 12 weeks, including the most recent post-hoc analyses. Results: Significantly superior reductions in lesion counts were observed with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel from Week 4, with median percent reductions in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions from baseline of 68.4 and 57.9 percent, respectively (bothp<0.001 versus vehicle). More than half (55.1%) of the severe acne vulgaris patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel achieved ≥2-grade improvement from baseline in their Evaluator’s Global Severity Score, and almost a third of the adolescent acne vulgaris patients (32.4%) achieved at least a marked improvement in their acne vulgaris as early as Week 2. In adult female acne overall treatments success was achieved in 52.7 percent of patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel. Overall, and in the specific subpopulations, clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel was well-tolerated with a similar adverse event profile to vehicle. Limitations: Post-hoc analyses from a single clinical trial with demographic imbalances that could potentially confound the results. Conclusion: Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel appears to be effective in treating acne across various clinically relevant sub-groups. PMID:26705445

  19. Moderators and Subgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    1978-01-01

    The author suggests that it is more efficient to cluster subjects on the basis of their profiles across several dimensions of significance and to seek "between" subgroup correlates, than to search for a moderator variable "within" levels of which criterion relationships may vary in nonrandom fashion. (Author/RK)

  20. Subgroups Among Opiate Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the present investigation was to delineate homogeneous MMPI profile subgroups (types) through multivariate clustering procedures and to compare the derived (replicable) types on measures of the components of "sociopathy" as well as on other psychometric devices. (Author)

  1. Subgroups Among Opiate Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the present investigation was to delineate homogeneous MMPI profile subgroups (types) through multivariate clustering procedures and to compare the derived (replicable) types on measures of the components of "sociopathy" as well as on other psychometric devices. (Author)

  2. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  3. Health Care Expenditures Among Asian American Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans. PMID:23223329

  4. [Aphasia: debates].

    PubMed

    Roch Lecours, A

    1999-10-01

    . The meeting of 9th July (27th anniversary of the Charcot Chair) was dedicated to cerebral anatomy and the "quadrilateral". The subject of Dejerine's questionnaire was again raised. Accompanied by Georges Guillain, Fulgence Raymond was present on this occasion (but refrained from speaking). This time the star was Augusta Dejerine Klumpke, born on a Spanish sand dune now known as San Francisco, U.S.A. Mrs Dejerine contested the "lenticular zone" and gave it a quite different dimension by proving that its anterodorsal part included associative axons originating in or projecting to Broca's area, the remainder of the "Pierre Marie quadrilateral" being called into question. Brissaud was impressed by the performance of Madame Dejerine, and Pierre Marie found himself in an awkward position. His student François Moutier, present at his request, discussed his own clinical cases and then, on the subject of "Lelong's" brain' (autumn 1861), let it be known that Broca had scratched it with his finger nails while removing the meninges. André-Thomas and Georges Guillain took part in the discussion. At the last meeting, on 23rd July, Brissaud was absent. Fulgence Raymond was again present but remained silent. The only subject on the agenda was "physiological pathology", but several points that had not been resolved on the 9th July were brought up again. On this occasion, Pierre Marie opened the debate and adopted a very cautious approach. However, his patience eventually ran out and he replied sharply to the comments of Dejerine on "images of language" and those of Dupré on "mental representations". Metaphorically speaking, it might be said that the gold medal was not awarded, Augusta Dejerine Klumpke took the silver, Dupré and André-Thomas shared the bronze, and Souques and Moutier each deserved a special mention. It might also be suggested that in 1908 the Society sketched out to a large extent the programme for research on aphasia for the century to come. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE

  5. 1977 National Debate Tournament Final Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rives, Stanley G., ed.; Boaz, John K., ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a transcript of the final debate of the Thirty-First National Debate Tournament sponsored by the American Forensic Association in 1977. Focuses on the necessity and desirability of requiring airbags to promote automobile safety. (MH)

  6. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus aspirin for acute ischemic stroke with large artery occlusive disease: subgroup analyses from the Fraxiparin in Stroke Study for the treatment of ischemic stroke (FISS-tris) study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao Shu; Chen, Christopher; Chen, Xiang Yan; Han, Jing Hao; Soo, Yannie; Leung, Thomas W; Mok, Vincent; Wong, Ka Sing Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    The Fraxiparin in Stroke Study for the treatment of ischemic stroke (FISS-tris) study showed no superiority of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) over aspirin for the primary end point (Barthel Index) in acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusive disease. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of LMWH and aspirin in selected subgroups so as to generate hypotheses for further studies. The FISS-tris study was a multicenter, randomized trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of LMWH (nadroparin calcium 3800 antifactor Xa IU/0.4 mL subcutaneously twice daily) or aspirin (160 mg once daily) for the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke and large artery occlusive disease. The primary outcome was the Barthel Index score dichotomized at 85 6 months poststroke. Exploratory subgroup analysis was performed using different levels of baseline characteristics and the distribution of symptomatic arteries. Compared with aspirin, LMWH improved outcome among older patients >68 years (P=0.043; OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.02-3.41) without ongoing antiplatelet treatment on admission (P=0.029; OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.21) and with symptomatic posterior circulation arterial disease (P=0.001; OR, 5.76; 95% CI, 2.00-16.56). Our findings suggest that LMWH may be of benefit in certain subgroups of patients with acute cerebral infarct and large artery occlusive disease. Hence, further investigation of LMWH may be justified in subgroups such as the elderly, nonusers of antiplatelet agents, and patients with posterior circulation stenosis. URL: www.strokecenter.org/trials. Unique identifier: registration no. 493.

  7. Safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia and/or worsening renal function: analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF study subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure).

    PubMed

    Eschalier, Romain; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Krum, Henry; Pocock, Stuart J; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram

    2013-10-22

    The study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia or worsening renal function (WRF) in EMPHASIS-HF, a trial that enrolled patients at least 55 years old with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and serum potassium <5.0 mmol/l. Patients were receiving optimal therapy and most had been hospitalized for a cardiovascular reason within 180 days of inclusion. Underuse of eplerenone in patients with HF-REF may be due to fear of inducing hyperkalemia or WRF in high-risk patients. This was a pre-specified analysis of subgroups of patients at high risk of hyperkalemia or WRF (patients ≥ 75 years of age, with diabetes, with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and with systolic blood pressure < median of 123 mm Hg), examining the major safety measures (potassium >5.5, >6.0, and <3.5 mmol/l; hyperkalemia leading to study-drug discontinuation or hospitalization; and hospitalization for WRF) as well as the primary outcome (hospitalization for HF or cardiovascular mortality). In all high-risk subgroups, patients treated with eplerenone had an increased risk of potassium >5.5 mmol/l but not of potassium >6.0 mmol/l, and of hospitalization for hyperkalemia or discontinuation of study medication due to adverse events. Eplerenone was effective in reducing the primary composite endpoint in all subgroups. In patients with chronic HF-REF, in NYHA functional class II, and meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, including an eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and potassium <5.0 mmol/l, eplerenone was both efficacious and safe when carefully monitored, even in subgroups at high risk of developing hyperkalemia or WRF. (A Comparison Of Outcomes In Patients In New York Heart Association [NYHA] Class II Heart Failure When Treated With Eplerenone Or Placebo In Addition To Standard Heart

  8. Whole Language: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Comp.

    This book presents a debate between "reasonable" educators who either claim that there is evidence for the effectiveness of whole language, or who challenge the claim that whole language works across the broad spectrum of learners. The book presents the debate in the form of formal debate resolutions, opening "statements,"…

  9. Identifying Sedentary Subgroups: The NCI Health Information National Trends Survey

    PubMed Central

    Atienza, Audie A.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; King, Abby C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Developing effective interventions for the 24%–28% of U.S. adults who are sedentary requires a better understanding of the factors related to sedentary lifestyles as well as the communication channels to reach various subgroups. This study identified key sociodemographic and health communication characteristics of various subgroups with high rates of inactivity using signal detection methodology (SDM). Methods The sample from the nationally representative Health Information National Trends Survey 2003 (HINTS; N=6369) was randomly split into two samples. Exploratory analyses (conducted 2004–2005) were employed on the first sample to identify various subgroups, and the stability of inactivity rates in those subgroups was examined in the second sample. Results Eight subgroups with varying levels of inactivity were identified. Three subgroups had inactivity levels ≥40%, while the lowest subgroup had a level of <15%. The highest inactivity subgroup consisted of individuals with at least some college education who were in fair/poor health and who watched 4+ hours of television/day. The second highest inactivity subgroup was composed of those without a college education who tended not to utilize nor attend to many communication channels. The third highest inactive subgroup consisted of those without a college education who read the newspaper and were obese. Levels of subgroup inactivity in the second independent sample were not significantly different from those found in the exploratory sample. Conclusions This study identified empirically-based, physically inactive subgroups that differed on sociodemographic and health communication characteristics. This information should be useful in creating future evidence-based, targeted, and tailored intervention strategies. PMID:17046409

  10. Defining autism subgroups: a taxometric solution.

    PubMed

    Ingram, David G; Takahashi, T Nicole; Miles, Judith H

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine which behavioral and physical phenotypes would be most likely to divide the ASD population into discrete subgroups. The taxometric methods of Maximum Covariance (MAXCOV) and Minus Mean Below A Cut (MAMBAC) were employed to test for categorical versus continuous variation of each phenotype across the ASD population. Data was retrieved from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the University of Missouri Autism Database. The results of our analyses support subgrouping subjects based on variation in social interaction/communication, intelligence, and essential/complex phenotype; in contrast, subjects varied continuously in insistence on sameness, repetitive sensory motor actions, language acquisition, and, tentatively, adaptive functioning. Stratifying ASD samples based on taxometric results should increase power in gene-finding studies and aid in treatment efficacy research.

  11. A Bayesian Credible Subgroups Approach to Identifying Patient Subgroups with Positive Treatment Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qi; Offen, Walter W.; Carlin, Bradley P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Many new experimental treatments benefit only a subset of the population. Identifying the baseline covariate profiles of patients who benefit from such a treatment, rather than determining whether or not the treatment has a population-level effect, can substantially lessen the risk in undertaking a clinical trial and expose fewer patients to treatments that do not benefit them. The standard analyses for identifying patient subgroups that benefit from an experimental treatment either do not account for multiplicity, or focus on testing for the presence of treatment-covariate interactions rather than the resulting individualized treatment effects. We propose a Bayesian credible subgroups method to identify two bounding subgroups for the benefiting subgroup: one for which it is likely that all members simultaneously have a treatment effect exceeding a specified threshold, and another for which it is likely that no members do. We examine frequentist properties of the credible subgroups method via simulations and illustrate the approach using data from an Alzheimer's disease treatment trial. We conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this approach to identifying patients for whom the treatment is beneficial. PMID:27159131

  12. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  13. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  14. On the subgroup structure of the hyperoctahedral group in six dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Zappa, Emilio; Dykeman, Eric C.; Twarock, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    The subgroup structure of the hyperoctahedral group in six dimensions is investigated. In particular, the subgroups isomorphic to the icosahedral group are studied. The orthogonal crystallographic representations of the icosahedral group are classified and their intersections and subgroups analysed, using results from graph theory and their spectra. PMID:25176990

  15. On the subgroup structure of the hyperoctahedral group in six dimensions.

    PubMed

    Zappa, Emilio; Dykeman, Eric C; Twarock, Reidun

    2014-09-01

    The subgroup structure of the hyperoctahedral group in six dimensions is investigated. In particular, the subgroups isomorphic to the icosahedral group are studied. The orthogonal crystallographic representations of the icosahedral group are classified and their intersections and subgroups analysed, using results from graph theory and their spectra.

  16. Geochemical characterisation, provenance, source and depositional environment of ‘Roches Argilo-Talqueuses’ (RAT) and Mines Subgroups sedimentary rocks in the Neoproterozoic Katangan Belt (Congo): Lithostratigraphic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampunzu, A. B.; Cailteux, J. L. H.; Moine, B.; Loris, H. N. B. T.

    2005-07-01

    The chemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks provide important clues to their provenance and depositional environments. Chemical analyses of 192 samples of Katangan sedimentary rocks from Kolwezi, Kambove-Kabolela and Luiswishi in the central African Copperbelt (Katanga, Congo) are used to constrain (1) the source and depositional environment of RAT and Mines Subgroup sedimentary rocks and (2) the geochemical relations between the rocks from these units and the debate on the lithostratigraphic position of the RAT Subgroup within the Katangan sedimentary succession. The geochemical data indicate that RAT, D. Strat., RSF and RSC are extremely poor in alkalis and very rich in MgO. SD are richer in alkalis, especially K 2O. Geochemical characteristics of RAT and Mines Subgroups sedimentary rocks indicate deposition under an evaporitic environment that evolved from oxidizing (Red RAT) to reducing (Grey RAT and Mines Subgroup) conditions. There is no chemical difference between RAT and fine-grained clastic rocks from the lower part of the Mines Subgroup. The geochemical data preclude the genetic model that RAT are syn-orogenic sedimentary rocks originating from Mines Group rocks by erosion and gravity-induced fragmentation in front of advancing nappes.

  17. Subgroup Analysis in Burnout: Relations Between Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depression.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  18. Subgroup Analysis in Burnout: Relations Between Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26869983

  19. Debating Historical Propositions: Toward a Unique Genre of NEDA Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David K.

    The best way to develop a unique identity for the National Education Debate Association (NEDA) is to debate propositions distinct from National Debate Tournament (NDT) and the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA). A neglected area of debate includes propositions temporally framed in the past. Yet, the present propositional categories of…

  20. The "Ad Circulorum" Fallacy and Comparative Advantage Debating or: Why Don't Debate Cases Make Sense to Outside Listeners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Larry S.

    Circular reasoning is often employed in comparative advantage debate cases when only a plan and advantages are articulated without adequate reference to the resolution which inspired the proposal. The advancing of such subtopical analyses as debate cases is deleterious to the long-range interests of educational debate because the practice…

  1. Empirically derived phenotypic subgroups – qualitative and quantitative trait analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Marsha A; Wyszynski, Diego F; Panhuysen, Carolien I; Ma, Qianli; Yip, Agustin; Farrell, John; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2003-01-01

    Background The Framingham Heart Study has contributed a great deal to advances in medicine. Most of the phenotypes investigated have been univariate traits (quantitative or qualitative). The aims of this study are to derive multivariate traits by identifying homogeneous groups of people and assigning both qualitative and quantitative trait scores; to assess the heritability of the derived traits; and to conduct both qualitative and quantitative linkage analysis on one of the heritable traits. Methods Multiple correspondence analysis, a nonparametric analogue of principal components analysis, was used for data reduction. Two-stage clustering, using both k-means and agglomerative hierarchical clustering, was used to cluster individuals based upon axes (factor) scores obtained from the data reduction. Probability of cluster membership was calculated using binary logistic regression. Heritability was calculated using SOLAR, which was also used for the quantitative trait analysis. GENEHUNTER-PLUS was used for the qualitative trait analysis. Results We found four phenotypically distinct groups. Membership in the smallest group was heritable (38%, p < 1 × 10-6) and had characteristics consistent with atherogenic dyslipidemia. We found both qualitative and quantitative LOD scores above 3 on chromosomes 11 and 14 (11q13, 14q23, 14q31). There were two Kong & Cox LOD scores above 1.0 on chromosome 6 (6p21) and chromosome 11 (11q23). Conclusion This approach may be useful for the identification of genetic heterogeneity in complex phenotypes by clarifying the phenotype definition prior to linkage analysis. Some of our findings are in regions linked to elements of atherogenic dyslipidemia and related diagnoses, some may be novel, or may be false positives. PMID:14975083

  2. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  3. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  4. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  5. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  6. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  7. The Artilect Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Halioris, Sam

    Twenty-first-century technologies will allow the creation of massively intelligent machines, many trillions of times as smart, fast, and durable as humans. Issues concerning industrial, consumer, and military applications of mobile autonomous robots, cyborgs, and computer-based AI systems could divisively split humanity into ideological camps regarding whether "artilects" (artificial intellects) should be built or not. The artilect debate, unlike any before it, could dominate the 21st-century political landscape, and has the potential to cause conflict on a global scale. Research is needed to inform policy and individual decisions; and healthy debate should be initiated now to prepare institutions and individuals alike for the impact of AI.

  8. The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.

    PubMed

    Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

    2013-09-01

    Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Subgroup finding via Bayesian additive regression trees.

    PubMed

    Sivaganesan, Siva; Müller, Peter; Huang, Bin

    2017-03-09

    We provide a Bayesian decision theoretic approach to finding subgroups that have elevated treatment effects. Our approach separates the modeling of the response variable from the task of subgroup finding and allows a flexible modeling of the response variable irrespective of potential subgroups of interest. We use Bayesian additive regression trees to model the response variable and use a utility function defined in terms of a candidate subgroup and the predicted response for that subgroup. Subgroups are identified by maximizing the expected utility where the expectation is taken with respect to the posterior predictive distribution of the response, and the maximization is carried out over an a priori specified set of candidate subgroups. Our approach allows subgroups based on both quantitative and categorical covariates. We illustrate the approach using simulated data set study and a real data set. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  11. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  12. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  13. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  14. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  15. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  16. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  17. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  18. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Alaska showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the proficient level for almost all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls (subgroup trends were not available at the basic or advanced levels). Most student subgroups had upward trends in percentages proficient, with a few exceptions. Gains in math tended to be…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  6. Psychopathic Traits of Dutch Adolescents in Residential Care: Identifying Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the…

  7. Psychopathic Traits of Dutch Adolescents in Residential Care: Identifying Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the…

  8. On quantum algorithms for noncommutative hidden subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, M.; Hoeyer, P.

    1998-12-01

    Quantum algorithms for factoring and discrete logarithm have previously been generalized to finding hidden subgroups of finite Abelian groups. This paper explores the possibility of extending this general viewpoint to finding hidden subgroups of noncommutative groups. The authors present a quantum algorithm for the special case of dihedral groups which determines the hidden subgroup in a linear number of calls to the input function. They also explore the difficulties of developing an algorithm to process the data to explicitly calculate a generating set for the subgroup. A general framework for the noncommutative hidden subgroup problem is discussed and they indicate future research directions.

  9. 'Homeopathy': untangling the debate.

    PubMed

    Relton, Clare; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J

    2008-07-01

    There are active public campaigns both for and against homeopathy, and its continuing availability in the NHS is debated in the medical, scientific and popular press. However, there is a lack of clarity in key terms used in the debate, and in how the evidence base of homeopathy is described and interpreted. The term 'homeopathy' is used with several different meanings including: the therapeutic system, homeopathic medicine, treatment by a homeopath, and the principles of 'homeopathy'. Conclusions drawn from one of these aspects are often inappropriately applied to another aspect. In interpreting the homeopathy evidence it is important to understand that the existing clinical experimental (randomised controlled trial) evidence base provides evidence as to the efficacy of homeopathic medicines, but not the effectiveness of treatment by a homeopath. The observational evidence base provides evidence as to the effectiveness of treatment by a homeopath. We make four recommendations to promote clarity in the reporting, design and interpretation of homeopathy research.

  10. The water fluoridation debate.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Pretty, Iain A

    2011-01-01

    Water fluoridation schemes have been employed for over 50 years. Water fluoridation has been a source of continuous debate between those who advocate its use as a public health measure and those who oppose it. There have been no new fluoridation schemes in the U.K. for nearly 30 years owing to principally legislative, but also geographic, financial, and political reasons. However, in early 2008, the U.K. Secretary of State for Health promoted the use of water fluoridation schemes for areas in England with the highest rates of decay. This article, the third and final article of three, aims to discuss the arguments surrounding water fluoridation and its continued relevance as a public health measure. This article aims to provide an update for general practitioners for the background and the current status of the water fluoridation debate and to enable them to answer non-clinical questions raised by patients.

  11. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate.

  12. Discussion and Debate, English, Debate: 5114.117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karen P.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on discussion and debate, this guide is designed to help students learn the elements of good discussion and informal debate in a classroom atmosphere emphasizing the democratic process. Performance objective for the course include compiling information for classroom discussions and informal debates,…

  13. No end in sight to cloning debate.

    PubMed

    Graumann, Sigrid; Poltermann, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Since last August, Great Britain has allowed the cloning for research purposes. This fact has re-generated an existing debate, taking into account the prohibition of cloning of the UN, the States are debating whether cloning should be prohibited or in the contrary, it should also be admitted for reproductive purposes. This situation has generated an international uneasiness due to the lack of a universal consensus. This article analyses this situation, bringing the reader closer to the very controversial texts, such as the European Constitution and the UN Convention on Cloning.

  14. Genetic markers for schizophrenic subgroups.

    PubMed

    Lange, V

    1982-01-01

    By the study of hereditary serum protein markers in psychotic patients and normal controls, a surplus of Gc 1-1 (p less than 0.01) and transferrin B variants (p less than 0.0027) has been established in schizophrenias. Affective psychoses are characterized by an excess of the haptoglobin (Hp) serum type 2-2 (p less than 0.001). These general statements have to be modified in regard to the clinical and psychopathological subdivision beyond the traditional classification into two major groups of endogenous mental disease. Using Leonhard's criteria, the prevalence of Gc 1-1 is restricted to the systematic schizophrenias reaching its highest value in hebephrenias, which are followed by paraphrenic and catatonic forms in this trait. In contrast to this, periodical catatonia and affective paraphrenia, classified as subgroups of the unsystematic schizophrenias, have Gc 1-1 frequencies like healthy controls. On the other hand, the Hp 2-2 value is not increased in the systematic schizophrenias, but it displays a relative overplus in the unsystematic forms. Concerning the Hp 2-2 and Gc 1-1 frequencies a certain similarity can be observed between affective paraphrenia and the paranoid psychoses with late onset, it they are characterized by a cyclic axis syndrome as described by the Vienna school. The cycloid psychoses are marked by an extreme surplus of Hp 2-2 (p less than 0.001) and an overweight of Gc 1-1 (p less than 0.05). Probably the Gc and Hp alleles play a role as risk factors or accidental effectors in the multifactorial genetic systems responsible for the biological background of psychoses. For both serum systems a selective interaction is discussed considering the vitamin D transport by the Gc proteins with the relation to neuronal consolidation and the possible influence of Hp 2-2 on transport and receptor functions.

  15. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  16. Tracing the French Policy PISA Debate: A Policy Configuration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the French policy PISA debate from 2001 to 2014 by analysing the results of two original qualitative researches. Theoretically, this debate is the outcome of specific policy configurations, which predetermine its scope, content and effectiveness. These configurations are themselves described through their…

  17. Tracing the French Policy PISA Debate: A Policy Configuration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the French policy PISA debate from 2001 to 2014 by analysing the results of two original qualitative researches. Theoretically, this debate is the outcome of specific policy configurations, which predetermine its scope, content and effectiveness. These configurations are themselves described through their…

  18. Assessment and Remediation of Complex Reasoning in Specific Subgroups of Learning Disabled Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, C. Addison; And Others

    The study is described which examined quantitative and qualitative differences among learning disabled (LD) subgroups and between LD and normal Ss in reasoning and problem solving behaviors. The research strategy involved (1) detailed analyses of the behavior of subgroups of LD adolescents and of matched normal achieving adolescents in a task…

  19. Reconstructing the stem cell debate.

    PubMed

    Sitko, Bradley J

    2002-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have been a major topic in science, medicine, and religion since their discovery in 1998. However, due to the complex discourse and rhetoric of scientific language, debate has remained within the professional realm via "expert bioethics." Using the tenets of pragmatism, the author examines the need to move the debate to society as a whole and disentangle the stem cell debate from the ideologies of the human cloning and abortion debates. Opening this issue to a societal debate will advance societal growth, resulting in informed decisions on moral issues, funding, or regulation associated with hES cell research.

  20. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  1. The great climate debate

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty The authors thinks so. The paper presents data on the rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}; projected rises in CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluoro-carbons; the changing pattern of global CO{sub 2} emissions from North America, USSR and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Developing Countries, and others; the results of 3 computer models of climate change; and the contribution to global warming from various human activities.

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New Mexico showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grades 4, 8,…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In New Jersey, achievement gaps narrowed in grade 11 reading and math for all major subgroups, with one exception. Comparable data for grade 11 by subgroup were available for 2002-2009, with a few exceptions. Because the state changed its tests at grades 4 and 8 in recent years, there were too few years of comparable data to determine trends at…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Mississippi, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Mississippi for 2010. Mississippi made changes to its state testing program in the 2007-08 school year. Therefore, subgroup and achievement gap trends could not be calculated because fewer than three consecutive years of data were available, too short a period to constitute a…

  6. A debate about the merits of debate in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Hartin, Peter; Birks, Melanie; Bodak, Marie; Woods, Cindy; Hitchins, Marnie

    2017-09-01

    In this 'Issues for Debate' paper, the issue is debate. Today's nurses must be able to advocate, lead, and grow 'big ideas', as well as knowing their way around a patient's body and mind. This paper reports, partly, on a research study into the use of debate to develop clinical reasoning and thinking skills in nursing students. The study was conducted with first and third-year nursing students enrolled at an Australian regional university. Students were asked to comment on the effectiveness of debate as an educational strategy. We combine the results of this research study with literature and discussion into the educational uses of debate to put the argument that using debate in nursing education can be an effective way to foster the type of creative, intelligent, thoughtful and forward-thinking nurses needed in the modern healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment effect heterogeneity for univariate subgroups in clinical trials: Shrinkage, standardization, or else.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Ravi; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Treatment effect heterogeneity is a well-recognized phenomenon in randomized controlled clinical trials. In this paper, we discuss subgroup analyses with prespecified subgroups of clinical or biological importance. We explore various alternatives to the naive (the traditional univariate) subgroup analyses to address the issues of multiplicity and confounding. Specifically, we consider a model-based Bayesian shrinkage (Bayes-DS) and a nonparametric, empirical Bayes shrinkage approach (Emp-Bayes) to temper the optimism of traditional univariate subgroup analyses; a standardization approach (standardization) that accounts for correlation between baseline covariates; and a model-based maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach. The Bayes-DS and Emp-Bayes methods model the variation in subgroup-specific treatment effect rather than testing the null hypothesis of no difference between subgroups. The standardization approach addresses the issue of confounding in subgroup analyses. The MLE approach is considered only for comparison in simulation studies as the "truth" since the data were generated from the same model. Using the characteristics of a hypothetical large outcome trial, we perform simulation studies and articulate the utilities and potential limitations of these estimators. Simulation results indicate that Bayes-DS and Emp-Bayes can protect against optimism present in the naïve approach. Due to its simplicity, the naïve approach should be the reference for reporting univariate subgroup-specific treatment effect estimates from exploratory subgroup analyses. Standardization, although it tends to have a larger variance, is suggested when it is important to address the confounding of univariate subgroup effects due to correlation between baseline covariates. The Bayes-DS approach is available as an R package (DSBayes).

  8. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  9. The euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Harris, N M

    2001-10-01

    Debates about the moral dilemmas of euthanasia date back to ancient times. Many of the historical arguments used for and against the practice remain valid today. Indeed, any form of discussion on the subject often provokes emotive responses, both from members of the medical profession and the general public. For this reason alone, the issue will continue to be debated at all levels of society. There are, however, other factors that ensure euthanasia will remain a subject of major controversy within medical, legal and governmental bodies. Firstly, the act of euthanasia itself is illegal, yet in its passive form occurs on a daily basis in many of our hospitals (1). Secondly, medical advances have made it possible to artificially prolong the life of an increasing number of patients far beyond what was possible only a few years ago. Furthermore, we must all contend with the reality that financial constraints are an important consideration in modern health care provision. Finally, there is an ethical difficulty in interpreting the concept of a patient's right, or autonomy, versus the rights and duty of a doctor. Before attempting to answer the questions posed by these issues, it is important to have some accurate definitions of both euthanasia and of the concept of morality. According to the House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics, the precise definition of euthanasia is "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering" (2). The term can be further divided into voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. The former is said to occur if a competent patient makes an informed request for a life terminating event and the latter can be used if a patient does not give informed and specific consent for such treatment. It is the occurrence of involuntary euthanasia which forms one of the main arguments against legalisation. This is discussed in greater detail below. Euthanasia is frequently separated into

  10. Reflections on the debriefing debate.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the debate on debriefing that has persisted for two decades and remains largely unresolved to this day. A brief history of Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) is given, these being the subject of the debate, followed by a summary of the development and current status of the debate. Discussion follows on why the opposing positions appear to be at a stalemate.

  11. Moving beyond the GM Debate

    PubMed Central

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-01-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture. PMID:24914954

  12. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    PubMed

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-06-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.

  13. Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) concepts, target physics subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, M

    1999-07-01

    The target physics subgroup met for three days of three hour sessions and discussed several questions: Session 1A: What are the key scientific issues for validating each target concept and how can they be resolved; Session 1B: How can existing (and new?) facilities be used to test each concept; Session 1C: (1) What IFE target physics issues will not be resolved on NIF; (2) What is required to get to high yield; and (3) What is the significance to IFE of experimentally demonstrating high yield/high gain? During the discussions, the third question actually turned into a debate concerning the related question of whether or not a single-shot high yield facility is necessary prior to the ETF.

  14. SUBGR: A Program to Generate Subgroup Data for the Subgroup Resonance Self-Shielding Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kang Seog

    2016-06-06

    The Subgroup Data Generation (SUBGR) program generates subgroup data, including levels and weights from the resonance self-shielded cross section table as a function of background cross section. Depending on the nuclide and the energy range, these subgroup data can be generated by (a) narrow resonance approximation, (b) pointwise flux calculations for homogeneous media; and (c) pointwise flux calculations for heterogeneous lattice cells. The latter two options are performed by the AMPX module IRFFACTOR. These subgroup data are to be used in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronic simulator MPACT, for which the primary resonance self-shielding method is the subgroup method.

  15. Debaters as Storytellers: The Narrative Perspective in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Argues that in order to counter the current elitism of academic debate, exemplars must be developed which emphasize teaching students the skills required to communicate arguments to inspire citizen activism. Proposes a narrative perspective of debate and offers suggestions regarding how this perspective might be applied and practiced. (MM)

  16. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context…

  17. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  18. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…

  19. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context…

  20. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  1. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…

  2. Score Trends, SAT Validity and Subgroup Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Summer Institute on College Admissions at Harvard in June 2008. The presentation explores whether the SAT validity has changed with the test changes and if those changes affect specific subgroups.

  3. Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women: a subgroup analysis of a RCT.

    PubMed

    van Oers, A M; Groen, H; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Broekmans, F J; Vogel, N E A; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A

    2016-12-01

    randomization group and subgroup were used. Significant interaction was defined as a P-value <0.1. Neither maternal age, ovulatory status nor BMI had an impact on the healthy live birth rate within 24 months, nor did they influence the overall live birth rate within 24 months after randomization. WH ratio showed a significant interaction with the effect of lifestyle intervention on healthy live birth rate (P = 0.05), resulting in a lower healthy live birth rate in women with a WH ratio <0.8. WH ratio had no interaction regarding overall live birth rate (P = 0.27) or natural conception rate (P = 0.38). In anovulatory women, the effect of lifestyle intervention resulted in more natural conceptions compared to ovulatory women (P-value for interaction = 0.02). There was no interaction between other subgroups and the effect of the intervention on the rate of natural conception. Since this was a subgroup analysis of a RCT and sample size determination of the trial was based on the primary outcome of the study, the study was not powered for analyses of all subgroups. Our finding that lifestyle intervention leads to increased natural conception in anovulatory obese women could be used in the counselling of these women, but requires further research using an appropriately powered study in order to confirm this result. The study was supported by a grant from ZonMw, the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development (50-50110-96-518). The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the UMCG received an unrestricted educational grant from Ferring pharmaceuticals BV, The Netherlands. Ben Mol is a consultant for ObsEva, Geneva. Annemieke Hoek received a speaker's fee for a postgraduate education from MSD pharmaceutical company, outside the submitted work. The LIFEstyle study was registered at the Dutch trial registry (NTR 1530). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved

  4. Current Activities of the ASME Subgroup NUPACK

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald M. Foster; D. Keith Morton; Paul McConnell

    2007-10-01

    Current activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Section III Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (also known as Subgroup NUPACK) are reviewed with emphasis on the recent revision of Subsection WB. Also, brief insightson new proposals for the development of rules for internal support structures and for a strain-based acceptance criteria are provided.

  5. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  6. Curriculum Debate and Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgstrom, Ole; Hellstenius, Mats

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the underlying themes and principles that inform curriculum debate and how they are articulated in current school policy discussions. This topic is approached with the help of a case study covering the debate on which subjects should be mandatory for students at the upper secondary school curriculum in Sweden. The focus…

  7. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  8. The Great Mini-Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Debates remain popular in English language courses, and this activity gives students a low-stress opportunity to develop their speaking debating skills. This lesson plan is appropriate for upper intermediate or advanced students. Goals of the activity are to present an oral argument using evidence and use functional language related to agreeing,…

  9. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  10. Back to Basics in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallmark, Michael

    High school debate style should emphasize persuasion, information, and logic above other skills. Recent trends, such as excessive speed of delivery and excessive amounts of evidence used in debate, have tended to inhibit the effective acquisition of those skills for students. Potential methods for moderating speed and evidence use are not allowing…

  11. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  12. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  13. Intercollegiate Debate: An Intrapersonal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwik, Theodore; Mehrley, R. Samuel

    1971-01-01

    The Thesis of the paper is that there is need to distinguish between debating as a means of training for public policy decision making and debatingas a means of training students in the cognitive processes necessary for effective decision making. The author views debating as fundamental training in interpersonal communication. (Author/MS)

  14. Debating in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Regular debating can be an effective way of improving the performance of ESL pupils and of assessing their language-learning propensities. It requires a lot of listening as well as speaking and generally seems to foster confidence in language use. The relationships set up in debating are pupil-pupil rather than pupil-teacher. (CFM)

  15. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma: the current consensus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael D; Northcott, Paul A; Korshunov, Andrey; Remke, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles G; Parsons, D Williams; Rutkowski, Stefan; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W; Lichter, Peter; Gilbertson, Richard J; Pomeroy, Scott L; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M

    2012-04-01

    Medulloblastoma, a small blue cell malignancy of the cerebellum, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric oncology. Current mechanisms for clinical prognostication and stratification include clinical factors (age, presence of metastases, and extent of resection) as well as histological subgrouping (classic, desmoplastic, and large cell/anaplastic histology). Transcriptional profiling studies of medulloblastoma cohorts from several research groups around the globe have suggested the existence of multiple distinct molecular subgroups that differ in their demographics, transcriptomes, somatic genetic events, and clinical outcomes. Variations in the number, composition, and nature of the subgroups between studies brought about a consensus conference in Boston in the fall of 2010. Discussants at the conference came to a consensus that the evidence supported the existence of four main subgroups of medulloblastoma (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, and Group 4). Participants outlined the demographic, transcriptional, genetic, and clinical differences between the four subgroups. While it is anticipated that the molecular classification of medulloblastoma will continue to evolve and diversify in the future as larger cohorts are studied at greater depth, herein we outline the current consensus nomenclature, and the differences between the medulloblastoma subgroups.

  16. Identifying sedentary subgroups: the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Audie A; Yaroch, Amy L; Mãsse, Louise C; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W; King, Abby C

    2006-11-01

    Developing effective interventions for the 24% to 28% of U.S. adults who are sedentary requires a better understanding of the factors related to sedentary lifestyles as well as the communication channels to reach various subgroups. This study identified key sociodemographic and health communication characteristics of various subgroups with high rates of inactivity using signal detection methodology. The sample from the nationally representative Health Information National Trends Survey 2003 (n=6369) was randomly split into two samples. Exploratory analyses (conducted 2004 and 2005) were employed on the first sample to identify various subgroups, and the stability of inactivity rates in those subgroups was examined in the second sample. Eight subgroups with varying levels of inactivity were identified. Three subgroups had inactivity levels of 40% or higher, while the lowest subgroup had a level of less than 15%. The highest inactivity subgroup consisted of individuals with at least some college education who were in fair/poor health and who watched 4 or more hours of television per day. The second-highest inactivity subgroup was composed of those without a college education who tended not to use or attend to many communication channels. The third highest inactive subgroup consisted of those without a college education who read the newspaper and were obese. Levels of inactivity in the second independent sample subgroups were not significantly different from those found in the exploratory sample. This study identified empirically based, physically inactive subgroups that differed on sociodemographic and health communication characteristics. This information should be useful in creating future evidence-based, targeted, and tailored intervention strategies.

  17. Special Feature: Debate the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Lloyd H.; Russell, Earl B.

    1981-01-01

    This debate focuses on the location of federal-level administration of vocational agriculture and agribusiness: Should the program be administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or by the U.S. Department of Education? (CT)

  18. Exploring the compassion deficit debate.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Ion, Robin; Roxburgh, Michelle; Devitt, Patric Ffrench; Smith, Stephen D M

    2016-04-01

    Several recent high profile failures in the UK health care system have promoted strong debate on compassion and care in nursing. A number of papers articulating a range of positions within this debate have been published in this journal over the past two and a half years. These articulate a diverse range of theoretical perspectives and have been drawn together here in an attempt to bring some coherence to the debate and provide an overview of the key arguments and positions taken by those involved. In doing this we invite the reader to consider their own position in relation to the issues raised and to consider the impact of this for their own practice. Finally the paper offers some sense of how individual practitioners might use their understanding of the debates to ensure delivery of good nursing care.

  19. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António J.; Daniel, João R.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. PMID:26134139

  20. Heterogeneity in chronic fatigue syndrome - empirically defined subgroups from the PACE trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, T E; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M; White, P D

    2017-06-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is likely to be a heterogeneous condition. Previous studies have empirically defined subgroups using combinations of clinical and biological variables. We aimed to explore the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome. We used baseline data from the PACE trial, which included 640 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome. Variable reduction, using a combination of clinical knowledge and principal component analyses, produced a final dataset of 26 variables for 541 patients. Latent class analysis was then used to empirically define subgroups. The most statistically significant and clinically recognizable model comprised five subgroups. The largest, 'core' subgroup (33% of participants), had relatively low scores across all domains and good self-efficacy. A further three subgroups were defined by: the presence of mood disorders (21%); the presence of features of other functional somatic syndromes (such as fibromyalgia or irritable bowel syndrome) (21%); or by many symptoms - a group which combined features of both of the above (14%). The smallest 'avoidant-inactive' subgroup was characterized by physical inactivity, belief that symptoms were entirely physical in nature, and fear that they indicated harm (11%). Differences in the severity of fatigue and disability provided some discriminative validation of the subgroups. In addition to providing further evidence for the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome, the subgroups identified may aid future research into the important aetiological factors of specific subtypes of chronic fatigue syndrome and the development of more personalized treatment approaches.

  1. Use of optical mapping to sort uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains into distinct subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, William R.; Briska, Adam; Stahl, Buffy; Wagner, Trevor K.; Zentz, Emily; Henkhaus, John; Lovrich, Steven D.; Agger, William A.; Callister, Steven M.; DuChateau, Brian; Dykes, Colin W.

    2010-01-01

    Optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates. For individual genomes, the NcoI restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced E. coli and Shigella strains. All of the UPEC isolates clustered separately from the Shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains. Moreover, the individual strains appeared to cluster into distinct subgroups based on the dendrogram analyses. Phylogenetic grouping of these 33 strains showed that 32/33 were the B2 subgroup and 1/33 was subgroup A. To further characterize the similarities and differences among the 33 isolates, pathogenicity island (PAI), haemolysin and virulence gene comparisons were performed. A strong correlation was observed between individual subgroups and virulence factor genes as well as haemolysis activity. Furthermore, there was considerable conservation of sequenced-strain PAIs in the specific subgroups. Strains with different antibiotic-resistance patterns also appeared to sort into separate subgroups. Thus, the optical maps distinguished the UPEC strains from other E. coli strains and further subdivided the strains into distinct subgroups. This optical mapping procedure holds promise as an alternative way to subgroup all E. coli strains, including those involved in infections outside of the intestinal tract and epidemic strains with distinct patterns of antibiotic resistance. PMID:20378655

  2. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions.

    PubMed

    Santos, António J; Daniel, João R; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups.

  3. Cluster Analysis to Identify Possible Subgroups in Tinnitus Patients.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, Minke J C; Free, Rolien H; Arnold, Rosemarie; de Kleine, Emile; Hofman, Rutger; van Dijk, J Marc C; van Dijk, Pim

    2017-01-01

    In tinnitus treatment, there is a tendency to shift from a "one size fits all" to a more individual, patient-tailored approach. Insight in the heterogeneity of the tinnitus spectrum might improve the management of tinnitus patients in terms of choice of treatment and identification of patients with severe mental distress. The goal of this study was to identify subgroups in a large group of tinnitus patients. Data were collected from patients with severe tinnitus complaints visiting our tertiary referral tinnitus care group at the University Medical Center Groningen. Patient-reported and physician-reported variables were collected during their visit to our clinic. Cluster analyses were used to characterize subgroups. For the selection of the right variables to enter in the cluster analysis, two approaches were used: (1) variable reduction with principle component analysis and (2) variable selection based on expert opinion. Various variables of 1,783 tinnitus patients were included in the analyses. Cluster analysis (1) included 976 patients and resulted in a four-cluster solution. The effect of external influences was the most discriminative between the groups, or clusters, of patients. The "silhouette measure" of the cluster outcome was low (0.2), indicating a "no substantial" cluster structure. Cluster analysis (2) included 761 patients and resulted in a three-cluster solution, comparable to the first analysis. Again, a "no substantial" cluster structure was found (0.2). Two cluster analyses on a large database of tinnitus patients revealed that clusters of patients are mostly formed by a different response of external influences on their disease. However, both cluster outcomes based on this dataset showed a poor stability, suggesting that our tinnitus population comprises a continuum rather than a number of clearly defined subgroups.

  4. Molecular Subgroup of Primary Prostate Cancer Presenting with Metastatic Biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Steven M; Knight, Laura A; McCavigan, Andrena M; Logan, Gemma E; Berge, Viktor; Sherif, Amir; Pandha, Hardev; Warren, Anne Y; Davidson, Catherine; Uprichard, Adam; Blayney, Jaine K; Price, Bethanie; Jellema, Gera L; Steele, Christopher J; Svindland, Aud; McDade, Simon S; Eden, Christopher G; Foster, Chris; Mills, Ian G; Neal, David E; Mason, Malcolm D; Kay, Elaine W; Waugh, David J; Harkin, D Paul; Watson, R William; Clarke, Noel W; Kennedy, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples. Independent assay validation was performed using 322 radical prostatectomy samples from four sites with a mean follow-up of 50.3 months. Molecular subgroups were identified using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. A partial least squares approach was used to generate a gene expression assay. Relationships with outcome (time to biochemical and metastatic recurrence) were analysed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. A molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancer with biology similar to metastatic disease was identified. A 70-transcript signature (metastatic assay) was developed and independently validated in the radical prostatectomy samples. Metastatic assay positive patients had increased risk of biochemical recurrence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 1.62 [1.13-2.33]; p=0.0092) and metastatic recurrence (multivariable HR=3.20 [1.76-5.80]; p=0.0001). A combined model with Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post surgical (CAPRA-S) identified patients at an increased risk of biochemical and metastatic recurrence superior to either model alone (HR=2.67 [1.90-3.75]; p<0.0001 and HR=7.53 [4.13-13.73]; p<0.0001, respectively). The retrospective nature of the study is acknowledged as a potential limitation. The metastatic assay may identify a molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancers with metastatic potential. The metastatic assay may improve the ability to detect patients at risk of metastatic recurrence following radical prostatectomy. The impact of adjuvant therapies should be assessed in

  5. Neurocognitive performance as an endophenotype for mood disorder subgroups.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, Alison K; Cui, Lihong; Calkins, Monica E; Moore, Tyler M; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2017-06-01

    There is growing evidence that neurocognitive function may be an endophenotype for mood disorders. The goal of this study is to examine the specificity and familiality of neurocognitive functioning across the full range of mood disorder subgroups, including Bipolar I (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II), Major Depressive Disorders (MDD), and controls in a community-based family study. A total of 310 participants from 137 families with mood spectrum disorders (n=151) and controls (n=159) completed the University of Pennsylvania's Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) that assessed the accuracy and speed of task performance across five domains. Mixed effects regression models tested association and familiality. Compared to those without mood disorders, participants with BP-I had increased accuracy in complex cognition, while participants with MDD were more accurate in emotion recognition. There was also a significant familial association for accuracy of complex cognition. Mood disorder subgroups did not differ in performance speed in any of the domains. The small number of BP-I cases, and family size limited the statistical power of these analyses, and the cross-sectional assessment of neurocognitive function precluded our ability to determine whether performance precedes or post dates onset of disorder. This is one of the few community-based family studies of potential neurocognitive endophenotypes that includes the full range of mood disorder subgroups. There were few differences in neurocognitive function except enhanced accuracy in specific domains among those with BP-I and MDD. The differential findings across specific mood disorder subgroups substantiate their heterogeneity in other biologic and endophenotypic domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  8. Tallying Differences between Demographic Subgroups from Multiple Institutions: The Practical Utility of Nonparametric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Mantz

    2017-01-01

    When analysing course-level data by subgroups based upon some demographic characteristics, the numbers in analytical cells are often too small to allow inferences to be drawn that might help in the enhancement of practices. However, relatively simple analyses can provide useful pointers. This article draws upon a study involving a partnership with…

  9. Asthma susceptibility variants are more strongly associated with clinically similar subgroups.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reproducibly associated with asthma. This study evaluated whether GWAS-nominated SNPs are more strongly associated with asthma patients sharing the same clinical characteristics in order to refine the role of recently identified genes. Analyses were performed in unrelated French Canadian subjects (566 cases and 416 controls) with data collected on lung function, blood cell counts, atopy, disease history and medication. Previously defined asthma subgroups were used for analysis: 1) older patients with low atopy and low lung function, 2) high atopy, 3) young non-smoking women and 4) high smoking history. Allele frequencies of 68 GWAS-nominated SNPs were compared between controls and cases or controls and subgroups of cases defined by cluster analysis. Twelve GWAS-nominated SNPs demonstrated evidence of replication (p value < 0.05) for association with asthma. In phenotypically similar asthma patients, rs10197862, located in IL1RL1/IL18R1, was the most strongly associated SNP with the high atopy subgroup (p = 0.0009). SNPs located at the IL33 and the STARD3/PGAP3 loci were also associated with the high atopy subgroup. Two SNPs, rs1544791 (PDE4D) and rs3806932 (TSLP), were more strongly associated with the high smoking history subgroup than with asthma or any other subgroups. All 10 SNPs that replicated for asthma per se and within subgroups had lower p values in subgroups. Moreover, 12 SNPs were only replicated in a subgroup. This study shows that the majority of GWAS-nominated SNPs are more strongly associated with homogeneous subgroups of asthma than broadly defined asthma.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Communicative Behavior in CEDA Lincoln-Douglas Debate and CEDA Team Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Harold L.; Skaggs, Edward C.

    Keeping debate communicative is a great and recurring concern. A study investigated whether debate format may influence debaters' communicative behavior, by comparing behavior in Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) Lincoln-Douglas debate (LD) and in CEDA Team debate. Videotapes of the two first affirmative speeches of each, at the…

  11. Consciousness operationalized, a debate realigned.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter; Veillet, Bénédicte

    2017-08-10

    This paper revisits the debate about cognitive phenomenology. It elaborates, defends, and improves on our earlier proposal for resolving that debate, according to which the test for irreducible phenomenology is the presence of explanatory gaps. After showing how proposals like ours have been misunderstood or misused by others, we deploy our operationalization to argue that the correct way to align the debate over cognitive phenomenology is not between sensory and (alleged) cognitive phenomenology, but rather between non-conceptual and (alleged) conceptual or propositional phenomenology. In doing so we defend three varieties of non-sensory (amodal)(1) non-conceptual phenomenology: valence, a sense of approximate number, and a sense of elapsed time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinguishing between respiratory syncytial virus subgroups by protein profile analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Walpita, P; Mufson, M A; Stanek, R J; Pfeifer, D; Connor, J D

    1992-01-01

    We subgrouped 75 strains of respiratory syncytial virus by a protein profile method (PPM) which relies on different mobilities of the phosphoprotein in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and does not require monoclonal antibodies. When compared with enzyme immunoassay, PPM correctly subgrouped 54 of 56 subgroup A and all 19 subgroup B strains. Images PMID:1572961

  13. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  14. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  15. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  16. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  17. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  18. Debating the Socialist Calculation Debate: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmont, Zenon X.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a classroom exercise that introduces the Socialist Calculation Debate (SCD) to undergraduate economics students. The SCD concerns an issue that remains one of the most consequential of the 20th century--the belief in the superiority of socialism and central planning over capitalism and the free market. The exercise presents…

  19. Psychopathic traits of Dutch adolescents in residential care: identifying subgroups.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Karin S; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H J; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the original model on which it is based. Latent Class Analyses showed that adolescents showing psychopathic traits could be classified into three subgroups. The first group showed low scores on the grandiose/manipulative dimension, the callous/unemotional dimension, and the impulsive/irresponsible dimension (normal group). The second group scored moderate on the grandiose/manipulative dimension and the callous/unemotional dimension and high on the impulsive/irresponsible dimension (impulsive, non-psychopathic-like group). The third group scored high on all three dimensions (psychopathy-like group). The findings revealed that the impulsive, non-psychopathic like group scored significantly higher on internalizing problem behavior compared to the normal group, while the psychopathy-like and the impulsive, non-psychopathic-like group both scored higher on externalizing problem behavior compared to the normal group. Based on a self-report delinquency measure, it appeared that the psychopathy-like group had the highest delinquency rates, except for vandalism. Both the impulsive and psychopathy-like group had the highest scores on the use of soft drugs.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Defining Dimensions and Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Cermak, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with the presence of social-communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors. In the latest conceptualization of ASD, these two behavioral dimensions represent the core defining features of ASD, whereas associated dimensions, such as intellectual and language ability, provide a means for describing the ASD heterogeneity. In addition, the characterization of ASD subgroups, defined by the presence of known medical, genetic, or other psychiatric disorders, furthers our understanding of ASD heterogeneity. This paper reviews the history of autism, describes its core defining features, and provides an overview of the clinically and etiologically relevant subgroups that add to the complexity of this condition. PMID:25072016

  1. Understanding Subgroup Fertility Differentials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Reed, Holly E.

    2015-01-01

    As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working age population, it is critical to understand why fertility remains so high there. Nigeria’s current total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 (0.2 fewer children per woman than the TFR of 5.7 reported in both the 2003 and 2008 NDHS surveys) is projected to continue to decline, but questions remain about whether this decline is inevitable and whether it will continue apace. Regardless, Nigeria’s population growth will continue through at least 2050 due to simple population momentum. Other challenges are the persistent and vast fertility differentials; many groups remain above replacement fertility across various social and geographical sub-units of the country. Using data primarily from the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), as well as from 2003 and 2008 surveys, we document that many population subgroups and zones of the country are finally beginning to show signs of fertility convergence and decline. Nevertheless, some population subgroups still have higher fertility, especially: Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri women, women who live in the North West geopolitical zone, Muslim and traditionalist women, women who live in poor households, women who have lower levels of education, women who are opposed to family planning, women who marry early, and women who give birth early. In order for the projected decline in the TFR to continue, these subgroups must be highlighted, understood, and targeted with fertility- and poverty-reducing interventions. PMID:25684828

  2. Signaling pathway and molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Lau, Kin-Mang; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Although multimodality treatment regimens including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have greatly improved disease outcome, about one-third of MB patient remains incurable, and many long-term survivors are suffered from deleterious effects due to aggressive treatment. Understanding the signaling pathways and the genetic mechanisms contributed to MB development would be the key to develop novel therapeutic treatment strategies for improving survival and outcome of MB. In this review, we discuss the biological signaling pathways involved in MB pathogenesis. We also go through the current international consensus of four core MB subgroups namely, SHH, WNT, Group 3, and Group 4. This is adopted based on the knowledge of genomic complexity of MB as analyzed by recent high-throughput genomic technology. We talk about immunohistochemistry assays established to determine molecular subgroup affiliation. In the last part of review, we discuss how identification of molecular subgroups is going to change our routine disease diagnosis and clinical management. PMID:23826403

  3. MPACT Subgroup Self-Shielding Efficiency Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpson, Shane; Liu, Yuxuan; Collins, Benjamin S.; Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-08-31

    Recent developments to improve the efficiency of the MOC solvers in MPACT have yielded effective kernels that loop over several energy groups at once, rather that looping over one group at a time. These kernels have produced roughly a 2x speedup on the MOC sweeping time during eigenvalue calculation. However, the self-shielding subgroup calculation had not been reevaluated to take advantage of these new kernels, which typically requires substantial solve time. The improvements covered in this report start by integrating the multigroup kernel concepts into the subgroup calculation, which are then used as the basis for further extensions. The next improvement that is covered is what is currently being termed as “Lumped Parameter MOC”. Because the subgroup calculation is a purely fixed source problem and multiple sweeps are performed only to update the boundary angular fluxes, the sweep procedure can be condensed to allow for the instantaneous propagation of the flux across a spatial domain, without the need to sweep along all segments in a ray. Once the boundary angular fluxes are considered to be converged, an additional sweep that will tally the scalar flux is completed. The last improvement that is investigated is the possible reduction of the number of azimuthal angles per octant in the shielding sweep. Typically 16 azimuthal angles per octant are used for self-shielding and eigenvalue calculations, but it is possible that the self-shielding sweeps are less sensitive to the number of angles than the full eigenvalue calculation.

  4. Hispanic subgroup differences in prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, S L; Miller, M K

    1996-01-01

    Within SES categories in the United States, racial and ethnic minorities generally fare less well on a variety of health-related indicators than do majority groups. Important differences exist within subgroups, however, and at present, these differences are poorly understood. In this paper we address Hispanic subgroup (Cuban American, Mexican American. Puerto Rican, and Central/South American) differences in utilization of prenatal care. Data from the 1986 and 1987 national Linked Birth/Infant Death files are used to assess patterns of prenatal care utilization across subgroups. Using Kotelchuck's Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, we find that when controlling for other factors, Cuban American and Puerto Rican women are more likely to obtain adequate care than are Hispanic women of Mexican or Central/South American origin. Other factors important in understanding utilization patterns include marital status, education level, birthplace, and region of the country. We conclude with a discussion of the relatively weak link between prenatal care and birth outcomes and identify important cultural factors that may be important in understanding why this relationship is not stronger.

  5. Mining Health App Data to Find More and Less Successful Weight Loss Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Katrina J; Yu, Mandi; Coa, Kisha I; Collins, Linda M; Atienza, Audie A

    2016-06-14

    More than half of all smartphone app downloads involve weight, diet, and exercise. If successful, these lifestyle apps may have far-reaching effects for disease prevention and health cost-savings, but few researchers have analyzed data from these apps. The purposes of this study were to analyze data from a commercial health app (Lose It!) in order to identify successful weight loss subgroups via exploratory analyses and to verify the stability of the results. Cross-sectional, de-identified data from Lose It! were analyzed. This dataset (n=12,427,196) was randomly split into 24 subsamples, and this study used 3 subsamples (combined n=972,687). Classification and regression tree methods were used to explore groupings of weight loss with one subsample, with descriptive analyses to examine other group characteristics. Data mining validation methods were conducted with 2 additional subsamples. In subsample 1, 14.96% of users lost 5% or more of their starting body weight. Classification and regression tree analysis identified 3 distinct subgroups: "the occasional users" had the lowest proportion (4.87%) of individuals who successfully lost weight; "the basic users" had 37.61% weight loss success; and "the power users" achieved the highest percentage of weight loss success at 72.70%. Behavioral factors delineated the subgroups, though app-related behavioral characteristics further distinguished them. Results were replicated in further analyses with separate subsamples. This study demonstrates that distinct subgroups can be identified in "messy" commercial app data and the identified subgroups can be replicated in independent samples. Behavioral factors and use of custom app features characterized the subgroups. Targeting and tailoring information to particular subgroups could enhance weight loss success. Future studies should replicate data mining analyses to increase methodology rigor.

  6. Mining Health App Data to Find More and Less Successful Weight Loss Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background More than half of all smartphone app downloads involve weight, diet, and exercise. If successful, these lifestyle apps may have far-reaching effects for disease prevention and health cost-savings, but few researchers have analyzed data from these apps. Objective The purposes of this study were to analyze data from a commercial health app (Lose It!) in order to identify successful weight loss subgroups via exploratory analyses and to verify the stability of the results. Methods Cross-sectional, de-identified data from Lose It! were analyzed. This dataset (n=12,427,196) was randomly split into 24 subsamples, and this study used 3 subsamples (combined n=972,687). Classification and regression tree methods were used to explore groupings of weight loss with one subsample, with descriptive analyses to examine other group characteristics. Data mining validation methods were conducted with 2 additional subsamples. Results In subsample 1, 14.96% of users lost 5% or more of their starting body weight. Classification and regression tree analysis identified 3 distinct subgroups: “the occasional users” had the lowest proportion (4.87%) of individuals who successfully lost weight; “the basic users” had 37.61% weight loss success; and “the power users” achieved the highest percentage of weight loss success at 72.70%. Behavioral factors delineated the subgroups, though app-related behavioral characteristics further distinguished them. Results were replicated in further analyses with separate subsamples. Conclusions This study demonstrates that distinct subgroups can be identified in “messy” commercial app data and the identified subgroups can be replicated in independent samples. Behavioral factors and use of custom app features characterized the subgroups. Targeting and tailoring information to particular subgroups could enhance weight loss success. Future studies should replicate data mining analyses to increase methodology rigor. PMID:27301853

  7. Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a roundtable discussion carried out by scholars in the field of minority language broadcasting. Examines the context of minority language broadcasting, broadcasting and language policy and planning, and issues of language survival and success. (Author/VWL)

  8. NCLB Debate at the Sidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has been the subject of intense debate in school board meetings, state legislatures, and Washington policy circles. Everywhere, it seems, but the presidential campaign--the winner of which may have the most important voice in reshaping the federal role in K-12 education. In their education proposals, Democratic Senator…

  9. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  10. A debate on open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    This is a reproduction of Professor Stephen Hawking's part in a debate, which took place at the COSMO 98 Coference, in Monterey, California. Two other physicists, Andrei Linde and Alexander Villenkin, also took part. Professor Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, in England.

  11. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  12. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  13. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  14. NCLB Debate at the Sidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has been the subject of intense debate in school board meetings, state legislatures, and Washington policy circles. Everywhere, it seems, but the presidential campaign--the winner of which may have the most important voice in reshaping the federal role in K-12 education. In their education proposals, Democratic Senator…

  15. Using Debate in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasmari, Ali; Ahmed, Sayed Salahuddin

    2013-01-01

    The countries that use English as a foreign language need effective activities which propel students to practice skills of the language properly inside as well as outside classrooms. Debating is a practice that inspires learners to open their mouth, get into discussion, defend their own positions, place counter arguments and also conduct research…

  16. The Communication Paradigm in the Debate Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Dennis R.

    Over the last several years the increased speed of delivery in debate tournaments has made it difficult for judges to keep up with a debate during a round of competition. The responsibility for communication should be upon each debater to deliver his or her arguments, with intelligence, to the judge or critic. Debate is an oral communication…

  17. The Academic and Practical Values of Debating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.; Biggers, Thompson

    The educational benefits of debate suggest several reasons for funding debate programs on college campuses. First, debate training improves communication skills (analysis, delivery, and organization) and helps students in other communication situations. Second, debate promotes depth of educational experience by exposing students to important…

  18. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  19. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.)…

  20. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.)…

  1. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  2. Subgrouping of A and AB blood groups in Indian blood centres: is it required?

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ranjita; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    Anti A1 antibody in the serum of A2 and A2B individuals is rare but when present can have laboratory and clinical significance. Routine subgrouping of all A and AB blood groups in blood centres in India is difficult due to economic constraints and has always been a point of debate. This study thus brings out the prevalence of anti A1 antibody and the clinical significance related to its presence. The results of the study showed a low prevalence of anti A1 antibody and when present, it had a low thermal amplitude and titre. Further, no blood group discrepancy or problems during compatibility testing were encountered with these (A1 antibody positive) blood units. Thus, it may be concluded that in India and other developing countries where resources are scarce, routine subgrouping of A and AB may not be really worthwhile unless there is a group discrepancy, problem during compatibility testing or history of a transfusion reaction.

  3. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  4. Language Policy, In-Migration and Discursive Debates in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on theory from critical language policy literature, this article explores the impact of discourses on in-migration on Welsh language policy. By focussing on discursive debates surrounding the subject of in-migration, the article analyses how a range of actors produce and reproduce discourses on in-migration in Wales and how these…

  5. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  6. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  7. Fibromyalgia subgroups: profiling distinct subgroups using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Juliana Barcellos; Goffaux, Philippe; Julien, Nancy; Potvin, Stephane; Charest, Jacques; Marchand, Serge

    2009-03-01

    The main goal of this project was to identify the presence of fibromyalgia (FM) subgroups using a simple and frequently used clinical tool, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A total of 61 women diagnosed with FM participated in this study. FM subgroups were created by applying a hierarchical cluster analysis on selected items of the FIQ (pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depressive symptoms). We also tested for group differences on experimental pain, psychosocial functioning and demographic characteristics. Two cluster profiles best fit our data. FM-Type I was characterized by the lowest levels of anxiety, depressive and morning tiredness symptoms, while FM-Type II was characterized by elevated levels of pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Both FM subgroups showed hyperalgesic responses to experimental pain. These results suggest that pain and stiffness are universal symptoms of the disorder but that psychological distress is a feature present only in some patients.

  8. Myasthenia gravis: subgroup classification and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Gilhus, Nils Erik; Verschuuren, Jan J

    2015-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by muscle weakness and fatigue, is B-cell mediated, and is associated with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase (MUSK), lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), or agrin in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Patients with myasthenia gravis should be classified into subgroups to help with therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Subgroups based on serum antibodies and clinical features include early-onset, late-onset, thymoma, MUSK, LRP4, antibody-negative, and ocular forms of myasthenia gravis. Agrin-associated myasthenia gravis might emerge as a new entity. The prognosis is good with optimum symptomatic, immunosuppressive, and supportive treatment. Pyridostigmine is the preferred symptomatic treatment, and for patients who do not adequately respond to symptomatic therapy, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and thymectomy are first-line immunosuppressive treatments. Additional immunomodulatory drugs are emerging, but therapeutic decisions are hampered by the scarcity of controlled studies. Long-term drug treatment is essential for most patients and must be tailored to the particular form of myasthenia gravis.

  9. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

  10. Teaching the Mantle Plumes Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether or not mantle plumes exist. This debate has highlighted a number of issues regarding how Earth science is currently practised, and how this feeds into approaches toward teaching students. The plume model is an hypothesis, not a proven fact. And yet many researchers assume a priori that plumes exist. This assumption feeds into teaching. That the plume model is unproven, and that many practising researchers are skeptical, may be at best only mentioned in passing to students, with most teachers assuming that plumes are proven to exist. There is typically little emphasis, in particular in undergraduate teaching, that the origin of melting anomalies is currently uncertain and that scientists do not know all the answers. Little encouragement is given to students to become involved in the debate and to consider the pros and cons for themselves. Typically teachers take the approach that “an answer” (or even “the answer”) must be taught to students. Such a pedagogic approach misses an excellent opportunity to allow students to participate in an important ongoing debate in Earth sciences. It also misses the opportunity to illustrate to students several critical aspects regarding correct application of the scientific method. The scientific method involves attempting to disprove hypotheses, not to prove them. A priori assumptions should be kept uppermost in mind and reconsidered at all stages. Multiple working hypotheses should be entertained. The predictions of a hypothesis should be tested, and unpredicted observations taken as weakening the original hypothesis. Hypotheses should not be endlessly adapted to fit unexpected observations. The difficulty with pedagogic treatment of the mantle plumes debate highlights a general uncertainty about how to teach issues in Earth science that are not yet resolved with certainty. It also represents a missed opportunity to let students experience how scientific theories evolve, warts

  11. Novel molecular subgroups for clinical classification and outcome prediction in childhood medulloblastoma: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Edward C; Lindsey, Janet C; Nakjang, Sirintra; Crosier, Stephen; Smith, Amanda J; Hicks, Debbie; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Hill, Rebecca M; Iliasova, Alice; Stone, Thomas; Pizer, Barry; Michalski, Antony; Joshi, Abhijit; Wharton, Stephen B; Jacques, Thomas S; Bailey, Simon; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C

    2017-07-01

    International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristic genome-wide transcriptomic and DNA methylomic profiles. These subgroups have distinct clinicopathological and molecular features, and underpin current disease subclassification and initial subgroup-directed therapies that are underway in clinical trials. However, substantial biological heterogeneity and differences in survival are apparent within each subgroup, which remain to be resolved. We aimed to investigate whether additional molecular subgroups exist within childhood medulloblastoma and whether these could be used to improve disease subclassification and prognosis predictions. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed 428 primary medulloblastoma samples collected from UK Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) treatment centres (UK), collaborating European institutions, and the UKCCSG-SIOP-PNET3 European clinical trial. An independent validation cohort (n=276) of archival tumour samples was also analysed. We analysed samples from patients with childhood medulloblastoma who were aged 0-16 years at diagnosis, and had central review of pathology and comprehensive clinical data. We did comprehensive molecular profiling, including DNA methylation microarray analysis, and did unsupervised class discovery of test and validation cohorts to identify consensus primary molecular subgroups and characterise their clinical and biological significance. We modelled survival of patients aged 3-16 years in patients (n=215) who had craniospinal irradiation and had been treated with a curative intent. Seven robust and reproducible primary molecular subgroups of childhood medulloblastoma were identified. MBWNT remained unchanged and each remaining consensus subgroup was split in two. MBSHH was split into age-dependent subgroups corresponding to infant (<4·3 years; MBSHH-Infant; n=65) and

  12. Subgroup Norming: Legitimate Testing Practice or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dianne C.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces controversial issue of subgroup norming, in which normative reference data are based on subgroups of population rather than on total group, in employment testing and briefly highlights two articles that address this issue. Controversy over subgroup norming has increased with passage of Civil Rights Act of 1991, which bans any form of…

  13. Standardization for subgroup analysis in randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Ravi; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) emphasize the average or overall effect of a treatment (ATE) on the primary endpoint. Even though the ATE provides the best summary of treatment efficacy, it is of critical importance to know whether the treatment is similarly efficacious in important, predefined subgroups. This is why the RCTs, in addition to the ATE, also present the results of subgroup analysis for preestablished subgroups. Typically, these are marginal subgroup analysis in the sense that treatment effects are estimated in mutually exclusive subgroups defined by only one baseline characteristic at a time (e.g., men versus women, young versus old). Forest plot is a popular graphical approach for displaying the results of subgroup analysis. These plots were originally used in meta-analysis for displaying the treatment effects from independent studies. Treatment effect estimates of different marginal subgroups are, however, not independent. Correlation between the subgrouping variables should be addressed for proper interpretation of forest plots, especially in large effectiveness trials where one of the goals is to address concerns about the generalizability of findings to various populations. Failure to account for the correlation between the subgrouping variables can result in misleading (confounded) interpretations of subgroup effects. Here we present an approach called standardization, a commonly used technique in epidemiology, that allows for valid comparison of subgroup effects depicted in a forest plot. We present simulations results and a subgroup analysis from parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomized trials of antibiotics for acute otitis media.

  14. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Conference Call. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and... Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host...

  15. Gene expression profiling identifies distinct molecular subgroups of leiomyosarcoma with clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yin-Fai; Roe, Toby; Mangham, D Chas; Fisher, Cyril; Grimer, Robert J; Judson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soft tissue sarcomas are heterogeneous and a major complication in their management is that the existing classification scheme is not definitive and is still evolving. Leiomyosarcomas, a major histologic category of soft tissue sarcomas, are malignant tumours displaying smooth muscle differentiation. Although defined as a single group, they exhibit a wide range of clinical behaviour. We aimed to carry out molecular classification to identify new molecular subgroups with clinical relevance. Methods: We used gene expression profiling on 20 extra-uterine leiomyosarcomas and cross-study analyses for molecular classification of leiomyosarcomas. Clinical significance of the subgroupings was investigated. Results: We have identified two distinct molecular subgroups of leiomyosarcomas. One group was characterised by high expression of 26 genes that included many genes from the sub-classification gene cluster proposed by Nielsen et al. These sub-classification genes include genes that have importance structurally, as well as in cell signalling. Notably, we found a statistically significant association of the subgroupings with tumour grade. Further refinement led to a group of 15 genes that could recapitulate the tumour subgroupings in our data set and in a second independent sarcoma set. Remarkably, cross-study analyses suggested that these molecular subgroups could be found in four independent data sets, providing strong support for their existence. Conclusions: Our study strongly supported the existence of distinct leiomyosarcoma molecular subgroups, which have clinical association with tumour grade. Our findings will aid in advancing the classification of leiomyosarcomas and lead to more individualised and better management of the disease. PMID:27607470

  16. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  17. High School Graduation Rates across English Learner Student Subgroups in Arizona. REL 2017-205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Min; Haas, Eric; Zhu, Niufeng; Tran, Loan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have documented differences in academic achievement between current and former English learner students. These differences validate calls for more focused analyses of achievement across English learner student subgroups. Specifically, there is interest in examining variation in academic success based on the amount of time a student…

  18. Commognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Mathematics Students' Responses in Proving Subgroup's Non-Emptiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Proving that a given set is indeed a subgroup, one needs to show that it is non-empty, and closed under operation and inverses. This study focuses on the first condition, analysing students' responses to this task. Results suggest that there are three distinct problematic responses: the total absence of proving this condition, the problematic…

  19. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  20. On Not Using Intrinsic Justification in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill; Leeman, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Questions the theoretical justification for the standard of intrinsic justification. Challenges the applicability of phenomenological constructs to academic debate, demonstrates that "essences" cannot be readily located in debate resolutions, and illustrates that proponents of intrinsic justification have not adequately operationalized…

  1. The heated debate. [Global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

  2. Competitive bidding debate goes national

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1987-10-01

    Several states have either adopted or are considering proposal for competitive bidding among prospective cogenerators wishing to supply electric power to a utility. A survey of independent power producers found that an early issue to emerge was whether utilities, themselves, would have to compete for the right to expand. Another issue is access to transmission services. Arguments that this was not the intent of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act forget that diversifying energy sources was a major goal. Congress will continue hearings on the debate this fall on several issues.

  3. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  4. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  5. The Importance of High School Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important educational objectives of high school is to teach critical-thinking skills, and no class does this better than strategic debate. Professor Mike Allen, lead author in a definitive study on debate and critical thinking, lauded debate's promotion of critical-thinking skills. Additionally, researcher Joe Bellon discusses the…

  6. The Power of In-Class Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  7. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  8. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  9. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  10. Technological Imperatives: Using Computers in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticku, Ravinder; Phelps, Greg

    Intended for forensic educators and debate teams, this document details how one university debate team, at the University of Iowa, makes use of computer resources on campus to facilitate storage and retrieval of information useful to debaters. The introduction notes the problem of storing and retrieving the amount of information required by debate…

  11. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  12. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  13. [The debate over drug legalization].

    PubMed

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  14. [The climate debate: the facts].

    PubMed

    van den Broeke, Michiel R

    2009-01-01

    The first report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) appeared almost 20 years ago. Environmental contamination has a negative effect on the environment in which we live. However, the public at large is confused about the ins and outs of climate change. Managers, politicians, various kinds of advisors, scientists, so-called experts, sceptics and journalists have all taken it upon themselves to lead the debate. Whose task is it to ensure a sound discussion? Surely it is the IPCC's task. However, most politicians and many journalists, and even many scientists, do not take the trouble to read the entire IPCC report or parts of it. As a consequence, much nonsense is published and broadcast. An effective procedure to deal with the climate problem starts with a fair discussion of the scientific evidence. My advice is: just read the free IPCC report: http://www.ipcc.ch/ and click on 'WG I The Physical Science Basis'.

  15. Levinas and the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Nuyen, A T

    2000-01-01

    The philosophers' tendency to characterize euthanasia in terms of either the right or the responsibility to die is, in some ways, problematic. Stepping outside of the analytic framework, the author draws out the implications of the ethics of Emmanuel Levinas for the euthanasia debate, tracing the ways Levinas' position differs not only from the philosophical consensus but also from the theological one. The article shows that, according to Levinas, there is no ethical case for suicide or assisted suicide. Death cannot be assumed or chosen--not only because suicide is a logically and metaphysically contradictory concept but also because in the choice of death ethical responsibility turns into irresponsibility. However, since Levinas holds that one must be responsible to the point of expiation, he can be said to approve certain actions that may have the consequence of hastening death.

  16. Fetal pain: an infantile debate.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, S W G

    2001-02-01

    The question of whether a fetus can experience pain is an immense challenge. The issue demands consideration of the physical and psychological basis of being and the relation between the two. At the center of this debate is the question of how it is that we are conscious, a question that has inspired the writing of some of our most brilliant contemporary philosophers and scientists, with one commentary suggesting surrender. In my earlier review I attempted to draw together the various strands of thinking that had attacked the question of fetal pain and relate them back to the bigger question of consciousness. In their vituperative response, Benatar and Benatar bite off my finger before looking to where I am pointing. I will examine each of their criticisms.

  17. Clinical Subgroups in Bilateral Meniere Disease.

    PubMed

    Frejo, Lidia; Soto-Varela, Andres; Santos-Perez, Sofía; Aran, Ismael; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Perez-Guillen, Vanesa; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Fraile, Jesus; Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Tapia, Maria C; Trinidad, Gabriel; García-Arumi, Ana María; González-Aguado, Rocío; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M; Marques, Pedro; Perez, Paz; Benitez, Jesus; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Meniere disease (MD) is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms, and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities, such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD). The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5 to 50%, and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD (BMD) to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential different etiology to improve the phenotyping of BMD and to develop new treatments. We have defined five clinical variants in BMD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 46% of patients, and is defined by metachronic hearing loss without migraine and without AD. Group 2 is found in 17% of patients, and it is defined by synchronic hearing loss without migraine or AD. Group 3, with 13% of patients, is characterized by familial MD, while group 4, that includes 12% of patients, is associated by the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by AD. This approach can be helpful in selecting patients for genetic and clinical research. However, further studies will be required to improve the phenotyping in these clinical variants for a better understanding of the diverse etiological factors contributing to BMD.

  18. Clinical Subgroups in Bilateral Meniere Disease

    PubMed Central

    Frejo, Lidia; Soto-Varela, Andres; Santos-Perez, Sofía; Aran, Ismael; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Perez-Guillen, Vanesa; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Fraile, Jesus; Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Tapia, Maria C.; Trinidad, Gabriel; García-Arumi, Ana María; González-Aguado, Rocío; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M.; Marques, Pedro; Perez, Paz; Benitez, Jesus; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Meniere disease (MD) is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms, and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities, such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD). The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5 to 50%, and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD (BMD) to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential different etiology to improve the phenotyping of BMD and to develop new treatments. We have defined five clinical variants in BMD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 46% of patients, and is defined by metachronic hearing loss without migraine and without AD. Group 2 is found in 17% of patients, and it is defined by synchronic hearing loss without migraine or AD. Group 3, with 13% of patients, is characterized by familial MD, while group 4, that includes 12% of patients, is associated by the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by AD. This approach can be helpful in selecting patients for genetic and clinical research. However, further studies will be required to improve the phenotyping in these clinical variants for a better understanding of the diverse etiological factors contributing to BMD. PMID:27822199

  19. Environmental ozone effects in different population subgroups.

    PubMed

    Höppe, Peter; Peters, Annette; Rabe, Gerlinde; Praml, Georg; Lindner, Jutta; Jakobi, Gert; Fruhmann, Günter; Nowak, Dennis

    2003-10-01

    The study objective was to get more information on characteristics of ozone risk groups. We performed repeated (on average 16 times) lung function tests and interviews with 171 persons belonging to four different population subgroups (44 healthy children, 43 juvenile asthmatics, 43 athletes, and 41 elderly). The environmental half hour mean ozone concentrations ranged from 8 to 99 ppb. For two groups there was significant NO2 co-pollution. The asthmatics showed statistically significant ozone related increased ORs for eye irritations, the elderly for nose irritations. Significant lung function decrements (increase in ozone by 50 ppb) were found for asthmatics (FVC -4.3% afternoon one day lag, -4.9% afternoon two day lag, -3.6% morning one day lag) and children (FVC -3.2% same morning, PEF -11.9% same morning, PEF -4.6% morning one day lag). In the group of elderly, however, there were also some significant FVC and PEF increments. Ozone responders were found more often in the groups of asthmatics and children (21% resp. 18%) compared with elderly and athletes (both 5%). The results suggest that children and asthmatics have a higher risk of being ozone sensitive showing more ozone related acute lung function decrements than other population groups.

  20. [The parliamentary debate on immigration and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Describing and analysing the Spanish Parliamentary debate on immigration and health. A systematic search regarding parliamentary initiatives (PI) on immigration and immigration and health was conducted from the beginning of the Spanish democratic period (1979 to 2007). A protocol for collecting information was used to identify the parliamentary debate's main characteristics and the main topics related to PI concerning immigration and health. The PI immigration rate was calculated regarding the total rate of PI about the immigrant population based on the Spanish population per year. 4,022 PI concerning "immigration" were identified. The main content concerned statistical information about the immigrant population (57.2 %). 116 PI about "immigration and health" were analysed. The most frequently recurring topics were health-care strategies (25 %), health-service access (24.1 %) and epidemiological information (19.8 %). Most PI concerned questions related to the function of government control (94 %). No decisions were taken in 113 PI (97.4 %). Immigrant population rates increased per year; however, notable changes in PI regarding immigration were not observed until 1996 and PI about immigration and health until 1999. The immigration and health debate on the parliamentary agenda is heterogeneous. It would seem necessary to increase parliamentary debate about strategies and action for promoting immigrant-based needs in health.

  1. Global epigenetic profiling identifies methylation subgroups associated with recurrence-free survival in meningioma.

    PubMed

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Wilson, Charmaine D; Zadeh, Gelareh; DeMonte, Franco; Jones, David T W; Pfister, Stefan M; Sulman, Erik P; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2017-03-01

    Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor and carries a substantial risk of local recurrence. Methylation profiles of meningioma and their clinical implications are not well understood. We hypothesized that aggressive meningiomas have unique DNA methylation patterns that could be used to better stratify patient management. Samples (n = 140) were profiled using the Illumina HumanMethylation450BeadChip. Unsupervised modeling on a training set (n = 89) identified 2 molecular methylation subgroups of meningioma (MM) with significantly different recurrence-free survival (RFS) times between the groups: a prognostically unfavorable subgroup (MM-UNFAV) and a prognostically favorable subgroup (MM-FAV). This finding was validated in the remaining 51 samples and led to a baseline meningioma methylation classifier (bMMC) defined by 283 CpG loci (283-bMMC). To further optimize a recurrence predictor, probes subsumed within the baseline classifier were subject to additional modeling using a similar training/validation approach, leading to a 64-CpG loci meningioma methylation predictor (64-MMP). After adjustment for relevant clinical variables [WHO grade, mitotic index, Simpson grade, sex, location, and copy number aberrations (CNAs)] multivariable analyses for RFS showed that the baseline methylation classifier was not significant (p = 0.0793). The methylation predictor, however, was significantly associated with tumor recurrence (p < 0.0001). CNAs were extracted from the 450k intensity profiles. Tumor samples in the MM-UNFAV subgroup showed an overall higher proportion of CNAs compared to the MM-FAV subgroup tumors and the CNAs were complex in nature. CNAs in the MM-UNFAV subgroup included recurrent losses of 1p, 6q, 14q and 18q, and gain of 1q, all of which were previously identified as indicators of poor outcome. In conclusion, our analyses demonstrate robust DNA methylation signatures in meningioma that correlate with CNAs and stratify patients by recurrence

  2. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project, a socio-political debate was designed for assessing student competences of scientific literacy in classroom practices. The debate centred on a fictive case about a lake where a decline in the yield of fish had been established. The students were assigned the task of participating in the debate from appointed roles as different stakeholders. Data were collected with video recordings of the enacted student debates. Student participation was analysed with the theoretical framework of communities of practice. The results show that multiple conflicting purposes of the socio-political debate as an assessment task emerged. The emergent purposes were (1) putting scientific knowledge on display versus staying true to one's role, (2) putting scientific knowledge on display versus expressing social responsibility, (3) putting scientific knowledge on display versus winning the debate, and (4) using sources tactically versus using sources critically. As these purposes emerged in classroom practice, tensions between different ways of enacting participation in the debates became manifest. Based on these findings, this article discusses the affordances and constraints for using a socio-political debate for classroom-based assessment of scientific literacy and argumentation in terms of validity, reliability and affordability.

  3. Report of the Production and Delivery Subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R; Zalesky, R

    2004-11-01

    The Production and Delivery Subgroup was tasked with evaluating the various options that could be used for hydrogen production and delivery in terms of availability/industry readiness, technical and economic barriers, and environmental considerations. Hydrogen can be produced using a variety of feedstocks and conversion technologies. The feedstock options include water, natural gas, coal, petroleum, methanol, ethanol, biomass, and organic waste streams. Ultimately, using these domestic resources we will be able to produce all the hydrogen we will need for the complete conversion of our transportation infrastructure. The various conversion technologies include electrolysis, reforming (principally of natural gas, but also ethanol and methanol), photobiological and photoelectrochemical, biofermentation, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and coal, high temperature thermochemical, and catalytic membranes. All of these production technologies are being actively researched by DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT); and other offices within DOE support work that complements the HFCIT Program activities. In addition, private industry is also dedicating significant resources to these efforts. In establishing the California Hydrogen Highway Network (CA H2 Net) we must utilize both distributed (that is, hydrogen that is produced at the point of use) as well as centralized production of hydrogen. Because of technical and economic barriers, most of the technologies for hydrogen production listed above will not become practical for either mode of hydrogen production in large quantities until at least the 2015-2030 timeframe. In the near term, that is, the transitional period between now and 2010 when we will establish a widely available hydrogen fueling infrastructure in California, the distributed production options of reforming and electrolysis will play the dominant role. In addition, production of hydrogen at centralized plants using

  4. The population debate heats up.

    PubMed

    Malay, R L

    1994-01-01

    60% of the 65 million people in the Philippines have lived below the poverty line amid overall negative GNP growth for almost a decade. The population is growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. These conditions suggest the urgent need to reduce population growth and take measures to improve the performance of the economy. The big debate in the Philippines regarding population and development, however, is not over the redistribution of resources, but about the morality of managing population growth through the promotion of artificial means of contraception. Roman Catholicism predominates among religions in the Philippines. The Catholic Church in the Philippines, as elsewhere around the world, alleges that artificial contraceptives are abortifacient and that only natural methods should be promoted. Although Health Secretary Dr. Juan M. Flavier, a staunch supporter of family planning, points out that the church and state both abhor abortion, accept natural family planning, and would like to offer a better quality of life to the people, it is clear that the government does not agree with the Church's endorsement of only natural family planning methods. Surveys have found that most Filipinos agree with the government; they are in favor of family planning and feel that the Church should stay out of the debate. A people-centered approach to development and concern for the environment are called for to improve the Filipino quality of life. At the global level, the Vatican has allies among believers of Islam in its position against abortion and in favor of a traditional concept of the family. Despite wrangling at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) over a woman's right to abortion and other contentious issues, such as the objection among Southern states to the ICPD committee's exclusion of the right to family reunification, the ICPD was a success because it gave prime importance to the link between population and sustainable development. The ICPD

  5. Defense Economics Conference (2004). Military Compensation: Informing the Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-09

    the Debate 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute for Defense Analyses 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, VA 22311-1882 8. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  6. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    PubMed

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  7. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Limit measures for affine cellular automata on topological Markov subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Alejandro; Martínez, Servet; Sobottka, Marcelo

    2006-09-01

    Consider a topological Markov subgroup which is ps-torsion (with p prime) and an affine cellular automaton defined on it. We show that the Cesàro mean of the iterates, by the automaton of a probability measure with complete connections and summable memory decay that is compatible with the topological Markov subgroup, converges to the Haar measure.

  9. Nomenclature of human rotaviruses: designation of subgroups and serotypes*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Based on the specificity of subgroup antigens and serotype antigens which are situated, respectively, in the major inner and outer capsid polypeptides, a new nomenclature for human rotaviruses is proposed. The subgroups are designated as I and II, and the serotypes as 1, 2, 3, 4. PMID:6088101

  10. Online Catalog Documentation Task Force: Onscreen Documentation Subgroup. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John; And Others

    This report describes the work of the Onscreen Documentation Subgroup in revising screens for GALIN, the University of Georgia (UGA) Libraries new online system. The responsibilities of the Subgroup were to revise screens from the previous online catalog and to create basic help screens, primarily for the command searching mode. Responsibilities…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Hampshire, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in New Hampshire for 2010. New Hampshire's demographic profile is such that, with the exception of Latino students at the elementary level, there are fewer than 500 students in the racial/ethnic subgroups at the various grade levels, and therefore these groups are too small to…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in South Dakota for 2010. South Dakota's demographic profile is such that, with the exception of Native American students, there are fewer than 500 students in the racial/ethnic subgroups at the various grade levels, and therefore these groups are too small to count for this…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The District's demographics are such that achievement trends could only be determined for African American, male and female, and low income subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington, DC students showed gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels…

  14. A Systematic Approach to Subgroup Classification in Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a systematic approach to subgroup classification based on a classification framework and sequential steps involved in the subgrouping process. The sequential steps are stating the purpose of the classification, identifying the classification elements, using relevant information, and using clearly stated and purposeful…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  16. A Systematic Approach to Subgroup Classification in Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a systematic approach to subgroup classification based on a classification framework and sequential steps involved in the subgrouping process. The sequential steps are stating the purpose of the classification, identifying the classification elements, using relevant information, and using clearly stated and purposeful…

  17. Response of the rabbit VH subgroups a and y following antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Laster, S M; Roux, K H

    1983-01-01

    In order to test the relative immune competence of a minor VH subgroup (y), the concentrations of rabbit Ig bearing the VH subgroups a and y were determined in experimentally immunized rabbits. Three groups of three rabbits each were immunized with either Micrococcus luteus, bovine serum albumin or an alloantigenic determinant (b4) of the rabbit kappa light chain. The ratios of VHy to VHa Ig in the pre-immune sera ranged from 1:8 to 1:283. In five of the nine rabbits, the VHy to VHa ratios in affinity purified antibody (Ab) closely reflected the ratios of VHy to VHa in pre-immune serum. Of the remaining four rabbits, three produced disproportionately low amounts of VHy Ab, when compared to pre-immune values, while one rabbit produced virtually no VHy Ab. Regardless of the levels of VHy and VHa Ab detected, the kinetics of Ab production by each subgroup during the course of the immune response were similar to each other. When total serum levels of the subgroups were analysed, all rabbits displayed increases (6-450%) in total serum levels of both VHa Ig and total IgG following immunization, while in eight out of nine rabbits the level of VHy Ig remained unchanged. Our observations suggest that the immune repertoire of the minor VHy subgroup is sufficiently diverse to generate VH regions which react with a variety of antigens, and in five out of nine rabbits, VHy Ab-producing clones compete well with VHa Ab-producing clones. In addition, it appears that clones of the major and minor VH subgroups, once triggered, are under similar regulatory controls with respect to specific Ab, but differ with respect to non-specific Ig production. PMID:6406361

  18. E8 generators as bilinear fermions and its maximal subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koca, Mehmet

    1981-11-01

    E8 algebra constructed as bilinear fermions in the bases of SU(9) and [SU(3)]4 is used to obtain the generators in the bases of the maximal subgroups SO(16), E7×SU(2), and SU(5)×SU(5). The representation of the generators in the Tits subgroup F4×G2 is also obtained using the [SU(3)]4 basis. Simple methods are developed to go from one basis to the other bases. Generators of the exceptional subgroups E7, E6, and F4 are decomposed with respect to their respective Tits subgroups SP(6)×G2, SU(3)×G2, and SO(3)×G2. The possible roles of these subgroups in the symmetry breaking of E8 are merely indicated.

  19. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  20. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  1. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  2. The United States: A Persistent Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Scotter, Richard; Hartoonian, H. Michael; White, William E.; Davis, James E.

    2007-01-01

    American democratic society is sustained through debate among its citizens. Four sets of value tensions--(1) law versus ethics, (2) private wealth versus common wealth, (3) freedom versus equality, and (4) unity versus diversity--are central in allowing citizens to address matters of public interest through debate. These value pairs are the…

  3. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  4. The Debate Judge as Educator [and] Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Leslie; And Others

    The purpose of the three papers that make up this document is to explore and redefine the role of debate judges. The first paper, by Leslie Phillips, begins with the assertion that the debate judge is first and foremost an educator, notes that judging is one of the forces that shape and direct competitive forensics, and goes on to consider…

  5. A Stock Approach to Value Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.

    Existing theories of value debating (resolutions dealing with values rather than policy) may be more effectively applied and developed when viewed as stock issues paradigms for debating values in competitive situations. Issues are vital to an advocate's cause because they are essential to the meaning of a proposition and can also provide an…

  6. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  7. A Taxonomy of CEDA Debate Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Day, Donald L.

    To develop a taxonomy of Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) critics, a study associated professed judging philosophy and responses to survey questions with ballot behavior and elaborated judging profiles. Subjects were debate critics who judged rounds at CEDA tournaments in the Northeast during the Spring 1989 season. In all, 13 critics…

  8. Colleges Call Debate Contests out of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Competitive debate has traditionally served as a laboratory for the democratic process and an important training ground for future policy makers. In recent years, a growing number of teams have played the game out of traditional bounds. They have turned events into commentaries on debate itself, in performances that bear little resemblance to the…

  9. Using Debates to Teach Information Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham

    2011-01-01

    This experience report details the use of debates in a course on Information Ethics. Formal debates have been used in academia for centuries and create an environment in which students must think critically, communicate well and, above all, synthesize and evaluate the relevant classroom material. They also provide a break from the standard…

  10. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate...

  11. Industry Interests in the HDTV Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Suzanne Chambliss

    This analysis of the pattern of industrial interests in the current debate over high definition television systems argues that the debate involves more than just television; rather, it is an expression of a shift in the conceptualization of the nature of standards, one which conceives of standards as guidelines for the development of specific…

  12. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  13. Debating Our Way toward Stronger Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Teachers often find it challenging to incorporate higher order thinking skills in ways that both inspire student interest and allow for meaningful differentiation. Structured debate is an activity that can facilitate all of these goals. This article explains, in detail, how debates can be structured to promote a variety of critical thinking skills…

  14. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  15. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  16. Network Approach to Autistic Traits: Group and Subgroup Analyses of ADOS Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, George M.; Montazeri, Farhad; de Bildt, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    A network conceptualization might contribute to understanding the occurrence and interacting nature of behavioral traits in the autism realm. Networks were constructed based on correlations of item scores of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule for Modules 1, 2 and 3 obtained for a group of 477 Dutch individuals with developmental disorders.…

  17. Political Debates and Their Application to the Teaching of Lincoln-Douglas Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.

    Designed for teachers of the Lincoln-Douglas style debate, this curriculum guide outlines an approach to teaching analysis in debate, and suggests practical activities employing contemporary political debates as an instructional device. The guide first presents a framework for values analysis, including such aspects as (1) identifying the nature…

  18. The American Debate Association: An Evaluation of Rules for Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Frank

    Many of the American Debate Association (ADA) rules merely codify conventions which are almost universally practiced in ADA tournaments. Among them are such standards as who is eligible to debate and judge, what shall be debated and for how long, and restrictions on ballot submissions. Other rules come under the general heading of "which…

  19. The Commission on Presidential Debates: A New Approach to Political Debates or Just a New Sponsor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.

    To grasp what happened to the institutionalization of presidential debates in 1988 it will be useful to ask what is the future of party sponsorship of presidential debates. Given that sponsorship has been an issue discussed after every debate since 1960, either from a legal perspective (i.e. who can sponsor and remain in compliance with Federal…

  20. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  1. Subgroup differences in psychosocial factors relating to coronary heart disease in the UK South Asian population☆

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily D.; Nazroo, James Y.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To explore the differences in psychosocial risk factors related to coronary heart disease (CHD) between South Asian subgroups in the UK. South Asian people suffer significantly higher rates of CHD than other ethnic groups, but vulnerability varies between South Asian subgroups, in terms of both CHD rates and risk profiles. Psychosocial factors may contribute to the excess CHD propensity that is observed; however, subgroup heterogeneity in psychosocial disadvantage has not previously been systematically explored. Methods With a cross-sectional design, 1065 healthy South Asian and 818 white men and women from West London, UK, completed psychosocial questionnaires. Psychosocial profiles were compared between South Asian religious groups and the white sample, using analyses of covariance and post hoc tests. Results Of the South Asian sample, 50.5% was Sikh, 28.0% was Hindu, and 15.8% was Muslim. Muslim participants were more socioeconomically deprived and experienced higher levels of chronic stress, including financial strain, low social cohesion, and racial discrimination, compared with other South Asian religious groups. In terms of health behaviors, Muslim men smoked more than Sikhs and Hindus, and Muslims also reported lower alcohol consumption and were less physically active than other groups. Conclusion This study found that Muslims were exposed to more psychosocial and behavioral adversity than Sikhs and Hindus, and highlights the importance of investigating subgroup heterogeneity in South Asian CHD risk. PMID:20846539

  2. Patterns of Alcohol Use and Consequences Among Empirically Derived Sexual Minority Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Steinley, Douglas; Wood, Phillip K.; Littlefield, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study develops an empirically determined classification of sexual orientation developmental patterns based on participants’ annual reports of self-identifications, sexual attractions, and sexual behaviors during the first 4 years of college. A secondary aim of the current work was to examine trajectories of alcohol involvement among identified subgroups. Method: Data were drawn from a subsample of a longitudinal study of incoming first-time college students at a large, public university (n = 2,068). Longitudinal latent class analysis was used to classify sexual minority participants into empirically derived subgroups based on three self-reported facets of sexual orientation. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses were conducted to examine how trajectories of alcohol involvement varied by sexual orientation class membership. Results: Four unique subclasses of sexual orientation developmental patterns were identified for males and females: one consistently exclusively heterosexual group and three sexual minority groups. Despite generally similar alcohol use patterns among subclasses, certain sexual minority subgroups reported elevated levels of alcohol-related negative consequences and maladaptive motivations for use throughout college compared with their exclusively heterosexual counterparts. Conclusions: Elevations in coping and conformity motivations for alcohol use were seen among those subgroups that also evidenced heightened negative alcohol-related consequences. Implications and limitations of the current work are discussed. PMID:22333337

  3. Subclassification of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder: a questionnaire based on Wing's subgrouping scheme.

    PubMed

    Castelloe, P; Dawson, G

    1993-06-01

    A questionnaire (the Wing Subgroups Questionnaire, or WSQ) for subclassifying children with autism into one of Wing's three hypothesized subgroups was developed, and the validity of this measure was assessed. Forty parents of children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that the questionnaire has adequate external criterion-referenced validity with similar subgroup ratings made by clinicians, and good internal consistency. Furthermore, results revealed three distinct and separate subgroups corresponding to Wing's subclassification scheme. Other analyses suggested that Wing assignment based on the WSQ was independent of chronological age and age equivalents for social and daily living skills, but not independent of diagnosis of autism vs. PDDNOS, IQ, severity of autism, sex, receptive language mental age, and age equivalents for communication skills. Finally, a discriminant analysis indicated that, of all the dependent variables examined in the present study, the clinicians' Wing assignment was the best predictor of Wing assignment based on the parent-completed WSQ. These findings provide support for Wing's classification system, and suggest that the WSQ is a valid and useful tool for subclassifying individuals with autism.

  4. JOB ANALYSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, HAROLD E.

    THE JOB ANALYSES WERE COMPOSED FROM ACTIVITY RECORDS KEPT BY EACH PROFESSIONAL EXTENSION WORKER IN KANSAS. JOB ANALYSES ARE GIVEN FOR THE ADMINISTRATION (DIRECTOR, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, SATE LEADERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS), EXTENSION SPECIALISTS, DISTRICT AGENTS, AND COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS. DISCUSSION OF…

  5. Subgroups Satisfying AN Identity in a Class of Abstract Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishin, Yu V.

    1992-02-01

    A description is obtained of the subgroups of groups acting on a tree that do not contain nonabelian free subgroups; it is a new interpretation of a result of Bass. The author considers the class \\mathscr{G} consisting of all groups constructive from cyclic groups using amalgamated free products and HNN-extensions, with certain restrictions. A description is obtained of all the subgroups of groups in \\mathscr{G} that satisfy identities, and it is shown that the groups in \\mathscr{G} satisfy the Tits alternative. The proof uses the techniques of group actions on trees.

  6. Embryo research in Italy: the bioethical and biojuridical debate.

    PubMed

    Palazzani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the discussion on the status of the human embryo in Italy on a philosophical, socio-ethical and juridical level before, during and after the law (n. 40/2004). Different lines of thought are outlined and critically discussed. The focus is the debate over the so-called embryonic stem cells, pointing out the ethical premises and the juridical implications. The regulations in Italy are analysed in detail, referring to legislation and jurisprudence (showing analogies and differences). In particular the author includes evidence for the debate after the law came in, with specific attention on the question of the use of imported embryonic stem cells and public financing for research and the problem of the use of frozen and non-implantable embryos.

  7. Identification of subgroups of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J C; Wilson, E G; McKay, G L; Stanek, R J; Underwood, W J; Velicer, L F; Mufson, M A

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of antigenic variation among nine isolates of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was determined by examining their reaction patterns to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) subgroup A and B monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoprecipitation with fractionation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by using MAbs and polyclonal antisera to HRSV and BRSV. Shared epitopes were demonstrated on four of five structural proteins between BRSV and both subgroups A and B of HRSV. The nine isolates of BRSV showed different patterns of reactivity in enzyme immunoassays with panels of MAbs to HRSV subgroups A and B. Major variations in the molecular weights of the P (phosphoprotein) and F (fusion protein) proteins were demonstrated among the BRSV isolates tested. These results suggest that BRSV belongs to a different antigenic grouping than HRSV and that BRSV is composed of two distinct subgroups. Images PMID:1583108

  8. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech.

  9. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and other periodical publications may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11... producer), bona fide newspapers, magazines and other periodical publications, acting as press entities, may...

  10. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  11. Ground Rules for the Power Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainberg, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    A physicist argues for the establishment of ground rules in the current nuclear power debate so that vital policy decisions and discussions stay within the realm of rationality permitting useful and meaningful exchanges of information and data. (BT)

  12. Can We Make Intercollegiate Debate More Diverse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela

    1997-01-01

    Shares demographics that pertain to women and minorities at five national CEDA (Cross Examination Debate Association) tournaments from 1991 to 1995; examines barriers that prevent diversity and representativeness; describes actions taken; and proposes solutions for the future. (PA)

  13. Four Republican Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a September 1987 debate on educational issues between Republican presidential candidates Jack Kemp and Pierre du Pont. Interspersed throughout the transcript are written responses to questions submitted to additional candidates Robert Dole and George Bush. (BJV)

  14. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  15. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  16. Learning Clinical Workflows to Identify Subgroups of Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao; Chen, You; Li, Bo; Liebovitz, David; Malin, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is one of the most common indications for readmission to the hospital among elderly patients. This is due to the progressive nature of the disease, as well as its association with complex comorbidities (e.g., anemia, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hyper- and hypothyroidism), which contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, as well as a reduced quality of life. Healthcare organizations (HCOs) have established diverse treatment plans for HF patients, but such routines are not always formalized and may, in fact, arise organically as a patient’s management evolves over time. This investigation was motivated by the hypothesis that patients associated with a certain subgroup of HF should follow a similar workflow that, once made explicit, could be leveraged by an HCO to more effectively allocate resources and manage HF patients. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a method to identify subgroups of HF through a similarity analysis of event sequences documented in the clinical setting. Specifically, we 1) structure event sequences for HF patients based on the patterns of electronic medical record (EMR) system utilization, 2) identify subgroups of HF patients by applying a k-means clustering algorithm on utilization patterns, 3) learn clinical workflows for each subgroup, and 4) label each subgroup with diagnosis and procedure codes that are distinguishing in the set of all subgroups. To demonstrate its potential, we applied our method to EMR event logs for 785 HF inpatient stays over a 4 month period at a large academic medical center. Our method identified 8 subgroups of HF, each of which was found to associate with a canonical workflow inferred through an inductive mining algorithm. Each subgroup was further confirmed to be affiliated with specific comorbidities, such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. PMID:28269922

  17. Learning Clinical Workflows to Identify Subgroups of Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Chen, You; Li, Bo; Liebovitz, David; Malin, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is one of the most common indications for readmission to the hospital among elderly patients. This is due to the progressive nature of the disease, as well as its association with complex comorbidities (e.g., anemia, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hyper- and hypothyroidism), which contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, as well as a reduced quality of life. Healthcare organizations (HCOs) have established diverse treatment plans for HF patients, but such routines are not always formalized and may, in fact, arise organically as a patient's management evolves over time. This investigation was motivated by the hypothesis that patients associated with a certain subgroup of HF should follow a similar workflow that, once made explicit, could be leveraged by an HCO to more effectively allocate resources and manage HF patients. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a method to identify subgroups of HF through a similarity analysis of event sequences documented in the clinical setting. Specifically, we 1) structure event sequences for HF patients based on the patterns of electronic medical record (EMR) system utilization, 2) identify subgroups of HF patients by applying a k-means clustering algorithm on utilization patterns, 3) learn clinical workflows for each subgroup, and 4) label each subgroup with diagnosis and procedure codes that are distinguishing in the set of all subgroups. To demonstrate its potential, we applied our method to EMR event logs for 785 HF inpatient stays over a 4 month period at a large academic medical center. Our method identified 8 subgroups of HF, each of which was found to associate with a canonical workflow inferred through an inductive mining algorithm. Each subgroup was further confirmed to be affiliated with specific comorbidities, such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

  18. G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways

  19. The Demazure-Tits subgroup of a simple Lie group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, L.; Patera, J.; Sharp, R. T.

    1988-04-01

    The Demazure-Tits subgroup of a simple Lie group G is the group of invariance of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients tables (assuming an appropriate choice of basis). The structure of the Demazure-Tits subgroups of An, Bn, Cn, Dn, and G2 is described. Orbits of the permutation action of the DT group in any irreducible finite-dimensional representation space of A2, C2, and G2 are decomposed into the sum of irreducible representations of the DT group.

  20. Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0388 TITLE: Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients By Genetic And Immune Profiling 5b. GRANT...at the HLA level that makes you more susceptible to have Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or any differences between the cases and controls. In order

  1. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    PubMed

    Paixão, R L; Schramm, F R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  2. Teaching sociology to nurses: exploring the debate.

    PubMed

    Williamson, G R

    1999-05-01

    This article reviews literature on the current debate concerning teaching sociology to nurses. The debate is limited because it does not take into account the work of Donald Schön, or Anthony Giddens. The article also discusses theories of adult education which support teaching sociology in nurse education. Sociology is essential for nurses, because it can help to develop an understanding and analysis of the context and substance of nursing practice.

  3. Alteplase for acute ischemic stroke: outcomes by clinically important subgroups in the Third International Stroke Trial.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Richard I; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Whiteley, William N; Cohen, Geoff; Blackwell, Lisa; Murray, Gordon D; Sandercock, Peter A G

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to identify whether particular subgroups of patients had an unacceptably high risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or low chance of benefit when treated with alteplase (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator). Third International Stroke Trial was an international randomized trial of the intravenous (IV) recombinant plasminogen activator alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) versus control in 3035 (1515 versus 1520) patients. We analyzed the effect of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator on 6-month functional outcome, early death, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (both ≤7 days). We tested for any differences in treatment effect between subgroups by a test of interaction. Our 13 protocol prespecified subgroups were time to randomization, age, sex, stroke subtype, atrial fibrillation, early ischemic change (clinician and expert panel), prior antiplatelet use, stroke severity, diastolic and systolic blood pressure at randomization, center's thrombolysis experience, and trial phase. Analyses were adjusted for key baseline prognostic factors. There were no significant interactions in the subgroups analyzed that were consistent across all 3 outcomes. Treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator increased the odds of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage by a greater amount in patients taking prior antiplatelets than those who were not (P=0.019 for test of interaction), but had no clear detrimental effect on functional outcome at 6 months in this group (P=0.781 for test of interaction). Among the types of patient in the Third International Stroke Trial, this secondary analysis did not identify any subgroups for whom treatment should be avoided. Given the limitations of the analysis, we found no clear evidence to avoid treatment in patients with prior ischemic stroke, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN25765518. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN25765518. © 2015

  4. A Person-Centered Approach to Examining Heterogeneity and Subgroups Among Survivors of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M=24.78, SD=2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across two cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: Contact or Attempted assault (17% of the sample), Incapacitated assault (52%), and Forceful Severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the Forceful Severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms, higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex, and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other two groups. Women in the Forceful Severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the Incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619

  5. Empirically derived subgroups in rheumatoid arthritis: association with single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 6

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Marsha A; McAfee, Andrew T

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disorder with important public health implications. It is possible that there are clinically distinctive subtypes of the disorder with different genetic etiologies. We used the data provided to the participants in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 to evaluate and describe clinically based subgroups and their genetic associations with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6, which harbors the HLA region. Detailed two- and three-SNP haplotype analyses were conducted in the HLA region. We used demographic, clinical self-report, and biomarker data from the entire sample (n = 8477) to identify and characterize the subgroups. We did not use the RA diagnosis itself in the identification of the subgroups. Nuclear families (715 families, 1998 individuals) were used to examine the genetic association with the HLA region. We found five distinct subgroups in the data. The first comprised unaffected family members. Cluster 2 was a mix of affected and unaffected in which patients endorsed symptoms not corroborated by physicians. Clusters 3 through 5 represented a severity continuum in RA. Cluster 5 was characterized by early onset severe disease. Cluster 2 showed no association on chromosome 6. Clusters 3 through 5 showed association with 17 SNPs on chromosome 6. In the HLA region, Cluster 3 showed single-, two-, and three-SNP association with the centromeric side of the region in an area of linkage disequilibrium. Cluster 5 showed both single- and two-SNP association with the telomeric side of the region in a second area of linkage disequilibrium. It will be important to replicate the subgroup structure and the association findings in an independent sample. PMID:18466517

  6. A person-centered approach to examining heterogeneity and subgroups among survivors of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-08-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M = 24.78, SD = 2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across 2 cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: contact or attempted assault (17% of the sample), incapacitated assault (52%), and forceful severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the forceful severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms; higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex; and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other 2 groups. Women in the forceful severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of New York City Children from Different Ethnic Minority Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, N; Mervish, N; Galvez, MP; Brenner, B; Wolff, MS

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Methods Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6–8 year old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using caregiver report of child’s race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using Chi Square and ANOVA tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Results Participants (n=486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%) or non-Hispanic Black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic Blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity prevalence among Hispanic subgroups (25%) and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models including home language did not show significant differences in the estimates. Conclusion Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. PMID:22985985

  8. The Value of Heterogeneity for Cost-Effectiveness Subgroup Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Andrea; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a general framework to guide the use of subgroup cost-effectiveness analysis for decision making in a collectively funded health system. In doing so, it addresses 2 key policy questions, namely, the identification and selection of subgroups, while distinguishing 2 sources of potential value associated with heterogeneity. These are 1) the value of revealing the factors associated with heterogeneity in costs and outcomes using existing evidence (static value) and 2) the value of acquiring further subgroup-related evidence to resolve the uncertainty given the current understanding of heterogeneity (dynamic value). Consideration of these 2 sources of value can guide subgroup-specific treatment decisions and inform whether further research should be conducted to resolve uncertainty to explain variability in costs and outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to a cost-effectiveness analysis for the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study presents the expected net benefits under current and perfect information when subgroups are defined based on the use and combination of 6 binary covariates. The results of the case study confirm the theoretical expectations. As more subgroups are considered, the marginal net benefit gains obtained under the current information show diminishing marginal returns, and the expected value of perfect information shows a decreasing trend. We present a suggested algorithm that synthesizes the results to guide policy. PMID:24944196

  9. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  10. A Bayesian subgroup analysis using collections of ANOVA models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinzhong; Sivaganesan, Siva; Laud, Purushottam W; Müller, Peter

    2017-03-20

    We develop a Bayesian approach to subgroup analysis using ANOVA models with multiple covariates, extending an earlier work. We assume a two-arm clinical trial with normally distributed response variable. We also assume that the covariates for subgroup finding are categorical and are a priori specified, and parsimonious easy-to-interpret subgroups are preferable. We represent the subgroups of interest by a collection of models and use a model selection approach to finding subgroups with heterogeneous effects. We develop suitable priors for the model space and use an objective Bayesian approach that yields multiplicity adjusted posterior probabilities for the models. We use a structured algorithm based on the posterior probabilities of the models to determine which subgroup effects to report. Frequentist operating characteristics of the approach are evaluated using simulation. While our approach is applicable in more general cases, we mainly focus on the 2 × 2 case of two covariates each at two levels for ease of presentation. The approach is illustrated using a real data example.

  11. Identifying a cognitive impairment subgroup in adults with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Grant L.; Brooks, Brian L.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that only a minority of patients with mood disorders have measurable cognitive impairment, and this minority drives the small-to-medium effect sizes detected in group studies. Removal of this minority from group statistical analyses will illustrate that the majority appear to have broadly normal cognitive functioning. Methods Participants were adults between the ages of 20 and 54, including 659 healthy control subjects, 84 unmedicated outpatients diagnosed with depression, 59 outpatients diagnosed with depression who were on medications at the time of the evaluation, and 43 outpatients with bipolar disorder. All completed the CNS Vital Signs computerized cognitive screening battery. Results The prevalence rates of low cognitive test scores were calculated for the healthy control subjects and the patients with mood disorders. Having two scores at or below the 5th percentile occurred in 31.2% of the patients and only 8.2% of the control subjects [χ2(1)=66.67, p<.0001; Odds Ratio=5.1, 95% CI=3.4–7.7]. For the control subjects, this low false positive rate for cognitive impairment was maintained across age groups, sexes, and education levels. A larger proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (41.9%) than patients with depression (27.1–28.6%) met this criterion for cognitive impairment. Conclusions This study suggests that cognitive impairment associated with mood disorders is limited to a minority of patients with the majority being broadly cognitively normal. Future research should determine if this identified subgroup has neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, or neuroendocrine abnormalities. Cognitive screening tools of this type might be useful in selecting participants for studies. PMID:21439647

  12. Ten Years of Demographics: Who Debates in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela L.; Gardner, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Presents demographics about gender and ethnicity of debate directors, debate coaches, and debaters in the Cross Examination Debate Association's National Tournament from 1991-2000. Considers that although there has been an increase in the numbers of females and minorities debating, there has also been a decline in the numbers of females directing…

  13. Formal Debate as a Pedagogical Tool in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercadante, Richard A., Jr.

    By understanding the values and goals of debate, the applicability of debate to all disciplines, the logistics of setting up a debate and the judging and grading procedures, college instructors in all disciplines can use debate to stimulate student interest and increase conceptual skills. Debate functions to develop skills in critical thinking,…

  14. Thinking and Caring about Indigenous Peoples' Human Rights: Swedish Students Writing History beyond Scholarly Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to national and international guidelines, schools should promote historical thinking and foster moral values. Scholars have debated, but not analysed in depth in practice, whether history education can and should hold a normative dimension. This study analyses current human rights education in two Swedish senior high school groups, in…

  15. Thinking and Caring about Indigenous Peoples' Human Rights: Swedish Students Writing History beyond Scholarly Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to national and international guidelines, schools should promote historical thinking and foster moral values. Scholars have debated, but not analysed in depth in practice, whether history education can and should hold a normative dimension. This study analyses current human rights education in two Swedish senior high school groups, in…

  16. Debating science policy in the physics classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    It is critically important that national and international science policy be scientifically grounded. To this end, the next generation of scientists and engineers will need to be technically competent, effective communicators of science, and engaged advisors in the debate and formulation of science policy. We describe three science policy debates developed for the physics classroom aimed at encouraging students to draw connections between their developing technical expertise and important science policy issues. The first debate considers the proposal for a 450-megawatt wind farm on public lands in Nantucket Sound and fits naturally into the curriculum related to alternative forms of energy production. The second debate considers national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles and can be incorporated into the curriculum related to heat engines. The third debate, suitable for the curriculum in optics, considers solid state lighting and implications of recent United States legislation that places stringent new energy-efficiency and reliability requirements on conventional lighting. The technical foundation for each of these debates fits naturally into the undergraduate physics curriculum and the material is suitable for a wide range of physics courses, including general science courses for non-majors.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of four management strategies for dyspepsia: relationships between symptom subgroups and strategy outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin van den Broek, N T; Numans, M E; Buskens, E; Verheij, T J; de Wit, N J; Smout, A J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the management of uncomplicated dyspepsia in primary care often consists of prescribing empirical therapy, but in certain cases prompt endoscopy might be preferred. Any decision is usually based on the patient's symptoms and the presumed underlying pathology that causes these symptoms. AIM: To assess the relationship between symptom subgroups and the effect of management strategies on primary care patients with dyspepsia. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: All patients presenting successively with a new episode of dyspepsia between January 1995 and November 1997. METHOD: The results of four management strategies in dyspeptic primary care patients were compared and the value of subgrouping within this trial was estimated. Patients were allocated to one of either (a) empirical treatment in which therapy was based on the presented symptoms, or empirical treatment with (b) omeprazole or (c) cisapride regardless of the presented symptoms, or (d) prompt endoscopy followed by the appropriate treatment. Patients were retrospectively classified into the subgroups for each strategy using baseline data. The yield of each strategy was measured by counting the number of strategy failures in the first year. RESULTS: Of the 349 included patients, 326 were analysed. No statistically significant difference could be demonstrated between the strategies or between the symptom subgroups. However, patients in the reflux-like subgroup showed a trend towards a better outcome in all empirical strategies. Ulcer-like dyspepsia seemed to benefit from omeprazole. The non-specific subgroup seemed to benefit from cisapride but also had the highest proportion of strategy failure. Prompt endoscopy did not appear especially useful in any subgroup. CONCLUSION: Although this study has relatively low power, we conclude that the use of symptom subgroups seems to be a sensible approach when choosing empirical therapy in dyspepsia. Patients with reflux

  18. Promoting Student Metacognition through the Analysis of Their Own Debates. Is It Better with Text or with Graphics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Marc Lafuente; Valdivia, Ibis M. Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a higher education experience aimed at explicitly promoting metacognitive processes in a social and collaborative context. Students carried out a debate on an e-forum, and were later asked to collaboratively analyse their own debates. The control group conducted this analysis using text-based tools; the experimental group…

  19. Epidemics of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis of subgroup III in Africa, 1989-94.

    PubMed Central

    Guibourdenche, M.; Høiby, E. A.; Riou, J. Y.; Varaine, F.; Joguet, C.; Caugant, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 125 strains of Neisseria meningitidis recovered in the course of outbreaks from patients with systemic disease in 11 African countries between 1989 and 1994 were analysed by serogrouping, serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Of the 125 patient strains 115 (92%) belonged to the clone-complex of serogroup A meningococci, designated subgroup III. Among the remaining strains, 4 were also serogroup A, but belonged to the clonal groups I and IV-1 (2 strains each), whilst 6 strains (4 serogroup C and 2 serogroup W135) represented clones of the ET-37 complex. Our results indicated that the second pandemic caused by clones of subgroup III is still spreading in Africa. Towards the West it has reached Niger, Mali, Guinea and The Gambia, and towards the South, the Central African Republic, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia. PMID:8620901

  20. Genetic characterization of a caprine pestivirus as the first member of a putative novel pestivirus subgroup.

    PubMed

    De Mia, G M; Greiser-Wilke, I; Feliziani, F; Giammarioli, M; De Giuseppe, A

    2005-06-01

    Currently, the genus Pestivirus comprises four approved species, namely bovine viral diarrhoea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus and border disease virus (BDV). Recently, three major genotypes have been identified within the species BDV and termed as subgroups BDV-1, BDV-2 and BDV-3. Here, an isolate from animals in a herd showing BD-like syndromes, which occurred in central Italy was analysed. A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers that specifically amplify a fragment of the 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) from BDV. Both the 5'-NCR fragment and the entire Npro gene were sequenced and used for genetic typing. The 5'-NCR sequence revealed that the newly isolated Pestivirus could be allocated to the BDV species. Interestingly, the Npro sequence of this virus isolate significantly differed from all the ovine pestiviruses previously described, providing evidence for the presence of an additional subgroup within the species BDV.

  1. Attacking Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia by Deriving Clinical Subgroups From Widely Available Symptom Data.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Dwight; Pratt, Danielle N; Giangrande, Evan J; Grunnagle, MeiLin; Orel, Jennifer; Weinberger, Daniel R; Callicott, Joseph H; Berman, Karen F

    2017-03-20

    Previous research has identified (1) a "deficit" subtype of schizophrenia characterized by enduring negative symptoms and diminished emotionality and (2) a "distress" subtype associated with high emotionality-including anxiety, depression, and stress sensitivity. Individuals in deficit and distress categories differ sharply in development, clinical course and behavior, and show distinct biological markers, perhaps signaling different etiologies. We tested whether deficit and distress subtypes would emerge from a simple but novel data-driven subgrouping analysis, based on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative and distress symptom dimensions, and whether subgrouping was informative regarding other facets of behavior and brain function. PANSS data, and other assessments, were available for 549 people with schizophrenia diagnoses. Negative and distress symptom composite scores were used as indicators in 2-step cluster analyses, which divided the sample into low symptom (n = 301), distress (n = 121), and deficit (n = 127) subgroups. Relative to the low-symptom group, the deficit and distress subgroups had comparably higher total PANSS symptoms (Ps < .001) and were similarly functionally impaired (eg, global functioning [GAF] Ps < .001), but showed markedly different patterns on symptom, cognitive and personality variables, among others. Initial analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a 182-participant subset of the full sample also suggested distinct patterns of neural recruitment during working memory. The field seeks more neuroscience-based systems for classifying psychiatric conditions, but these are inescapably behavioral disorders. More effective parsing of clinical and behavioral traits could identify homogeneous target groups for further neural system and molecular studies, helping to integrate clinical and neuroscience approaches.

  2. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E.…

  3. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-01-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) “the mammography debate you will have with you always.” Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis—also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions. PMID:26089721

  4. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-06-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) "the mammography debate you will have with you always." Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis-also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions.

  5. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  6. Population genetics in the forensic DNA debate.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, B S

    1992-01-01

    The use of matching variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles to link suspects with crimes is potentially very powerful, but it has been quite controversial. Initial debate over laboratory procedures has largely given way to debate over the statistical and population genetic issues involved in calculating the frequency of a profile for a random member of a population. This frequency is used to weight the evidence of a match between suspect and crime scene material when the suspect denies responsibility for that material. A recent report from the National Research Council, intended to put to rest some of the issues, has instead raised further debate by advocating a procedure based on maximum frequencies of profile components over several different populations. PMID:1465380

  7. Book review: The Wilderness Debate Rages On: Continuing the Great New Wilderness Debate

    Treesearch

    Peter Landres

    2009-01-01

    The Wilderness Debate Rages On is a collection of mostly previously published papers about the meaning, value, and role of wilderness and continues the discussion that was propelled by the editors' previous book The Great New Wilderness Debate (also a collection of papers) published in 1998. The editors state that this sequel to their previous book is mandated...

  8. "I Was Gone on Debating": Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1995-01-01

    States that Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam relied heavily upon debate as a form of public address through which to enact and publicize confrontation with other civil rights organizations. Examines Malcolm X's first experience and training in debate as a prison inmate and later public experiences. Provides detailed accounts and analysis of his…

  9. "I Was Gone on Debating": Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1995-01-01

    States that Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam relied heavily upon debate as a form of public address through which to enact and publicize confrontation with other civil rights organizations. Examines Malcolm X's first experience and training in debate as a prison inmate and later public experiences. Provides detailed accounts and analysis of his…

  10. Rules on the Substance of Debate: A Critique of the Charter of the National Debate Tournament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.; Katsulas, John P.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that "substantive" rules instituted by the National Debate Tournament (NDT) Committee are ineffective and counterproductive. Critiques the rule restricting evidence reading at the end of a debate and the rule requiring judges to compare definitions when evaluating topicality arguments. Concludes that the NDT Committee should…

  11. Clinical symptoms and symptom signatures of Alzheimer's disease subgroups.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Khalid; Flory, Michael; Soininen, Hilkka

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder that involves several different mechanisms. Over 99% of AD patients suffer from the sporadic form of the disease. Based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)(1-42), total tau, and ubiquitin--the markers associated with the histopathological hallmarks of the disease (Aβ plaques and abnormally hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles)--previous studies identified five subgroups of AD. Here we report the potential diagnostic predictive value of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in aged individuals for AD and differences in the prevalence of these symptoms in the CSF marker-based subgroups of the disease. Analysis of 196 clinically diagnosed AD or Alzheimer with Lewy body, and 75 non-AD neurological and non-neurological control cases, all from a single center, showed that the presence of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, or tremors individually, or the presence of any of these, could diagnose AD with sensitivities and specificities of 14% and 99%; 30% and 99%; 15% and 99%; 16% and 100%; 16% and 96%; and 47% and 92%, respectively. The pattern of the prevalence of the above symptoms varied from AD subgroup to subgroup. Presence of any of these symptoms, as well as presence of each individual symptom except tremors, significantly differentiated AD subgroups from the predominantly control cluster. These findings encourage the exploration of hallucination, hypokinesia, paranoia, rigidity, and tremors in identifying various subgroups of AD for stratification of patients for clinical trials to develop therapeutic drugs. This study is for the special issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease honoring Inge Grundke-Iqbal who made several seminal contributions in AD research.

  12. Differential Distributions of Synechococcus Subgroups Across the California Current System

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Ryan W.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Welsh, Rory M.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Chavez, Francisco P.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Synechococcus is an abundant marine cyanobacterial genus composed of different populations that vary physiologically. Synechococcus narB gene sequences (encoding for nitrate reductase in cyanobacteria) obtained previously from isolates and the environment (e.g., North Pacific Gyre Station ALOHA, Hawaii or Monterey Bay, CA, USA) were used to develop quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. These qPCR assays were used to quantify populations from specific narB phylogenetic clades across the California Current System (CCS), a region composed of dynamic zones between a coastal-upwelling zone and the oligotrophic Pacific Ocean. Targeted populations (narB subgroups) had different biogeographic patterns across the CCS, which appear to be driven by environmental conditions. Subgroups C_C1, D_C1, and D_C2 were abundant in coastal-upwelling to coastal-transition zone waters with relatively high to intermediate ammonium, nitrate, and chl. a concentrations. Subgroups A_C1 and F_C1 were most abundant in coastal-transition zone waters with intermediate nutrient concentrations. E_O1 and G_O1 were most abundant at different depths of oligotrophic open-ocean waters (either in the upper mixed layer or just below). E_O1, A_C1, and F_C1 distributions differed from other narB subgroups and likely possess unique ecologies enabling them to be most abundant in waters between coastal and open-ocean waters. Different CCS zones possessed distinct Synechococcus communities. Core California current water possessed low numbers of narB subgroups relative to counted Synechococcus cells, and coastal-transition waters contained high abundances of Synechococcus cells and total number of narB subgroups. The presented biogeographic data provides insight on the distributions and ecologies of Synechococcus present in an eastern boundary current system. PMID:21833315

  13. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness.

  14. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  15. PRIM versus CART in subgroup discovery: when patience is harmful.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Nannings, Barry; Dongelmans, Dave; Hasman, Arie

    2010-10-01

    We systematically compare the established algorithms CART (Classification and Regression Trees) and PRIM (Patient Rule Induction Method) in a subgroup discovery task on a large real-world high-dimensional clinical database. Contrary to current conjectures, PRIM's performance was generally inferior to CART's. PRIM often considered "peeling of" a large chunk of data at a value of a relevant discrete ordinal variable unattractive, ultimately missing an important subgroup. This finding has considerable significance in clinical medicine where ordinal scores are ubiquitous. PRIM's utility in clinical databases would increase when global information about (ordinal) variables is better put to use and when the search algorithm keeps track of alternative solutions.

  16. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4–58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3–30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9–11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. PMID:26055746

  17. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1-63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4-58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3-30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9-11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Toward a Classification of Juvenile Offenders: Subgroups of Serious Juvenile Offenders and Severity of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-12-02

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of serious juvenile offenders on the basis of their risk profiles, using a data-driven approach. The sample consists of 1,147 of the top 5% most serious juvenile offenders in the Netherlands. A part of the sample, 728 juvenile offenders who had been released from the institution for at least 2 years, was included in analyses on recidivism and the prediction of recidivism. Six subgroups of serious juvenile offenders were identified with cluster analysis on the basis of their scores on 70 static and dynamic risk factors: Cluster 1, antisocial identity; Cluster 2, frequent offenders; Cluster 3, flat profile; Cluster 4, sexual problems and weak social identity; Cluster 5, sexual problems; and Cluster 6, problematic family background. Clusters 4 and 5 are the most serious offenders before treatment, committing mainly sex offences. However, they have significantly lower rates of recidivism than the other four groups. For each of the six clusters, a unique set of risk factors was found to predict severity of recidivism. The results suggest that intervention should aim at different risk factors for each subgroup.

  19. Estimating the magnitude of trastuzumab effects within patient subgroups in the HERA trial.

    PubMed

    Untch, M; Gelber, R D; Jackisch, C; Procter, M; Baselga, J; Bell, R; Cameron, D; Bari, M; Smith, I; Leyland-Jones, B; de Azambuja, E; Wermuth, P; Khasanov, R; Feng-Yi, F; Constantin, C; Mayordomo, J I; Su, C-H; Yu, S-Y; Lluch, A; Senkus-Konefka, E; Price, C; Haslbauer, F; Suarez Sahui, T; Srimuninnimit, V; Colleoni, M; Coates, A S; Piccart-Gebhart, M J; Goldhirsch, A

    2008-06-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin(R)) improves disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. We aimed to assess the magnitude of its clinical benefit for subpopulations defined by nodal and steroid hormone receptor status using data from the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) study. HERA is an international multicenter randomized trial comparing 1 or 2 years of trastuzumab treatment with observation after standard chemotherapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. In total, 1703 women randomized to 1-year trastuzumab and 1698 women randomized to observation were included in these analyses. Median follow-up was 23.5 months. The primary endpoint was DFS. The overall hazard ratio (HR) for trastuzumab versus observation was 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.76; P < 0.0001], ranging from 0.46 to 0.82 for subgroups. Estimated improvement in 3-year DFS in subgroups ranged from +11.3% to +0.6%. Patients with the best prognosis (those with node-negative disease and tumors 1.1-2.0 cm) had benefit similar to the overall cohort (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.26-1.07; 3-year DFS improvement +4.6%, 95% CI -4.0% to 13.2%). Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy reduces the risk of relapse similarly across subgroups defined by nodal status and steroid hormone receptor status, even those at relatively low risk for relapse.

  20. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  1. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  2. Subgroup variations in bone mineral density response to zoledronic acid after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Magaziner, Jay S; Orwig, Denise L; Lyles, Kenneth W; Nordsletten, Lars; Boonen, Steven; Adachi, Jonathan D; Recknor, Chris; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Mesenbrink, Peter; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Su, Guoqin; Johnson, Rasheeda; Pieper, Carl F

    2014-12-01

    Minimizing post-fracture bone loss is an important aspect of recovery from hip fracture, and determination of factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) response to treatment after hip fracture may assist in the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. A post hoc analysis of the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial was done to determine the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in subgroups with low-trauma hip fracture. A total of 2127 patients were randomized (1:1) to yearly infusions of ZOL 5 mg (n = 1065) or placebo (n = 1062) within 90 days of operation for low-trauma hip fracture. The 1486 patients with a baseline and at least one post-baseline BMD assessment at TH or FN (ZOL = 745, placebo = 741) were included in the analyses. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD was assessed at months 12 and 24 and compared across subgroups of hip fracture patients. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD at months 12 and 24 was greater (p < 0.05) in ZOL-treated patients compared with placebo in most subgroups. Treatment-by-subgroup interactions (p < 0.05) indicated that a greater effect on BMD was observed for TH BMD at month 12 in females, in patients in the lower tertile body mass index at baseline (≤22.6 kg/m(2) ), and in patients with baseline FN BMD T-score of ≤ -2.5; for FN BMD in patients who received ZOL for >6 weeks post-surgery; and for TH and FN BMD in patients with a history of one or more prior fractures. All interactions were limited to the first 12 months after treatment with none observed for the 24-month comparisons. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00046254.) © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Small ruminant lentivirus genetic subgroups associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are prevalent in North American sheep and a major cause of production losses for the U.S. sheep industry. Sheep susceptibility to SRLV infection is influenced by genetic variation within the ovine transmembrane 154 gene (TMEM154). Animals with either of two distinct TMEM154 haplotypes that both encode glutamate at position 35 of the protein (E35) are at greater risk of SRLV infection than those homozygous with a lysine (K35) haplotype. Prior to this study, it was unknown if TMEM154 associations with infection are influenced by SRLV genetic subgroups. Accordingly, our goals were to characterize SRLVs naturally infecting sheep from a diverse U.S. Midwestern flock and test them for associations with TMEM154 E35K genotypes. Two regions of the SRLV genome were targeted for proviral amplification, cloning, sequence analysis, and association testing with TMEM154 E35K genotypes: gag and the transmembrane region of env. Independent analyses of gag and env sequences showed that they clustered in two subgroups (1 and 2), they were distinct from SRLV subtypes originating from Europe, and that subgroup 1 associated with hemizygous and homozygous TMEM154 K35 genotypes and subgroup 2 with hemi- and homozygous E35 genotypes (gag p < 0.001, env p = 0.01). These results indicate that SRLVs in the U.S. have adapted to infect sheep with specific TMEM154 E35K genotypes. Consequently, both host and SRLV genotypes affect the relative risk of SRLV infection in sheep. PMID:23895262

  4. Hsp27 gene in Drosophila ananassae subgroup was split by a recently acquired intron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Kang, Han; Jin, Shan; Zeng, Qing Tao; Yang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    In Drosophila, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a critical single-copy intron-free nuclear gene involved in the defense response against fungi and bacteria, and is a regulator of adult lifespan. In the present study, 33 homologous Hsp27 nucleotide sequences from different Drosophila species were amplified by PCR and reverse transcription PCR, and the phylogenetic relationships were analysed using neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic topologies from analysis with different algorithms were similar, suggesting that the Hsp27 gene was split by a recently acquired intron during the evolution of the Drosophila ananassae subgroup.

  5. Hidden diversity in the Podarcis tauricus (Sauria, Lacertidae) species subgroup in the light of multilocus phylogeny and species delimitation.

    PubMed

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Aglaia; Kukushkin, Oleg; Jablonski, Daniel; Petrov, Boyan; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Gherghel, Iulian; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    The monophyletic species subgroup of Podarcis tauricus is distributed in the western and southern parts of the Balkans, and includes four species with unresolved and unstudied inter- and intra-specific phylogenetic relationships. Using sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes and applying several phylogenetic methods and species delimitation approaches to an extensive dataset, we have reconstructed the phylogeny of the Podarcis wall lizards in the Balkans, and re-investigated the taxonomic status of the P. tauricus species subgroup. Multilocus analyses revealed that the aforementioned subgroup consists of five major clades, with P. melisellensis as its most basal taxon. Monophyly of P. tauricus sensu stricto is not supported, with one of the subspecies (P. t. ionicus) displaying great genetic diversity (hidden diversity or cryptic species). It comprises five, geographically distinct, subclades with genetic distances on the species level. Species delimitation approaches revealed nine species within the P. tauricus species subgroup (P. melisellensis, P. gaigeae, P. milensis, and six in the P. tauricus complex), underlining the necessity of taxonomic re-evaluation. We thus synonymize some previously recognized subspecies in this subgroup, elevate P. t. tauricus and P. g. gaigeae to the species level and suggest a distinct Albanian-Greek clade, provisionally named as the P. ionicus species complex. The latter clade comprises five unconfirmed candidate species that call for comprehensive studies in the future.

  6. Going flat: examining heterogeneity in the soda-obesity relationship by subgroup and place of birth among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the association between soda consumption and obesity is uniform among Asian-American population subgroups. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses on odds of being obese among seven Asian subgroups and by place of birth using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. An omnibus population-based health survey. Non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or over, residing in California (n 36 271). Despite low levels of soda consumption in several Asian-American ethnic groups, soda consumption increased the odds of being obese among Chinese, Koreans and Other Asians but not for Whites. Obesity risk varied across Asian subgroups and by place of birth within these subgroups. More public health efforts addressing soda consumption in Asian-American communities are needed as a strategy for not only preventing chronic diseases but also disparities, considering the varying levels of soda intake across subgroups. Results support the growing body of literature critiquing acculturation theory in immigrant health research by documenting inconsistent findings by place of birth. Future research should take into account the heterogeneity among Asian Americans to advance our understanding of health outcomes and disparities.

  7. The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Foley, Louise; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-04-03

    The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n=322; aged 10-14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p=0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.

  8. Subgroups associated with lower physical fitness in older adults with ID: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-02-01

    Although physical fitness is generally very low in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), levels may differ across subgroups. It is important to identify which subgroups need to be targeted specifically in physical activity and fitness interventions and reference values. Physical fitness was measured with box-and-block-test, response-time-test, Berg-balance-scale, walking speed, grip strength, 30s-chair-stand, 10 m incremental-shuttle-walking test and the extended modified-back-saver-sit-and-reach-test in a large sample of older adults with ID (n=1050), and subgroups associated with lower physical fitness levels were identified applying multivariate linear regression analyses. Both fixed personal characteristics such as being older, being female, having more severe ID and having Down syndrome and modifiable or preventable factors such as physical activity levels, mobility impairments and a need of more intensive care, are independently associated with lower levels of multiple physical fitness components. This first study identifies subgroups of older adults with ID which require adapted reference values, and subgroups that need to be specifically targeted in fitness promotion programs.

  9. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  10. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-03-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented.

  11. Philosophizing about Debate and Individual Events Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittus, James K.; Davies, Miriam R.

    A joint forensics program including both debate and individual events offers important benefits to students and coaches in training. A complete forensics experience provides what some would consider a true liberal arts education. When exposed to all events, students learn a variety of argumentative styles and develop a variety of universal skills…

  12. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  13. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  14. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  15. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Cancer.gov

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  16. Debates over School Shutdowns Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As school closures are increasingly used as a remedy to budget woes and a solution to failing schools in many cities, debates are intensifying about their effect on student performance and well-being, on district finances, and on communities and the processes districts use to choose which schools will be shuttered. Student and parent groups in…

  17. Voices on Choice: The Education Reform Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, K. L., Ed.

    This collection presents a sampling of opinions of both proponents and opponents in the school choice debate from a variety of professional perspectives, including academics, bureaucrats, politicians, union leaders, economists, lawyers, parents, and activists. The following essays are included: (1) "School Choice Promotes Educational…

  18. Nebraska Speech, Debate, and Drama Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska School Activities Association, Lincoln.

    Prepared and designed to provide general information in the administration of speech activities in the Nebraska schools, this manual offers rules and regulations for speech events, high school debate, and one act plays. The section on speech events includes information about general regulations, the scope of competition, district contests, the…

  19. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  20. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

  1. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  2. The New U.S. Strategic Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    part of America’s own supreme law and who generally believed that free institutions con- tributed to international peace. But what was radically new...formation of the North American Free Trade Agree- ment ( NAFTA ) as well as a possible Yen zone in Southeast Asia; 41iL 42 The New U.S. Strategic Debate

  3. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  4. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  5. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  6. Meningitis Deaths Renew Debate About Vaccinating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The annual incidence of meningococcal disease among 15- to 25-year olds has doubled since 1991, to over 600 cases, and recent studies indicate outbreaks may be increasing on college campuses. Six of the 83 cases appearing at academic institutions have been fatal. The trend has fueled the debate over whether a vaccine should be administered…

  7. Evolution: Don't Debate, Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses controversy over the teaching of biological evolution and other scientific ideas such as Big Bang theory. Recommends that teachers avoid debating creationists, help students develop a greater understanding and appreciation for science as a way of explaining the natural world, and emphasize inquiry and the nature of science. (Contains 19…

  8. National Debate Tournament Booklet of Judges, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Walter, Ed.

    A compilation of statements of the judging philosophies of the judges for the 1987 National Debate Tournament, this booklet presents the views of 132 college level coaches from institutions all across the country. The areas examined in the standard judge philosophy form include (1) personal preferences in regard to a decision making paradigm; (2)…

  9. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  10. Personal and Academic Writing: Revisiting the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlynarczyk, Rebecca Williams

    2006-01-01

    More than ten years have passed since the widely publicized debate about personal and academic writing that played out in the 1990s between Peter Elbow and David Bartholomae. But the question of the relative merits of these two different types of writing for student writers continues to be an issue of concern for teachers of composition,…

  11. Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The author describes how the interactive study of social media's effect on the Common Core debate was designed and executed. Important findings from the study were: 1) We live in an increasingly interconnected social world. 2) Media has evolved over the last half century from a passive system dominated by a few central opinion makers to the…

  12. "Scientific" Label in Law Stirs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that a quiet debate is unfolding over proposals to tinker with No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) definition of what constitutes "scientifically based research" in education while other ideas for revamping it are taking center stage. Sprinkled through the federal education statute more than 100 times, the references…

  13. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  14. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  15. Making Sense of the MOOCs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This article considers recent public debates about massive open online courses (MOOCs) and their potential to transform higher education. Drawing on reports and media commentary, it probes the claims and counterclaims of MOOC proponents and MOOC sceptics. It considers the implications for students, governments, institutions and scholars…

  16. Debates over School Shutdowns Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As school closures are increasingly used as a remedy to budget woes and a solution to failing schools in many cities, debates are intensifying about their effect on student performance and well-being, on district finances, and on communities and the processes districts use to choose which schools will be shuttered. Student and parent groups in…

  17. The Great Graduation-Rate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christine O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote clearer understanding of the graduation-rate debate by distilling the policy developments and controversy surrounding the measurement of these rates over the last decade. The paper concludes with a discussion of the move toward a federally mandated common metric for graduation rates. The No Child Left Behind…

  18. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  19. Release of Unreviewed Studies Sparks Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Studies generally undergo an evaluation process before they are accepted for publication in an academic journal, presented at a conference, or released by a think tank. This article discusses the release of unreviewed research that sparks debate over the need for tighter peer-review mechanisms. Researchers from two of the nation's most eminent…

  20. State, Schooling and Society: Contemporary Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalanyane, Tanakie

    2010-01-01

    The paper articulates debates surrounding schools and schooling in the contemporary era with a view of showing some granted assumptions about schools and schooling by some educationists. The paper further shows that schools are always arenas or sites of struggle where ideological hegemonic control is fought for by various actors, such as: the…

  1. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  2. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  3. Multiple "Curriculum" Meanings Heighten Debate over Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Calls for shared curricula for the common standards have triggered renewed debates about who decides what students learn, and even about varied meanings of the word "curriculum," adding layers of complexity to the job of translating the broad learning goals into classroom teaching. The most recent calls for common curricula came from the American…

  4. Nutritional development and the target weight debate.

    PubMed

    Hall, John B

    2013-11-01

    Postnatal nutrition has immediate and long-lasting effects on beef heifer reproductive efficiency, longevity, and productivity. This article reviews the effects of nutrients and nutritional management on reproduction in developing heifers. In addition, the current debate on the preferred target weight for heifers at breeding is discussed.

  5. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  6. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  7. "Scientific" Label in Law Stirs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that a quiet debate is unfolding over proposals to tinker with No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) definition of what constitutes "scientifically based research" in education while other ideas for revamping it are taking center stage. Sprinkled through the federal education statute more than 100 times, the references…

  8. Classicists versus Experimentalists: Reexamining the Great Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses an educational controversy between classicists and experimentalists over the educational needs of a democracy. Begins in the 1930s with the Robert Hutchins-John Dewey debate. Compares the educational ideas of Alexander Mieklejohn, the most progressive classicist, to those of Dewey, the undisputed leader of the experimentalists. (AYC)

  9. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  10. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  11. Meningitis Deaths Renew Debate About Vaccinating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The annual incidence of meningococcal disease among 15- to 25-year olds has doubled since 1991, to over 600 cases, and recent studies indicate outbreaks may be increasing on college campuses. Six of the 83 cases appearing at academic institutions have been fatal. The trend has fueled the debate over whether a vaccine should be administered…

  12. Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…

  13. Evolution: Don't Debate, Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses controversy over the teaching of biological evolution and other scientific ideas such as Big Bang theory. Recommends that teachers avoid debating creationists, help students develop a greater understanding and appreciation for science as a way of explaining the natural world, and emphasize inquiry and the nature of science. (Contains 19…

  14. "Growth Models" Gaining in Accountability Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    In the debate over the future of the No Child Left Behind Act, policymakers, educators, and researchers seem to agree on one thing: The federal law's accountability system should be rewritten so it rewards or sanctions schools on the basis of students' academic growth. The U.S. Department of Education recently reaffirmed the Bush administration's…

  15. Knowledge of the Debate Critic-Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Neil

    Arguing that any discussion of debate theory is incomplete without at least some analysis or review of paradigm theory, this paper begins by analogizing the arguments over paradigms to a battle ground over control of the activity. The analysis then shifts to an examination of Thomas Kuhn's sociological theory as a basis for the argument that the…

  16. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  17. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  18. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  19. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  20. Knowledge of the Debate Critic-Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Neil

    Arguing that any discussion of debate theory is incomplete without at least some analysis or review of paradigm theory, this paper begins by analogizing the arguments over paradigms to a battle ground over control of the activity. The analysis then shifts to an examination of Thomas Kuhn's sociological theory as a basis for the argument that the…

  1. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  2. Making Sense of the MOOCs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This article considers recent public debates about massive open online courses (MOOCs) and their potential to transform higher education. Drawing on reports and media commentary, it probes the claims and counterclaims of MOOC proponents and MOOC sceptics. It considers the implications for students, governments, institutions and scholars…

  3. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  4. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  5. Multiple "Curriculum" Meanings Heighten Debate over Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Calls for shared curricula for the common standards have triggered renewed debates about who decides what students learn, and even about varied meanings of the word "curriculum," adding layers of complexity to the job of translating the broad learning goals into classroom teaching. The most recent calls for common curricula came from the American…

  6. Market Rhetoric and the Ebonics Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Using a method of topical rhetorical analysis, inspired by K. Burke, to discuss the Ebonics debate, this article demonstrates that conversations about education, particularly writing instruction, have adopted a market rhetoric that limits teachers' agency. However, reappropriation of this market rhetoric can help writing teachers to imagine and…

  7. Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…

  8. Reclaiming the Moral in the Dispositions Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burant, Terry J.; Chubbuck, Sharon M.; Whipp, Joan L.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the current debates about the definition and assessment of dispositions in teacher education. Competing perspectives on the definitions and assessment of dispositions in teacher education are examined and critiqued, and a renewed commitment to foregrounding the moral nature of teaching is suggested. Recommendations for…

  9. Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The author describes how the interactive study of social media's effect on the Common Core debate was designed and executed. Important findings from the study were: 1) We live in an increasingly interconnected social world. 2) Media has evolved over the last half century from a passive system dominated by a few central opinion makers to the…

  10. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  11. Taking CEDA Debaters Out of the Normal Tournament Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela

    Debate educators have been concerned about the disadvantages of tournament debating. While student debaters have learned critical thinking, research, writing, public speaking, and other skills, some former participants feel the experience left them too argumentative generally. Some scholars favor moving away from formal debating contests. A…

  12. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  13. Effects of the Bush/Ferraro Debate on Candidate Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Keith R.

    A study was conducted to determine the cognitive effects on viewers of the debate between vice-presidential candidates George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro. Adult passengers (N=468) on the Washington State ferries were interviewed, 191 before the debate and 277 afterward. Of those interviewed after the debate, 168 reported watching the debate and 108…

  14. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  15. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  16. The Validity and Reliability of the Wing Subgroups Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Shawn K.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the validity and internal and interrater reliability of the Wing Subgroups Questionnaire, an assessment that classifies children with autism into subtypes. Subjects were 42 students (ages 5 to 22) enrolled in multihandicapped special education classrooms. Findings support the reliability and validity of the questionnaire for…

  17. Subgroup specific incremental value of new markers for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian M.; Zheng, Yingye

    2013-01-01

    In many clinical applications, understanding when measurement of new markers is necessary to provide added accuracy to existing prediction tools could lead to more cost effective disease management. Many statistical tools for evaluating the incremental value (IncV) of the novel markers over the routine clinical risk factors have been developed in recent years. However, most existing literature focuses primarily on global assessment. Since the IncVs of new markers often vary across subgroups, it would be of great interest to identify subgroups for which the new markers are most/least useful in improving risk prediction. In this paper we provide novel statistical procedures for systematically identifying potential traditional-marker based subgroups in whom it might be beneficial to apply a new model with measurements of both the novel and traditional markers. We consider various conditional time-dependent accuracy parameters for censored failure time outcome to assess the subgroup-specific IncVs. We provide non-parametric kernel-based estimation procedures to calculate the proposed parameters. Simultaneous interval estimation procedures are provided to account for sampling variation and adjust for multiple testing. Simulation studies suggest that our proposed procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed procedures are applied to the Framingham Offspring Study to examine the added value of an inflammation marker, C-reactive protein, on top of the traditional Framingham risk score for predicting 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23263882

  18. Active medulloblastoma enhancers reveal subgroup-specific cellular origins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Charles Y.; Erkek, Serap; Tong, Yiai; Yin, Linlin; Federation, Alexander J.; Zapatka, Marc; Haldipur, Parthiv; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Risch, Thomas; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Worst, Barbara C.; Ju, Bensheng; Orr, Brent A.; Zeid, Rhamy; Polaski, Donald R.; Segura-Wang, Maia; Waszak, Sebastian M.; Jones, David T.W.; Kool, Marcel; Hovestadt, Volker; Buchhalter, Ivo; Sieber, Laura; Johann, Pascal; Chavez, Lukas; Gröschel, Stefan; Ryzhova, Marina; Korshunov, Andrey; Chen, Wenbiao; Chizhikov, Victor V.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Eils, Roland; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Bradner, James E.; Northcott, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour, often inflicting devastating consequences on the developing child. Genomic studies have revealed four distinct molecular subgroups with divergent biology and clinical behaviour. An understanding of the regulatory circuitry governing the transcriptional landscapes of medulloblastoma subgroups, and how this relates to their respective developmental origins, is lacking. Using H3K27ac and BRD4 ChIP-Seq, coupled with tissue-matched DNA methylation and transcriptome data, we describe the active cis-regulatory landscape across 28 primary medulloblastoma specimens. Analysis of differentially regulated enhancers and super-enhancers reinforced inter-subgroup heterogeneity and revealed novel, clinically relevant insights into medulloblastoma biology. Computational reconstruction of core regulatory circuitry identified a master set of transcription factors, validated by ChIP-Seq, that are responsible for subgroup divergence and implicate candidate cells-of-origin for Group 4. Our integrated analysis of enhancer elements in a large series of primary tumour samples reveals insights into cis-regulatory architecture, unrecognized dependencies, and cellular origins. PMID:26814967

  19. Detection of Problem Gambler Subgroups Using Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The…

  20. Subgroup conflicts? Try the psychodramatic "double triad method".

    PubMed

    Verhofstadt-Denève, Leni M F

    2012-04-01

    The present article suggests the application of a psychodramatic action method for tackling subgroup conflicts in which the direct dialogue between representatives of two opposing subgroups is prepared step by step through an indirect dialogue strategy within two triads, a strategy known as the Double Triad Method (DTM). In order to achieve integration in the group as a whole, it is important that all the members of both subgroups participate actively during the entire process. The first part of the article briefly explores the theoretical background, with a special emphasis on the Phenomenological-Dialectical Personality Model (Phe-Di PModel). In the second part, the DTM procedure is systematically described through its five action stages, each accompanied with 1) a spatial representation of the consecutive actions, 2) some illustrative statements for each stage, and 3) a theoretical interpretation of the dialectically involved personality dimensions in both protagonists. The article concludes with a discussion and suggestions for more extensive applications of the DTM method, including the question of its relationships to Agazarian's functional subgrouping, psychodrama, and sociodrama.

  1. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  2. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 Program for Pooling Subgroup Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, N. Clayton; Hittner, James B.

    1997-01-01

    An interactive FORTRAN 77 program is presented that computes the pooled correlation from independent subgroups via the formula provided by R. Charter and R. Alexander (1993). In addition, the means and standard deviations for each variable are also provided for the composite group. (Author/SLD)

  3. Empirically Derived Subgroups of Learning Disabled Readers: Diagnostic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Reid; Watson, Bill

    1981-01-01

    A cluster-analysis procedure was used to identify subgroups of children who manifested specific learning disabilities in reading (SLD/R) in terms of performance on a battery of eight language and perceptual tests. Ss included a group of 100 SLD/R children and 50 normal readers (NR)(11- to 12-years-old). (Author)

  4. 29 CFR 1912a.13 - Subcommittees and subgroups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subcommittees and subgroups. 1912a.13 Section 1912a.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH §...

  5. Metabolite profiling in retinoblastoma identifies novel clinicopathological subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Kohe, Sarah; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Jenkinson, Helen; Parulekar, Manoj; Wilson, Martin; Peet, Andrew C; McConville, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumour classification, based on histopathology or molecular pathology, is of value to predict tumour behaviour and to select appropriate treatment. In retinoblastoma, pathology information is not available at diagnosis and only exists for enucleated tumours. Alternative methods of tumour classification, using noninvasive techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are urgently required to guide treatment decisions at the time of diagnosis. Methods: High-resolution magic-angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS) was undertaken on enucleated retinoblastomas. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the HR-MAS MRS data was used to identify tumour subgroups. Individual metabolite concentrations were determined and were correlated with histopathological risk factors for each group. Results: Multivariate analysis identified three metabolic subgroups of retinoblastoma, with the most discriminatory metabolites being taurine, hypotaurine, total-choline and creatine. Metabolite concentrations correlated with specific histopathological features: taurine was correlated with differentiation, total-choline and phosphocholine with retrolaminar optic nerve invasion, and total lipids with necrosis. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that a metabolite-based classification of retinoblastoma can be obtained using ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and that the subgroups identified correlate with histopathological features. This result justifies future studies to validate the clinical relevance of these subgroups and highlights the potential of in vivo MRS as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for retinoblastoma patient stratification. PMID:26348444

  6. Active medulloblastoma enhancers reveal subgroup-specific cellular origins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charles Y; Erkek, Serap; Tong, Yiai; Yin, Linlin; Federation, Alexander J; Zapatka, Marc; Haldipur, Parthiv; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Risch, Thomas; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Worst, Barbara C; Ju, Bensheng; Orr, Brent A; Zeid, Rhamy; Polaski, Donald R; Segura-Wang, Maia; Waszak, Sebastian M; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Hovestadt, Volker; Buchhalter, Ivo; Sieber, Laura; Johann, Pascal; Chavez, Lukas; Gröschel, Stefan; Ryzhova, Marina; Korshunov, Andrey; Chen, Wenbiao; Chizhikov, Victor V; Millen, Kathleen J; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Eils, Roland; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Pfister, Stefan M; Bradner, James E; Northcott, Paul A

    2016-02-04

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour, often inflicting devastating consequences on the developing child. Genomic studies have revealed four distinct molecular subgroups with divergent biology and clinical behaviour. An understanding of the regulatory circuitry governing the transcriptional landscapes of medulloblastoma subgroups, and how this relates to their respective developmental origins, is lacking. Here, using H3K27ac and BRD4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with tissue-matched DNA methylation and transcriptome data, we describe the active cis-regulatory landscape across 28 primary medulloblastoma specimens. Analysis of differentially regulated enhancers and super-enhancers reinforced inter-subgroup heterogeneity and revealed novel, clinically relevant insights into medulloblastoma biology. Computational reconstruction of core regulatory circuitry identified a master set of transcription factors, validated by ChIP-seq, that is responsible for subgroup divergence, and implicates candidate cells of origin for Group 4. Our integrated analysis of enhancer elements in a large series of primary tumour samples reveals insights into cis-regulatory architecture, unrecognized dependencies, and cellular origins.

  7. Detection of Problem Gambler Subgroups Using Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The…

  8. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in South Carolina for 2010. South Carolina introduced new tests in grades 3-8, so trend data that include 2009 are not available. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grade 10 was mixed. Comparable data were available for 2004-2009 at grade 10. (Contains 9 tables.) [For the…

  10. Single-Phase Mail Survey Design for Rare Population Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, J. Michael; Andrews, William R.; Mathiowetz, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Although using random digit dialing (RDD) telephone samples was the preferred method for conducting surveys of households for many years, declining response and coverage rates have led researchers to explore alternative approaches. The use of address-based sampling (ABS) has been examined for sampling the general population and subgroups, most…

  11. Differences in Psychosocial Predictors of Obesity Among LGBT Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the overall presence of and differences in rates of overweight/obesity among a large, nationally diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-identified individuals (i.e., cisgender lesbians, cisgender gay men, cisgender bisexual women, cisgender bisexual men, transgender women, and transgender men) and to identify specific psychosocial predictors of obesity within each of the six LGBT subgroups. A total of 2702 LGBT-identified participants participated in the online study. Participants completed a series of demographic questions (including weight and height) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21. The percentage of participants who were overweight/obese did not differ significantly across LGBT subgroups, with 61.1% of the total sample being overweight/obese. However, the percentage of participants who self-reported body mass indexes in the obese range differed significantly across the six LGBT subgroups, with the highest prevalence in transgender men (46.0%). In addition, the predictors of obesity varied by subgroup, with age a significant predictor for cisgender lesbians, cisgender gay men, and cisgender bisexual women, relationship status for cisgender bisexual women, employment status for both cisgender gay men and cisgender bisexual women, education level for cisgender lesbians, and depression, anxiety, and stress for cisgender gay men. None of the examined psychosocial factors emerged as predictors of obesity for cisgender bisexual men, transgender women, or transgender men. These findings suggest that there are substantial variations in the presence and predictors of obesity across LGBT subgroups that support the need for culturally tailored healthy weight promotion efforts within the LGBT community.

  12. Cluster Analysis of Clinical Data Identifies Fibromyalgia Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Elisa; Collado, Antonio; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Carbonell, Jordi; Rivera, Javier; Vidal, Javier; Alegre, José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia (FM) is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. Material and Methods 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. Results Variables clustered into three independent dimensions: “symptomatology”, “comorbidities” and “clinical scales”. Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1), high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2), and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3), showing differences in measures of disease severity. Conclusions We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment. PMID:24098674

  13. Prevalence of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Bilgi, Mustafa Melih; Vardar, Rukiye; Yıldırım, Esra; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Bor, Serhat

    2017-04-01

    Limited data exist regarding the psychosocial aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some GERD subgroups, such as functional heartburn and hypersensitive esophagus, might show different psychiatric comorbidities than others. We aimed to evaluate the psychiatric comorbidities of GERD subgroups using a cross-sectional design. A group of GERD patients at a tertiary outpatient clinic were evaluated via upper GIS (gastrointestinal system) endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-h impedance-pH monitoring. Thirty-nine patients diagnosed with erosive reflux disease, 44 with non-erosive reflux disease, 20 with functional heartburn, 11 with hypersensitive esophagus, and 44 healthy controls participated. Psychiatric diagnoses were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. Psychometric measurements of the patients were performed using the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Short-Form 36. Healthy controls were evaluated with the same psychometric scales except for the Short-Form 36. All of the GERD subgroups were significantly more depressed than the control group. Depressive disorders were significantly more prevalent in the functional heartburn group than in the non-erosive reflux disease and erosive reflux disease groups. The trait anxiety level of the functional heartburn group was significantly higher than those of the control and non-erosive reflux disease groups. The quality of life scores of the GERD subgroups were significantly lower than the population standards. Depressive disorders were frequently comorbid in the GERD subgroups studied (30-65 %). It is essential to consider the high prevalence rates of comorbid depression when managing GERD.

  14. Ethical debates: enhancing critical thinking in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Candela, Lori; Michael, Susan Rush; Mitchell, Shae

    2003-01-01

    The use of classroom debates can be helpful in teaching ethical content that is often nebulous and difficult for students to comprehend and apply. Debates enhance critical thinking skills through researching issues and developing a stance that can be supported in scientific literature. The authors describe a student debate project involving ethical issues with chronically ill clients. Many students changed their views during the debates. Students evaluated the debates as a positive learning experience.

  15. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (<2 years old, incidence rate ratio (IRR)=4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68, 10.42; 2-4 years, IRR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06, 2.26). For children with mothers of Mexican descent, higher maternal English language proficiency was associated with higher amounts of child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  16. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (<2 years old, incidence rate ratio (IRR)=4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68, 10.42; 2–4 years, IRR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06, 2.26). For children with mothers of Mexican descent, higher maternal English language proficiency was associated with higher amounts of child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  17. HTLV-1 subgroups associated with the risk of HAM/TSP are related to viral and host gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, independent of the transactivation functions of the viral factors.

    PubMed

    Yasuma, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takashima, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-01

    Among human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals, the risk of developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) across lifetime differs between ethnic groups. There is an association between HTLV-1 tax gene subgroups (subgroup-A or subgroup-B) and the risk of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. In this study, we investigated the full-length proviral genome sequences of various HTLV-1-infected cell lines and patient samples. The functional differences in the viral transcriptional regulators Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) between each subgroup and the relationships between subgroups and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients were evaluated. The results of these analyses indicated the following: (1) distinct nucleotide substitutions corresponding to each subgroup were associated with nucleotide substitutions in viral structural, regulatory, and accessory genes; (2) the HBZ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in HTLV-1-infected cells was significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B than in those with subgroup-A; (3) a positive correlation was observed between the expression of HBZ mRNA and its target Foxp3 mRNA in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B, but not in patients with subgroup-A; (4) no clear differences were noted in clinical and laboratory characteristics between HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-A and subgroup-B; and (5) no functional differences were observed in Tax and HBZ between each subgroup based on reporter gene assays. Our results indicate that although different HTLV-1 subgroups are characterized by different patterns of viral and host gene expression in HAM/TSP patients via independent mechanisms of direct transcriptional regulation, these differences do not significantly affect the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients.

  18. Debatable issues in automated ECG reporting.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Peter W; Mason, Jay W; Kligfield, Paul; Sommargren, Claire E; Drew, Barbara; van Dam, Peter; Abächerli, Roger; Albert, David E; Hodges, Morrison

    2017-09-01

    Although automated ECG analysis has been available for many years, there are some aspects which require to be re-assessed with respect to their value while newer techniques which are worthy of review are beginning to find their way into routine use. At the annual International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology conference held in April 2017, four areas in particular were debated. These were a) automated 12 lead resting ECG analysis; b) real time out of hospital ECG monitoring; c) ECG imaging; and d) single channel ECG rhythm interpretation. One speaker presented the positive aspects of each technique and another outlined the more negative aspects. Debate ensued. There were many positives set out for each technique but equally, more negative features were not in short supply, particularly for out of hospital ECG monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  20. Quantitative and qualitative research: beyond the debate.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar; Braakmann, Diana; Benetka, Gerhard

    2008-09-01

    Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative and qualitative approaches. This article outlines and discusses quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research approaches with specific reference to their (1) philosophical foundations (i.e. basic sets of beliefs that ground inquiry), (2) methodological assumptions (i.e. principles and formal conditions which guide scientific investigation), and (3) research methods (i.e. concrete procedures for data collection, analysis and interpretation). We conclude that MMR may reasonably overcome the limitation of purely quantitative and purely qualitative approaches at each of these levels, providing a fruitful context for a more comprehensive psychological research.

  1. Moving research beyond the spanking debate.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Harriet L; Mikton, Christopher R

    2017-02-26

    Despite numerous studies identifying a broad range of harms associated with the use of spanking and other types of physical punishment, debate continues about its use as a form of discipline. In this commentary, we recommend four strategies to move the field forward and beyond the spanking debate including: 1) use of methodological approaches that allow for stronger causal inference; 2) consideration of human rights issues; 3) a focus on understanding the causes of spanking and reasons for its decline in certain countries; and 4) more emphasis on evidence-based approaches to changing social norms to reject spanking as a form of discipline. Physical punishment needs to be recognized as an important public health problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal human variation: refocussing the enhancement debate.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-02-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range.

  3. The Lashley-Hull debate revisited.

    PubMed

    Bruce, D

    1998-02-01

    N. Weidman (1994) claimed that "Karl Lashley and Clark Hull had a long and unresolved controversy about the structure and function of the brain, its relationship to the mind, and the use of machine metaphors to explain intelligence" (p. 162). The record contained in published articles and unpublished correspondence indicates otherwise. The clash was explicitly about continuity versus noncontinuity in discrimination learning, stimulus generalization, and the development of quantitative and mathematical psychological theory and its relation to neurophysiological data. Weidman also contended that the subtext of the debate was whether heredity or environment was more important in determining intelligence and behavior. This is doubtful. It is more probable that the debate stemmed from Lashley's career-long opposition to connectionism.

  4. [Neonatal screening: trends, debates and consensus].

    PubMed

    Vailly, Joëlle

    2007-03-01

    This study focuses on the social and political implications of the substantial expansion of genetic tests and neonatal screening. The introduction of neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis is one of the significant developments that have fuelled debate on their appropriateness. It has raised a series of questions on the pros and cons, the role of evidence in biomedicine, and the articulation between the therapeutic approach and foetal selection. In this respect France provides an ideal research field as it was one of the first countries to generalize this screening, launched in January 2002. Several questions arise: What were the terms of the debate in France and their underlying logics? How was consensus reached? More generally, what does this screening tell us about policies on life forms today?

  5. Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Nine original articles comprise this special issue of the Journal of Personality addressing personality-based perspectives of psychopathy. In this introduction to the special issue, we review five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. At the same time, several important debates remain, which are also highlighted in the special issue's articles. These debates center around the necessity and sufficiency of certain psychopathy traits, the role of traits alternatively labeled stable Extraversion, fearless dominance, or boldness, and the validity and utility of separating psychopathy from Machiavellianism as is done in research on the Dark Triad.

  6. Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Gold, E. Richard; Cho, Mildred K.

    2008-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities’ response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures. PMID:11252752

  7. Current debates over nosology of somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amlan K; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Mazumdar, Joyita

    2012-01-01

    There is a wide debate among the researchers and clinicians over the diagnostic categories subsumed under the rubric of somatoform disorders (SDs). Recent proposals vary from radical views that call for removing this category altogether to the conservative views that suggests cosmetic changes in the diagnostic criteria of SDs. We have the reviewed the relevant literature through PUBMED search supplemented with manual search on current concepts of SD.

  8. [The ethnic enclave debate: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Waldinger, R

    1993-01-01

    "With the renewal of mass immigration to the United States, large numbers of immigrants have gone into business for themselves. Research on the Cuban immigrant economy of Miami, Florida found that employment in the 'ethnic enclave' increases immigrant earnings and improves immigrants' chances of moving into self-employment. This article reviews the American debate that ensued over the 'ethnic enclave' and its causes." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  9. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    PubMed

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  10. A continued debate about hastened death.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G A H

    2000-06-01

    Oregon's Death with Dignity Act has changed the nature of the discussion and debate surrounding hastened death. After considering how the Act has been implemented, the clinical, policy, and research implications of physician-assisted suicide or physician-assisted death are introduced. This brief article, and the special theme issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, present the opposing viewpoints on this issue.

  11. Venezuelan political debate focuses on Pdvsa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that another political firestorm has flared over Venezuelan petroleum sector investment. Statements by Venezuela's President Carlos Andres Perez who has provoked a new political debate over oil affairs in Venezuela. Commenting on Pdvsa's overseas interests, it has been ordered that the state oil company to sell part of its shares in Citgo Petroleum Corp., Tulsa, and Ruhr Oel GmbH, a joint venture with Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen.

  12. Four themes in recent Swedish bioethics debates.

    PubMed

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking.

  13. Association between Obesity and Cardiometabolic Health Risk in Asian-Canadian Sub-Groups

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jason X.; Ardern, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare the association between the World Health Organizations’ Asian-specific trigger points for public health action [‘increased risk’: body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2, and; ‘high risk’: BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2] with self-reported cardiovascular-related conditions in Asian-Canadian sub-groups. Methods Six cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001–2009) were pooled to examine BMI and health in Asian sub-groups (South Asians, Chinese, Filipino, Southeast Asians, Arabs, West Asians, Japanese and Korean; N = 18 794 participants, ages 18–64 y). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle characteristics and acculturation measures, was used to estimate the odds of cardiovascular-related health (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’) outcomes across all eight Asian sub-groups. Results Compared to South Asians (OR = 1.00), Filipinos had higher odds of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.62), whereas Chinese (0.63, 0.474–0.9) and Arab-Canadians had lower odds (0.38, 0.28–0.51). In ethnic-specific analyses (with ‘acceptable’ risk weight as the referent), ‘increased’ and ‘high’ risk weight categories were the most highly associated with ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ in Chinese (‘increased’: 3.6, 2.34–5.63; ‘high’: 8.9, 3.6–22.01). Compared to normal weight South Asians, being in the ‘high’ risk weight category in all but the Southeast Asian, Arab, and Japanese ethnic groups was associated with approximately 3-times the likelihood of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’. Conclusion Differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risks were seen among Asian sub-groups in Canada. The use of WHO’s lowered Asian-specific BMI cut-offs identified obesity-related risks in South Asian, Filipino and Chinese sub-groups

  14. Association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risk in Asian-Canadian sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jason X; Ardern, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    To quantify and compare the association between the World Health Organizations' Asian-specific trigger points for public health action ['increased risk': body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2, and; 'high risk': BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2] with self-reported cardiovascular-related conditions in Asian-Canadian sub-groups. Six cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001-2009) were pooled to examine BMI and health in Asian sub-groups (South Asians, Chinese, Filipino, Southeast Asians, Arabs, West Asians, Japanese and Korean; N = 18 794 participants, ages 18-64 y). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle characteristics and acculturation measures, was used to estimate the odds of cardiovascular-related health (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, 'at least one cardiometabolic condition') outcomes across all eight Asian sub-groups. Compared to South Asians (OR = 1.00), Filipinos had higher odds of having 'at least one cardiometabolic condition' (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04-1.62), whereas Chinese (0.63, 0.474-0.9) and Arab-Canadians had lower odds (0.38, 0.28-0.51). In ethnic-specific analyses (with 'acceptable' risk weight as the referent), 'increased' and 'high' risk weight categories were the most highly associated with 'at least one cardiometabolic condition' in Chinese ('increased': 3.6, 2.34-5.63; 'high': 8.9, 3.6-22.01). Compared to normal weight South Asians, being in the 'high' risk weight category in all but the Southeast Asian, Arab, and Japanese ethnic groups was associated with approximately 3-times the likelihood of having 'at least one cardiometabolic condition'. Differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risks were seen among Asian sub-groups in Canada. The use of WHO's lowered Asian-specific BMI cut-offs identified obesity-related risks in South Asian, Filipino and Chinese sub-groups that would have been masked by traditional BMI categories. These findings have implications for

  15. Evaluation of Lymphocyte Subgroups in Children With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Cahide; Doğan, Murat; Başarslan, Fatmagül; Yılmaz, Nebi; Yuca, Sevil; Bulan, Keziban; Kaya, Avni; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, lymphocyte subgroups including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, CD19, and CD16.56 values were analyzed in children with Down syndrome (DS). The study includes 85 children with DS, followed at Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Yüzüncü Yil University and 64 healthy age-matched control participants. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, CD19, and CD16.56 values were examined in both the groups. Significantly decreased blood CD3, CD4, and CD19 values were found in the study group (P < .05) when compared with the control group. In conclusion, we would like to emphasize that blood CD3, CD4, and CD19 levels were found to be decreased in children with DS. Based on these finding, we think that these decreased lymphocyte subgroups might be responsible for increased susceptibility to infections in children with DS.

  16. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  17. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  18. Distinguishing between Subgroups of Adolescents Who Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargus, Emily; Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The differences in factors associated with subgroups of adolescents in the continuum of deliberate self-harm (DSH) phenomena were investigated. In an anonymous self-report survey of 6,020 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years, 3.2% of adolescents (5.3% females, 1.3% males) reported DSH with intent to die, 2.8% (4.3% females; 1.5% males) reported DSH…

  19. Effect of duloxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: tiredness subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study tested the hypothesis that baseline ratings of fatigue/tiredness would be negatively associated with the efficacy of duloxetine on measures of pain and functional ability in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods A post hoc analysis of pooled data from 4 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of duloxetine in fibromyalgia was performed. The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) tiredness item score (0 to 10 scale) was used to define tiredness subgroups. Patients were stratified into 3 subgroups: mild (0 to 3), moderate (4 to 6), and severe (7 to 10) tiredness. Analysis of covariance models and logistic regressions were used to test treatment-by-tiredness subgroup interactions. Results Data from the first 3 months are included in this post hoc analysis (duloxetine N = 797, placebo N = 535). At baseline, the distribution of tiredness severity in the duloxetine and placebo groups respectively was 3.64% and 3.75% mild, 16.71% and 15.57% moderate, and 79.65% and 80.68% severe. Rates of clinically significant (≥30% and ≥50%) improvement in brief pain inventory (BPI) average pain were similar across the tiredness subgroups. Tiredness severity at baseline was not negatively associated with the effects of duloxetine on patients' reports of functional ability using the FIQ total score, FIQ measures of physical impairment, interference with work, pain, stiffness, and depression and the medical outcomes study short form-36 (SF-36). Conclusions Studies of duloxetine in fibromyalgia have demonstrated clinically significant improvements in pain and functional ability (FIQ, SF-36). This post hoc analysis of data shows that the efficacy of duloxetine among patients with fibromyalgia does not vary as a function of baseline ratings of fatigue/tiredness. PMID:20630058

  20. Measuring the speed of aging across population subgroups.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article "The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging" published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations.

  1. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article “The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging” published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations. PMID:24806337

  2. Subgrouping of Pseudomonas cepacia by cellular fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Mukwaya, G M; Welch, D F

    1989-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions were determined for 42 strains of Pseudomonas cepacia from five cystic fibrosis centers in North America. All isolates contained significant (20%) amounts of hexadecanoic (C16:0), and cis-9 hexadecenoic (C16:1 cis9) acids and an isomer of octadecenoic acid (C18:1). None had hydroxy acids containing fewer than 14 carbon atoms. The quantitative data from the fatty acid analysis were highly reproducible and provided a basis for numerical analysis. Five subgroups comprising all the strains were obtained by cluster analysis and further characterized by principal-component analysis. With minor exceptions, the predominant subgroup identified in each center was different from that identified in other centers and accounted for one-half of the isolates within each center. Cellular fatty acid composition is a useful adjunct to biochemical characterization for the identification of P. cepacia isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Numerical analysis of the fatty acid data can separate P. cepacia into subgroups, which may provide useful epidemiologic information or a basis for further analysis by more complex techniques such as DNA probe analysis. PMID:2687315

  3. Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Williams, Brent L; Mishra, Nischay; Che, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bohyun; Bateman, Lucinda; Klimas, Nancy G; Komaroff, Anthony L; Levine, Susan; Montoya, Jose G; Peterson, Daniel L; Ramanan, Devi; Jain, Komal; Eddy, Meredith L; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

    2017-04-26

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by unexplained persistent fatigue, commonly accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, lymphadenopathy, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which the gastrointestinal microbiome and peripheral inflammation are associated with ME/CFS remains unclear. We pursued rigorous clinical characterization, fecal bacterial metagenomics, and plasma immune molecule analyses in 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls frequency-matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic site, and season of sampling. Topological analysis revealed associations between IBS co-morbidity, body mass index, fecal bacterial composition, and bacterial metabolic pathways but not plasma immune molecules. IBS co-morbidity was the strongest driving factor in the separation of topological networks based on bacterial profiles and metabolic pathways. Predictive selection models based on bacterial profiles supported findings from topological analyses indicating that ME/CFS subgroups, defined by IBS status, could be distinguished from control subjects with high predictive accuracy. Bacterial taxa predictive of ME/CFS patients with IBS were distinct from taxa associated with ME/CFS patients without IBS. Increased abundance of unclassified Alistipes and decreased Faecalibacterium emerged as the top biomarkers of ME/CFS with IBS; while increased unclassified Bacteroides abundance and decreased Bacteroides vulgatus were the top biomarkers of ME/CFS without IBS. Despite findings of differences in bacterial taxa and metabolic pathways defining ME/CFS subgroups, decreased metabolic pathways associated with unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and increased atrazine degradation pathways were independent of IBS co-morbidity. Increased vitamin B6 biosynthesis/salvage and pyrimidine ribonucleoside degradation were the top metabolic pathways in ME/CFS without IBS as well as in the

  4. Urinary proteome analysis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young Ah; Cain, Kevin; Jarrett, Monica; Smith, Lynne; Voss, Joachim; Tolentino, Ernie; Tsuji, Joyce; Tsai, Yihsuan S.; Panchaud, Alexandre; Goodlett, David R.; Shulman, Robert J.; Heitkemper, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain associated with alterations in bowel function. Given the heterogeneity of the symptoms, multiple pathophysiologic factors are suspected to play a role. We classified women with IBS into four subgroups based on distinct symptom profiles. In-depth shotgun proteomic analysis was carried out to profile the urinary proteomes to identify possible proteins associated with these subgroups. First void urine samples with urine creatinine level ≥ 100 mg/dL were used after excluding samples that tested positive for blood. Urine from ten subjects representing each symptom subgroup was pooled for proteomic analysis. The urine proteome was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using a data-independent method known as Precursor Acquisition Independent From Ion Count (PAcIFIC) that allowed extended detectable dynamic range. Differences in protein quantities were determined by peptide spectral counting followed by validation of select proteins with ELISA or a targeted single reaction monitoring (LC-SRM/MS) approach. Four IBS symptom subgroups were selected: 1) Constipation, 2) Diarrhea + Low Pain, 3) Diarrhea + High Pain, and 4) High Pain + High Pychological Distress. A fifth group consisted of Healthy Control subjects. From comparisons of quantitative spectral counting data among the symptom subgroups and controls, a total of 18 proteins that showed quantitative differences in relative abundance and possible physiological relevance to IBS were selected for further investigation. Three of the 18 proteins were chosen for validation by either ELISA or SRM. An elevated expression of gelsolin (GSN) was associated with the high pain groups. Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3) levels were higher in IBS groups compared to controls. In this study the IBS patients subclassified by predominant symptoms showed differences in urine proteome levels. Proteins

  5. Male breast cancer: Looking for better prognostic subgroups.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Miguel Henriques; Afonso, Noémia; Abreu, Pedro Henriques; Menezes, Francisco; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Pereira, Deolinda; Lopes, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Male Breast Cancer (MBC) remains a poor understood disease. Prognostic factors are not well established and specific prognostic subgroups are warranted. Retrospectively revision of 111 cases treated in the same Cancer Center. Blinded-central pathological revision with immunohistochemical (IHQ) analysis for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and androgen (AR) receptors, HER2, ki67 and p53 was done. Cox regression model was used for uni/multivariate survival analysis. Two classifications of Female Breast Cancer (FBC) subgroups (based in ER, PR, HER2, 2000 classification, and in ER, PR, HER2, ki67, 2013 classification) were used to achieve their prognostic value in MBC patients. Hierarchical clustering was performed to define subgroups based on the six-IHQ panel. According to FBC classifications, the majority of tumors were luminal: A (89.2%; 60.0%) and B (7.2%; 35.8%). Triple negative phenotype was infrequent (2.7%; 3.2%) and HER2 enriched, non-luminal, was rare (≤1% in both). In multivariate analysis the poor prognostic factors were: size >2 cm (HR:1.8; 95%CI:1.0-3.4 years, p = 0.049), absence of ER (HR:4.9; 95%CI:1.7-14.3 years, p = 0.004) and presence of distant metastasis (HR:5.3; 95%CI:2.2-3.1 years, p < 0.001). FBC subtypes were independent prognostic factors (p = 0.009, p = 0.046), but when analyzed only luminal groups, prognosis did not differ regardless the classification used (p > 0.20). Clustering defined different subgroups, that have prognostic value in multivariate analysis (p = 0.005), with better survival in ER/PR+, AR-, HER2-and ki67/p53 low group (median: 11.5 years; 95%CI: 6.2-16.8 years) and worst in PR-group (median:4.5 years; 95%CI: 1.6-7.8 years). FBC subtypes do not give the same prognostic information in MBC even in luminal groups. Two subgroups with distinct prognosis were identified in a common six-IHQ panel. Future studies must achieve their real prognostic value in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodynamic therapy vs. topical imiquimod for treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma: a subgroup analysis within a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roozeboom, M H; Nelemans, P J; Mosterd, K; Steijlen, P M; Arits, A H M M; Kelleners-Smeets, N W J

    2015-03-01

    A recent noninferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT) indicated that imiquimod can be considered as superior to methylaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Knowledge of treatment effectiveness in subgroups of patients is of great value in clinical practice to select the most effective treatment for an individual patient with sBCC. To explore whether the relative treatment effect of MAL-PDT and imiquimod is consistent across subgroups defined by patient and tumour characteristics. Data were derived from a single-blinded, noninferiority, multicentre RCT comparing MAL-PDT, topical imiquimod and fluorouracil (ISRCTN79701845). Treatment success was defined as free of tumour recurrence at 12-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses were performed for subgroups defined by sex, age, tumour location and tumour size. Two hundred and two patients received MAL-PDT and 198 received imiquimod. The superiority of imiquimod vs. MAL-PDT was observed in subgroups of females, sBCC on the trunk and large tumours with risk differences in favour of imiquimod of 18·4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7·8-29·0%], 21·0% (95% CI 10·9-31·1%) and 18·9% (95% CI 7·1-30·7%), respectively. Higher probability of treatment success for imiquimod vs. MAL-PDT was consistently found in all other subgroups with the exception of sBCC localized on the lower extremities in older patients. In the latter subgroup, the risk difference at the expense of imiquimod was -57·3% (95% CI -81·7% to -32·9%). Imiquimod remains the first-choice treatment for sBCC in terms of effectiveness. In older patients with sBCC on the lower extremities MAL-PDT might be preferred. Results should be interpreted carefully as subgroup analyses were exploratory and not driven by prior hypotheses. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Mariarosaria; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    Online service providers (OSPs)-such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter-significantly shape the informational environment (infosphere) and influence users' experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method of the levels of abstract (LoAs), we first analyse the moral responsibilities of OSPs in the web (LoAIN). These concern the management of online information, which includes information filtering, Internet censorship, the circulation of harmful content, and the implementation and fostering of human rights (including privacy). We then consider the moral responsibilities ascribed to OSPs on the web (LoAON) and focus on the existing legal regulation of access to users' data. The overall analysis provides an overview of the current state of the debate and highlights two main results. First, topics related to OSPs' public role-especially their gatekeeping function, their corporate social responsibilities, and their role in implementing and fostering human rights-have acquired increasing relevance in the specialised literature. Second, there is a lack of an ethical framework that can (a) define OSPs' responsibilities, and (b) provide the fundamental sharable principles necessary to guide OSPs' conduct within the multicultural and international context in which they operate. This article contributes to the ethical framework necessary to deal with (a) and (b) by endorsing a LoA enabling the definition of the responsibilities of OSPs with respect to the well-being of the infosphere and of the entities inhabiting it (LoAFor).

  8. Closed Circuit TV Debate Bridges the Gap Between Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Robert D.; Richardson, Ken J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how two elementary teachers used closed circuit television to promote debate skills among their students. The topic debated was the right of teachers and principals to search a student's desk if a suspicious situation exists. (JDH)

  9. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled.

  10. Debating Organ Procurement Policy Without Illusions.

    PubMed

    Hippen, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective, I review and critique claims that the transplant waiting list overstates the demand for kidneys and correct a few mischaracterizations of some structural barriers to increasing rates of transplantation. The solutions to the shortage of organs proffered by opponents of financial incentives fail to account for a panoply of clinical, regulatory, and financial realities of transplantation centers in the United States in ways that undermine the thesis that a trial of financial incentives for organ procurement is not warranted at this time. I conclude with some personal pessimistic reflections on the progress of this debate.

  11. Debating the biological reality of modelling preservation.

    PubMed

    ter, Steeg P F; Ueckert, J E

    2002-03-01

    Predictive food microbiology is a rapidly developing science and has made great advances. The aim is to debate a number of issues in modelling preservation: (1) inoculum and prehistory effects on lag times and process susceptibility; (2) mechanistic vs. empirical modelling; and (3) concluding remarks (the Species concept, methodology and biovariability). Increasing the awareness in these issues may bridge the gap between the complex reality in food microbial physiology and the application potential of predictive models. The challenge of bringing integrated preservation or risk analysis further and developing ways to truly model and link biological susceptibility distributions from raw ingredients via process survival to outgrowth probabilities in the final product remains.

  12. Great debate probes Pluto's planetary credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-09-01

    It had all the trappings of an Olympic boxing final: two fiery competitors, a partisan crowd and the attention of the global press. But no individual gold medalist emerged from the Great Planet Debate held last month in Baltimore to discuss what type of astronomical object Pluto really is. Rather, the contest between Neil de-Grasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, and Mark Sykes of the University of Arizona's Planetary Science Institute provided a view of how science deals with controversial issues of definition.

  13. Identifying subgroups of U.S. adults at risk for prolonged television viewing to inform program development.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Goldberg, Jennifer H; Salmon, Jo; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David; Weber, Deanne; Doyle, Colleen; Robinson, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Although adverse health effects of prolonged TV viewing have been increasingly recognized, little population-wide information is available concerning subgroups at greatest risk for this behavior. This study sought to identify, in a U.S. population-derived sample, combinations of variables that defined subgroups with higher versus lower levels of usual TV-viewing time. A total of 5556 adults from a national consumer panel participated in the mail survey in 2001 (55% women, 71% white, 13% black, and 11% Hispanic). Nonparametric risk classification analyses were conducted in 2008. Subgroups with the highest proportions of people watching >14 hours/week of TV were identified and described using a combination of demographic (i.e., lower household incomes, divorced/separated); health and mental health (i.e., poorer rated overall health, higher BMI, more depression); and behavioral (i.e., eating dinner in front of the TV, smoking, less physical activity) variables. The subgroup with the highest rates of TV viewing routinely ate dinner while watching TV and had lower income and poorer health. Prolonged TV viewing also was associated with perceived aspects of the neighborhood environment (i.e., heavy traffic and crime, lack of neighborhood lighting, and poor scenery). The results can help inform intervention development in this increasingly important behavioral health area. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphisms and clinical subgroups of major depressive disorders in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Huang, San-Yuan; Lin, Ming-Teng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Huang, Cheng-Chang; Shy, Mee-Jen; Lu, Ru-Band

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that an MAOA abnormality may be an important factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). Various polymorphisms of the MAOA gene have been investigated for possible associations with mood disorders, but results have been inconsistent. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether polymorphisms of the MAOA gene are associated with MDD or alternatively with different clinical subgroups of MDD. A total of 590 Han Chinese subjects in Taiwan (312 controls and 278 MDD patients) were recruited. Among the males, there were no associations with MAOA polymorphisms. Among the females, an association was found between MAOA polymorphisms and severe MDD (P=0.041 for uVNTR and 0.017 for EcoRV (rs1137070), respectively). However, in analyses of haplotype frequencies and multiple logistic regression, MAOA polymorphisms were not associated with either MDD or its subgroups. The results suggest that MAOA polymorphisms do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of MDD or its subgroups. However, a potential role for a minor association with some specific subgroups and with different ethnic samples needs to be explored further.

  15. Gender by Preferred Gambling Activity in Treatment Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Comparison of Subgroup Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khanbhai, Yasmin; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm

    2017-03-01

    Problem gambling is a growing public health concern and treatment incompletion levels remain high. The study aims to support and extend previous studies in relation to the heterogeneity of the gambling population based on gender and gambling type, and the implications of subgroup differences on treatment outcomes. Additionally, the concept of drop-out is addressed in terms of categorical treatment measures. The empirical findings are examined in the context of the theoretical framework of the pathways model. Participants were recruited from the Statewide Gambling Therapy Service and stratified into subgroups based on gender and gambling mode preference [Electronic Gambling Machines (EGM) or track race betters]. Baseline predictors collected and analysed using multinomial logistical regression included demographic information as well as gambling variables, while treatment outcomes consisted of three therapist rated measures. Significant differences between the subgroups were found for age, marital and employment status, gambling duration, alcohol use and the Kessler 10 measure of psychological distress. Specifically, male track race gamblers were younger, married, employed, had a longer duration of gambling, higher alcohol use and lower psychological distress relative to EGM users. No difference was found in any of the treatment outcomes, however, consistent with previous studies, all subgroups had high treatment incompletion levels. The findings demonstrate the importance of screening, assessing and treating problem gamblers as a heterogeneous group with different underlying demographics and psychopathologies. It is also hoped future studies will continue to address treatment incompletion with a re-conceptualisation of the term drop-out.

  16. Identifying Subgroups of Adult Superutilizers in an Urban Safety-Net System Using Latent Class Analysis: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Deborah J; Oronce, Carlos; Durfee, Michael J; Ranby, Krista W; Batal, Holly A; Hanratty, Rebecca; Vogel, Jody; Johnson, Tracy L

    2016-09-14

    Patients with repeated hospitalizations represent a group with potentially avoidable utilization. Recent publications have begun to highlight the heterogeneity of this group. Latent class analysis provides a novel methodological approach to utilizing administrative data to identify clinically meaningful subgroups of patients to inform tailored intervention efforts. The objective of the study was to identify clinically distinct subgroups of adult superutilizers. Retrospective cohort analysis. Adult patients who had an admission at an urban safety-net hospital in 2014 and 2 or more admissions within the preceding 12 months. Patient-level medical, mental health (MH) and substance use diagnoses, social characteristics, demographics, utilization and charges were obtained from administrative data. Latent class analyses were used to determine the number and characteristics of latent subgroups that best represented these data. In this cohort (N=1515), a 5-class model was preferred based on model fit indices, clinical interpretability and class size: class 1 (16%) characterized by alcohol use disorder and homelessness; class 2 (14%) characterized by medical conditions, MH/substance use disorders and homelessness; class 3 (25%) characterized primarily by medical conditions; class 4 (13%) characterized by more serious MH disorders, drug use disorder and homelessness; and class 5 (32%) characterized by medical conditions with some MH and substance use. Patient demographics, utilization, charges and mortality also varied by class. The overall cohort had high rates of multiple chronic medical conditions, MH, substance use disorders, and homelessness. However, the patterns of these conditions were different between subgroups, providing important information for tailoring interventions.

  17. Pedagogical Possibilities for Argumentative Agency in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the promises and pitfalls of primary research, public debate, debate outreach, and public advocacy as specific modes of debate activism designed to cultivate argumentative agency and bring argumentation skills to bear in wider spheres of public deliberation beyond the academy. (CR)

  18. The Dewey-Hutchins Debate: A Dispute over Moral Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…

  19. Some Thoughts on Anthony Bruton's Critique of the Correction Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, Anthony Bruton argued that correction receives too much attention and that the debate over it (which he calls "the Truscott debate") is "a rather tedious sterile academic debate" that has harmed the field. He dismissed the case against correction, based on arguments that uncorrected students do not improve, some general…

  20. The Dark Side of Debate: The Downfall of Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Olson, Clark D.

    Debaters are trained to think differently from others, and while that type of thinking might be useful, it can be detrimental to interpersonal relationships. Participation in debate creates a unique standpoint, which, in turn, plays havoc with a debater's ability to cope with uncertainty, encourages second-guessing, impedes rather than fosters…

  1. The Dewey-Hutchins Debate: A Dispute over Moral Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…

  2. Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

  3. The Thrill Is Gone: Rediscovering Pathos and Style in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallmon, James M.

    This is a polemic on the need to rehumanize collegiate debate. Viewed as a reform movement insofar as its primary concern is to revitalize public debate, the National Education Debate Association (NEDA) ought to be mindful of the ethical implications of its aims in the same way that a repairman fixes what is broken: by concentrating, not on the…

  4. Organizing a Congressional Candidate Debate as Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckelman, Keith; Deitz, Janna L.; Hardy, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a political debate among congressional candidates that the authors organized in 2006. The debate was structured to maximize student involvement both in the planning stages and during the event itself. After discussing relevant literature on experiential learning, the article describes the debate format and details the issues…

  5. Debate and Dissent in Late Tokugawa and Meiji Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1994-01-01

    Argues that debate is not antithetical to Japanese culture and that Japan has indigenous traditions of argument and debate. Outlines the Japanese tradition of argumentation prior to the "opening to the West" in 1853. Suggests a more expansive model of debate as appropriate to cross-cultural analysis. (HB)

  6. Is It Too Late To Save Policy Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    National Debate Tournament (NDT) policy debate is in a state of crisis, suffering a steady and precipitous drop in participation. This decline is due not to external factors, but rather to problems and abuses unique to NDT policy debate. Its demise reflects a much broader problem, the abrogation of intellectual leadership in the activity. Coaches…

  7. An Empirical Analysis of the Value Debate Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Brenda J.; Verch, Stephen L.

    A survey was conducted of students participating in the 1982 Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) tournament to uncover the reasons why they were competing in CEDA, whether they had ever participated in the National Debate Tournament (NDT), and which style of debate they preferred. Of the 133 respondents, 83 males and 50 females, 42%…

  8. Electroencephalographic characterization of subgroups of children with learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Roca-Stappung, Milene; Fernández, Thalía; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Harmony, Thalía; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalographic alterations have been reported in subjects with learning disorders, but there is no consensus on what characterizes their electroencephalogram findings. Our objective was to determine if there were subgroups within a group of scholars with not otherwise specified learning disorders and if they had specific electroencephalographic patterns. Eighty-five subjects (31 female, 8-11 years) who scored low in at least two subscales -reading, writing and arithmetic- of the Infant Neuropsychological Evaluation were included. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 19 leads during rest with eyes closed; absolute power was obtained every 0.39 Hz. Three subgroups were formed according to children's performance: Group 1 (G1, higher scores than Group 2 in reading speed and reading and writing accuracy), Group 2 (G2, better performance than G1 in composition) and Group 3 (G3, lower scores than Groups 1 and 2 in the three subscales). G3 had higher absolute power in frequencies in the delta and theta range at left frontotemporal sites than G1 and G2. G2 had higher absolute power within alpha frequencies than G3 and G1 at the left occipital site. G3 had higher absolute power in frequencies in the beta range than G1 in parietotemporal areas and than G2 in left frontopolar and temporal sites. G1 had higher absolute power within beta frequencies than G2 in the left frontopolar site. G3 had lower gamma absolute power values than the other groups in the left hemisphere, and gamma activity was higher in G1 than in G2 in frontopolar and temporal areas. This group of children with learning disorders is very heterogeneous. Three subgroups were found with different cognitive profiles, as well as a different electroencephalographic pattern. It is important to consider these differences when planning interventions for children with learning disorders.

  9. Electroencephalographic characterization of subgroups of children with learning disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Stappung, Milene; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Harmony, Thalía; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalographic alterations have been reported in subjects with learning disorders, but there is no consensus on what characterizes their electroencephalogram findings. Our objective was to determine if there were subgroups within a group of scholars with not otherwise specified learning disorders and if they had specific electroencephalographic patterns. Eighty-five subjects (31 female, 8–11 years) who scored low in at least two subscales -reading, writing and arithmetic- of the Infant Neuropsychological Evaluation were included. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 19 leads during rest with eyes closed; absolute power was obtained every 0.39 Hz. Three subgroups were formed according to children’s performance: Group 1 (G1, higher scores than Group 2 in reading speed and reading and writing accuracy), Group 2 (G2, better performance than G1 in composition) and Group 3 (G3, lower scores than Groups 1 and 2 in the three subscales). G3 had higher absolute power in frequencies in the delta and theta range at left frontotemporal sites than G1 and G2. G2 had higher absolute power within alpha frequencies than G3 and G1 at the left occipital site. G3 had higher absolute power in frequencies in the beta range than G1 in parietotemporal areas and than G2 in left frontopolar and temporal sites. G1 had higher absolute power within beta frequencies than G2 in the left frontopolar site. G3 had lower gamma absolute power values than the other groups in the left hemisphere, and gamma activity was higher in G1 than in G2 in frontopolar and temporal areas. This group of children with learning disorders is very heterogeneous. Three subgroups were found with different cognitive profiles, as well as a different electroencephalographic pattern. It is important to consider these differences when planning interventions for children with learning disorders. PMID:28708890

  10. Socialized sub-groups in a temporary stable Raven flock?

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Anna; Walsdorff, Thomas; Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A complex social life serves as one of the main driving forces behind the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in vertebrates. In birds, however, data are primarily derived from captive animals, which strongly contrast with free-flying birds in terms of the number of interaction partners as well as available space. In captivity, Common Raven Corvus corax, nonbreeder groups show strong social bonds and complex tactical manoeuvring, whereas wild non-breeders are thought to resemble anonymous aggregations. Over 2 years, we observed a free-flying population of Ravens that visits a game park in the northern Alps. We here focus on the daily fission–fusion dynamics, individual spacing, and the influence of spacing on the birds’ agonistic and affiliative behaviour. The composition of marked Ravens in the local population changed slowly but constantly, although often remaining stable for several weeks. Birds only flocked for feeding, mobbing and roosting, and spent the rest of the day in loose aggregations, characterised by temporary small subgroups of 2–5 individuals. Aggression was high during crowd foraging but low outside of a feeding context. Affiliative behaviours, such as sitting within reaching distance, allo-preening and social play, were observed particularly in the small subgroups. These findings suggest that Raven aggregations are not as unstructured as previously thought. Birds may spend time and/or interact affilliatively with multiple individuals during the day. This, along with temporary stability in group composition, provides the opportunity for social relationships to develop, and enables the existence of socialised subgroups within free-flying Raven aggregations. PMID:25892747

  11. Socialized sub-groups in a temporary stable Raven flock?

    PubMed

    Braun, Anna; Walsdorff, Thomas; Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    A complex social life serves as one of the main driving forces behind the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in vertebrates. In birds, however, data are primarily derived from captive animals, which strongly contrast with free-flying birds in terms of the number of interaction partners as well as available space. In captivity, Common Raven Corvus corax, nonbreeder groups show strong social bonds and complex tactical manoeuvring, whereas wild non-breeders are thought to resemble anonymous aggregations. Over 2 years, we observed a free-flying population of Ravens that visits a game park in the northern Alps. We here focus on the daily fission-fusion dynamics, individual spacing, and the influence of spacing on the birds' agonistic and affiliative behaviour. The composition of marked Ravens in the local population changed slowly but constantly, although often remaining stable for several weeks. Birds only flocked for feeding, mobbing and roosting, and spent the rest of the day in loose aggregations, characterised by temporary small subgroups of 2-5 individuals. Aggression was high during crowd foraging but low outside of a feeding context. Affiliative behaviours, such as sitting within reaching distance, allo-preening and social play, were observed particularly in the small subgroups. These findings suggest that Raven aggregations are not as unstructured as previously thought. Birds may spend time and/or interact affilliatively with multiple individuals during the day. This, along with temporary stability in group composition, provides the opportunity for social relationships to develop, and enables the existence of socialised subgroups within free-flying Raven aggregations.

  12. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data: SPSS TwoStep Cluster analysis, Latent Gold and SNOB.

    PubMed

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-10-02

    There are various methodological approaches to identifying clinically important subgroups and one method is to identify clusters of characteristics that differentiate people in cross-sectional and/or longitudinal data using Cluster Analysis (CA) or Latent Class Analysis (LCA). There is a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA, Latent Gold LCA and SNOB LCA). The performance of these three methods was compared: (i) quantitatively using the number of subgroups detected, the classification probability of individuals into subgroups, the reproducibility of results, and (ii) qualitatively using subjective judgments about each program's ease of use and interpretability of the presentation of results.We analysed five real datasets of varying complexity in a secondary analysis of data from other research projects. Three datasets contained only MRI findings (n = 2,060 to 20,810 vertebral disc levels), one dataset contained only pain intensity data collected for 52 weeks by text (SMS) messaging (n = 1,121 people), and the last dataset contained a range of clinical variables measured in low back pain patients (n = 543 people). Four artificial datasets (n = 1,000 each) containing subgroups of varying complexity were also analysed testing the ability of these clustering methods to detect subgroups and correctly classify individuals when subgroup membership was known. The results from the real clinical datasets indicated that the number of subgroups detected varied, the certainty of classifying individuals into those subgroups varied, the findings had perfect reproducibility, some programs were easier to use and the interpretability of the presentation of their findings also varied. The results from the artificial datasets

  13. Report of the subgroup on alternative models and new ideas

    SciTech Connect

    M. Chertok et al.

    2002-12-23

    We summarize some of the work done by the P3 subgroup on Alternative Models and New Ideas. The working group covered a broad range of topics including a constrained Standard Model from an extra dimension, a discussion of recent ideas addressing the strong CP problem, searches for doubly charged higgs bosons in e{gamma} collisions, and an update on discovery limits for extra neutral gauge bosons at hadron colliders. The breadth of topics rejects the many ideas and approaches to physics beyond the Standard Model.

  14. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  15. Genetic advances require comprehensive bioethical debate.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk A M J

    2003-10-01

    In the popular media and scientific literature, the idea of medical utopia seems to have been revived. Medical science and technology are expected to provide solutions for all kinds of daily problems in human existence. The utopian context and optimistic atmosphere are influencing deeply the bio-ethical debate concerning bio-molecular technologies. They a priori direct this debate towards individual perspectives, emphasizing the benefits among which an autonomous person can make his or her choice, and towards practical applications the potential beneficial effects of which are almost there. It is argued that the concept of "geneticization" is useful for the analysis of the interrelations between genetics, medicine, society, and culture. This concept focuses on conceptual issues--the use of genetic vocabulary to define problems; institutional issues--the emergence of bio-ethics experts; cultural issues--the transformation of individual and social attitudes under the influence of genetic knowledge and technology; and philosophical issues--changing views of human identity, interpersonal relationships, and individual responsibility.

  16. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  17. The great health policy debate of 2010.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E

    1996-01-01

    Moderator: Good evening. Tonight I will be moderating a debate on the Health Care System Salvage and Coverage Overhaul Act of 2010 (Senate Bill 1, with companion legislation in the House). The bill is awaiting final congressional action, and the issue is considered so important that all 14 major television networks are carrying this debate live, along with many radio networks and at least 1,873 Internet/World Wide Web sites. As you know, S.B. 1 would provide immediate federal aid to the 1,000 hospitals and health care systems that are currently in bankruptcy; extend government-subsidized coverage to the estimated 90 million Americans who lack it; return to the federal government a wide range of health care regulatory and payment activities that had been transferred to the states; and prohibit certain types of health care enterprises and services, chiefly proprietary delivery and managed care systems. At the moment, the chances of its passage are too close to call. Arguments in support of S.B. 1 will be presented tonight by Sen. Joseph P. Kennedy II, Democrat of Massachusetts; arguments in opposition to the bill will be presented by Sen. George W. Bush, Republican of Texas; and the view of the Independent Party will be presented by former Kansas Senator Nancy Kassebaum, who also speaks as chairman of the National Nonpartisan Commission to Save American Health Care. Senator Kennedy will begin.

  18. Analysis of the ethical issues in the breastfeeding and bedsharing debate.

    PubMed

    Fetherston, Catherine M; Leach, J Shaughn

    2012-11-01

    Recommendations advising against mothers and their infants sharing a bed during sleep (bedsharing) have sparked heated debate in recent years, the effects of which are that bedsharing is now most often only considered in the polarised contexts of being either 'the norm' or 'inherently unsafe'. This has resulted in significant tensions between supporters of bedsharing and public health bodies who seek to eliminate the risks associated with SIDS. This paper considers the issues surrounding this debate by examining the evidence associated with bedsharing, SIDS and breastfeeding. This is undertaken using Baum's six-step framework for analysing potential ethical tensions in public health policy, which includes the principles of utility, evidence base and effectiveness of action, fairness, accountability, costs and burdens, and community acceptance. This framework has allowed us to examine the competing principles involved in the bedsharing and breastfeeding debate, and arrive at a position constructed using ethical considerations.

  19. Marker antibody expression stratifies Crohn's disease into immunologically homogeneous subgroups with distinct clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliauskas, E; Kam, L; Karp, L; Gaiennie, J; Yang, H; Targan, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) have been detected in a clinically distinct Crohn's disease subpopulation. Antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) have been demonstrated in the majority of patients with Crohn's disease.
AIMS—To examine the relationship between selective marker antibody expression in Crohn's disease and disease onset, location, and clinical behaviour patterns.
METHODS—Sera from 156 consecutive patients with established Crohn's disease were evaluated in a blinded fashion for the presence of ASCA and ANCA. Clinical profiles were generated by investigators blinded to immune marker status.
RESULTS—Using multiple regression analyses, higher ASCA levels were shown to be independently associated with early age of disease onset as well as both fibrostenosing and internal penetrating disease behaviours. Higher ANCA levels were associated with later age of onset and ulcerative colitis-like behaviour. Substratification of the Crohn's disease population using selective ANCA and ASCA expression (high levels of a single marker antibody): (1) distinguished homogeneous subgroups that manifested similar disease location and behaviours; and (2) identified patients with more aggressive small bowel disease.
CONCLUSIONS—The findings suggest that by taking into account the magnitude of the host immune response, Crohn's disease can now be stratified on an immunological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, characterised by greater uniformity among anatomical distribution of disease and disease behaviour.


Keywords: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody; Crohn's disease; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis PMID:10986208

  20. Commognitive analysis of undergraduate mathematics students' first encounter with the subgroup test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Marios

    2017-08-01

    This study analyses learning aspects of undergraduate mathematics students' first encounter with the subgroup test, using the commognitive theoretical framework. It focuses on students' difficulties as these are related to the object-level and metalevel mathematical learning in group theory, and, when possible, highlights any commognitive conflicts. In the data analysis, one can identify three types of difficulties, relevant to object-level learning: namely regarding the frequently observed confusion between groups and sets, the object-level rules of visual mediators, and the object-level rules of contextual notions, such as permutations, exponentials, sets and matrices. In addition, data analysis suggests two types of difficulties, relevant to metalevel learning. The first refers to the actual proof that the three conditions of subgroup test hold, and the second is related to syntactic inaccuracies, incomplete argumentation and problematic use of visual mediators. Finally, this study suggests that there are clear links between object-level and metalevel learning, mainly due to the fact that objectification of the various relevant mathematical notions influences the endorsement of the governing metarules.