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Sample records for debate subgroup analyses

  1. A comparison of subgroup analyses in grant applications and publications.

    PubMed

    Boonacker, Chantal W B; Hoes, Arno W; van Liere-Visser, Karen; Schilder, Anne G M; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, the authors compare subgroup analyses as outlined in grant applications and their related publications. Grants awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) from 2001 onward that were finalized before March 1, 2010, were studied. Of the 79 grant proposals, 50 (63%) were intervention studies, 18 (23%) were diagnostic studies, and 6 (8%) were prognostic studies. Subgroups were mentioned in 49 (62%) grant applications and in 53 (67%) publications. In 20 of the 79 projects (25%), the publications were completely in agreement with the grant proposal; that is, subgroups that were prespecified in the grant proposal were reported and no new subgroup analyses were introduced in the publications. Of the 149 prespecified subgroups, 46 (31%) were reported in the final report or scientific publications, and 143 of the 189 (76%) reported subgroups were based on post-hoc findings. For 77% of the subgroup analyses in the publications, there was no mention of whether these were prespecified or post hoc. Justification for subgroup analysis and methods to study subgroups were rarely reported. The authors conclude that there is a large discrepancy between grant applications and final publications regarding subgroup analyses. Both nonreporting prespecified subgroup analyses and reporting post-hoc subgroup analyses are common. More guidance is clearly needed.

  2. Rainbow: A Framework for Analysing Computer-Mediated Pedagogical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Andriessen, Jerry; Lund, Kristine; van Amelsvoort, Marie; Quignard, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for analysing when and how students engage in a specific form of interactive knowledge elaboration in CSCL environments: broadening and deepening understanding of a space of debate. The framework is termed "Rainbow," as it comprises seven principal analytical categories, to each of which a colour is assigned,…

  3. [The use of prasugrel in STEMI and NSTEMI: TRITON TIMI 38 study and subgroup analyses].

    PubMed

    Abaci, Adnan

    2015-10-01

    Prasugrel, a third generation P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, is more powerful than clopidogrel. TRITON-TIMI 38 trial compared the effectiveness of prasugrel with clopidogrel in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. This paper examined the main TRITON-TIMI 38 trial and subgroup analyses of the trial to determine patient subgroups in which prasugrel is superior to clopidogrel in preventing clinical events without an additional increase in bleeding risk. In such patients, one might expect to derive optimal benefit from prasugrel without a significant increase in bleeding. PMID:27326444

  4. A Systematic Approach to Subgroup Analyses in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Westover, A. N.; Kashner, T. M.; Winhusen, T. M.; Golden, R. M.; Nakonezny, PA; Adinoff, B.; Henley, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional approaches to subgroup analyses that test each moderating factor as a separate hypothesis can lead to erroneous conclusions due to the problems of multiple comparisons, model misspecification, and multicollinearity. Objective Demonstrate a novel, systematic approach to subgroup analyses that avoids these pitfalls. Methods A Best Approximating Model (BAM) approach that identifies multiple moderators and estimates their simultaneous impact on treatment effect sizes was applied to a randomized, controlled, 11-week, double-blind efficacy trial on smoking cessation of adult smokers with ADHD, randomized to either OROS-methylphenidate (n=127) or placebo (n=128), and treated with nicotine patch. Binary outcomes measures were prolonged smoking abstinence and point prevalence smoking abstinence. Results Although the original clinical trial data analysis showed no treatment effect on smoking cessation, the BAM analysis showed significant subgroup effects for the primary outcome of prolonged smoking abstinence: 1) lifetime history of substance use disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10–0.74), and 2) more severe ADHD symptoms (baseline score >36; AOR 2.64; 95% CI 1.17–5.96). A significant subgroup effect was also shown for the secondary outcome of point prevalence smoking abstinence—age 18 to 29 years (AOR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07–0.76). Conclusions The BAM analysis resulted in different conclusions about subgroup effects compared to a hypothesis-driven approach. By examining moderator independence and avoiding multiple testing, BAMs have the potential to better identify and explain how treatment effects vary across subgroups in heterogeneous patient populations, thus providing better guidance to more effectively match individual patients with specific treatments. PMID:26065433

  5. Pharmacotherapy for pain: efficacy and safety issues examined by subgroup analyses.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Albert; Olofsen, Erik; Niesters, Marieke

    2015-04-01

    Responses to pharmacotherapy for acute and chronic pain are highly variable, and efficacy is often compromised by some form of toxicity. To increase our understanding of complexities of pharmacotherapy, the authors discuss an approach to identify analgesic responder subgroups and predictors of response. Additionally, analgesic efficacy and toxicity were combined in a single risk-benefit index (utility function) to quantify the probability of side effects in high- vs low-analgesic responders. The subgroup analysis consists of a mathematical description or time series analysis, mixture analysis, and covariate analysis. Applied to ketamine treatment of chronic pain in complex regional pain syndrome and capsaicin 8% patch treatment in post-herpetic neuralgia patients, the analyses yielded homogenous subgroups that differed in distribution frequency between treatments. For capsaicine, a high variability in pretreatment pain reporting was associated with a high probability of falling into a full analgesic subgroup, irrespective of treatment. The utility function was applied to opioid-induced analgesia and respiratory depression. An important observation was that, irrespective of dose, low-analgesic responders to fentanyl had a greater probability of respiratory depression than analgesia while the reverse was true for high-analgesic responders. These data show dissociation between 2 μ-opioid end-points and explain the danger of treating poor analgesic responders with increasingly higher opioid doses. Apart from being valuable in drug development programs, the outlined approach can be used to determine the choice of drug and dose in the treatment of pain in patients with potent and toxic analgesics.

  6. A photometric study of the Orion OB 1 association. 3: Subgroup analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.; Hesser, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The four principal subgroups of the association were examined in detail using individual distances and reddening values determined for their B type members. Subgroup 1a appeared not to show a spread in age nor did it show a systematic distance increase with right ascension when fainter members were considered. An eastwardly increase in distance was found for subgroup 1b but the reddening law for the east Belt appeared normal. Small subclusterings in the vicinity of the Orion Nebula appeared not to differ in the evolutionary state but their ages were considerably greater than those of stars in the nebulae and its associated cluster.

  7. Multiple-strategy analyses of ZmWRKY subgroups and functional exploration of ZmWRKY genes in pathogen responses.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kaifa; Chen, Juan; Chen, Yanfeng; Wu, LingJuan; Xie, Daoxin

    2012-07-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family plays crucial roles in biotic responses, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematode infections and insect attacks. In this article, multiple-strategy analyses of the three subgroups were performed in order to gain structural and evolutionary proofs of the overall WRKY family and unravel the functions possessed by each group or subgroup. Thus we analyzed the similarity of WRKY factors between maize and Arabidopsis based on homology modelling. The gene structure and motif analyses of Group II demonstrated that specific motifs existing in the given subgroups may contribute to the functional diversification of WRKY proteins and the two types of conserved intron splice sites suggest their evolutionary conservation. The evolutionary divergence time estimation of Group III proteins indicated that the divergence of Group III occurred during the Neogene period. Further, we focused on the roles of maize WRKYs in pathogen responses based on publicly available microarray experiments. The result suggested that some ZmWRKYs are expressed specifically under the infection of certain fungus, among which some are up-regulated and some are down-regulated, indicating their positive or negative roles in pathogen response. Also, some genes remain unchanged upon fungal infection. Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis was performed using 62 fungal infection experiments to calculate the correlation between each pair of genes. A PCC value higher than 0.6 was regarded as strong correlation - in these circumstances, ninety pairs of genes showed a strong positive correlation, while fifteen pairs of genes displayed a strong negative correlation. These correlated genes form a co-regulatory network and help us investigate the existence of interactions between WRKY proteins.

  8. BAYESIAN METHODS FOR GENETIC ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS WITH HETEROGENEOUS SUBGROUPS: FROM META-ANALYSES TO GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaoquan; Stephens, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association analyses often involve data from multiple potentially-heterogeneous subgroups. The expected amount of heterogeneity can vary from modest (e.g. a typical meta-analysis), to large (e.g. a strong gene-environment interaction). However, existing statistical tools are limited in their ability to address such heterogeneity. Indeed, most genetic association meta-analyses use a “fixed effects” analysis, which assumes no heterogeneity. Here we develop and apply Bayesian association methods to address this problem. These methods are easy to apply (in the simplest case, requiring only a point estimate for the genetic effect, and its standard error, from each subgroup), and effectively include standard frequentist meta-analysis methods, including the usual “fixed effects” analysis, as special cases. We apply these tools to two large genetic association studies: one a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the Global Lipids consortium, and the second a cross-population analysis for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). In the Global Lipids data we find, perhaps surprisingly, that effects are generally quite homogeneous across studies. In the eQTL study we find that eQTLs are generally shared among different continental groups, and discuss consequences of this for study design. PMID:26413181

  9. Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Jian; Ren, Yong; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Ng, Ho-Keung; Mao, Ying; Zhong, Ping; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CHT) is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CHT) were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT) was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001) while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p = 0.028) than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes) given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001). Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB) (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001), SHH subgroup (OS p = 0.020, EFS p = 0.049) and WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.003, EFS p = 0.016) but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB) (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834) and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055). Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the

  10. Subgroup Analyses from a Phase 3, Open-Label, Randomized Study of Eribulin Mesylate Versus Capecitabine in Pretreated Patients with Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Twelves, Chris; Awada, Ahmad; Cortes, Javier; Yelle, Louise; Velikova, Galina; Olivo, Martin S.; Song, James; Dutcus, Corina E.; Kaufman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE AND METHODS Our secondary analyses compared survival with eribulin versus capecitabine in various patient subgroups from a phase 3, open-label, randomized study. Eligible women aged ≥18 years with advanced/metastatic breast cancer and ≤3 prior chemotherapies (≤2 for advanced/metastatic disease), including an anthracycline and taxane, were randomized 1:1 to intravenous eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 or twice-daily oral capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 on days 1–14 (21-day cycles). RESULTS In the intent-to-treat population (eribulin 554 and capecitabine 548), overall survival appeared longer with eribulin than capecitabine in various subgroups, including patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (15.9 versus 13.5 months, respectively), estrogen receptor-negative (14.4 versus 10.5 months, respectively), and triple-negative (14.4 versus 9.4 months, respectively) disease. Progression-free survival was similar between the treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS Patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-, estrogen receptor-, or triple-negative disease may gain particular benefit from eribulin as first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION (PRIMARY STUDY) This study reports the subgroup analyses of eribulin versus capecitabine from a phase 3, open-label, randomized study (www.clinicaltrials.gov; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00337103). PMID:27398025

  11. Clinical efficacy of BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: subgroup analyses of the CONFIRM study.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Michael; Fox, Robert J; Miller, David H; Phillips, J Theodore; Kita, Mariko; Havrdova, Eva; O'Gorman, John; Zhang, Ray; Novas, Mark; Viglietta, Vissia; Dawson, Katherine T

    2013-09-01

    In the phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled and active reference (glatiramer acetate) comparator CONFIRM study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, oral BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR; primary endpoint), as well as the proportion of patients relapsed, magnetic resonance imaging lesion activity, and confirmed disability progression, compared with placebo. We investigated the clinical efficacy of BG-12 240 mg twice daily (BID) and three times daily (TID) in patient subgroups stratified according to baseline demographic and disease characteristics including gender, age, relapse history, McDonald criteria, treatment history, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, T2 lesion volume, and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. BG-12 treatment demonstrated generally consistent benefits on relapse-related outcomes across patient subgroups, reflecting the positive findings in the overall CONFIRM study population. Treatment with BG-12 BID and TID reduced the ARR and the proportion of patients relapsed at 2 years compared with placebo in all subgroups analyzed. Reductions in ARR with BG-12 BID versus placebo ranged from 34% [rate ratio 0.664 (95% confidence interval 0.422-1.043)] to 53% [0.466 (0.313-0.694)] and from 13% [0.870 (0.551-1.373)] to 67% [0.334 (0.226-0.493)] with BG-12 TID versus placebo. Treatment with glatiramer acetate reduced the ARR and the proportion of patients relapsed at 2 years compared with placebo in most patient subgroups. The results of these analyses indicate that treatment with BG-12 is effective on relapses across a broad range of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with varied demographic and disease characteristics.

  12. Clinical efficacy of BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: subgroup analyses of the CONFIRM study.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Michael; Fox, Robert J; Miller, David H; Phillips, J Theodore; Kita, Mariko; Havrdova, Eva; O'Gorman, John; Zhang, Ray; Novas, Mark; Viglietta, Vissia; Dawson, Katherine T

    2013-09-01

    In the phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled and active reference (glatiramer acetate) comparator CONFIRM study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, oral BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR; primary endpoint), as well as the proportion of patients relapsed, magnetic resonance imaging lesion activity, and confirmed disability progression, compared with placebo. We investigated the clinical efficacy of BG-12 240 mg twice daily (BID) and three times daily (TID) in patient subgroups stratified according to baseline demographic and disease characteristics including gender, age, relapse history, McDonald criteria, treatment history, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, T2 lesion volume, and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. BG-12 treatment demonstrated generally consistent benefits on relapse-related outcomes across patient subgroups, reflecting the positive findings in the overall CONFIRM study population. Treatment with BG-12 BID and TID reduced the ARR and the proportion of patients relapsed at 2 years compared with placebo in all subgroups analyzed. Reductions in ARR with BG-12 BID versus placebo ranged from 34% [rate ratio 0.664 (95% confidence interval 0.422-1.043)] to 53% [0.466 (0.313-0.694)] and from 13% [0.870 (0.551-1.373)] to 67% [0.334 (0.226-0.493)] with BG-12 TID versus placebo. Treatment with glatiramer acetate reduced the ARR and the proportion of patients relapsed at 2 years compared with placebo in most patient subgroups. The results of these analyses indicate that treatment with BG-12 is effective on relapses across a broad range of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with varied demographic and disease characteristics. PMID:23749293

  13. The Debate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumposky, Nancy Rennau

    2004-01-01

    Debate has been a well-known pedagogical technique since there have been written records about teaching and learning. Originally employed for learning philosophy and theology, debate was later used in the fields of history, law, literature, and the physical sciences. This author asserts, however, that, although the benefits of debate are…

  14. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses of annualized relapse rate over 2 years in the ADVANCE trial of peginterferon beta-1a in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Scott D; Kieseier, Bernd C; Arnold, Douglas L; Shang, Shulian; Liu, Shifang; Hung, Serena; Sabatella, Guido

    2016-09-01

    ADVANCE was a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study in 1512 patients aged 18-65 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, which demonstrated that peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg administered subcutaneously every 2 or 4 weeks led to significant reductions in annualized relapse rate (ARR) compared with placebo. This analysis examined ARR over 2 years in ADVANCE across subgroups. Patients were treated with peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks, or placebo during Year 1. Thereafter, patients on placebo were re-randomized to peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks (delayed treatment). Subgroup analyses were conducted by demographics and baseline disease characteristics. The following results compared ARR in these subgroups for patients in continuous 2-week treatment versus continuous 4-week treatment. ARR was similar in most demographic and baseline disease characteristic subgroups evaluated within the peginterferon beta-1a every-2-week arm or every-4-week arm over 2 years. Although for both doses some differences in the point estimates for ARR were noted among the subgroups, considerable overlap in the confidence intervals suggested that the efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a is similar in all patients irrespective of gender, age, body weight, geographical region, and disease activity at initiation of treatment. Within each peginterferon beta-1a dosing group, ARR was generally similar across most subgroups. PMID:27314959

  15. The Effect of Age, Parity and Body Mass Index on the Efficacy, Safety, Placement and User Satisfaction Associated With Two Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive Systems: Subgroup Analyses of Data From a Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Apter, Dan; Hauck, Brian; Schmelter, Thomas; Rybowski, Sarah; Rosen, Kimberly; Nelson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objective Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems (LNG-IUSs; total content 13.5 mg [average approx. 8 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 8] and total content 19.5 mg [average approx. 13 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 13]) have previously been shown to be highly effective (3-year Pearl Indices: 0.33 and 0.31, respectively), safe and well tolerated. The present subgroup analyses evaluated whether or not outcomes were affected by parity, age (18–25 vs 26–35 years), or body mass index (BMI, <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). Methods Nulliparous and parous women aged 18‒35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21‒35 days) requesting contraception were randomized to 3 years of LNG-IUS 8 or LNG-IUS 13 use. Results In the LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 groups, 1432 and 1452 women, respectively, had a placement attempted and were included in the full analysis set; 39.2%, 39.2% and 17.1% were 18–25 years old, nulliparous and had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Both systems were similarly effective regardless of age, parity or BMI; the subgroup Pearl Indices had widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Placement of LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 was easier (p < 0.0001) and less painful (p < 0.0001) in women who had delivered vaginally than in women who had not. The complete/partial expulsion rate was 2.2–4.2% across all age and parity subgroups and higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 0.1–0.6% across all age and parity subgroups: nulliparous and younger women were not at higher risk than parous and older women, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rate was 0.3–0.4% across all age and parity subgroups. Across all age and parity subgroups, the 3-year completion rate was 50.9–61.3% for LNG-IUS 8 and 57.9–61.1% for LNG-IUS 13, and was higher (p = 0.0001) among older than younger women in the LNG-IUS 8 group only. Conclusions LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 were highly effective

  16. Efficacy of extended release quetiapine fumarate monotherapy in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: secondary analyses in subgroups of patients according to baseline anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain levels.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Altamura, A Carlo; Katila, Heikki; Datto, Catherine; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to baseline levels of anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain. Post-hoc analyses of data from an 11-week (9-week randomized-treatment, 2-week post-treatment phase), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) monotherapy in elderly (≥66 years) patients (n=338) with MDD were carried out. Outcomes included randomization to week 9 change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score and week 9 response (≥50% MADRS score reduction) rates. Post-hoc analyses were carried out to assess subgroups of patients with MDD according to baseline levels in terms of the following: higher or lower anxiety (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety total score≥20 or < 20, respectively); high or low sleep disturbance [Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression sleep disturbance factor (items 4+5+6) score≥5 or <5, respectively]; and pain visual analog scale total score 40 mm or higher or less than 40 mm. At week 9, quetiapine XR reduced the MADRS total score compared with placebo in the higher anxiety (least squares mean change -17.8 vs. -8.5; P<0.001) and lower anxiety (-14.8 vs. -8.8; P<0.001) subgroups. MADRS total score was also reduced with quetiapine XR compared with placebo in the high (-17.6 vs. -8.7; P<0.001) and low (-14.4 vs. -9.2; P<0.001) sleep disturbance subgroups, as well as in the pain visual analog scale subgroups [≥40 mm (-16.6 vs. -8.9; P<0.001) and <40 mm (-15.7 vs. -8.7; P<0.001)]. Quetiapine XR response rates were higher than those of placebo in all subgroups analyzed. In this study, quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) monotherapy was shown to be effective against depressive symptoms in elderly patients with MDD, irrespective of baseline levels of anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain.

  17. London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): Exploring Negative and Null Effects of a Cluster-Randomised School-Intervention to Reduce School Exclusion—Findings from Protocol-Based Subgroup Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Cope, Aiden; Sutherland, Alex; Pilbeam, Liv; Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents subgroup analyses from the London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP). LEIP was a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention called Engage in Education-London (EiE-L) which aimed to reduce school exclusions in those at greatest risk of exclusion. Pupils in the control schools attended an hour-long employability seminar. Minimisation was used to randomly assign schools to treatment and control following baseline data collection. The study involved 36 schools (17 in treatment—373 pupils; 19 in control—369 pupils) with >28% free school meal eligibility across London and utilised on pupil self-reports, teacher reports as well as official records to assess the effectiveness of EiE-L. Due to multiple data sources, sample sizes varied according to analysis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups revealed null and negative effects on school exclusion following the intervention. Our findings suggest that the design and implementation of EiE-L may have contributed to the negative outcomes for pupils in the treatment schools when compared to those in the control schools. These findings call into question the effectiveness of bolt-on short-term interventions with pupils, particularly those at the highest risk of school exclusion and when they are faced with multiple problems. This is especially pertinent given the possibility of negative outcomes. Trial Registration: Controlled Trials: ISRCTN23244695 PMID:27045953

  18. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Leach, Beryl; Price, Janet; Robinson, Jude; Ettore, Elizabeth; Scott-Samuel, Alex; Kilonzo, Nduku; Sabuni, Louis P; Robertson, Steve; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Bristow, Katie; Lang, Raymond; Romao, Francelina; Theobald, Sally

    2012-06-01

    Critiques of gender mainstreaming (GM) as the officially agreed strategy to promote gender equity in health internationally have reached a critical mass. There has been a notable lack of dialogue between gender advocates in the global north and south, from policy and practice, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper contributes to the debate on the shape of future action for gender equity in health, by uniquely bringing together the voices of disparate actors, first heard in a series of four seminars held during 2008 and 2009, involving almost 200 participants from 15 different country contexts. The series used (Feminist) Participatory Action Research (FPAR) methodology to create a productive dialogue on the developing theory around GM and the at times disconnected empirical experience of policy and practice. We analyse the debates and experiences shared at the seminar series using concrete, context specific examples from research, advocacy, policy and programme development perspectives, as presented by participants from southern and northern settings, including Kenya, Mozambique, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada and Australia. Focussing on key discussions around sexualities and (dis)ability and their interactions with gender, we explore issues around intersectionality across the five key themes for research and action identified by participants: (1) Addressing the disconnect between gender mainstreaming praxis and contemporary feminist theory; (2) Developing appropriate analysis methodologies; (3) Developing a coherent theory of change; (4) Seeking resolution to the dilemmas and uncertainties around the 'place' of men and boys in GM as a feminist project; and (5) Developing a politics of intersectionality. We conclude that there needs to be a coherent and inclusive strategic direction to improve policy and practice for promoting gender equity in health which requires the full and equal participation of practitioners and

  19. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Leach, Beryl; Price, Janet; Robinson, Jude; Ettore, Elizabeth; Scott-Samuel, Alex; Kilonzo, Nduku; Sabuni, Louis P; Robertson, Steve; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Bristow, Katie; Lang, Raymond; Romao, Francelina; Theobald, Sally

    2012-06-01

    Critiques of gender mainstreaming (GM) as the officially agreed strategy to promote gender equity in health internationally have reached a critical mass. There has been a notable lack of dialogue between gender advocates in the global north and south, from policy and practice, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper contributes to the debate on the shape of future action for gender equity in health, by uniquely bringing together the voices of disparate actors, first heard in a series of four seminars held during 2008 and 2009, involving almost 200 participants from 15 different country contexts. The series used (Feminist) Participatory Action Research (FPAR) methodology to create a productive dialogue on the developing theory around GM and the at times disconnected empirical experience of policy and practice. We analyse the debates and experiences shared at the seminar series using concrete, context specific examples from research, advocacy, policy and programme development perspectives, as presented by participants from southern and northern settings, including Kenya, Mozambique, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada and Australia. Focussing on key discussions around sexualities and (dis)ability and their interactions with gender, we explore issues around intersectionality across the five key themes for research and action identified by participants: (1) Addressing the disconnect between gender mainstreaming praxis and contemporary feminist theory; (2) Developing appropriate analysis methodologies; (3) Developing a coherent theory of change; (4) Seeking resolution to the dilemmas and uncertainties around the 'place' of men and boys in GM as a feminist project; and (5) Developing a politics of intersectionality. We conclude that there needs to be a coherent and inclusive strategic direction to improve policy and practice for promoting gender equity in health which requires the full and equal participation of practitioners and

  20. Treatment of older patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel: subgroup analyses from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial (CLEOPATRA).

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Baselga, José; Amadori, Dino; Sunpaweravong, Patrapim; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Knott, Adam; Clark, Emma; Ross, Graham; Swain, Sandra M

    2013-11-01

    Although the incidence of cancer increases with age, older patients are under-represented in cancer treatment trials, resulting in limited data availability in this patient population. Here we present results from pre-defined subgroup analyses conducted by age group (<65 vs ≥ 65 years) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients who had not received previous chemotherapy or biological therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent, unresectable or metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel or with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. Primary endpoint was independently assessed progression-free survival. We performed pre-specified subgroup analyses of progression-free survival according to age. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00567190. 808 patients were enrolled. Of those, 127 patients were 65 years of age or older (placebo arm: 67, pertuzumab arm: 60). Patients in both age groups experienced progression-free survival benefit with treatment in the pertuzumab arm (<65 years: HR: 0.65; 95 % CI 0.53-0.80; ≥65 years: HR: 0.52; 95 % CI 0.31-0.86). Diarrhoea, fatigue, asthenia, decreased appetite, vomiting, and dysgeusia were reported more frequently in patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were reported less frequently in the older age group. The efficacy and safety data reported in CLEOPATRA suggest that the combined use of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel should not be limited by patient age.

  1. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The transcript of a debate within a group of specialists in translation is presented. The discussion addresses: translator "visibility" in translations and reader reception; the relationship of functionalism in translation, comparative linguistics, and intercultural communication; the client's power; literary translation; the translator's power;…

  2. Sub-group Analyses from a Trial of a Fixed Combination of Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2% and Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% Gel for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Korotzer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is commonplace and can be difficult to manage. Providing an effective and well-tolerated treatment may lead to improved adherence, increased patient satisfaction, and improved clinical outcomes. Methods: A review of efficacy, safety, and cutaneous tolerability of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel in 498 patients with moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris enrolled in a multicenter Phase III study randomized to receive active or vehicle once daily for 12 weeks, including the most recent post-hoc analyses. Results: Significantly superior reductions in lesion counts were observed with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel from Week 4, with median percent reductions in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions from baseline of 68.4 and 57.9 percent, respectively (bothp<0.001 versus vehicle). More than half (55.1%) of the severe acne vulgaris patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel achieved ≥2-grade improvement from baseline in their Evaluator’s Global Severity Score, and almost a third of the adolescent acne vulgaris patients (32.4%) achieved at least a marked improvement in their acne vulgaris as early as Week 2. In adult female acne overall treatments success was achieved in 52.7 percent of patients treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel. Overall, and in the specific subpopulations, clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel was well-tolerated with a similar adverse event profile to vehicle. Limitations: Post-hoc analyses from a single clinical trial with demographic imbalances that could potentially confound the results. Conclusion: Clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3.75% gel appears to be effective in treating acne across various clinically relevant sub-groups. PMID:26705445

  3. Subgroups Among Opiate Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the present investigation was to delineate homogeneous MMPI profile subgroups (types) through multivariate clustering procedures and to compare the derived (replicable) types on measures of the components of "sociopathy" as well as on other psychometric devices. (Author)

  4. The 1988 Electoral Debates and Debate Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of debate theory to the 1988 presidential and vice presidential debates. Proposes that the press's involvement retrieves the debates from the category of "joint appearances." Argues that major definitional difficulties are resolved by recognizing the press as one of the adversaries in the debate process. (MM)

  5. Geochemical characterisation, provenance, source and depositional environment of ‘Roches Argilo-Talqueuses’ (RAT) and Mines Subgroups sedimentary rocks in the Neoproterozoic Katangan Belt (Congo): Lithostratigraphic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampunzu, A. B.; Cailteux, J. L. H.; Moine, B.; Loris, H. N. B. T.

    2005-07-01

    The chemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks provide important clues to their provenance and depositional environments. Chemical analyses of 192 samples of Katangan sedimentary rocks from Kolwezi, Kambove-Kabolela and Luiswishi in the central African Copperbelt (Katanga, Congo) are used to constrain (1) the source and depositional environment of RAT and Mines Subgroup sedimentary rocks and (2) the geochemical relations between the rocks from these units and the debate on the lithostratigraphic position of the RAT Subgroup within the Katangan sedimentary succession. The geochemical data indicate that RAT, D. Strat., RSF and RSC are extremely poor in alkalis and very rich in MgO. SD are richer in alkalis, especially K 2O. Geochemical characteristics of RAT and Mines Subgroups sedimentary rocks indicate deposition under an evaporitic environment that evolved from oxidizing (Red RAT) to reducing (Grey RAT and Mines Subgroup) conditions. There is no chemical difference between RAT and fine-grained clastic rocks from the lower part of the Mines Subgroup. The geochemical data preclude the genetic model that RAT are syn-orogenic sedimentary rocks originating from Mines Group rocks by erosion and gravity-induced fragmentation in front of advancing nappes.

  6. Whole Language: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Comp.

    This book presents a debate between "reasonable" educators who either claim that there is evidence for the effectiveness of whole language, or who challenge the claim that whole language works across the broad spectrum of learners. The book presents the debate in the form of formal debate resolutions, opening "statements," transcripts of a…

  7. Subgroup Analysis in Burnout: Relations Between Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26869983

  8. Homogeneous case subgroups increase power in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Traylor, Matthew; Markus, Hugh; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies of clinically defined cases against controls have transformed our understanding of the genetic causes of many diseases. However, there are limitations to the simple clinical definitions used in these studies, and GWAS analyses are beginning to explore more refined phenotypes in subgroups of the existing data sets. These analyses are often performed ad hoc without considering the power requirements to justify such analyses. Here we derive expressions for the relative power of such subgroup analyses and determine the genotypic relative risks (GRRs) required to achieve equivalent power to a full analysis for relevant scenarios. We show that only modest increases in GRRs may be required to offset the reduction in power from analysing fewer cases, implying that analyses of more genetically homogenous case subgroups may have the potential to identify further associations. We find that, for lower genotypic relative risks in the full sample, subgroup analyses of more homogeneous cases have relatively more power than for higher index genotypic relative risks and that this effect is stronger for rare as opposed to common variants. As GWA studies are likely to have now identified the majority of SNPs with stronger effects, these results strongly advocate a renewed effort to identify phenotypically homogeneous disease groups, in which power to detect genetic variants with small effects will be greater. These results suggest that analysis of case subsets could be a powerful strategy to uncover some of the hidden heritability for common complex disorders, particularly in identifying rarer variants of modest effect.

  9. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

  10. Serologically defined V region subgroups of human lambda light chains.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A; Weiss, D T

    1987-08-01

    The availability of numerous antisera prepared against lambda-type Bence Jones proteins and lambda chains of known amino acid sequence has led to the differentiation and classification of human lambda light chains into one of five V lambda subgroups. The five serologically defined subgroups, V lambda I, V lambda II, V lambda III, V lambda IV, and V lambda VI, correspond to the chemical classification that is based on sequence homologies in the first framework region (FR1). Proteins designated by sequence as lambda V react with specific anti-lambda II antisera and are thus included in the V lambda II subgroup classification. The isotypic nature of the five V lambda subgroups was evidenced through analyses of lambda-type light chains that were isolated from the IgG of normal individuals. Based on analyses of 116 Bence Jones proteins, the frequency of distribution of the lambda I, lambda II/V, lambda III, lambda IV, and lambda VI proteins in the normal lambda chain population is estimated to be 27%, 37%, 23%, 3%, and 10%, respectively. This distribution of V lambda subgroups was comparable to that found among 82 monoclonal Ig lambda proteins. Considerable V lambda intragroup antigenic heterogeneity was also apparent. At least two sub-subgroups were identified among each of the five major V lambda subgroups, implying the existence of multiple genes in the human V lambda genome. The V lambda classification of 54 Ig lambda proteins obtained from patients with primary or multiple myeloma-associated amyloidosis substantiated the preferential association of lambda VI light chains with amyloidosis AL and the predominance of the normally rare V lambda VI subgroup in this disease. PMID:3110284

  11. The impact of subgroup type and subgroup configurational properties on work team performance.

    PubMed

    Carton, Andrew M; Cummings, Jonathon N

    2013-09-01

    Scholars have invoked subgroups in a number of theories related to teams, yet certain tensions in the literature remain unresolved. In this article, we address 2 of these tensions, both relating to how subgroups are configured in work teams: (a) whether teams perform better with a greater number of subgroups and (b) whether teams perform better when they have imbalanced subgroups (majorities and minorities are present) or balanced subgroups (subgroups are of equal size). We predict that the impact of the number and balance of subgroups depends on the type of subgroup-whether subgroups are formed according to social identity (i.e., identity-based subgroups) or information processing (i.e., knowledge-based subgroups). We first propose that teams are more adversely affected by 2 identity-based subgroups than by any other number, yet the uniquely negative impact of a 2-subgroup configuration is not apparent for knowledge-based subgroups. Instead, a larger number of knowledge-based subgroups is beneficial for performance, such that 2 subgroups is worse for performance when compared with 3 or more subgroups but better for performance when compared with no subgroups or 1 subgroup. Second, we argue that teams perform better when identity-based subgroups are imbalanced yet knowledge-based subgroups are balanced. We also suggest that there are interactive effects between the number and balance of subgroups-however, the nature of this interaction depends on the type of subgroup. To test these predictions, we developed and validated an algorithm that measures the configurational properties of subgroups in organizational work teams. Results of a field study of 326 work teams from a multinational organization support our predictions.

  12. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  13. When Is the Story in the Subgroups? Strategies for Interpreting and Reporting Intervention Effects on Subgroups. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Michalopoulos, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines strategies for interpreting and reporting estimates of intervention effects for subgroups of a study sample. Specifically, the paper considers: why and how subgroup findings are important for applied research, the importance of pre-specifying sub- groups before analyses are conducted, the importance of using existing theory and…

  14. Adult Developmental Dyslexia in a Shallow Orthography: Are There Subgroups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Service, Elisabet; Lipsanen, Jari; Virsu, Veijo

    2012-01-01

    The existence and stability of subgroups among adult dyslexic readers of a shallow orthography was explored by comparing three different cluster analyses based on previously suggested combinations of two variables. These were oral reading speed versus accuracy, word versus pseudoword reading speed, and phonological awareness versus rapid naming.…

  15. Psychopathic Traits of Dutch Adolescents in Residential Care: Identifying Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Alaska showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the proficient level for almost all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls (subgroup trends were not available at the basic or advanced levels). Most student subgroups had upward trends in percentages proficient, with a few exceptions. Gains in math tended to be…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nebraska made gains across the board at the proficient-and-above level for all major racial/ethnic subgroups and low-income students in reading and math. Achievement gaps also narrowed across the board for all subgroups analyzed at grades 4, 8, and 11.…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Iowa, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Iowa for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Iowa had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. Trends at the proficient and advanced levels were…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maryland, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Maryland for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maryland had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. The percentage of students reaching the…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Virginia for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Virginia showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Tennessee, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Tennessee for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Tennessee showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Colorado students showed gains in reading at the proficient level for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were slight declines or flat trends for almost all subgroups at the advanced level in reading. In math, gains were…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Washington, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Washington for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington showed across-the-board gains in math--improvements at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  15. How Do Female Students Participate in Online Debates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Ellis, Holly Howard; Amarasing, Poonwilas Kay

    2010-01-01

    This case study focused on whether women, enrolled in a graduate course, would engage in online debate, and if so, whether their postings would contain traditional elements of argumentation (i.e., argue, elaborate, critique). Content analyses for two debates were performed. For the most part, the overarching messages in both debates were…

  16. On quantum algorithms for noncommutative hidden subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, M.; Hoeyer, P.

    1998-12-01

    Quantum algorithms for factoring and discrete logarithm have previously been generalized to finding hidden subgroups of finite Abelian groups. This paper explores the possibility of extending this general viewpoint to finding hidden subgroups of noncommutative groups. The authors present a quantum algorithm for the special case of dihedral groups which determines the hidden subgroup in a linear number of calls to the input function. They also explore the difficulties of developing an algorithm to process the data to explicitly calculate a generating set for the subgroup. A general framework for the noncommutative hidden subgroup problem is discussed and they indicate future research directions.

  17. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  18. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  19. The Artilect Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Halioris, Sam

    Twenty-first-century technologies will allow the creation of massively intelligent machines, many trillions of times as smart, fast, and durable as humans. Issues concerning industrial, consumer, and military applications of mobile autonomous robots, cyborgs, and computer-based AI systems could divisively split humanity into ideological camps regarding whether "artilects" (artificial intellects) should be built or not. The artilect debate, unlike any before it, could dominate the 21st-century political landscape, and has the potential to cause conflict on a global scale. Research is needed to inform policy and individual decisions; and healthy debate should be initiated now to prepare institutions and individuals alike for the impact of AI.

  20. Treatment effect heterogeneity for univariate subgroups in clinical trials: Shrinkage, standardization, or else.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Ravi; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Treatment effect heterogeneity is a well-recognized phenomenon in randomized controlled clinical trials. In this paper, we discuss subgroup analyses with prespecified subgroups of clinical or biological importance. We explore various alternatives to the naive (the traditional univariate) subgroup analyses to address the issues of multiplicity and confounding. Specifically, we consider a model-based Bayesian shrinkage (Bayes-DS) and a nonparametric, empirical Bayes shrinkage approach (Emp-Bayes) to temper the optimism of traditional univariate subgroup analyses; a standardization approach (standardization) that accounts for correlation between baseline covariates; and a model-based maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach. The Bayes-DS and Emp-Bayes methods model the variation in subgroup-specific treatment effect rather than testing the null hypothesis of no difference between subgroups. The standardization approach addresses the issue of confounding in subgroup analyses. The MLE approach is considered only for comparison in simulation studies as the "truth" since the data were generated from the same model. Using the characteristics of a hypothetical large outcome trial, we perform simulation studies and articulate the utilities and potential limitations of these estimators. Simulation results indicate that Bayes-DS and Emp-Bayes can protect against optimism present in the naïve approach. Due to its simplicity, the naïve approach should be the reference for reporting univariate subgroup-specific treatment effect estimates from exploratory subgroup analyses. Standardization, although it tends to have a larger variance, is suggested when it is important to address the confounding of univariate subgroup effects due to correlation between baseline covariates. The Bayes-DS approach is available as an R package (DSBayes). PMID:26485117

  1. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  2. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  3. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  4. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Rhode Island showed gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for most racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps between students narrowed in most cases at grades 4 and 8.…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wisconsin, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wisconsin for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Wisconsin showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Utah, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Utah for 2010. Utah implemented new standards and cut scores in math so trend data that include 2009 are not available. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Utah showed across-the-board gains in reading at the basic,…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Connecticut students showed gains across the board in math--at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In reading, there were gains at the basic and proficient levels, but a slight…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), California students made gains across the board in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math, there were some declines at the basic achievement level. In terms of…

  15. A novel subgroup of rhadinoviruses in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Flach, Edmund J; Taus, Naomi S; Cooley, Jim; Keller, Janice; Russell, George C; Knowles, Donald P; Haig, David M; Oaks, J Lindsay; Traul, Donald L; Crawford, Timothy B

    2005-11-01

    In the course of investigating the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) subgroup of rhadinoviruses, seven novel rhadinoviruses were identified in a variety of ruminants, including domestic sheep, bighorn sheep, bison, black-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk and addax. Based on the DNA polymerase gene sequences, these newly recognized viruses clustered into a second distinct subgroup in ruminants with three members identified previously in cattle, goats and oryx. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the currently known ruminant rhadinoviruses appear to comprise three distinct genetic lineages: (i) the MCF subgroup, defined by sequence identity and the presence of the 15A antigenic epitope; (ii) a second distinct subgroup, devoid of the 15A epitope, which contains the previously reported bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus and related viruses; and (iii) a third distinct subgroup represented by Bovine herpesvirus 4. Comparison of phylogenetic trees between the rhadinoviruses and their corresponding hosts further supports the gammaherpesvirus and host co-evolution theory. PMID:16227223

  16. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate. PMID:7983192

  17. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate.

  18. Clinically relevant subgroups in COPD and asthma.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alice M; Tamasi, Lilla; Schleich, Florence; Hoxha, Mehmet; Horvath, Ildiko; Louis, Renaud; Barnes, Neil

    2015-06-01

    As knowledge of airways disease has grown, it has become apparent that neither chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nor asthma is a simple, easily defined disease. In the past, treatment options for both diseases were limited; thus, there was less need to define subgroups. As treatment options have grown, so has our need to predict who will respond to new drugs. To date, identifying subgroups has been largely reported by detailed clinical characterisation or differences in pathobiology. These subgroups are commonly called "phenotypes"; however, the problem of defining what constitutes a phenotype, whether this should include comorbid diseases and how to handle changes over time has led to the term being used loosely. In this review, we describe subgroups of COPD and asthma patients whose clinical characteristics we believe have therapeutic or major prognostic implications specific to the lung, and whether these subgroups are constant over time. Finally, we will discuss whether the subgroups we describe are common to both asthma and COPD, and give some examples of how treatment might be tailored in patients where the subgroup is clear, but the label of asthma or COPD is not. PMID:26028640

  19. No end in sight to cloning debate.

    PubMed

    Graumann, Sigrid; Poltermann, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Since last August, Great Britain has allowed the cloning for research purposes. This fact has re-generated an existing debate, taking into account the prohibition of cloning of the UN, the States are debating whether cloning should be prohibited or in the contrary, it should also be admitted for reproductive purposes. This situation has generated an international uneasiness due to the lack of a universal consensus. This article analyses this situation, bringing the reader closer to the very controversial texts, such as the European Constitution and the UN Convention on Cloning.

  20. Score Trends, SAT Validity and Subgroup Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Summer Institute on College Admissions at Harvard in June 2008. The presentation explores whether the SAT validity has changed with the test changes and if those changes affect specific subgroups.

  1. Evaluation of lymphocyte subgroups in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Oner, A F; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be fully elucidated, although it follows infection with a hypermutant defective M-protein measles virus. This study analysed peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups to determine their role in the pathophysiology of SSPE. It included 22 children with SSPE aged 2 - 15 years (patient group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy children (control group). In children < 6 years old, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the proportions of lymphocytes expressing the surface markers CD3, CD8, CD19 or CD16/56, or in CD4/CD8 ratio. The proportion of CD4(+) lymphocytes in SSPE patients < 6 years of age was significantly lower compared with the control group. In children >or= 6 years old, there were no significant differences in the lymphocyte subgroups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a low CD4(+) lymphocyte count might be responsible for SSPE in younger children.

  2. Tracing the French Policy PISA Debate: A Policy Configuration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the French policy PISA debate from 2001 to 2014 by analysing the results of two original qualitative researches. Theoretically, this debate is the outcome of specific policy configurations, which predetermine its scope, content and effectiveness. These configurations are themselves described through their…

  3. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António J.; Daniel, João R.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. PMID:26134139

  4. Debating personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  5. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  6. Rapid diagnosis of medulloblastoma molecular subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Schwalbe, Ed C.; Lindsey, Janet C.; Straughton, Debbie; Hogg, Twala L.; Cole, Michael; Megahed, Hisham; Ryan, Sarra L.; Lusher, Meryl E.; Taylor, Michael D.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Ellison, David W.; Bailey, Simon; Clifford, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Microarray studies indicate medulloblastoma comprises distinct molecular disease subgroups, which offer potential for improved clinical management. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Minimal mRNA expression signatures diagnostic for the Wnt/Wingless (WNT) and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroups were developed, validated and used to assign subgroup affiliation in 173 tumours from four independent cohorts, alongside a systematic investigation of subgroup clinical and molecular characteristics. RESULTS WNT tumours (12% (21/173)) were diagnosed >5 years of age (peak, 10 years), displayed classic histology, CTNNB1 mutation (19/20), associated chromosome 6 loss and have previously been associated with favourable prognosis. SHH cases (24% (42/173)) predominated in infants (<3 years) and showed an age-dependent relationship to desmoplastic/nodular pathology; all infant desmoplastic/nodular cases (previously associated with a good outcome) were SHH-positive, but these relationships broke down in non-infants. PTCH1 mutations were common (34%; 11/32), but PTCH1 exon1c hypermethylation, chromosome 9q and REN (KCTD11) genetic loss were not SHH-associated, and SMO or SUFU mutation, PTCH1 exon1a or SUFU hypermethylation did not play a role, indicating novel activating mechanisms in the majority of SHH cases. SHH tumours were associated with an absence of COL1A2 methylation. WNT/SHH-independent medulloblastomas (64% (110/173)) showed all histologies, peaked at 3-6 years, and were exclusively associated with chromosome 17p loss. CONCLUSIONS Medulloblastoma subgroups are characterised by distinct genomic, epigenomic and clinico-pathological features, and clinical outcomes. Validated array-independent gene expression assays for the rapid assessment of subgroup affiliation in small biopsies, provide a basis for their routine clinical application, in strategies including molecular disease-risk stratification and delivery of targeted therapeutics. PMID:21325292

  7. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  8. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  9. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  10. Moving beyond the GM Debate

    PubMed Central

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-01-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture. PMID:24914954

  11. Star Wars software debate

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.

    1986-02-01

    David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

  12. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and…

  13. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context and aims…

  14. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  16. Subgrouping Patients With Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Koppenhaver, Shane L.; Walker, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition imposing a large socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research aimed at the efficacy of various therapies for patients with LBP, most evidence has failed to identify a superior treatment approach. One proposed solution to this dilemma is to identify subgroups of patients with LBP and match them with targeted therapies. Among the subgrouping approaches, the system of treatment-based classification (TBC) is promoted as a means of increasing the effectiveness of conservative interventions for patients with LBP. Evidence acquisition: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched from 1985 through 2010, along with the references of selected articles. Results: TBC uses a standardized approach to categorize patients into 1 of 4 subgroups: spinal manipulation, stabilization exercise, end-range loading exercise, and traction. Although the TBC subgroups are in various stages of development, recent research lends support to the effectiveness of this approach. Conclusions: While additional research is required to better elucidate this method, the TBC approach enhances clinical decision making, as evidenced by the improved clinical outcomes experienced by patients with LBP. PMID:23016055

  17. Defining Autism Subgroups: A Taxometric Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David G.; Takahashi, T. Nicole; Miles, Judith H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine which behavioral and physical phenotypes would be most likely to divide the ASD population into discrete subgroups. The taxometric methods of Maximum Covariance (MAXCOV) and Minus Mean Below A Cut (MAMBAC) were employed to test for categorical versus continuous variation of each phenotype across…

  18. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  19. Curriculum Debate and Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgstrom, Ole; Hellstenius, Mats

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the underlying themes and principles that inform curriculum debate and how they are articulated in current school policy discussions. This topic is approached with the help of a case study covering the debate on which subjects should be mandatory for students at the upper secondary school curriculum in Sweden. The focus…

  20. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high school students in a wealthy…

  1. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  2. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  3. Mining Health App Data to Find More and Less Successful Weight Loss Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background More than half of all smartphone app downloads involve weight, diet, and exercise. If successful, these lifestyle apps may have far-reaching effects for disease prevention and health cost-savings, but few researchers have analyzed data from these apps. Objective The purposes of this study were to analyze data from a commercial health app (Lose It!) in order to identify successful weight loss subgroups via exploratory analyses and to verify the stability of the results. Methods Cross-sectional, de-identified data from Lose It! were analyzed. This dataset (n=12,427,196) was randomly split into 24 subsamples, and this study used 3 subsamples (combined n=972,687). Classification and regression tree methods were used to explore groupings of weight loss with one subsample, with descriptive analyses to examine other group characteristics. Data mining validation methods were conducted with 2 additional subsamples. Results In subsample 1, 14.96% of users lost 5% or more of their starting body weight. Classification and regression tree analysis identified 3 distinct subgroups: “the occasional users” had the lowest proportion (4.87%) of individuals who successfully lost weight; “the basic users” had 37.61% weight loss success; and “the power users” achieved the highest percentage of weight loss success at 72.70%. Behavioral factors delineated the subgroups, though app-related behavioral characteristics further distinguished them. Results were replicated in further analyses with separate subsamples. Conclusions This study demonstrates that distinct subgroups can be identified in “messy” commercial app data and the identified subgroups can be replicated in independent samples. Behavioral factors and use of custom app features characterized the subgroups. Targeting and tailoring information to particular subgroups could enhance weight loss success. Future studies should replicate data mining analyses to increase methodology rigor. PMID:27301853

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Defining Dimensions and Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Cermak, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with the presence of social-communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors. In the latest conceptualization of ASD, these two behavioral dimensions represent the core defining features of ASD, whereas associated dimensions, such as intellectual and language ability, provide a means for describing the ASD heterogeneity. In addition, the characterization of ASD subgroups, defined by the presence of known medical, genetic, or other psychiatric disorders, furthers our understanding of ASD heterogeneity. This paper reviews the history of autism, describes its core defining features, and provides an overview of the clinically and etiologically relevant subgroups that add to the complexity of this condition. PMID:25072016

  5. Understanding Subgroup Fertility Differentials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Reed, Holly E.

    2015-01-01

    As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working age population, it is critical to understand why fertility remains so high there. Nigeria’s current total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.5 (0.2 fewer children per woman than the TFR of 5.7 reported in both the 2003 and 2008 NDHS surveys) is projected to continue to decline, but questions remain about whether this decline is inevitable and whether it will continue apace. Regardless, Nigeria’s population growth will continue through at least 2050 due to simple population momentum. Other challenges are the persistent and vast fertility differentials; many groups remain above replacement fertility across various social and geographical sub-units of the country. Using data primarily from the 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), as well as from 2003 and 2008 surveys, we document that many population subgroups and zones of the country are finally beginning to show signs of fertility convergence and decline. Nevertheless, some population subgroups still have higher fertility, especially: Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri women, women who live in the North West geopolitical zone, Muslim and traditionalist women, women who live in poor households, women who have lower levels of education, women who are opposed to family planning, women who marry early, and women who give birth early. In order for the projected decline in the TFR to continue, these subgroups must be highlighted, understood, and targeted with fertility- and poverty-reducing interventions. PMID:25684828

  6. Cloning: revisiting an old debate.

    PubMed

    Verhey, Allen D

    1994-09-01

    The debate about cloning that took place 25 years ago, although directed toward a different sort of cloning, elucidates fundamental issues currently at stake in reproductive technologies and research. Paul Ramsey and Joseph Fletcher were participants in this early debate. The differences between Ramsey and Fletcher about the meaning and sufficiency of freedom, the understanding and weighing of good and evil, the connection between embodiment and personhood, the relationship of humans with nature, and the meaning of parenthood suggest both a broader agenda for the debate about cloning and a cautious move forward in the development of embryo-splitting.

  7. Exploring the compassion deficit debate.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Ion, Robin; Roxburgh, Michelle; Devitt, Patric Ffrench; Smith, Stephen D M

    2016-04-01

    Several recent high profile failures in the UK health care system have promoted strong debate on compassion and care in nursing. A number of papers articulating a range of positions within this debate have been published in this journal over the past two and a half years. These articulate a diverse range of theoretical perspectives and have been drawn together here in an attempt to bring some coherence to the debate and provide an overview of the key arguments and positions taken by those involved. In doing this we invite the reader to consider their own position in relation to the issues raised and to consider the impact of this for their own practice. Finally the paper offers some sense of how individual practitioners might use their understanding of the debates to ensure delivery of good nursing care.

  8. Special Feature: Debate the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Lloyd H.; Russell, Earl B.

    1981-01-01

    This debate focuses on the location of federal-level administration of vocational agriculture and agribusiness: Should the program be administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or by the U.S. Department of Education? (CT)

  9. Gene expression profiling identifies distinct molecular subgroups of leiomyosarcoma with clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yin-Fai; Roe, Toby; Mangham, D Chas; Fisher, Cyril; Grimer, Robert J; Judson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soft tissue sarcomas are heterogeneous and a major complication in their management is that the existing classification scheme is not definitive and is still evolving. Leiomyosarcomas, a major histologic category of soft tissue sarcomas, are malignant tumours displaying smooth muscle differentiation. Although defined as a single group, they exhibit a wide range of clinical behaviour. We aimed to carry out molecular classification to identify new molecular subgroups with clinical relevance. Methods: We used gene expression profiling on 20 extra-uterine leiomyosarcomas and cross-study analyses for molecular classification of leiomyosarcomas. Clinical significance of the subgroupings was investigated. Results: We have identified two distinct molecular subgroups of leiomyosarcomas. One group was characterised by high expression of 26 genes that included many genes from the sub-classification gene cluster proposed by Nielsen et al. These sub-classification genes include genes that have importance structurally, as well as in cell signalling. Notably, we found a statistically significant association of the subgroupings with tumour grade. Further refinement led to a group of 15 genes that could recapitulate the tumour subgroupings in our data set and in a second independent sarcoma set. Remarkably, cross-study analyses suggested that these molecular subgroups could be found in four independent data sets, providing strong support for their existence. Conclusions: Our study strongly supported the existence of distinct leiomyosarcoma molecular subgroups, which have clinical association with tumour grade. Our findings will aid in advancing the classification of leiomyosarcomas and lead to more individualised and better management of the disease. PMID:27607470

  10. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Carolina for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Carolina made gains across the board for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels. Progress in narrowing…

  12. Myasthenia gravis: subgroup classification and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Gilhus, Nils Erik; Verschuuren, Jan J

    2015-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by muscle weakness and fatigue, is B-cell mediated, and is associated with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase (MUSK), lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), or agrin in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Patients with myasthenia gravis should be classified into subgroups to help with therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Subgroups based on serum antibodies and clinical features include early-onset, late-onset, thymoma, MUSK, LRP4, antibody-negative, and ocular forms of myasthenia gravis. Agrin-associated myasthenia gravis might emerge as a new entity. The prognosis is good with optimum symptomatic, immunosuppressive, and supportive treatment. Pyridostigmine is the preferred symptomatic treatment, and for patients who do not adequately respond to symptomatic therapy, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and thymectomy are first-line immunosuppressive treatments. Additional immunomodulatory drugs are emerging, but therapeutic decisions are hampered by the scarcity of controlled studies. Long-term drug treatment is essential for most patients and must be tailored to the particular form of myasthenia gravis.

  13. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  14. Debating the Socialist Calculation Debate: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmont, Zenon X.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a classroom exercise that introduces the Socialist Calculation Debate (SCD) to undergraduate economics students. The SCD concerns an issue that remains one of the most consequential of the 20th century--the belief in the superiority of socialism and central planning over capitalism and the free market. The exercise presents…

  15. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  16. Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a roundtable discussion carried out by scholars in the field of minority language broadcasting. Examines the context of minority language broadcasting, broadcasting and language policy and planning, and issues of language survival and success. (Author/VWL)

  17. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

  18. The Great Neurolinguistics Methodology Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, L. K.

    A major debate exists in the neuropsychology community concerning whether case study is preferable to group study of brain-damaged patients. So far, the discussion has been limited to the advantages and disadvantages of both methods, with the assumption that neurolinguists pursue a single goal attainable by one or the other method. Practical…

  19. Bicentennial Youth Debates: Issue Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huseman, Richard C., Ed.; Luck, James I., Ed.

    This document includes introductory essays, excerpted documents, and selected bibliographies to promote a national dialogue concerning America for its Bicentennial. Bicentennial Youth Debates (BYD) is a national program developed by the Speech Communication Association and supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The…

  20. Clean Water Act amendments debated

    SciTech Connect

    Deland, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A short discussion of the debate taking place between Congress, industry and environmental groups with respect to the amendments to the Clean Water Act is presented. The discussion considers the EPA proposal, the reaction to it, and the prognosis for passage. (KRM)

  1. Using Debate in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasmari, Ali; Ahmed, Sayed Salahuddin

    2013-01-01

    The countries that use English as a foreign language need effective activities which propel students to practice skills of the language properly inside as well as outside classrooms. Debating is a practice that inspires learners to open their mouth, get into discussion, defend their own positions, place counter arguments and also conduct research…

  2. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  3. A debate on open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    This is a reproduction of Professor Stephen Hawking's part in a debate, which took place at the COSMO 98 Coference, in Monterey, California. Two other physicists, Andrei Linde and Alexander Villenkin, also took part. Professor Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, in England.

  4. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.) (CMK)

  5. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  6. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  7. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  8. Report of the Production and Delivery Subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R; Zalesky, R

    2004-11-01

    The Production and Delivery Subgroup was tasked with evaluating the various options that could be used for hydrogen production and delivery in terms of availability/industry readiness, technical and economic barriers, and environmental considerations. Hydrogen can be produced using a variety of feedstocks and conversion technologies. The feedstock options include water, natural gas, coal, petroleum, methanol, ethanol, biomass, and organic waste streams. Ultimately, using these domestic resources we will be able to produce all the hydrogen we will need for the complete conversion of our transportation infrastructure. The various conversion technologies include electrolysis, reforming (principally of natural gas, but also ethanol and methanol), photobiological and photoelectrochemical, biofermentation, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and coal, high temperature thermochemical, and catalytic membranes. All of these production technologies are being actively researched by DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT); and other offices within DOE support work that complements the HFCIT Program activities. In addition, private industry is also dedicating significant resources to these efforts. In establishing the California Hydrogen Highway Network (CA H2 Net) we must utilize both distributed (that is, hydrogen that is produced at the point of use) as well as centralized production of hydrogen. Because of technical and economic barriers, most of the technologies for hydrogen production listed above will not become practical for either mode of hydrogen production in large quantities until at least the 2015-2030 timeframe. In the near term, that is, the transitional period between now and 2010 when we will establish a widely available hydrogen fueling infrastructure in California, the distributed production options of reforming and electrolysis will play the dominant role. In addition, production of hydrogen at centralized plants using

  9. The heated debate. [Global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

  10. Competitive bidding debate goes national

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1987-10-01

    Several states have either adopted or are considering proposal for competitive bidding among prospective cogenerators wishing to supply electric power to a utility. A survey of independent power producers found that an early issue to emerge was whether utilities, themselves, would have to compete for the right to expand. Another issue is access to transmission services. Arguments that this was not the intent of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act forget that diversifying energy sources was a major goal. Congress will continue hearings on the debate this fall on several issues.

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Dakota for 2010. In grade 8 reading and math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Dakota showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Hampshire, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in New Hampshire for 2010. New Hampshire's demographic profile is such that, with the exception of Latino students at the elementary level, there are fewer than 500 students in the racial/ethnic subgroups at the various grade levels, and therefore these groups are too small to…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: District of Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The District's demographics are such that achievement trends could only be determined for African American, male and female, and low income subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington, DC students showed gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels…

  14. A Systematic Approach to Subgroup Classification in Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a systematic approach to subgroup classification based on a classification framework and sequential steps involved in the subgrouping process. The sequential steps are stating the purpose of the classification, identifying the classification elements, using relevant information, and using clearly stated and purposeful…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  16. Presidential Debates: Not a Spectator Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides two teaching activities to help students analyze political debates from a curriculum for middle and high schools called "Presidential Debates: A Teacher's Guide". Designed by the Commission on Presidential Debates and Kids Voting USA, it includes : (1) "The Techniques of Persuasion"; and (2) "It's Your Turn to be a Political Reporter."…

  17. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group…

  18. Technological Imperatives: Using Computers in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticku, Ravinder; Phelps, Greg

    Intended for forensic educators and debate teams, this document details how one university debate team, at the University of Iowa, makes use of computer resources on campus to facilitate storage and retrieval of information useful to debaters. The introduction notes the problem of storing and retrieving the amount of information required by debate…

  19. The Power of In-Class Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  20. The Importance of High School Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important educational objectives of high school is to teach critical-thinking skills, and no class does this better than strategic debate. Professor Mike Allen, lead author in a definitive study on debate and critical thinking, lauded debate's promotion of critical-thinking skills. Additionally, researcher Joe Bellon discusses the…

  1. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not expenditures. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section...

  2. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  3. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not contributions. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section...

  4. [The debate over drug legalization].

    PubMed

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  5. Nutrient and food intakes differ among Latina subgroups during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To document nutrient and food group serving intakes from food sources among Latina subgroups living in the same geographical area. Design A cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food group serving intakes were assessed by means of a 24 h recall administered immediately after a prenatal survey. Setting Hartford, CT, USA. Subjects A total of 233 low-income pregnant Latinas. For analyses, Latinas were classified into two groups on the basis of self-reported ethnic identity: Puerto Ricans and non-Puerto Rican Latinas. Results Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely than non-Puerto Rican Latinas to be more acculturated and to consume foods (i.e. processed meat, cheese, soft drinks) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fat, SFA, MUFA, trans fatty acids) that have been implicated in the development of chronic diseases. By contrast, non-Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely to consume foods (i.e. fruits, dark green/yellow vegetables, tomatoes, non-starchy vegetables) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fibre, vegetable protein, folate, β-carotene) that promote health when compared with Puerto Rican Latinas. Conclusions Findings suggest that acculturation may play a role in dietary intake. Clinicians and dietitians need to be aware of these differences to encourage healthy eating patterns among more acculturated pregnant Latina clients. PMID:21729472

  6. Universal primers that amplify RNA from all three flavivirus subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Maher-Sturgess, Sheryl L; Forrester, Naomi L; Wayper, Paul J; Gould, Ernest A; Hall, Roy A; Barnard, Ross T; Gibbs, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    Background Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world. Increasing cases of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia, frequent outbreaks of Yellow fever virus in Africa and South America, and the ongoing spread of West Nile virus throughout the Americas, show the geographical burden of flavivirus diseases. Flavivirus infections are often indistinct from and confused with other febrile illnesses. Here we review the specificity of published primers, and describe a new universal primer pair that can detect a wide range of flaviviruses, including viruses from each of the recognised subgroups. Results Bioinformatic analysis of 257 published full-length Flavivirus genomes revealed conserved regions not previously targeted by primers. Two degenerate primers, Flav100F and Flav200R were designed from these regions and used to generate an 800 base pair cDNA product. The region amplified encoded part of the methyltransferase and most of the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (NS5) coding sequence. One-step RT-PCR testing was successful using standard conditions with RNA from over 60 different flavivirus strains representing about 50 species. The cDNA from each virus isolate was sequenced then used in phylogenetic analyses and database searches to confirm the identity of the template RNA. Conclusion Comprehensive testing has revealed the broad specificity of these primers. We briefly discuss the advantages and uses of these universal primers. PMID:18218114

  7. [Biostatistical support for decision making in drug licensing and reimbursement exemplified by implications of heterogeneous findings in subgroups of the study population].

    PubMed

    Gonnermann, A; Kottas, M; Koch, Armin

    2015-03-01

    In the context of both drug licensing and reimbursement, the target population is sometimes restricted to a specific subgroup. In the setting of drug licensing the discussion concerns a negative benefit/risk assessment in a relevant subgroup. For reimbursement the debate involves the detection of an additional benefit compared with standard treatment, which can in some situations not be accepted for the overall study population. In their Methods Paper, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) refers to published articles that name criteria for the evaluation of credibility to claim a therapeutic effect on the basis of results in the subgroups of a study population (BMJ 340:850-854, 2010). A number of these criteria have found their way into the regulatory debate, which was recently published in a draft guideline of the European Medicines Agency (EMA). However, the significance of the interaction/heterogeneity test has been mentioned as one criterion for the credibility of a finding in a subgroup of the study population. This aspect is critically challenged in our paper. In our estimation, the application of this criterion hinders the critical discussion of whether a global treatment effect is applicable to relevant subgroups of a study population and the potential implications of this. We feel that biostatistical support for decision-making strategies should be the same in both worlds, even though in some instances the outcomes in a specific situation may be different, depending on the objective to be demonstrated.

  8. Subgroup differences in psychosocial factors relating to coronary heart disease in the UK South Asian population☆

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily D.; Nazroo, James Y.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To explore the differences in psychosocial risk factors related to coronary heart disease (CHD) between South Asian subgroups in the UK. South Asian people suffer significantly higher rates of CHD than other ethnic groups, but vulnerability varies between South Asian subgroups, in terms of both CHD rates and risk profiles. Psychosocial factors may contribute to the excess CHD propensity that is observed; however, subgroup heterogeneity in psychosocial disadvantage has not previously been systematically explored. Methods With a cross-sectional design, 1065 healthy South Asian and 818 white men and women from West London, UK, completed psychosocial questionnaires. Psychosocial profiles were compared between South Asian religious groups and the white sample, using analyses of covariance and post hoc tests. Results Of the South Asian sample, 50.5% was Sikh, 28.0% was Hindu, and 15.8% was Muslim. Muslim participants were more socioeconomically deprived and experienced higher levels of chronic stress, including financial strain, low social cohesion, and racial discrimination, compared with other South Asian religious groups. In terms of health behaviors, Muslim men smoked more than Sikhs and Hindus, and Muslims also reported lower alcohol consumption and were less physically active than other groups. Conclusion This study found that Muslims were exposed to more psychosocial and behavioral adversity than Sikhs and Hindus, and highlights the importance of investigating subgroup heterogeneity in South Asian CHD risk. PMID:20846539

  9. An examination of familial resemblance among subgroups of dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Szeszulski, P A; Manis, F R

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether developmental dyslexics and their affected parents evinced similar patterns of deficits in word recognition skills. Forty dyslexic children and both their biological parents were administered a battery of experimental measures of phonological and orthographic processing. Deficits in component skills were defined in terms of deviations from the performance of normal readers matched on reading achievement level. Four distinct patterns of deficits were found among both the dyslexics and their parents: a subgroup with a specific deficit in processing phonological codes; a subgroup with a specific deficit in processing orthographic codes; a subgroup with deficits in processing both phonological and orthographic codes; and a subgroup of individuals who did not significantly differ from normal readers at the same reading level in either processing domain. Although limited evidence for familial subgroup concordance was obtained in both the phonological and combined phonological subgroups, no concordance was observed among families classified into the orthographic or reading-achievement equivalent subgroups. It was concluded that all affected family members shared a propensity for a phonological deficit, and that some family members share a fundamental problem in processing orthographic information as well.

  10. Young children with language difficulties: a dimensional approach to subgrouping.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rianne; Ceulemans, Eva; Grauwels, Jolien; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    A dimensional approach was used to create bottom-up constructed subgroups that captured the behavioral heterogeneity in 36 Dutch-speaking children with language difficulties. Four subgroups were delineated based upon differences in cognitive ability, symbol understanding, joint attention and autism spectrum disorder related characteristics. Children with a different developmental disorder were found within a single cluster. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bottom-up constructed subgroups might capture the heterogeneous behavioral profiles of young children with developmental difficulties in a more meaningful way. Furthermore, joint attention and symbol understanding seem important skills to assess in young children presenting with language difficulties.

  11. Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker-Hansen, Jens; Andrée, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project, a socio-political debate was designed for assessing student competences of scientific literacy in classroom practices. The debate centred on a fictive case about a lake where a decline in the yield of fish had been established. The students were assigned the task of participating in the debate from appointed roles as different stakeholders. Data were collected with video recordings of the enacted student debates. Student participation was analysed with the theoretical framework of communities of practice. The results show that multiple conflicting purposes of the socio-political debate as an assessment task emerged. The emergent purposes were (1) putting scientific knowledge on display versus staying true to one's role, (2) putting scientific knowledge on display versus expressing social responsibility, (3) putting scientific knowledge on display versus winning the debate, and (4) using sources tactically versus using sources critically. As these purposes emerged in classroom practice, tensions between different ways of enacting participation in the debates became manifest. Based on these findings, this article discusses the affordances and constraints for using a socio-political debate for classroom-based assessment of scientific literacy and argumentation in terms of validity, reliability and affordability.

  12. A person-centered approach to examining heterogeneity and subgroups among survivors of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-08-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M = 24.78, SD = 2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across 2 cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: contact or attempted assault (17% of the sample), incapacitated assault (52%), and forceful severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the forceful severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms; higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex; and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other 2 groups. Women in the forceful severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619

  13. A Person-Centered Approach to Examining Heterogeneity and Subgroups Among Survivors of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M=24.78, SD=2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across two cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: Contact or Attempted assault (17% of the sample), Incapacitated assault (52%), and Forceful Severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the Forceful Severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms, higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex, and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other two groups. Women in the Forceful Severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the Incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619

  14. G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways

  15. The population debate heats up.

    PubMed

    Malay, R L

    1994-01-01

    60% of the 65 million people in the Philippines have lived below the poverty line amid overall negative GNP growth for almost a decade. The population is growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. These conditions suggest the urgent need to reduce population growth and take measures to improve the performance of the economy. The big debate in the Philippines regarding population and development, however, is not over the redistribution of resources, but about the morality of managing population growth through the promotion of artificial means of contraception. Roman Catholicism predominates among religions in the Philippines. The Catholic Church in the Philippines, as elsewhere around the world, alleges that artificial contraceptives are abortifacient and that only natural methods should be promoted. Although Health Secretary Dr. Juan M. Flavier, a staunch supporter of family planning, points out that the church and state both abhor abortion, accept natural family planning, and would like to offer a better quality of life to the people, it is clear that the government does not agree with the Church's endorsement of only natural family planning methods. Surveys have found that most Filipinos agree with the government; they are in favor of family planning and feel that the Church should stay out of the debate. A people-centered approach to development and concern for the environment are called for to improve the Filipino quality of life. At the global level, the Vatican has allies among believers of Islam in its position against abortion and in favor of a traditional concept of the family. Despite wrangling at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) over a woman's right to abortion and other contentious issues, such as the objection among Southern states to the ICPD committee's exclusion of the right to family reunification, the ICPD was a success because it gave prime importance to the link between population and sustainable development. The ICPD

  16. The population debate heats up.

    PubMed

    Malay, R L

    1994-01-01

    60% of the 65 million people in the Philippines have lived below the poverty line amid overall negative GNP growth for almost a decade. The population is growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. These conditions suggest the urgent need to reduce population growth and take measures to improve the performance of the economy. The big debate in the Philippines regarding population and development, however, is not over the redistribution of resources, but about the morality of managing population growth through the promotion of artificial means of contraception. Roman Catholicism predominates among religions in the Philippines. The Catholic Church in the Philippines, as elsewhere around the world, alleges that artificial contraceptives are abortifacient and that only natural methods should be promoted. Although Health Secretary Dr. Juan M. Flavier, a staunch supporter of family planning, points out that the church and state both abhor abortion, accept natural family planning, and would like to offer a better quality of life to the people, it is clear that the government does not agree with the Church's endorsement of only natural family planning methods. Surveys have found that most Filipinos agree with the government; they are in favor of family planning and feel that the Church should stay out of the debate. A people-centered approach to development and concern for the environment are called for to improve the Filipino quality of life. At the global level, the Vatican has allies among believers of Islam in its position against abortion and in favor of a traditional concept of the family. Despite wrangling at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) over a woman's right to abortion and other contentious issues, such as the objection among Southern states to the ICPD committee's exclusion of the right to family reunification, the ICPD was a success because it gave prime importance to the link between population and sustainable development. The ICPD

  17. Dispositional Affect in Unique Subgroups of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Danielle B.; Mehta, Swati; Pope, Janet E.; Harth, Manfred; Shapiro, Allan; Teasell, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis may experience increased negative outcomes if they exhibit specific patterns of dispositional affect. Objective. To identify subgroups of patients with rheumatoid arthritis based on dispositional affect. The secondary objective was to compare mood, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, disability, and quality of life between subgroups. Methods. Outpatients from a rheumatology clinic were categorized into subgroups by a cluster analysis based on dispositional affect. Differences in outcomes were compared between clusters through multivariate analysis of covariance. Results. 227 patients were divided into two subgroups. Cluster 1 (n = 85) included patients reporting significantly higher scores on all dispositional variables (experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, worry, fear of pain, and perfectionism; all p < 0.001) compared to patients in Cluster 2 (n = 142). Patients in Cluster 1 also reported significantly greater mood impairment, pain anxiety sensitivity, and pain catastrophizing (all p < 0.001). Clusters did not differ on quality of life or disability. Conclusions. The present study identifies a subgroup of rheumatoid arthritis patients who score significantly higher on dispositional affect and report increased mood impairment, pain anxiety sensitivity, and pain catastrophizing. Considering dispositional affect within subgroups of patients with RA may help health professionals tailor interventions for the specific stressors that these patients experience. PMID:27445594

  18. The Value of Heterogeneity for Cost-Effectiveness Subgroup Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Andrea; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a general framework to guide the use of subgroup cost-effectiveness analysis for decision making in a collectively funded health system. In doing so, it addresses 2 key policy questions, namely, the identification and selection of subgroups, while distinguishing 2 sources of potential value associated with heterogeneity. These are 1) the value of revealing the factors associated with heterogeneity in costs and outcomes using existing evidence (static value) and 2) the value of acquiring further subgroup-related evidence to resolve the uncertainty given the current understanding of heterogeneity (dynamic value). Consideration of these 2 sources of value can guide subgroup-specific treatment decisions and inform whether further research should be conducted to resolve uncertainty to explain variability in costs and outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to a cost-effectiveness analysis for the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study presents the expected net benefits under current and perfect information when subgroups are defined based on the use and combination of 6 binary covariates. The results of the case study confirm the theoretical expectations. As more subgroups are considered, the marginal net benefit gains obtained under the current information show diminishing marginal returns, and the expected value of perfect information shows a decreasing trend. We present a suggested algorithm that synthesizes the results to guide policy. PMID:24944196

  19. Dispositional Affect in Unique Subgroups of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rice, Danielle B; Mehta, Swati; Pope, Janet E; Harth, Manfred; Shapiro, Allan; Teasell, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis may experience increased negative outcomes if they exhibit specific patterns of dispositional affect. Objective. To identify subgroups of patients with rheumatoid arthritis based on dispositional affect. The secondary objective was to compare mood, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, disability, and quality of life between subgroups. Methods. Outpatients from a rheumatology clinic were categorized into subgroups by a cluster analysis based on dispositional affect. Differences in outcomes were compared between clusters through multivariate analysis of covariance. Results. 227 patients were divided into two subgroups. Cluster 1 (n = 85) included patients reporting significantly higher scores on all dispositional variables (experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, worry, fear of pain, and perfectionism; all p < 0.001) compared to patients in Cluster 2 (n = 142). Patients in Cluster 1 also reported significantly greater mood impairment, pain anxiety sensitivity, and pain catastrophizing (all p < 0.001). Clusters did not differ on quality of life or disability. Conclusions. The present study identifies a subgroup of rheumatoid arthritis patients who score significantly higher on dispositional affect and report increased mood impairment, pain anxiety sensitivity, and pain catastrophizing. Considering dispositional affect within subgroups of patients with RA may help health professionals tailor interventions for the specific stressors that these patients experience. PMID:27445594

  20. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech.

  1. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    PubMed

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  2. Debating the Controlled Substances Act.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Joseph F

    2004-10-01

    In the United States, the basis of modern drug regulation is the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970. The CSA laid out the authority of the federal government and provided a framework within which all existing and new substances could be regulated on their abuse potential, safety, and medical utility. The debates over the CSA centered on several critical issues: where to place the authority to make scheduling designations, the impact of scheduling on drug research, and defining what constituted drug "abuse" for purposes of scheduling. Passage of the CSA was aided by broad language that provided a kind of "big tent" which could accommodate diverse points of view. A retrospective assessment of the CSA shows it to have greatly expanded federal administrative authority over the nation's drug supply, much as its authors intended. Other impacts of the CSA, however, are much less certain. This article concludes by highlighting the issues and questions that should guide future retrospective research on the efficacy of drug control regimes. PMID:15380285

  3. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  4. [Cross-species Transmission of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanwei; He, Menglian; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Manda; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates. We found that pheasants and quails were infected under the selective pressure that accumulates stepwise in different hosts, and that ducks were not infected. Infection rates for SPF chickens and turkeys were 100% (16/16), whereas those for pheasants and quails were 37.5% (6/16) and 11.1% (3/27). Infected hosts showed immune tolerance, and inflammation and tissue damage could be seen in the liver, spleen, kidneys and cardiovascular system. Non-synonymous mutation and synonymous ratio (NS/S) analyses revealed the NS/S in hypervariable region (hr) 2 of pheasants and quails was 2.5. That finding suggested that mutation of isolates in pheasants and quails was induced by selective pressure from the resistant host, and that the hr2 region is a critical domain in cross-species transmission of ALV-J. Sequencing showed that ALV-J isolates from turkeys, pheasants and quails had moved away from the original virus, and were closer to the ALV-J prototype strain HPRS-103. However, the HPRS-103 strain cannot infect pheasants and quails, so further studies are needed. PMID:27295883

  5. [Cross-species Transmission of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanwei; He, Menglian; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Manda; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates. We found that pheasants and quails were infected under the selective pressure that accumulates stepwise in different hosts, and that ducks were not infected. Infection rates for SPF chickens and turkeys were 100% (16/16), whereas those for pheasants and quails were 37.5% (6/16) and 11.1% (3/27). Infected hosts showed immune tolerance, and inflammation and tissue damage could be seen in the liver, spleen, kidneys and cardiovascular system. Non-synonymous mutation and synonymous ratio (NS/S) analyses revealed the NS/S in hypervariable region (hr) 2 of pheasants and quails was 2.5. That finding suggested that mutation of isolates in pheasants and quails was induced by selective pressure from the resistant host, and that the hr2 region is a critical domain in cross-species transmission of ALV-J. Sequencing showed that ALV-J isolates from turkeys, pheasants and quails had moved away from the original virus, and were closer to the ALV-J prototype strain HPRS-103. However, the HPRS-103 strain cannot infect pheasants and quails, so further studies are needed.

  6. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  7. Are the mentally ill homeless a distinct homeless subgroup?

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M; Pollio, D E; Spitznagel, E L

    1996-09-01

    The question has been raised whether it is useful or meaningful to dichotomize the homeless population by mental illness - i.e., to consider the mentally ill homeless as distinct from other homeless people. The current article presents evidence from a single data set to address this question empirically. Data from a randomly sampled population of 900 homeless men and women systemically interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were examined to determine associations of mental illness with the problems of homelessness, controlling for the presence of substance abuse in the analyses. Although a few clinically meaningful associations with mental illness were found that might suggest directions for appropriate interventions, mental illness did not differentiate individuals in many important demographic and biographic respects. Individual diagnoses did not perform much better in differentiating the homeless by mental illness. Schizophrenia and bipolar mania showed a few significant associations not identified by the "major mental illness" construct. Major depression, constituting the majority of nonsubstance Axis I disorder in the homeless, provided no association beyond that obtained with the "major mental illness" category. The data provide little support for conceptualizing homeless subgroups or homelessness in general on the basis of mental illness alone. To do so also risks neglecting the emotional distress of the majority without major mental illness and the other problems that homeless persons share regardless of psychiatric illness. While serious mental illness is overrepresented among the homeless, it represents just one of many important vulnerability factors for homelessness. Substance abuse is far more prevalent than other Axis I disorders. Media images equating homelessness with major mental illness unnecessarily stigmatize homeless people and encourage oversimplified and narrowly conceived psychiatric interventions. While continuing attention is

  8. Network Approach to Autistic Traits: Group and Subgroup Analyses of ADOS Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, George M.; Montazeri, Farhad; de Bildt, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    A network conceptualization might contribute to understanding the occurrence and interacting nature of behavioral traits in the autism realm. Networks were constructed based on correlations of item scores of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule for Modules 1, 2 and 3 obtained for a group of 477 Dutch individuals with developmental disorders.…

  9. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  10. Presidential debates and change in students' attitude.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Everton G

    2002-02-01

    The effects of debates on influencing potential voters' attitudes were assessed in a group of 45 undergraduates who watched the third presidential debate of election year 2000 between candidates Bush and Gore. A repeated measures t test indicated a significant change in immediate ratings of attitude from pretest to posttest, with Gore being rated higher at posttest.

  11. The Subtle Nature of Presidential Debate Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the influence of televised, general election, presidential debates on prospective voters' perceptions of participating candidates may be larger than previous research suggests. Finds that two sources of debate effects have gone largely undetected to date: those based on candidates' relational communication, and those which are…

  12. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2) Broadcasters...), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee or candidate. In... political party as the sole objective criterion to determine whether to include a candidate in a debate....

  13. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  14. Media Nihilism and the Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the function of media nihilism--the rhetoric of "crisis and failure"--in the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines journalists' debate questions, noting that they painted an almost wholly negative portrait of America. Suggests that the candidate who effectively "skewers" the media on its own hypocrisy should be declared the debate…

  15. Using Debates to Teach Information Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham

    2011-01-01

    This experience report details the use of debates in a course on Information Ethics. Formal debates have been used in academia for centuries and create an environment in which students must think critically, communicate well and, above all, synthesize and evaluate the relevant classroom material. They also provide a break from the standard…

  16. The United States: A Persistent Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Scotter, Richard; Hartoonian, H. Michael; White, William E.; Davis, James E.

    2007-01-01

    American democratic society is sustained through debate among its citizens. Four sets of value tensions--(1) law versus ethics, (2) private wealth versus common wealth, (3) freedom versus equality, and (4) unity versus diversity--are central in allowing citizens to address matters of public interest through debate. These value pairs are the…

  17. Colleges Call Debate Contests out of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Competitive debate has traditionally served as a laboratory for the democratic process and an important training ground for future policy makers. In recent years, a growing number of teams have played the game out of traditional bounds. They have turned events into commentaries on debate itself, in performances that bear little resemblance to the…

  18. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  19. Industry Interests in the HDTV Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Suzanne Chambliss

    This analysis of the pattern of industrial interests in the current debate over high definition television systems argues that the debate involves more than just television; rather, it is an expression of a shift in the conceptualization of the nature of standards, one which conceives of standards as guidelines for the development of specific…

  20. A Taxonomy of CEDA Debate Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Day, Donald L.

    To develop a taxonomy of Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) critics, a study associated professed judging philosophy and responses to survey questions with ballot behavior and elaborated judging profiles. Subjects were debate critics who judged rounds at CEDA tournaments in the Northeast during the Spring 1989 season. In all, 13 critics…

  1. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  2. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1-63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4-58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3-30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9-11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. PMID:26055746

  3. The Importance of Risk and Subgroup Analysis of Nonparticipants in a Geriatric Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background. A major concern in intervention studies is the generalizability of the findings due to refusal of intended participants to actually take part. In studies including ill older people the number of those declining to participate may be large and the concern is therefore relevant. Objectives. To compare patients characteristics, rates of acute readmission, and mortality after one and six months among older persons who agreed and those who declined to participate in a randomized controlled trial and to describe subgroups of nonparticipants. Design. Comparative study based on a randomized controlled trial. Setting. University hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. Participants. Patients ≥70 years discharged home after a short Emergency Department stay. 399 were requested to participate; 271 consented, whereas 128 refused. Results. Refusers were more likely to be readmitted (p < 0.001) or die (p = 0.006). The largest subgroup of refusers described as “too ill” had the highest risk of readmission (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.61–5.47, p = 0.001) and of mortality within six months (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.64–7.49, p = 0.002). However, this seems not to have affected the results of our randomized study. Conclusion. We recommend that intervention studies among older people or other fragile patient groups include analysis of relevant risk and subgroup analyses of refusers. PMID:27446634

  4. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1-63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4-58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3-30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9-11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections.

  5. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4–58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3–30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9–11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. PMID:26055746

  6. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  7. Exploratory subgroup analysis in clinical trials by model selection.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Gerd K

    2016-09-01

    The interest in individualized medicines and upcoming or renewed regulatory requests to assess treatment effects in subgroups of confirmatory trials requires statistical methods that account for selection uncertainty and selection bias after having performed the search for meaningful subgroups. The challenge is to judge the strength of the apparent findings after mining the same data to discover them. In this paper, we describe a resampling approach that allows to replicate the subgroup finding process many times. The replicates are used to adjust the effect estimates for selection bias and to provide variance estimators that account for selection uncertainty. A simulation study provides some evidence of the performance of the method and an example from oncology illustrates its use. PMID:27230820

  8. Subgroups associated with lower physical fitness in older adults with ID: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-02-01

    Although physical fitness is generally very low in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), levels may differ across subgroups. It is important to identify which subgroups need to be targeted specifically in physical activity and fitness interventions and reference values. Physical fitness was measured with box-and-block-test, response-time-test, Berg-balance-scale, walking speed, grip strength, 30s-chair-stand, 10 m incremental-shuttle-walking test and the extended modified-back-saver-sit-and-reach-test in a large sample of older adults with ID (n=1050), and subgroups associated with lower physical fitness levels were identified applying multivariate linear regression analyses. Both fixed personal characteristics such as being older, being female, having more severe ID and having Down syndrome and modifiable or preventable factors such as physical activity levels, mobility impairments and a need of more intensive care, are independently associated with lower levels of multiple physical fitness components. This first study identifies subgroups of older adults with ID which require adapted reference values, and subgroups that need to be specifically targeted in fitness promotion programs.

  9. Differences in Adolescent Substance Use by Hispanic Subgroup: What We Know and What We Need to Find out.

    PubMed

    Carlton-Smith, Allison R; Skeer, Margie R

    2015-01-01

    Differences in health outcomes on the basis of racial and/or ethnic group membership have been documented among Hispanics in the US. As this heterogeneous population continues to grow, so does the importance of understanding the subgroups within it and the possible effect that between-group variations may have on health outcomes. This article highlights a major limitation of the existing research: that the Hispanic population is almost exclusively lumped into one pan-ethnic category when examining substance use behaviors. However, there is evidence to suggest that differences in substance use behaviors exist between Hispanic subgroups, which may be important when designing prevention and intervention programs. While the majority of research in this arena has focused on adults, more research is required to understand subgroup differences in substance use behaviors among Hispanic youth. This article provides a synopsis of the research on U.S. Hispanic substance use behaviors, including how factors such as acculturation, nativity, and culture of origin can act as risk and protective factors. However, there is an insufficient amount of research looking at how the differences between Hispanic subgroups may interact with acculturation levels to increase or decrease risk factors associated with substance use. Therefore, the authors suggest that substance use researchers attempt to improve future study designs by asking standardized demographic questions of national origin and/or ethnic/subgroup identity and take this into account in their analyses. The collection of such specific data could then be used to develop more targeted prevention and intervention programs.

  10. Molecular Subgrouping of Medulloblastoma: Impact Upon Research and Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tejpal; Shirsat, Neelam; Jalali, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, the most common primary pediatric malignant brain tumor is a molecularly heterogeneous disease with different developmental origins, distinct phenotypes, diverse biological behaviour, and contrasting clinical outcomes. The current clinico-radiological risk-classification fails to take account of this heterogeneity and existent prognostic variability. It is widely accepted that dysregulation of normal developmental processes constitute a key mechanism of tumorigenesis in at least a subset of medulloblastomas. Several attempts at biological classification have successfully identified distinct subgroups with subgroup-specific gene signatures, demographics, histologic subtypes, and rates of metastases. Several research groups have classified medulloblastoma into molecular subgroups using a variety of different genomic approaches and platforms such as gene expression profiling, microRNA profiling and methylation arrays. Recently, a consensus has emerged that classifies medulloblastoma into four distinct molecular subgroups named as wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4 respectively. However, such integrative approaches have limited applicability in the clinic due to the need of fresh-frozen tissues and elaborate molecular biology tools. In parallel, some groups have proposed and validated traditional antibody-based approaches using immunohistochemistry on archival specimen for rapid and reliable molecular subgrouping to be applied in any basic neuropathology laboratory. Heterogeneity within each of these four consensus subgroups has also been demonstrated that needs to be considered in the design of future clinical trials. There is a compelling need to integrate molecular biomarkers with clinico-pathologic outcome indicators to refine risk-stratification as well as develop novel molecularly targeted agents for optimizing therapeutic index and personalizing therapy.

  11. Small ruminant lentivirus genetic subgroups associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are prevalent in North American sheep and a major cause of production losses for the U.S. sheep industry. Sheep susceptibility to SRLV infection is influenced by genetic variation within the ovine transmembrane 154 gene (TMEM154). Animals with either of two distinct TMEM154 haplotypes that both encode glutamate at position 35 of the protein (E35) are at greater risk of SRLV infection than those homozygous with a lysine (K35) haplotype. Prior to this study, it was unknown if TMEM154 associations with infection are influenced by SRLV genetic subgroups. Accordingly, our goals were to characterize SRLVs naturally infecting sheep from a diverse U.S. Midwestern flock and test them for associations with TMEM154 E35K genotypes. Two regions of the SRLV genome were targeted for proviral amplification, cloning, sequence analysis, and association testing with TMEM154 E35K genotypes: gag and the transmembrane region of env. Independent analyses of gag and env sequences showed that they clustered in two subgroups (1 and 2), they were distinct from SRLV subtypes originating from Europe, and that subgroup 1 associated with hemizygous and homozygous TMEM154 K35 genotypes and subgroup 2 with hemi- and homozygous E35 genotypes (gag p < 0.001, env p = 0.01). These results indicate that SRLVs in the U.S. have adapted to infect sheep with specific TMEM154 E35K genotypes. Consequently, both host and SRLV genotypes affect the relative risk of SRLV infection in sheep. PMID:23895262

  12. HTLV-1 subgroups associated with the risk of HAM/TSP are related to viral and host gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, independent of the transactivation functions of the viral factors.

    PubMed

    Yasuma, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takashima, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-01

    Among human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals, the risk of developing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) across lifetime differs between ethnic groups. There is an association between HTLV-1 tax gene subgroups (subgroup-A or subgroup-B) and the risk of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. In this study, we investigated the full-length proviral genome sequences of various HTLV-1-infected cell lines and patient samples. The functional differences in the viral transcriptional regulators Tax and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) between each subgroup and the relationships between subgroups and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients were evaluated. The results of these analyses indicated the following: (1) distinct nucleotide substitutions corresponding to each subgroup were associated with nucleotide substitutions in viral structural, regulatory, and accessory genes; (2) the HBZ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in HTLV-1-infected cells was significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B than in those with subgroup-A; (3) a positive correlation was observed between the expression of HBZ mRNA and its target Foxp3 mRNA in HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-B, but not in patients with subgroup-A; (4) no clear differences were noted in clinical and laboratory characteristics between HAM/TSP patients with subgroup-A and subgroup-B; and (5) no functional differences were observed in Tax and HBZ between each subgroup based on reporter gene assays. Our results indicate that although different HTLV-1 subgroups are characterized by different patterns of viral and host gene expression in HAM/TSP patients via independent mechanisms of direct transcriptional regulation, these differences do not significantly affect the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients. PMID:26635027

  13. 29 CFR 1912a.13 - Subcommittees and subgroups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subcommittees and subgroups. 1912a.13 Section 1912a.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH §...

  14. Active medulloblastoma enhancers reveal subgroup-specific cellular origins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charles Y; Erkek, Serap; Tong, Yiai; Yin, Linlin; Federation, Alexander J; Zapatka, Marc; Haldipur, Parthiv; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Risch, Thomas; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Worst, Barbara C; Ju, Bensheng; Orr, Brent A; Zeid, Rhamy; Polaski, Donald R; Segura-Wang, Maia; Waszak, Sebastian M; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Hovestadt, Volker; Buchhalter, Ivo; Sieber, Laura; Johann, Pascal; Chavez, Lukas; Gröschel, Stefan; Ryzhova, Marina; Korshunov, Andrey; Chen, Wenbiao; Chizhikov, Victor V; Millen, Kathleen J; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Eils, Roland; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Pfister, Stefan M; Bradner, James E; Northcott, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour, often inflicting devastating consequences on the developing child. Genomic studies have revealed four distinct molecular subgroups with divergent biology and clinical behaviour. An understanding of the regulatory circuitry governing the transcriptional landscapes of medulloblastoma subgroups, and how this relates to their respective developmental origins, is lacking. Here, using H3K27ac and BRD4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with tissue-matched DNA methylation and transcriptome data, we describe the active cis-regulatory landscape across 28 primary medulloblastoma specimens. Analysis of differentially regulated enhancers and super-enhancers reinforced inter-subgroup heterogeneity and revealed novel, clinically relevant insights into medulloblastoma biology. Computational reconstruction of core regulatory circuitry identified a master set of transcription factors, validated by ChIP-seq, that is responsible for subgroup divergence, and implicates candidate cells of origin for Group 4. Our integrated analysis of enhancer elements in a large series of primary tumour samples reveals insights into cis-regulatory architecture, unrecognized dependencies, and cellular origins.

  15. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  16. On the Homology of Congruence Subgroups and K3(Z)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronnie; Szczarba, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Let Γ(n;p) be the congruence subgroup of SL(n;Z) of level p. We study the homology and cohomology of Γ(n;p) as modules over SL(n;Fp) and apply our results to obtain an upper bound for the order of K3(Z). PMID:16592224

  17. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences. PMID:23763901

  18. Subgroup conflicts? Try the psychodramatic "double triad method".

    PubMed

    Verhofstadt-Denève, Leni M F

    2012-04-01

    The present article suggests the application of a psychodramatic action method for tackling subgroup conflicts in which the direct dialogue between representatives of two opposing subgroups is prepared step by step through an indirect dialogue strategy within two triads, a strategy known as the Double Triad Method (DTM). In order to achieve integration in the group as a whole, it is important that all the members of both subgroups participate actively during the entire process. The first part of the article briefly explores the theoretical background, with a special emphasis on the Phenomenological-Dialectical Personality Model (Phe-Di PModel). In the second part, the DTM procedure is systematically described through its five action stages, each accompanied with 1) a spatial representation of the consecutive actions, 2) some illustrative statements for each stage, and 3) a theoretical interpretation of the dialectically involved personality dimensions in both protagonists. The article concludes with a discussion and suggestions for more extensive applications of the DTM method, including the question of its relationships to Agazarian's functional subgrouping, psychodrama, and sociodrama.

  19. Fatigue-Based Subgroups of Breast Cancer Survivors with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Dirksen, Shannon Ruff; Belyea, Michael J.; Epstein, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breast cancer survivors (BCS) with insomnia can be grouped according to their level of fatigue. A secondary data analysis was conducted on baseline data obtained from a randomized clinical trial that focused on a cognitive-behavioral intervention for insomnia in BCS. Participants were breast cancer survivors (n=86) with insomnia who were at least 3 months post completion of primary treatment without current evidence of disease. Three subgroups of women were identified with significant differences in fatigue, including: Exhausted (35%), Tired (41%), and Restored (24%). Results suggest a majority of women have moderate-to-severe fatigue many years post completion of treatment. Severe fatigue was associated with higher levels of other symptoms and poorer quality of life (Exhausted subgroup). Significant differences in insomnia severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life were noted among the Exhausted, Tired and Restored subgroups. The existence of fatigue-based subgroups offers important information when providing care to BCS. By determining symptoms associated with fatigue, patient care will benefit through a shift in focus from treatment of a single symptom such as fatigue to the delivery of a tailored intervention that targets multiple symptoms. PMID:19661794

  20. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 Program for Pooling Subgroup Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, N. Clayton; Hittner, James B.

    1997-01-01

    An interactive FORTRAN 77 program is presented that computes the pooled correlation from independent subgroups via the formula provided by R. Charter and R. Alexander (1993). In addition, the means and standard deviations for each variable are also provided for the composite group. (Author/SLD)

  1. Thinking and Caring about Indigenous Peoples' Human Rights: Swedish Students Writing History beyond Scholarly Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to national and international guidelines, schools should promote historical thinking and foster moral values. Scholars have debated, but not analysed in depth in practice, whether history education can and should hold a normative dimension. This study analyses current human rights education in two Swedish senior high school groups, in…

  2. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  3. Cluster Analysis of Clinical Data Identifies Fibromyalgia Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Elisa; Collado, Antonio; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Carbonell, Jordi; Rivera, Javier; Vidal, Javier; Alegre, José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia (FM) is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. Material and Methods 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. Results Variables clustered into three independent dimensions: “symptomatology”, “comorbidities” and “clinical scales”. Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1), high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2), and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3), showing differences in measures of disease severity. Conclusions We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment. PMID:24098674

  4. Distinct symptom experiences in subgroups of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Vivi L; Rustøen, Tone; Cooper, Bruce A; Miaskowski, Christine; Henriksen, Anne H; Bentsen, Signe B; Holm, Are M

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to their respiratory symptoms, patients with COPD experience multiple, co-occurring symptoms. Objectives The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of COPD patients based on their distinct experiences with 14 symptoms and to determine how these subgroups differed in demographic and clinical characteristics and disease-specific quality of life. Patients and methods Patients with moderate, severe, and very severe COPD (n=267) completed a number of self-report questionnaires. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of patients with distinct symptom experiences based on the occurrence of self-reported symptoms using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Results Based on the probability of occurrence of a number of physical and psychological symptoms, three subgroups of patients (ie, latent classes) were identified and named “high”, “intermediate”, and “low”. Across the three latent classes, the pairwise comparisons for the classification of airflow limitation in COPD were not significantly different, which suggests that measurements of respiratory function are not associated with COPD patients’ symptom burden and their specific needs for symptom management. While patients in both the “high” and “intermediate” classes had high occurrence rates for respiratory symptoms, patients in the “high” class had the highest occurrence rates for psychological symptoms. Compared with the “intermediate” class, patients in the “high” class were younger, more likely to be women, had significantly more acute exacerbations in the past year, and reported significantly worse disease-specific quality of life scores. Conclusion These findings suggest that subgroups of COPD patients with distinct symptom experiences can be identified. Patients with a higher symptom burden warrant more detailed assessments and may have therapeutic needs that would not be identified using current classifications based only on

  5. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    PubMed

    Paixão, R L; Schramm, F R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  6. Teaching sociology to nurses: exploring the debate.

    PubMed

    Williamson, G R

    1999-05-01

    This article reviews literature on the current debate concerning teaching sociology to nurses. The debate is limited because it does not take into account the work of Donald Schön, or Anthony Giddens. The article also discusses theories of adult education which support teaching sociology in nurse education. Sociology is essential for nurses, because it can help to develop an understanding and analysis of the context and substance of nursing practice.

  7. Debating science policy in the physics classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    It is critically important that national and international science policy be scientifically grounded. To this end, the next generation of scientists and engineers will need to be technically competent, effective communicators of science, and engaged advisors in the debate and formulation of science policy. We describe three science policy debates developed for the physics classroom aimed at encouraging students to draw connections between their developing technical expertise and important science policy issues. The first debate considers the proposal for a 450-megawatt wind farm on public lands in Nantucket Sound and fits naturally into the curriculum related to alternative forms of energy production. The second debate considers national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles and can be incorporated into the curriculum related to heat engines. The third debate, suitable for the curriculum in optics, considers solid state lighting and implications of recent United States legislation that places stringent new energy-efficiency and reliability requirements on conventional lighting. The technical foundation for each of these debates fits naturally into the undergraduate physics curriculum and the material is suitable for a wide range of physics courses, including general science courses for non-majors.

  8. Association between Obesity and Cardiometabolic Health Risk in Asian-Canadian Sub-Groups

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jason X.; Ardern, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare the association between the World Health Organizations’ Asian-specific trigger points for public health action [‘increased risk’: body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2, and; ‘high risk’: BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2] with self-reported cardiovascular-related conditions in Asian-Canadian sub-groups. Methods Six cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001–2009) were pooled to examine BMI and health in Asian sub-groups (South Asians, Chinese, Filipino, Southeast Asians, Arabs, West Asians, Japanese and Korean; N = 18 794 participants, ages 18–64 y). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle characteristics and acculturation measures, was used to estimate the odds of cardiovascular-related health (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’) outcomes across all eight Asian sub-groups. Results Compared to South Asians (OR = 1.00), Filipinos had higher odds of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.62), whereas Chinese (0.63, 0.474–0.9) and Arab-Canadians had lower odds (0.38, 0.28–0.51). In ethnic-specific analyses (with ‘acceptable’ risk weight as the referent), ‘increased’ and ‘high’ risk weight categories were the most highly associated with ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ in Chinese (‘increased’: 3.6, 2.34–5.63; ‘high’: 8.9, 3.6–22.01). Compared to normal weight South Asians, being in the ‘high’ risk weight category in all but the Southeast Asian, Arab, and Japanese ethnic groups was associated with approximately 3-times the likelihood of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’. Conclusion Differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risks were seen among Asian sub-groups in Canada. The use of WHO’s lowered Asian-specific BMI cut-offs identified obesity-related risks in South Asian, Filipino and Chinese sub-groups

  9. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  10. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  11. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-06-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) "the mammography debate you will have with you always." Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis-also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions. PMID:26089721

  12. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-01-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) “the mammography debate you will have with you always.” Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis—also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions. PMID:26089721

  13. Developing a Predictive Gene Classifier for Autism Spectrum Disorders Based upon Differential Gene Expression Profiles of Phenotypic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Valerie W.; Lai, Yinglei

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which are currently diagnosed solely on the basis of abnormal stereotyped behavior as well as observable deficits in communication and social functioning. Although a variety of candidate genes have been identified on the basis of genetic analyses and up to 20% of ASD cases can be collectively associated with a genetic abnormality, no single gene or genetic variant is applicable to more than 1–2 percent of the general ASD population. In this report, we apply class prediction algorithms to gene expression profiles of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from several phenotypic subgroups of idiopathic autism defined by cluster analyses of behavioral severity scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised diagnostic instrument for ASD. We further demonstrate that individuals from these ASD subgroups can be distinguished from nonautistic controls on the basis of limited sets of differentially expressed genes with a predicted classification accuracy of up to 94% and sensitivities and specificities of ~90% or better, based on support vector machine analyses with leave-one-out validation. Validation of a subset of the “classifier” genes by high-throughput quantitative nuclease protection assays with a new set of LCL samples derived from individuals in one of the phenotypic subgroups and from a new set of controls resulted in an overall class prediction accuracy of ~82%, with ~90% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Although additional validation with a larger cohort is needed, and effective clinical translation must include confirmation of the differentially expressed genes in primary cells from cases earlier in development, we suggest that such panels of genes, based on expression analyses of phenotypically more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with ASD, may be useful biomarkers for diagnosis of subtypes of idiopathic autism. PMID:24363828

  14. Measuring the speed of aging across population subgroups.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article "The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging" published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations.

  15. Distinguishing between Subgroups of Adolescents Who Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargus, Emily; Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The differences in factors associated with subgroups of adolescents in the continuum of deliberate self-harm (DSH) phenomena were investigated. In an anonymous self-report survey of 6,020 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years, 3.2% of adolescents (5.3% females, 1.3% males) reported DSH with intent to die, 2.8% (4.3% females; 1.5% males) reported DSH…

  16. Measuring the speed of aging across population subgroups.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article "The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging" published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations. PMID:24806337

  17. Distinct Histomorphology in Molecular Subgroups of Glioblastomas in Young Patients.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julia E; Dorostkar, Mario M; Korshunov, Andrey; Mawrin, Christian; Koch, Arend; Giese, Armin; Schüller, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors that can be divided into different molecular subtypes based on genetics, global gene expression, and methylation patterns. Among these subgroups, "IDH" GBMs carry mutations within IDH1 or IDH2 The "K27" and "G34" subgroups are characterized by distinct mutations within Histone 3 (H3). These subtypes can be identified by sequencing methods and are particularly found in younger patients. To determine whether the molecular subtypes correlate with distinct histological features among the diverse histologic patterns of GBM, we performed a blinded assessment of the histology of GBMs of 77 patients ≤30 years old at the time of biopsy. The tumors were of the following molecular subtypes: IDH (n = 12), H3 K27M (n = 25), H3 G34R (n = 12), or no IDH/H3 mutations (n = 28). Of IDH-mutated cases, 75% had microcystic features or gemistocytic tumor cells. K27 GBMs had higher cell densities and pronounced nuclear pleomorphism, with 28% harboring tumor giant cells. All G34 GBMs had variable extents of a poorly differentiated/primitive neuroectodermal tumor-like morphology. GBMs without IDH/H3 mutations had foci of epitheliod-appearing cells. Thus, molecular GBM subgroups are associated with distinct histological patterns, suggesting that morphological features reflect the specific underlying molecular genetic abnormalities. PMID:26975364

  18. General guidance on exploratory and confirmatory subgroup analysis in late-stage clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Alex; Muysers, Christoph; Fritsch, Arno; Lipkovich, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a broad class of statistical and clinical considerations related to the assessment of treatment effects across patient subgroups in late-stage clinical trials. This article begins with a comprehensive review of clinical trial literature and regulatory guidelines to help define scientifically sound approaches to evaluating subgroup effects in clinical trials. All commonly used types of subgroup analysis are considered in the article, including different variations of prospectively defined and post-hoc subgroup investigations. In the context of confirmatory subgroup analysis, key design and analysis options are presented, which includes conventional and innovative trial designs that support multi-population tailoring approaches. A detailed summary of exploratory subgroup analysis (with the purpose of either consistency assessment or subgroup identification) is also provided. The article promotes a more disciplined approach to post-hoc subgroup identification and formulates key principles that support reliable evaluation of subgroup effects in this setting.

  19. Urinary proteome analysis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young Ah; Cain, Kevin; Jarrett, Monica; Smith, Lynne; Voss, Joachim; Tolentino, Ernie; Tsuji, Joyce; Tsai, Yihsuan S.; Panchaud, Alexandre; Goodlett, David R.; Shulman, Robert J.; Heitkemper, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain associated with alterations in bowel function. Given the heterogeneity of the symptoms, multiple pathophysiologic factors are suspected to play a role. We classified women with IBS into four subgroups based on distinct symptom profiles. In-depth shotgun proteomic analysis was carried out to profile the urinary proteomes to identify possible proteins associated with these subgroups. First void urine samples with urine creatinine level ≥ 100 mg/dL were used after excluding samples that tested positive for blood. Urine from ten subjects representing each symptom subgroup was pooled for proteomic analysis. The urine proteome was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using a data-independent method known as Precursor Acquisition Independent From Ion Count (PAcIFIC) that allowed extended detectable dynamic range. Differences in protein quantities were determined by peptide spectral counting followed by validation of select proteins with ELISA or a targeted single reaction monitoring (LC-SRM/MS) approach. Four IBS symptom subgroups were selected: 1) Constipation, 2) Diarrhea + Low Pain, 3) Diarrhea + High Pain, and 4) High Pain + High Pychological Distress. A fifth group consisted of Healthy Control subjects. From comparisons of quantitative spectral counting data among the symptom subgroups and controls, a total of 18 proteins that showed quantitative differences in relative abundance and possible physiological relevance to IBS were selected for further investigation. Three of the 18 proteins were chosen for validation by either ELISA or SRM. An elevated expression of gelsolin (GSN) was associated with the high pain groups. Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3) levels were higher in IBS groups compared to controls. In this study the IBS patients subclassified by predominant symptoms showed differences in urine proteome levels. Proteins

  20. A Novice and Novel Approach to Encouraging Participation in Debate, the Novice Debate Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Mike

    The Novice Debate Association (NDA) is an organization that is building unity, respecting diversity, and giving students and institutions alike a chance to participate in debate activity. The NDA began in 1987 as a strictly novice tournament. By 1993, the association had enlarged to 24 colleges and universities. The format of the NDA is designed…

  1. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E. Beyer's "Educational Studies and…

  2. Course of Depression in a 10-year Prospective Study: Evidence for Qualitatively Distinct Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The course of depressive disorders can vary considerable, with some individuals exhibiting a chronic course and poor outcomes, while others have a more episodic course and better outcomes. However it is unclear whether degree of chronicity is continuous or reflects qualitatively distinct subgroups. Using data from a 5-wave, 10-year, naturalistic study of 127 depressed outpatients, we examined whether depression chronicity lies on a continuum or manifests natural boundaries. Spline regression was used to test 7 continuous and discontinuous models of the relationship between depression during the first follow-up interval and multiple outcomes at subsequent follow-ups. In order to further validate the findings, we also created empirically-derived subgroups based on the results of the spline regression analyses and compared them on baseline clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes. There was a clear and consistent discontinuity indicating that for higher levels of chronicity during the first 30 month period, depression was linearly related to outcome; in contrast, for lower levels of chronicity, depression in the initial interval was unrelated to subsequent outcomes. The findings were strikingly consistent across the 4 follow-up evaluations using multiple outcomes and goodness-of-fit indices. In addition, the chronic group--as defined by the first follow-up period--exhibited more baseline chronic depression, anxiety and personality disorders, family history of dysthymia, and childhood adversity, and was more likely to attempt suicide and be hospitalized during follow-up, than the non-chronic group. Results suggest that there are qualitatively distinct classes of patients with more and less chronic depressions, and support the utility of longitudinal course as a means of parsing depression into more homogeneous subgroups. PMID:26845258

  3. Identification of Salmonella enterica species- and subgroup-specific genomic regions using Panseq 2.0.

    PubMed

    Laing, Chad; Villegas, Andre; Taboada, Eduardo N; Kropinski, Andrew; Thomas, James E; Gannon, Victor P J

    2011-12-01

    The pan-genome of a taxonomic group consists of evolutionarily conserved core genes shared by all members and accessory genes that are present only in some members of the group. Group- and subgroup-specific core genes are thought to contribute to shared phenotypes such as virulence and niche specificity. In this study we analyzed 39 Salmonella enterica genomes (16 closed, 23 draft), a species that contains two human-specific serovars that cause typhoid fever, as well as a large number of zoonotic serovars that cause gastroenteritis in humans. Panseq 2.0 was used to define the pan-genome by adjusting the threshold at which group-specific "core" loci are defined. We found the pan-genome to be 9.03 Mbp in size, and that the core genome size decreased, while the number of SNPs/100 bp increased, as the number of strains used to define the core genome increased, suggesting substantial divergence among S. enterica subgroups. Subgroup-specific "core" genes, in contrast, had fewer SNPs/100 bp, likely reflecting their more recent acquisition. Phylogenetic trees were created from the concatenated and aligned pan-genome, the core genome, and multi-locus-sequence typing (MLST) loci. Branch support increased among the trees, and strains of the same serovar grouped closer together as the number of loci used to create the tree increased. Further, high levels of discrimination were achieved even amongst the most closely related strains of S. enterica Typhi, suggesting that the data generated by Panseq may also be of value in short-term epidemiological studies. Panseq provides an easy and fast way of performing pan-genomic analyses, which can include the identification of group-dominant as well as group-specific loci and is available as a web-server and a standalone version at http://lfz.corefacility.ca/panseq/.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Subgroup C Avian Pneumoviruses Isolated in the United States and Comparison with Subgroup A and B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Cameron, Kjerstin T.; Jacobs, Janet A.; Turpin, Elizabeth A.; Halvorson, David A.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Kumar, Mahesh C.; Lauer, Dale C.; Seal, Bruce S.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2002-01-01

    The avian pneumovirus (APV) outbreak in the United States is concentrated in the north-central region, particularly in Minnesota, where more outbreaks in commercial turkeys occur in the spring (April to May) and autumn (October to December). Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), and second matrix (M2) genes of 15 U.S. APV strains isolated between 1996 and 1999 revealed between 89 and 94% nucleotide sequence identity and 81 to 95% amino acid sequence identity. In contrast, genes from U.S. viruses had 41 to 77% nucleotide sequence identity and 52 to 78% predicted amino acid sequence identity with European subgroup A or B viruses, confirming that U.S. viruses belonged to a separate subgroup. Of the five proteins analyzed in U.S. viruses, P was the most variable (81% amino acid sequence identity) and N was the most conserved (95% amino acid sequence identity). Phylogenetic comparison of subgroups A, B, and C viruses indicated that A and B viruses were more closely related to each other than either A or B viruses were to C viruses. PMID:11980943

  5. Molecular epidemiology of subgroup C avian pneumoviruses isolated in the United States and comparison with subgroup a and B viruses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Cameron, Kjerstin T; Jacobs, Janet A; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Halvorson, David A; Goyal, Sagar M; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; Kumar, Mahesh C; Lauer, Dale C; Seal, Bruce S; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2002-05-01

    The avian pneumovirus (APV) outbreak in the United States is concentrated in the north-central region, particularly in Minnesota, where more outbreaks in commercial turkeys occur in the spring (April to May) and autumn (October to December). Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), and second matrix (M2) genes of 15 U.S. APV strains isolated between 1996 and 1999 revealed between 89 and 94% nucleotide sequence identity and 81 to 95% amino acid sequence identity. In contrast, genes from U.S. viruses had 41 to 77% nucleotide sequence identity and 52 to 78% predicted amino acid sequence identity with European subgroup A or B viruses, confirming that U.S. viruses belonged to a separate subgroup. Of the five proteins analyzed in U.S. viruses, P was the most variable (81% amino acid sequence identity) and N was the most conserved (95% amino acid sequence identity). Phylogenetic comparison of subgroups A, B, and C viruses indicated that A and B viruses were more closely related to each other than either A or B viruses were to C viruses.

  6. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  7. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  8. Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The author describes how the interactive study of social media's effect on the Common Core debate was designed and executed. Important findings from the study were: 1) We live in an increasingly interconnected social world. 2) Media has evolved over the last half century from a passive system dominated by a few central opinion makers to the…

  9. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  10. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  11. Making Sense of the MOOCs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This article considers recent public debates about massive open online courses (MOOCs) and their potential to transform higher education. Drawing on reports and media commentary, it probes the claims and counterclaims of MOOC proponents and MOOC sceptics. It considers the implications for students, governments, institutions and scholars…

  12. Evolution: Don't Debate, Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses controversy over the teaching of biological evolution and other scientific ideas such as Big Bang theory. Recommends that teachers avoid debating creationists, help students develop a greater understanding and appreciation for science as a way of explaining the natural world, and emphasize inquiry and the nature of science. (Contains 19…

  13. Debating the Merits of Transborder Data Flow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Kay

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the highlights of a conference "Data Regulation: European and Third World Realities," during which the merits and demerits of "transborder data flow" regulations were debated with officials from nations that have recently passed or are considering legislation related to privacy and data protection. (CWM)

  14. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  15. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  16. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... nomination by a particular political party as the sole objective criterion to determine whether to include...

  17. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... nomination by a particular political party as the sole objective criterion to determine whether to include...

  18. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... nomination by a particular political party as the sole objective criterion to determine whether to include...

  19. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political committee... nomination by a particular political party as the sole objective criterion to determine whether to include...

  20. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  1. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  2. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  3. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Cancer.gov

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  4. Debates over School Shutdowns Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As school closures are increasingly used as a remedy to budget woes and a solution to failing schools in many cities, debates are intensifying about their effect on student performance and well-being, on district finances, and on communities and the processes districts use to choose which schools will be shuttered. Student and parent groups in…

  5. China's Succession Battle Stirs Higher Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, John

    1976-01-01

    Describes the current debate going on in Chinese political and educational circles regarding the quality of university education since the Cultural Revolution. Those being singled out for their bourgeois line are critical of such practices as nonacademic selection criteria and the weight given to practical experience in the shortened courses. (JT)

  6. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  7. Education and Social Cohesion: Recentering the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy; Preston, John

    2001-01-01

    Examines the debate over education and social cohesion, reviewing relevant literature, which notes limitations of individual-level analysis of societal issues; outlining alternative models for understanding how education influences social cohesion in different societies (e.g., skills, income distribution, and indicators of social cohesion); and…

  8. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  9. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

  10. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and use any…

  11. Voices on Choice: The Education Reform Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, K. L., Ed.

    This collection presents a sampling of opinions of both proponents and opponents in the school choice debate from a variety of professional perspectives, including academics, bureaucrats, politicians, union leaders, economists, lawyers, parents, and activists. The following essays are included: (1) "School Choice Promotes Educational Excellence in…

  12. Meningitis Deaths Renew Debate About Vaccinating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The annual incidence of meningococcal disease among 15- to 25-year olds has doubled since 1991, to over 600 cases, and recent studies indicate outbreaks may be increasing on college campuses. Six of the 83 cases appearing at academic institutions have been fatal. The trend has fueled the debate over whether a vaccine should be administered…

  13. Teaching History in Schools: A Canadian Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the debate over the teaching of Canadian history that has been in progress in Canada since the early 1990s. It considers four criticisms: schools do not teach enough Canadian history and students, therefore, do not know it; the history that is taught is no longer sufficiently national; social history has destroyed the old…

  14. The Great Graduation-Rate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christine O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote clearer understanding of the graduation-rate debate by distilling the policy developments and controversy surrounding the measurement of these rates over the last decade. The paper concludes with a discussion of the move toward a federally mandated common metric for graduation rates. The No Child Left Behind…

  15. Multiple "Curriculum" Meanings Heighten Debate over Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Calls for shared curricula for the common standards have triggered renewed debates about who decides what students learn, and even about varied meanings of the word "curriculum," adding layers of complexity to the job of translating the broad learning goals into classroom teaching. The most recent calls for common curricula came from the American…

  16. Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…

  17. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-03-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented.

  18. Debating the Jury System; A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinzinger, Richard A., Comp.

    This handbook contains basic resource material for debating significant changes in the United States jury system. Chapter 1 outlines available sources of information for preliminary research. Chapters 2 and 3 present background information on the federal and state court systems and the jury system. Chapter 4 discusses an interpretation of the…

  19. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  20. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  1. Indirect Estimation of the Comparative Treatment Effect in Pharmacogenomic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Sorich, Michael J.; Coory, Michael; Pekarsky, Brita A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of clinical utility is a key issue in translating pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. Appropriately designed randomized controlled trials generally provide the most robust evidence of the clinical utility, but often only data from a pharmacogenomic association study are available. This paper details a method for reframing the results of pharmacogenomic association studies in terms of the comparative treatment effect for a pharmacogenomic subgroup to provide greater insight into the likely clinical utility of a pharmacogenomic marker, its’ likely cost effectiveness, and the value of undertaking the further (often expensive) research required for translation into clinical practice. The method is based on the law of total probability, which relates marginal and conditional probability. It takes as inputs: the prevalence of the pharmacogenomic marker in the patient group of interest, prognostic effect of the pharmacogenomic marker based on observational association studies, and the unstratified comparative treatment effect based on one or more conventional randomized controlled trials. The critical assumption is that of exchangeability across the included studies. The method is demonstrated using a case study of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype and the anti-platelet agent clopidogrel. Indirect subgroup analysis provided insight into relationship between the clinical utility of genotyping CYP2C19 and the risk ratio of cardiovascular outcomes between CYP2C19 genotypes for individuals using clopidogrel. In this case study the indirect and direct estimates of the treatment effect for the cytochrome P450 2C19 subgroups were similar. In general, however, indirect estimates are likely to have substantially greater risk of bias than an equivalent direct estimate. PMID:24015225

  2. Report of the subgroup on alternative models and new ideas

    SciTech Connect

    M. Chertok et al.

    2002-12-23

    We summarize some of the work done by the P3 subgroup on Alternative Models and New Ideas. The working group covered a broad range of topics including a constrained Standard Model from an extra dimension, a discussion of recent ideas addressing the strong CP problem, searches for doubly charged higgs bosons in e{gamma} collisions, and an update on discovery limits for extra neutral gauge bosons at hadron colliders. The breadth of topics rejects the many ideas and approaches to physics beyond the Standard Model.

  3. Novel genetic markers define a subgroup of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandan P; Wilkins, Marc R; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kaakoush, Nadeem O

    2015-11-01

    The B2 phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli contains important pathogens such as extraintestinal pathogenic, adherent-invasive, and uropathogenic strains. In this study, we used comparative genomics and statistical methods to identify genetic variations that define a subset of pathogenic strains belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group. An initial proof of concept analysis indicated that five of the 62 E. coli strains available in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database showed close association with B2 adherent-invasive E. coli, forming a subgroup within the B2 phylogenetic group. The tool, kSNP which uses a k-mer approach, and the statistical phenotype prediction tool PPFS2 were then employed to identify 29 high-resolution SNPs, which reaffirmed this grouping. PPFS2 analysis also provided indications that the clustering of this subgroup was highly consistent, and thus, could have a strong phenotypic basis rather than being only evolutionary. Protein homology analyses identified three proteins to be conserved across this subgrouping, two CRISPR-Cas proteins and a hypothetical protein. Functional analyses of these genetic and protein variations may provide insights into the phenotype of these strains.

  4. On the Intermediate Subgroup of the Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Database

    SciTech Connect

    Huja, David; Meszaros, Attila

    2008-12-24

    A sample of 286 gamma-ray bursts, detected by Swift satellite, is studied statistically by the {chi}{sup 2} test and the Student t-test, respectively. The short and long subgroups are well detected in the Swift data. But no intermediate subgroup is seen. The non-detection of this subgroup in the Swift database can be explained, once it is assumed that in the BATSE database the short and the intermediate subgroups form a common subclass.

  5. Self-Concept and Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Scholastic Competence Subgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagborg, Winston J.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of middle-school-age students with learning disabilities, grouped according to their self-reported ratings of scholastic competence, found significant differences between the low subgroup and the medium/high subgroups on internal locus of control for positive events, school attitudes, and global self-worth. Subgroups did not differ in…

  6. 26 CFR 1.1502-92 - Ownership change of a loss group or a loss subgroup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... has an ownership change— (A) The losses described in § 1.1502-91(c) are treated as net operating... loss group under § 1.1502-91(c). (ii) Loss subgroup. A loss subgroup has an ownership change if the... whether the loss subgroup parent has an ownership change— (A) The losses described in § 1.1502-91(d)...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Solignac, M; Monnerot, M; Mounolou, J C

    1986-01-01

    Detailed restriction maps (40 cleavage sites on average) of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from the eight species of the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila were established. Comparison of the cleavage sites allowed us to build a phylogenetic tree based on the matrix of nucleotide distances and to select the most parsimonious network. The two methods led to similar results, which were compared with those in the literature obtained from nuclear characters. The three chromosomally homosequential species D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia are mitochondrially very related, but exhibit complex phylogenetic relationships. D. melanogaster is their closest relative, and the four species form a monophyletic group (the D. melanogaster complex), which is confirmed by the shared unusual length of their mt genomes (18-19 kb). The other four species of the subgroup (D. yakuba, D. teissieri, D. erecta, and D. orena) are characterized by a much shorter mt genome (16-16.5 kb). The monophyletic character of the D. yakuba complex, however, is questionable. Two species of this complex, D. yakuba and D. teissieri, are mitochondrially indistinguishable (at the level of our investigation) in spite of their noticeable allozymic and chromosomal divergence. Finally, mtDNA distances were compared with the nuclear-DNA distances thus far established. These sequences seem to evolve at rather similar rates, the mtDNA rate being barely double that of nuclear DNA.

  8. Executive and Attention Functioning Among Children in the Pandas Subgroup

    PubMed Central

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Luckenbaugh, David; Buhle, Jason; Thurm, Audrey E.; Casey, B. J.; Swedo, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from past studies indicates that adults and children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) experience subtle neuropsychological deficits. Less is known about neuropsychological functioning of children and adolescents with a symptom course consistent with the PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection) subgroup of OCD and tics. To provide such information, we administered three tests of attention control and two of executive function to 67 children and adolescents (ages 5–16) diagnosed with OCD and/or tics and a symptom course consistent with the PANDAS subgroup and 98 healthy volunteers (HV) matched by age, sex, and IQ. In a paired comparison of the two groups, the PANDAS subjects were less accurate than HV in a test of response suppression. Further, in a two-step linear regression analysis of the PANDAS group in which clinical variables were added stepwise into the model and in the second step matching variables (age, sex, and IQ) were added, IQ emerged as a predictor of performance on this task. In the same analysis, ADHD diagnosis and age emerged as predictors of response time in a continuous performance task. Subdividing the PANDAS group by primary psychiatric diagnosis revealed that subjects with TS or OCD with tics exhibited a longer response time compared to controls than subjects with OCD only, replicating previous findings within TS and OCD. This study demonstrates that children with PANDAS exhibit neuropsychological profiles similar to those of their primary psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:18622810

  9. The science achievement of various subgroups on alternative assessment formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Welch, Wayne

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the science achievement outcomes for different subgroups of students using different assessment formats. A nationally representative sample of approximately 3,500 ninth grade science students from 13 high schools throughout the United States completed a series of science assessments designed to measure their level of achievement on the national science education standards. All of the schools were using a curriculum designed to meet the standards. The assessments included a multiple-choice test, a written open-ended test, a hands-on lab skills test, and a hands-on full investigation. The results show that the student outcomes on the different assessment formats are more highly correlated for higher achieving students than for lower achieving students. Patterns for different cultural groups also vary by assessment format. There were no differences found for sex. The results support the notion that different assessment formats assess different competencies and that the achievement of students from different subgroups varies by assessment format.

  10. AKT Pathway Genes Define 5 Prognostic Subgroups in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Ivan; Reiser, Mark; Misra, Anjan; Shapiro, William R.; Mills, Gordon B.; Kim, Seungchan; Feuerstein, Burt G.

    2014-01-01

    Activity of GFR/PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors in glioblastoma clinical trials has not been robust. We hypothesized variations in the pathway between tumors contribute to poor response. We clustered GBM based on AKT pathway genes and discovered new subtypes then characterized their clinical and molecular features. There are at least 5 GBM AKT subtypes having distinct DNA copy number alterations, enrichment in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and patterns of expression for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling components. Gene Ontology terms indicate a different cell of origin or dominant phenotype for each subgroup. Evidence suggests one subtype is very sensitive to BCNU or CCNU (median survival 5.8 vs. 1.5 years; BCNU/CCNU vs other treatments; respectively). AKT subtyping advances previous approaches by revealing additional subgroups with unique clinical and molecular features. Evidence indicates it is a predictive marker for response to BCNU or CCNU and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors. We anticipate Akt subtyping may help stratify patients for clinical trials and augment discovery of class-specific therapeutic targets. PMID:24984002

  11. Identification of Subgroups of Schizophrenia Patients With Changes in Either Immune or Growth Factor and Hormonal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Emanuel; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Ramsey, Jordan; Leweke, F. Markus; Rothermundt, Matthias; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann; Guest, Paul C.; Bahn, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder normally diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. However, these criteria do not necessarily reflect differences in underlying molecular abnormalities of the disorder. Here, we have used multiplexed immunoassay analyses to measure immune molecules, growth factors, and hormones important to schizophrenia in acutely ill antipsychotic-naive patients (n = 180) and matched controls (n = 398). We found that using the resulting molecular profiles, we were capable of separating schizophrenia patients into 2 significantly distinct subgroups with predominant molecular abnormalities in either immune molecules or growth factors and hormones. These molecular profiles were tested using an independent cohort, and this showed the same separation into 2 subgroups. This suggests that distinct abnormalities occur in specific molecular pathways in schizophrenia patients. This may be of relevance for intervention studies that specifically target particular molecular mechanisms and could be a first step to further define the complex schizophrenia syndrome based on molecular profiles. PMID:23934781

  12. Accounting for Subgroup Structure in Line-Transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Amanda L.; Forney, Karin A.; Oleson, Erin M.; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai’i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479–5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97–3

  13. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Amanda L; Forney, Karin A; Oleson, Erin M; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  14. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Amanda L; Forney, Karin A; Oleson, Erin M; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  15. Using guided debates to teach current issues.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2014-06-01

    A guided-debate strategy was developed for a graduate-level core course in current issues based on the Jesuit method of discernment (group decision making). The strategy encourages students to use up-to-date Internet sources to determine the range of opinions on current controversies in the discipline. In addition to providing a structured process to engage in persuasive discussion of difficult issues, the strategy facilitates critical thinking about the quality of the debate itself. Thus, students learn to avoid the pitfalls associated with consensus, such as failing to express reservations or negative opinions that might be important, while learning how to express concerns that might not be easily received by others in a group. PMID:24814355

  16. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  17. Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Nine original articles comprise this special issue of the Journal of Personality addressing personality-based perspectives of psychopathy. In this introduction to the special issue, we review five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. At the same time, several important debates remain, which are also highlighted in the special issue's articles. These debates center around the necessity and sufficiency of certain psychopathy traits, the role of traits alternatively labeled stable Extraversion, fearless dominance, or boldness, and the validity and utility of separating psychopathy from Machiavellianism as is done in research on the Dark Triad.

  18. Venezuelan political debate focuses on Pdvsa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that another political firestorm has flared over Venezuelan petroleum sector investment. Statements by Venezuela's President Carlos Andres Perez who has provoked a new political debate over oil affairs in Venezuela. Commenting on Pdvsa's overseas interests, it has been ordered that the state oil company to sell part of its shares in Citgo Petroleum Corp., Tulsa, and Ruhr Oel GmbH, a joint venture with Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen.

  19. Inactivation of Anandamide Signaling: A Continuing Debate

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hesham; Houssen, Wael E.

    2010-01-01

    Since the first endocannabinoid anandamide was identified in 1992, extensive research has been conducted to characterize the elements of the tightly controlled endocannabinoid signaling system. While it was established that the activity of endocannabinoids are terminated by a two-step process that includes cellular uptake and degradation, there is still a continuing debate about the mechanistic role of these processes in inactivating anandamide signals.

  20. Four themes in recent Swedish bioethics debates.

    PubMed

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking. PMID:21676328

  1. Debate rages over pharmaceutical coverage for seniors.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G C

    2001-01-01

    Seeking to make good on his promise to provide an interim pharmaceutical benefit for America's seniors, President George W. Bush recently outlined a new prescription drug proposal utilizing private pharmacy benefit managers (PBM). This new plan is designed to make prescription drugs more affordable by setting up a government-endorsed discount program. Here's an overview of the plan and a look to the future debate.

  2. Intronic deletions of tva receptor gene decrease the susceptibility to infection by subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed...

  3. Criteria for phytoplasma 16Sr group/subgroup delineation and the need of a platform for proper registration of new groups and subgroups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As more phytoplasmas are discovered in emerging and re-emerging plant diseases worldwide, the scheme for classification of phytoplasmas into 16S rRNA gene RFLP (16Sr) groups and subgroups is experiencing an ongoing rapid expansion. Improper delineation or designation of new groups and subgroups can...

  4. Identification of two new antigenic subgroups within the genus Mobiluncus.

    PubMed Central

    Schwebke, J R; Lukehart, S A; Roberts, M C; Hillier, S L

    1991-01-01

    Classifications of 48 atypical clinical isolates of Mobiluncus spp. were determined on the basis of biochemical reactions, morphology, antigenic profiles, and DNA hybridization studies. Two new subgroups with unique antigenic profiles are described. Like typical Mobiluncus species, the antigenic variant of M. mulieris is associated with bacterial vaginosis. The atypical isolates of M. curtisii were frequently recovered from women with normal vaginal flora and were also recovered from sterile body sites. These isolates may be incorrectly identified if current biochemical and morphological criteria are used for identification. Gram stain morphology, however, correctly identifies these isolates to the species level. The characterization of these atypical isolates has important implications for future investigations in which serological methods are used for diagnosis, epidemiology, and determination of pathogenicity of Mobiluncus spp. Images PMID:1939572

  5. Efficacy of mirtazapine in clinically relevant subgroups of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Nutt, D J

    1998-01-01

    Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) with a novel mode of action that differs from other antidepressants that are currently available. Clinical trials have demonstrated it to have good antidepressant efficacy and excellent tolerability. Analysis of the results of placebo-controlled trials in moderately or severely depressed patients have shown mirtazapine to be effective in clinically important subgroups of depressed patients, particularly anxious patients, patients with sleep disturbance, retarded patients, and agitated patients. The efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine are attributable to its pharmacological profile. It is likely that the overall antidepressant activity arises from its dual action, enhancing both noradrenergic and 5-HT1 receptor-mediated serotonergic neurotransmission, while the anxiolytic and sleep-improving properties of mirtazapine are attributable to the specific blockade of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:9597345

  6. Comparative sequence analyses of sixteen reptilian paramyxoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Batts, W.N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Viral genomic RNA of Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), a paramyxovirus highly pathogenic for reptiles, was reverse transcribed and cloned. Plasmids with significant sequence similarities to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and polymerase (L) genes of mammalian paramyxoviruses were identified by BLAST search. Partial sequences of the FDLV genes were used to design primers for amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 518-bp L gene and 352-bp HN gene fragments from a collection of 15 previously uncharacterized reptilian paramyxoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial L and HN sequences produced similar trees in which there were two distinct subgroups of isolates that were supported with maximum bootstrap values, and several intermediate isolates. Within each subgroup the nucleotide divergence values were less than 2.5%, while the divergence between the two subgroups was 20-22%. This indicated that the two subgroups represent distinct virus species containing multiple virus strains. The five intermediate isolates had nucleotide divergence values of 11-20% and may represent additional distinct species. In addition to establishing diversity among reptilian paramyxoviruses, the phylogenetic groupings showed some correlation with geographic location, and clearly demonstrated a low level of host species-specificity within these viruses. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. "Association or causation?" The debate on the scientific status of risk factor epidemiology, 1947-c. 1965.

    PubMed

    Berlivet, Luc

    2005-01-01

    In the second half of the twentieth century, epidemiology came to shape public health discourses and practices to an unprecedented extent. The chapter explores the transformation of the discipline after World War Two and analyses the crucial debate on the notion of "causation" that sprung from the growing interest in non-transmissible, chronic diseases. A landmark in this history was the controversy over the interpretation of the statistical relationship between smoking and lung cancer prompted by American and British publications in 1950. This sometimes heated debate also provided Austin Bradford Hill with the opportunity to set out his "pragmatics" of risk factor epidemiology. PMID:16212726

  8. Genetic diversity among phytoplasmas infecting Opuntia species: virtual RFLP analysis identifies new subgroups in the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma group.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Chen, Hairu; Zhao, Yan

    2008-06-01

    Phytoplasmas were detected in cactus (Opuntia species) plants exhibiting witches'-broom disease symptoms in Yunnan Province, south-western China. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that an overwhelming majority of the cactus-infecting phytoplasmas under study belonged to the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrII). Genotyping through use of computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a remarkable genetic diversity among these cactus-infecting phytoplasma strains. Based on calculated coefficients of RFLP pattern similarities, seven new 16SrII subgroups were recognized, bringing the total of described group 16SrII subgroups to 12 worldwide. Geographical areas differed from one another in the extent of genetic diversity among cactus-infecting phytoplasma strains. The findings have implications for relationships between ecosystem distribution and the emergence of group 16SrII subgroup diversity.

  9. Europe's abortion wars: womb for debate.

    PubMed

    Blinken, A J

    1991-01-01

    As Europe edges toward some sort of unity, the volatile abortion debate has begun to spill across national boundaries. Reflecting the continent's religious and cultural diversity, abortion laws throughout Europe vary widely. Holland and Sweden have the most liberal abortion laws. The former allows abortion on demand, while the later permits abortion until the 18th week -- and possibly up until term, if the National Health Bureau gives permission. Britain, France, and Belgium have also adopted liberal abortion laws. Other nations, however, have more conservative laws. Since 1983, Ireland has banned abortion entirely. Spain allows abortion only in cases of rape, malformed fetuses, or when the mother's life is in danger. Many countries are also experiencing bitter debates over abortion. Czechoslovakia's liberal abortion law has come under increasing pressure, and in Poland, bishops and legislators have feuded over the legality of abortion. The move towards unification has only intensified these debates. Germany is currently without a national abortion law, as the former East Germany still enjoys a more liberal abortion law than West Germany. Differences over abortion laws have led to what is know in Europe as abortion shipping. Every year, an estimated 15,000 Irish women travel to England, some 7,000 German women go to Holland, and some 3,000 French women travel to England -- all seeking to take advantage of another country's abortion law. Some Europeans have begun to look for continent-wide laws on abortion. Recently, an Irish group argued against its country's law before the European court of Justice. Right-to-life groups have also fought to establish continent-wide restrictions. So far, it seems unlikely that Europe will reach an agreement on the issue of abortion.

  10. Local control for identifying subgroups of interest in observational research: persistence of treatment for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Faries, Douglas E; Chen, Yi; Lipkovich, Ilya; Zagar, Anthony; Liu, Xianchen; Obenchain, Robert L

    2013-09-01

    Caregivers are regularly faced with decisions between competing treatments. Large observational health care databases provide a golden opportunity for research on heterogeneity in patient response to guide caregiver decisions, due to their sample size, diverse populations, and real-world setting. Local control is a promising tool for using observational data to detect patient subgroups with differential response on one treatment relative to another. While standard data mining approaches find subgroups with optimal responses for a particular population, detecting subgroups that reveal treatment differences while also adjusting for confounding in observational data is challenging. Local control utilizes unsupervised clustering to form non-parametric patient-level counterfactual treatment differences and displays them as an observed distribution of effect-size estimates. Classification and regression trees (CART) then find the factors that drive the greatest outcome differentiation between treatments. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the use of this two-step strategy using local control plus CART to identify depression patients most (least) likely to benefit from treatment with duloxetine relative to extended-release venlafaxine. Prior medication costs and age were found to be factors most associated with differential outcome, with prior medication costs remaining as an important factor after sensitivity analyses using a second dataset. PMID:23956114

  11. Subgroup differences in 'brain-type' transferrin and α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Akioh; Fukatsu, Masahiko; Hoshi, Kyoka; Ito, Hiromi; Nollet, Kenneth; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Ishii, Ryotaro; Tokuda, Takahiko; Miyajima, Masakazu; Arai, Hajime; Kato, Takeo; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akio; Takeda, Atsushi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Two transferrin (Tf) glycan-isoforms were previously found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); one appears to be derived from serum (Tf-2) and the other from choroid plexus, a CSF-producing tissue (Tf-1). To analyse metabolic differences associated with the two isoforms, their ratio (Tf-2/Tf-1) was defined as the Tf index. Here we report that Tf indices of patients with tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (2.29 + 0.64) were similar to those of neurological controls (2.07 + 0.87) (P = 0.147). In contrast, Tf indices with Parkinson's disease (PD, 3.38 ± 1.87) and multiple system atrophy (MSA, 3.15 ± 1.72) were higher than those of the controls (2.07 ± 0.87), the P-values being < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Tf indices of PD and MSA did not appear to be normally distributed. Indeed, detrended normal Quantile-Quantile plot analysis revealed the presence of an independent subgroup showing higher Tf indices in PD and MSA. The subgroup of PD showed higher levels of CSF α-synuclein (38.3 ± 17.8 ng/ml) than the rest (25.3 ± 11.3 ng/ml, P = 0.012). These results suggest that PD (and MSA) includes two subgroups, which show different metabolism of CSF transferrin and α-synuclein. PMID:26970280

  12. Using Simulated Debates to Teach History of Engineering Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Terry S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a technique for utilizing debates of past engineering controversies in the classroom as a means of teaching the history of engineering advances. Included is a bibliography for three debate topics relating to important controversies. (SL)

  13. A Judicial Paradigm for the Evaluation of Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Walter

    Because legal argument shares many of the characteristics of academic debate, it can serve as a paradigm for evaluating debates. Like debate, legal argument is bilateral, the judge is external to the deliberation and excluded from raising his or her own arguments, and reasons have been developed for assigning presumption, determining the wording…

  14. The Dewey-Hutchins Debate: A Dispute over Moral Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…

  15. The Sponsorship of Presidential Debates: Historical Perspectives and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides an overview of the development of sponsors for primary and general election debates at the presidential level and considers the various sponsorship alternatives for future debates. From a historical perspective, the paper discusses the major role that the broadcasting industry played in the early presidential debates and…

  16. Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

  17. Organizing a Congressional Candidate Debate as Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckelman, Keith; Deitz, Janna L.; Hardy, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a political debate among congressional candidates that the authors organized in 2006. The debate was structured to maximize student involvement both in the planning stages and during the event itself. After discussing relevant literature on experiential learning, the article describes the debate format and details the issues…

  18. Subgrouping of rheumatoid arthritis patients based on pain, fatigue, inflammation and psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Williams, David A.; Cui, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, pain may be due to peripheral inflammation or other causes, such as central pain mechanisms. The objective was to use self-report measures and physical examination to identify clusters of RA patients who may have different causes of pain and different prognoses and treatment options. Methods Data were analyzed from 169 RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study who had pain > 0/10 and completed questionnaires on pain, fatigue and psychosocial factors. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure with Ward’s method was used to obtain subgroups. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the contribution of each variable in a cluster. General linear regression models were used to examine differences in clinical characteristics across subgroups. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine coefficients for linear combinations of variables that assigned cluster membership to individual cases. Results Three clusters best fit these data. Cluster 1 consisted of 89 individuals with low inflammation, pain, fatigue and psychosocial distress. Cluster 2 consisted of 57 individuals with minimal inflammation but high pain, fatigue and psychosocial distress. Cluster 3 consisted of 23 individuals with active inflammatory disease, manifested by high joint counts, high C-reactive protein and high pain and fatigue. Conclusion Although most patients had low levels of inflammation, pain and fatigue, 47.3% continued to report moderate to high pain and fatigue. Most of these patients had minimal signs of inflammation but high levels of fatigue, pain catastrophizing and sleep disturbance, indicative of a chronic widespread pain syndrome. PMID:24782222

  19. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  20. Genetic advances require comprehensive bioethical debate.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk A M J

    2003-10-01

    In the popular media and scientific literature, the idea of medical utopia seems to have been revived. Medical science and technology are expected to provide solutions for all kinds of daily problems in human existence. The utopian context and optimistic atmosphere are influencing deeply the bio-ethical debate concerning bio-molecular technologies. They a priori direct this debate towards individual perspectives, emphasizing the benefits among which an autonomous person can make his or her choice, and towards practical applications the potential beneficial effects of which are almost there. It is argued that the concept of "geneticization" is useful for the analysis of the interrelations between genetics, medicine, society, and culture. This concept focuses on conceptual issues--the use of genetic vocabulary to define problems; institutional issues--the emergence of bio-ethics experts; cultural issues--the transformation of individual and social attitudes under the influence of genetic knowledge and technology; and philosophical issues--changing views of human identity, interpersonal relationships, and individual responsibility.

  1. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  2. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  3. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  4. Molecular evolution of the fusion protein gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hirokazu; Nagasawa, Koo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Tanaka, Ryota; Ishii, Haruyuki; Shimojo, Naoki; Kuroda, Makoto; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-09-01

    We studied the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in the human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (HRSV-A). We performed time-scaled phylogenetic analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We also conducted genetic distance (p-distance), positive/negative selection, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. Furthermore, we mapped the amino acid substitutions of the protein. The MCMC-constructed tree indicated that the HRSV F gene diverged from the bovine RSV (BRSV) gene approximately 550years ago and had a relatively low substitution rate (7.59×10(-4) substitutions/site/year). Moreover, a common ancestor of HRSV-A and -B diverged approximately 280years ago, which has since formed four distinct clusters. The present HRSV-A strains were assigned six genotypes based on F gene sequences and attachment glycoprotein gene sequences. The present strains exhibited high F gene sequence similarity values and low genetic divergence. No positive selection sites were identified; however, 50 negative selection sites were identified. F protein amino acid substitutions at 17 sites were distributed in the F protein. The effective population size of the gene has remained relatively constant, but the population size of the prevalent genotype (GA2) has increased in the last 10years. These results suggest that the HRSV-AF gene has evolved independently and formed some genotypes. PMID:27291709

  5. The role of background behavior in televised debates: does displaying nonverbal agreement and/or disagreement benefit either debater?

    PubMed

    Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry; Jensen, Andrea; Kinzer, Harold J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in televised debates. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her nonspeaking opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the non-speaking debater remained "stone faced" during her opponent's speech, while in the other three she nonverbally displayed occasional disagreement, nearly constant disagreement, or both agreement and disagreement. After viewing the debates, students rated the debaters' credibility, appropriateness, objectivity, and debate skills, in addition to judging who won the debate. Analysis indicated that background nonverbal behavior influenced audience perceptions of debaters' credibility, appropriateness, objectivity, debate skill, and the extent to which the debate was won. These results suggest that adding nonverbal agreement to expressions of nonverbal disagreement do not reduce the negative impacts of communicating disagreement nonverbally during an opponent's speech and may in fact further decrease the audiences' perception of a debater's credibility and overall performance. PMID:20575335

  6. Urban Debate and High School Educational Outcomes for African American Males: The Case of the Chicago Debate League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezuk, Briana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…

  7. Summary report of the impedance and instability subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.; Fang, S.X.; Guo, Z.Y.

    1996-02-01

    This subgroup discussed several technical issues facing the BTCF (Beijing tau-charm factory). Most of these are R and D issues to be performed before a construction start. The two uncertainties facing the B-factories and the BTCF alike, namely the transient ion instability and the photo-electron instability are much weaker in the BTCF. Another uncertainty concerns the monochromator scheme, for which a round of parameters optimization is called for. The R and D issues can be collected into a long list. These discussions are by no means exhaustive, but are listed below as a summary of this report: (1) impedance policing is to be established; (2) single bunch instability is marginally acceptable; (3) beam-beam effects is to be considered together with microwave instability to optimize the overall design; (4) microwave power is a new issue which needs attention; (5) trapped modes need attention; (6) aluminum antechamber vacuum chamber design is recommended; (7) electrostatic separators need to be designed to minimize the microwave power generation; (8) dust particles need attention.

  8. [Psychogenic pain conditions. Defense structure and taxonomic subgroups].

    PubMed

    Egle, U T; Porsch, U

    1992-05-01

    According to the results of the prospective Grant-Study the maturity of the individually available defence mechanisms has an essential influence on both physical and psychic well-being. Psychogenic pain patients are characterized by a "turning against self": an immature defense mechanism. By means of a cluster analysis, three taxonomic subgroups (types A, B, C) were defined. Type A is characterized by immature defense mechanisms (projection, turning against self and against object) and type C by neurotic defances (reaction formation and intellectualization), whereas type B manifests both intellectualization and a turning against self. Raised scores for anxiety, abnormal illness behaviour, depressive self-image, depressive mood and suicidal ideas are additional features which distinguish types A and B from type C. In contrast to type B, type A shows a negative social resonance, "doctor shopping" and drug abuse. The diagnostic differentiation of types A, B and C could be the basis of a differential indication to the different psychotherapeutic treatment approaches to chronic pain patients. PMID:1603188

  9. Hispanic Subgroups, Acculturation, and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Carmody, Tom; Akhtar, Maleeha; Stebbins, Mary B; Walters, Scott T; Warden, Diane

    2015-12-01

    This study explored Hispanic subgroup differences in substance use treatment outcomes, and the relationship of acculturation characteristics to these outcomes. Data were from a multisite randomized clinical trial of motivational enhancement therapy versus treatment as usual in a sample of Spanish-speaking substance abusers. Participants were Cuban American (n=34), Mexican American (n=209), Puerto Rican (n=78), and other Hispanic American (n=54). Results suggested that Cuban Americans and individuals with more connection to Hispanic culture had lower treatment retention. Hispanics born in the U.S and those who spoke English at home had a lower percentage of days abstinent during weeks 5-16, although Puerto Ricans born in the U.S. and Cuban Americans living more years in the U.S. had a higher percentage of days abstinent in weeks 1-4 and 5-16, respectively. Results may inform future hypothesis-driven studies in larger Hispanic treatment seeking samples of the relationship between acculturation and treatment outcome.

  10. Parameters of vacancies' formation in the carbon-subgroup crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Magomedov, M. N.

    2008-10-15

    The parameters of formation of vacancies in crystals of elements of the carbon subgroup (C{sub diam}, Si, Ge, {alpha}-Sn, Pb) are calculated. The method used takes into account both quantum effects at low temperatures and delocalization of atoms at higher temperatures. It is shown that consideration of atom delocalization brings about an increase in the values of enthalpy and entropy and the volume of the vacancy formation. At low temperatures, the parameters of vacancy formation depend heavily on temperature, with the entropy of vacancy formation becoming negative. In the region of high temperatures, good agreement was obtained with both experimental data and theoretical estimates reported in other publications. The dependence of vacancy-related parameters on temperature in the course of isobaric heating of diamond in the range from 100 to 4500 K is studied. The limits of applicability of the Arrhenius equation with temperature-independent energy of activation process are discussed. It is shown that there is validity of the 'compensation rule' (correlation between the entropy and enthalpy of vacancy formation) and of the correlation between the volume and entropy of the vacancy formation within the entire studied temperature range.

  11. Distinct tumor protein p53 mutants in breast cancer subgroups.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Anne; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Wittmer, Evelyne; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Bertheau, Philippe; Espié, Marc; Plassa, Louis-François; Cottu, Paul; Marty, Michel; André, Fabrice; Sotiriou, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; de Thé, Hugues

    2013-03-01

    Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is mutated in approximately 30% of breast cancers, but this frequency fluctuates widely between subclasses. We investigated the p53 mutation status in 572 breast tumors, classified into luminal, basal and molecular apocrine subgroups. As expected, the lowest mutation frequency was observed in luminal (26%), and the highest in basal (88%) tumors. Luminal tumors showed significantly higher frequency of substitutions (82 vs. 65%), notably A/T to G/C transitions (31 vs. 15%), whereas molecular apocrine and basal tumors presented much higher frequencies of complex mutations (deletions/insertions) (36 and 33%, respectively, vs. 18%). Accordingly, missense mutations were significantly more frequent in luminal tumors (75 vs. 54%), whereas basal tumors displayed significantly increased rates of TP53 truncations (43 vs. 25%), resulting in loss of function and/or expression. Interestingly, as basal tumors, molecular apocrine tumors presented with a high rate of complex mutations, but paradoxically, these were not associated with increased frequency of p53 truncation. As in luminal tumors, this could reflect a selective pressure for p53 gain of function, possibly through P63/P73 inactivation. Collectively, these observations point not only to different mechanisms of TP53 alterations, but also to different functional consequences in the different breast cancer subtypes.

  12. The Third Presidential Debate: Hillary Clinton And Donald Trump (Full Debate) | NBC News

    NASA Video Gallery

    » Get Breaking News Alerts: http://nbcnews.to/2e4vaHN» Check Out Fact-Checks And More: http://nbcnews.com/debate» Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC» Watch more NBC video: h...

  13. Broadening the Debate: Comments on Michael J. Feuer's "Moderating the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2009-01-01

    In "Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education", Michael Feuer argues that insights from cognitive science and the theory of bounded rationality can help us understand why educational policy makers overreach in seeking optimal solutions to educational problems. In this essay, Emily Robertson argues that cognitive…

  14. Lack of cosegregation of the subgroup II antigens on genes 2 and 6 in porcine rotaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, L; Padilla-Noriega, L; Taniguchi, K; Greenberg, H B

    1990-01-01

    The rotavirus subgroup I and II specificities associated with gene 2 and 6 products (vp2 and vp6, respectively) were shown not to cosegregate in a number of porcine rotavirus strains. The porcine OSU rotavirus strain and OSU-vp7-like strains were all found to possess a subgroup II-specific region on vp2 and a subgroup I-specific region on vp6. Of interest is the observation that the subgroup II-specific epitope on vp2 appears to be present only in human and porcine rotavirus strains, suggesting a possible human-pig ancestral lineage for gene 2. Images PMID:1688386

  15. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  16. Antarctic “quiet” site stirs debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists from the United States and New Zealand plan to meet in the coming months to assess the electromagnetic pollution of an Antarctic site especially designated for research. U.S. scientists charge that a satellite Earth station erected apparently inside the preserve by New Zealand's Telecom company could interfere with experiments on the ionosphere and magnetosphere (Eos, April 28, 1992). The Site of Special Scientific Interest at Arrival Heights, the only Antarctic preserve specifically for physical science, is located near the U.S. McMurdo and New Zealand Scott bases.Debate over the Telecom facility inter-twines diplomatic and scientific issues. One question is whether the station violates the Antarctic treaty. Secondly, does it actually impair research at the site—or could it harm future experiments? To deepen the imbroglio, those involved from both nations say that transmissions from sources off-site also interfere with research—raising doubts about how pristine the site really is.

  17. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use. PMID:27462857

  18. The debate over robotics in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The debate over the role of the da Vinci surgical robotic platform in benign gynecology is raging with increasing fervor and, as product liability issues arise, greater financial stakes. Although the best currently available science suggests that, in the hands of experts, robotics offers little in surgical advantage over laparoscopy, at increased expense, the observed decrease in laparotomy for hysterectomy is almost certainly, at least in part, attributable to the availability of the robot. In this author's opinion, the issue is not whether the robot has any role but rather to define the role in an institutional environment that also supports the safe use of vaginal and laparoscopic approaches in an integrated minimally invasive surgery program. Programs engaging robotic surgery should have a clear and self-determined regulatory process and should resist pressures in place that may preferentially support robotics over other forms of minimally invasive surgery.

  19. An estimate for the rank of the intersection of subgroups in free amalgamated products of two groups with normal finite amalgamated subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, Alexander O

    2013-02-28

    We generalize the estimate for the rank of intersection of subgroups in free products of groups, proved earlier by Ivanov and Dicks (which is analogous to the Hanna Neumann inequality in free groups) to the case of free amalgamated products of groups with normal finite amalgamated subgroup. We also prove that the estimate obtained is sharp and cannot be further improved when the amalgamated product contains an involution. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  20. Debating Race, Race-ing Debate: An Extended Ethnographic Case Study of Black Intellectual Insurgency in U.S. Intercollegiate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David Kent

    2014-01-01

    The following study is an extended ethnographic case study of a "black intellectual insurgency" within the predominantly white space of the U.S. intercollegiate policy debate activity. A growing number of black students are entering the debate activity and insisting that "whiteness" be confronted and interrogated and that…

  1. The infiltration, and prognostic importance, of Th1 lymphocytes vary in molecular subgroups of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ling, Agnes; Lundberg, Ida V; Eklöf, Vincy; Wikberg, Maria L; Öberg, Åke; Edin, Sofia; Palmqvist, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Giving strong prognostic information, T-cell infiltration is on the verge of becoming an additional component in the routine clinical setting for classification of colorectal cancer (CRC). With a view to further improving the tools for prognostic evaluation, we have studied how Th1 lymphocyte infiltration correlates with prognosis not only by quantity, but also by subsite, within CRCs with different molecular characteristics (microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype status, and BRAF and KRAS mutational status). We evaluated the Th1 marker T-bet by immunohistochemistry in 418 archival tumour tissue samples from patients who underwent surgical resection for CRC. We found that a high number of infiltrating Th1 lymphocytes is strongly associated with an improved prognosis in patients with CRC, irrespective of intratumoural subsite, and that both extent of infiltration and patient outcome differ according to molecular subgroup. In brief, microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype-high and BRAF mutated tumours showed increased infiltration of Th1 lymphocytes, and the most pronounced prognostic effect of Th1 infiltration was found in these tumours. Interestingly, BRAF mutated tumours were found to be more highly infiltrated by Th1 lymphocytes than BRAF wild-type tumours whereas the opposite was seen for KRAS mutated tumours. These differences could be explained at least partly by our finding that BRAF mutated, in contrast to KRAS mutated, CRC cell lines and tumour specimens expressed higher levels of the Th1-attracting chemokine CXCL10, and reduced levels of CCL22 and TGFB1, stimulating Th2/Treg recruitment and polarisation. In conclusion, the strong prognostic importance of Th1 lymphocyte infiltration in CRC was found at all subsites evaluated, and it remained significant in multivariable analyses, indicating that T-bet may be a valuable marker in the clinical setting. Our results also indicate that T-bet is of value when analysed in

  2. Multigene mutational profiling of cholangiocarcinomas identifies actionable molecular subgroups.

    PubMed

    Simbolo, Michele; Fassan, Matteo; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Mafficini, Andrea; Wood, Laura D; Corbo, Vincenzo; Melisi, Davide; Malleo, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Caterina; Malpeli, Giorgio; Antonello, Davide; Sperandio, Nicola; Capelli, Paola; Tomezzoli, Anna; Iacono, Calogero; Lawlor, Rita T; Bassi, Claudio; Hruban, Ralph H; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-05-15

    One-hundred-fifty-three biliary cancers, including 70 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), 57 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) and 26 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were assessed for mutations in 56 genes using multigene next-generation sequencing. Expression of EGFR and mTOR pathway genes was investigated by immunohistochemistry. At least one mutated gene was observed in 118/153 (77%) cancers. The genes most frequently involved were KRAS (28%), TP53 (18%), ARID1A (12%), IDH1/2 (9%), PBRM1 (9%), BAP1 (7%), and PIK3CA (7%). IDH1/2 (p=0.0005) and BAP1 (p=0.0097) mutations were characteristic of ICC, while KRAS (p=0.0019) and TP53 (p=0.0019) were more frequent in ECC and GBC. Multivariate analysis identified tumour stage and TP53 mutations as independent predictors of survival. Alterations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, BAP1, PBRM1, SMARCB1) were seen in 31% of cases. Potentially actionable mutations were seen in 104/153 (68%) cancers: i) KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations were found in 34% of cancers; ii) mTOR pathway activation was documented by immunohistochemistry in 51% of cases and by mutations in mTOR pathway genes in 19% of cancers; iii) TGF-ß/Smad signaling was altered in 10.5% cancers; iv) mutations in tyrosine kinase receptors were found in 9% cases. Our study identified molecular subgroups of cholangiocarcinomas that can be explored for specific drug targeting in clinical trials.

  3. Multigene mutational profiling of cholangiocarcinomas identifies actionable molecular subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Wood, Laura D.; Corbo, Vincenzo; Melisi, Davide; Malleo, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Caterina; Malpeli, Giorgio; Antonello, Davide; Sperandio, Nicola; Capelli, Paola; Tomezzoli, Anna; Iacono, Calogero; Lawlor, Rita T.; Bassi, Claudio; Hruban, Ralph H.; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    One-hundred-fifty-three biliary cancers, including 70 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), 57 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) and 26 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were assessed for mutations in 56 genes using multigene next-generation sequencing. Expression of EGFR and mTOR pathway genes was investigated by immunohistochemistry. At least one mutated gene was observed in 118/153 (77%) cancers. The genes most frequently involved were KRAS (28%), TP53 (18%), ARID1A (12%), IDH1/2 (9%), PBRM1 (9%), BAP1 (7%), and PIK3CA (7%). IDH1/2 (p=0.0005) and BAP1 (p=0.0097) mutations were characteristic of ICC, while KRAS (p=0.0019) and TP53 (p=0.0019) were more frequent in ECC and GBC. Multivariate analysis identified tumour stage and TP53 mutations as independent predictors of survival. Alterations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, BAP1, PBRM1, SMARCB1) were seen in 31% of cases. Potentially actionable mutations were seen in 104/153 (68%) cancers: i) KRAS/NRAS/BRAF mutations were found in 34% of cancers; ii) mTOR pathway activation was documented by immunohistochemistry in 51% of cases and by mutations in mTOR pathway genes in 19% of cancers; iii) TGF-ß/Smad signaling was altered in 10.5% cancers; iv) mutations in tyrosine kinase receptors were found in 9% cases. Our study identified molecular subgroups of cholangiocarcinomas that can be explored for specific drug targeting in clinical trials. PMID:24867389

  4. Qualitative Treatment-Subgroup Interactions in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Adolescents with ADHD: Exploring What Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Works for Whom

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Prins, Pier J. M.; Van Mechelen, Iven; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions within data of a RCT with two cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for adolescents with ADHD: a planning-focused (PML) and a solution-focused CBT (SFT). Qualitative interactions imply that which treatment is best differs across subgroups of patients, and are therefore most relevant for personalized medicine. Methods Adolescents with ADHD (N = 159) received either PML or SFT. Pre-, post- and three-month follow-up data were gathered on parent-rated ADHD symptoms and planning problems. Pretreatment characteristics were explored as potential qualitative moderators of pretest to follow-up treatment effects, using an innovative analyses technique (QUINT; Dusseldorp & Van Mechelen, 2014). In addition, qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions for the therapeutic changes from pre- to posttest and from post- to follow-up test were investigated. Results For the entire time span from pretest to follow-up only a quantitative interaction was found, while from posttest to follow-up qualitative interactions were found: Adolescents with less depressive symptoms but more anxiety symptoms showed more improvement when receiving PML than SFT, while for other adolescents the effects of PML and SFT were comparable. Discussion Whereas subgroups in both treatments followed different trajectories, no subgroup was found for which SFT outperformed PML in terms of the global change in symptoms from pretest to three months after treatment. This implies that, based on this exploratory study, there is no need for personalized treatment allocation with regard to the CBTs under study for adolescents with ADHD. However, for a subgroup with comorbid anxiety symptoms but low depression PML clearly appears the treatment of preference. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR2142 PMID:26977602

  5. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  6. The Impact of Low-Level Lead Toxicity on School Performance among Hispanic Subgroups in the Chicago Public Schools

    PubMed Central

    Blackowicz, Michael J.; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.; Rankin, Kristin M.; Lewis, Dan A.; Haider, Danish; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Evens, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead exposure detrimentally affects children’s educational performance, even at very low blood lead levels (BLLs). Among children in Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the severity of the effects of BLL on reading and math vary by racial subgroup (White vs. Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic Black). We investigated the impact of BLL on standardized test performance by Hispanic subgroup (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic). Methods: We examined 12,319 Hispanic children born in Chicago between 1994 and 1998 who were tested for BLL between birth and 2006 and enrolled in the 3rd grade at a CPS school between 2003 and 2006. We linked the Chicago birth registry, the Chicago Blood Lead Registry, and 3rd grade Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT) scores to examine associations between BLL and school performance. Primary analyses were restricted to children with BLL below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L). Results: BLLs below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L) were inversely associated with reading and math scores in all Hispanic subgroups. Adjusted Relative Risks (RRadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reading and math failure were 1.34 (95% CI = 1.25, 1.63) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.32, 1.78), respectively, per each additional 5 µg/dL of lead exposure for Hispanic children; RRadj did not differ across subgroups. We estimate that 7.0% (95% CI = 1.8, 11.9) of reading and 13.6% (95% CI = 7.7, 19.2) of math failure among Hispanic children can be attributed to exposure to BLLs of 5–9 µg/dL (0.242 to 0.435 µmol/L) vs. 0–4 µg/dL (0–0.193 µmol/L). The RRadj of math failure for each 5 µg/dL (0.242 µmol/L) increase in BLL was notably (p = 0.074) stronger among black Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 5.14; 95% CI = 1.65–15.94) compared to white Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12–2.02). Conclusions: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with poorer achievement on standardized reading and math tests in the 3rd grade for Mexican, Puerto

  7. Data on gender and subgroup specific analyses of omega-3 fatty acids in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    This paper contains additional data related to the research article "Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography - The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study" (Kleber et al., in press) [1]. The data shows characteristics of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study according to tertiles of omega-3 fatty acids as well as stratified by gender. The association of proportions of omega-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte membranes with different causes of death is investigated with a special focus on modeling the association of EPA with mortality in a nonlinear way. Further, the association of omega-3 fatty acids with all-cause mortality adjusted for high-sensitive C-reactive protein as a marker of systemic inflammation is examined as well as the association of EPA with cause-specific death.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1502-93 - Consolidated section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated section 382 limitation (or... Other Rules § 1.1502-93 Consolidated section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation). (a) Determination of the consolidated section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation)—(1) In...

  9. Facial Structure Analysis Separates Autism Spectrum Disorders into Meaningful Clinical Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Miles, Judith H.; Takahashi, T. Nicole; Qi, Wenchuan; Aldridge, Kristina; Zhang, Minqi; Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Duan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Varied cluster analysis were applied to facial surface measurements from 62 prepubertal boys with essential autism to determine whether facial morphology constitutes viable biomarker for delineation of discrete Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) subgroups. Earlier study indicated utility of facial morphology for autism subgrouping (Aldridge et al. in…

  10. A short proof of the Khukhro-Makarenko theorem on large characteristic subgroups with laws

    SciTech Connect

    Klyachko, Anton A; Mel'nikova, Yuliya B

    2009-06-30

    We give a short proof and a somewhat stronger version of the Khukhro-Makarenko theorem that each group which virtually satisfies an outer commutator identity contains a finite-index characteristic subgroup satisfying this identity. An estimate for the index of this characteristic subgroup is obtained. Bibliography: 3 titles.

  11. Life of Pizza Pie: The Implications of Sub-Group Comparisons in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tara N.

    2013-01-01

    Current educational statistics have pitted subgroups against one another without consideration of the actual population sizes of each group. This paper is intended to provided a clearer understanding of the current usage of sub-group comparisons in American education. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Conditions for Effective Application of Analysis of Symmetrically-Predicted Endogenous Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Laura R.

    2015-01-01

    Several analytic strategies exist for opening up the "black box" to reveal more about what drives policy and program impacts. This article focuses on one of these strategies: the Analysis of Symmetrically-Predicted Endogenous Subgroups (ASPES). ASPES uses exogenous baseline data to identify endogenously-defined subgroups, keeping the…

  13. Subgroups of the Learning Disabled College Student: An Analysis of Written Language and Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Donna; Arsenault, Joseph

    A study examined the identification of distinct subgroups of learning-disabled young adults based on their ability to generate written language. Two subgroups of learning-disabled college students, the language strong/visually weak (N=22) and the visually strong/language weak (N=10), were identified based on evaluation of 32 essays. Subjects were…

  14. Subgroups, serotypes, and electrophoretypes of rotavirus isolated from children in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Georges-Courbot, M C; Beraud, A M; Beards, G M; Campbell, A D; Gonzalez, J P; Georges, A J; Flewett, T H

    1988-04-01

    The subgroups and serotypes of 178 strains of rotavirus isolated from diarrheic and healthy children in Bangui, Central African Republic, during a 27-month period were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The subgroup was determined for 152 of the viral strains, 18.4% being subgroup I and 81.6% being subgroup II. Of the 143 strains which could be serotyped, 71.3% were serotype 1, 15.4% were serotype 2, and 13.3% were serotype 3. Serotypes 1 and 3 were detected throughout the study, while serotype 2 was detected only during 8 months. No serotype exhibited any special epidemiological properties. The serotypes were found to consist of three different electrophoretypes, two long ones (A and B) and a short one (C). All subgroup I, serotype 2 strains presented short electrophoretypes. Strains with identical long electrophoretypes A were either serotype 1 or serotype 3.

  15. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 subgrouping by monoclonal antibodies--an epidemiological tool.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, I. D.; Tobin, J. O.; Dennis, P. J.; Brown, W.; Newnham, R.; Kurtz, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies was used to subgroup 326 strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. All but two strains could be classified into three major subgroups named after their representative strains Pontiac 1, Olda and Bellingham 1. Of the 50 isolates from patients, 44 representing 32 separate incidents were of the Pontiac subgroup. This subgroup was also found in 16 of 18 buildings epidemiologically associated with Legionnaires' Disease. In contrast, strains of the Olda subgroup predominated in buildings where no infections had occurred. In 9 of the 11 incidents where isolates were available from at least one patient as well as from the suspected environmental source, the monoclonal antibody reaction patterns of strains from patients were identical to those of one or more of their environmental counterparts. PMID:3905954

  16. Examination of temperature dependent subgroup formulations in direct whole core transport calculation for power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Y. S.; Lee, U. C.; Joo, H. G.

    2012-07-01

    The traditional subgroup method which has been applied for lattice transport calculations has an inherent limitation for non-uniform temperature distributions. As a measure to incorporate temperature dependence into the subgroup formulation, the subgroup level and number density adjustment method have been proposed. In this paper, the temperature dependent subgroup formulations employed for reflecting the non-uniform temperature effects on the resonance spatial self-shielding are examined for the whole core transport calculation with the thermal feedback. For 2D pin-cell problem with non-uniform temperature profiles, the inherent limitation of conventional subgroup method is confirmed. And the improvement in terms of reactivity is observed with the proposed adjustment scheme. For the real PWR core calculation with thermal feedback in the hot-full-power condition, the noticeable correction for the fuel temperature coefficient by about 10% more negative is obtained with the correction schemes. (authors)

  17. Civil defense: nuclear debate's new element

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1982-06-04

    President Reagan's plans to build up US military forces include a seven-year $4.2 billion civil-defense program that will emphasize the removal of residents from urban centers and will match the Soviet capability. In the Soviet Union, cities of 100,000 have shelters for 10 to 20% of the population, but they lack the US transportation system, low-density suburbs, mild climate, and other factors. The House Armed Services Committee approved raising the current $133 million civil-defense budget to $252 million, but the Senate's May 14th vote limited the increase to $144 million. The civil-defense debate offers peace and anti-nuclear activists on opportunity to organize and coordinate their efforts. Peace activists were to demonstrate against the administration's plans during a special June 7-9 United Nations session because they feel the public will now be able to understand the implications of relocation in government planning for nuclear war. 17 references, 2 figures, 31 tables. (DCK)

  18. Shaping AGU's contributions to policy debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. Granger; Patwardhan, Anand

    In their Forum piece in the April 9 issue of Eos, Kaula and Anderson paint an unrealistically stark choice for the roles AGU might play in policy debates that substantially involve geophysical science. On the one hand is the antiseptic model of AGU-above-the-policy-fray: the aloof provider of geophysical facts from the literature. On the other hand is the model of AGU-as-policy-advocate: blending geophysical knowledge with value judgements in order to argue for specific policy actions in the political trenches. The problem with the first model is that the form assumed by most geophysical facts in the literature is rather distant from the needs of policy makers. Thus, the facts are easily overlooked in the face of pressing short-term political agendas. The problem with the second model is that AGU is a professional society comprised of scientists who hold many different value orientations. Any particular set of values adopted in a piece of political advocacy is likely to be at odds with many AGU members.

  19. Reconsolidation of memory: a decade of debate.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Antoine; Caboche, Jocelyne; Laroche, Serge

    2012-10-01

    Memory consolidation refers to a slow process that stabilises a memory trace after initial acquisition of novel events. The consolidation theory posits that once a memory is stored in the brain, it remains fixed for the lifetime of the memory. However, compelling evidence has suggested that upon recall, memories can re-enter a state of transient instability, requiring further stabilisation to be available once again for recall. Since its rehabilitation in the past ten years, this process of reconsolidation of memory after recall stimulated intense debates in the field of cognitive neuroscience. In this review we compile this plentiful literature with a particular emphasis on some of the key questions that have emerged from the reconsolidation theory. We focus on tracing the characterisation of the boundary conditions that constrain the occurrence of memory reconsolidation. We also discuss accumulating evidence supporting the idea that reconsolidation, as implied by its definition, is not a mere repetition of consolidation. We review seminal studies that uncovered specific mechanisms recruited during reconsolidation that are not always crucially involved in consolidation. We next address the physiological significance of reconsolidation since several lines of evidence support the idea that reconsolidation, as opposed to consolidation, may offer a unique opportunity to update memories. We finally discuss recent evidence for or against the potential that the process of memory reconsolidation offers for ongoing efforts to develop novel strategies to combat pathogenic memories. PMID:22877586

  20. Emphasizing history in communicating scientific debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Communication to the public of the reality of anthropogenic climate change has been less successful than many expect. The scientists themselves, the media, special interest groups, or the complexity of modern society are often blamed. However a look at past scientific paradigm shifts, in particular the Copernican revolution and the discovery of relativity, shows close parallels with the modern situation. Common aspects include the gradual formation of a scientific consensus in advance of the public; a politically partisan backlash against the new theory that, paradoxically, occurs after the arrival of conclusive supporting evidence; the prevalence of convincing but invalid pseudo-scientific counterarguments; the general failure of "debates" to increase public acceptance of the scientists' position; and, in the case of the heliocentric solar system, a very long time scale to final public acceptance (> 100 years). Greater emphasis on the lessons from such historical parallels, and on the success so far of consensus predictions of global warming made up to and including the first IPCC report in 1990, might be one useful way of enhancing the public's trust in science and scientists and thereby accelerate acceptance of uncomfortable scientific findings.

  1. Geneticization and bioethics: advancing debate and research.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the role that the concept of geneticization has played in the discussion about health care, bioethics and society. The concept is discussed and examples from the evolving discourse about geneticization are critically analyzed. The relationship between geneticization, medicalization and biomedicalization is described, emphasizing how debates about the latter concepts can inspire future research on geneticization. It is shown how recurrent themes from the media coverage of genetics portray typical traits of geneticization and thus contribute to the process. We look at examples of small-scale studies from the literature where geneticization of medical practice has been demonstrated. Methodological disputes about the relevance of empirical evidence for the geneticization thesis and the normative status of the concept are discussed. We consider arguments to the effect that ideas from mainstream bioethics have facilitated geneticization by emphasizing individualistic notions of autonomy and responsibility while ignoring the role of genetics in the wider social context. It is shown how a concept like geneticization, which can be used to draw the attention of philosophers, social scientists and others to challenges that tend to be neglected by mainstream bioethics, also has the potential to move people's attention away from other pertinent issues. This may happen if researchers become preoccupied with the transformative effects of genetics, and we argue that a wider reading of geneticization should inspire critical analysis of the sociocultural preconditions under which genetics is currently evolving. PMID:17705026

  2. [Professional debate on shortage of physicians].

    PubMed

    Gérvas, Juan; Bonis, Julio

    2008-01-01

    We do not know the best answer to problems due to shortage of physicians (absolute number and by specialities) but perhaps what is important is the lack of a professional debate about what means 'to be' a physician. In this paper we address four key professional questions: 1/ the over-training of physicians when health demand now includes minor problems, 2/ predominance of physician-patient direct encounters in a world of telecommunications and indirect encounters, 3/ the need to delegate power and responsibilities to other health professionals as a consequence of new technology developments and changes in role-design, and 4/ too much emphasis in diagnosis with the danger to initiate cascades with its side-effects. Practical answers to these questions require changes in pre and postgraduate education, improvement in health services organization to profit the use of telecommunications and analysis and re-design of the limits in between professions, levels of care, institutions and health and social sectors.

  3. A Composite Model for Subgroup Identification and Prediction via Bicluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chia; Zou, Wen; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Chen, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A major challenges in the analysis of large and complex biomedical data is to develop an approach for 1) identifying distinct subgroups in the sampled populations, 2) characterizing their relationships among subgroups, and 3) developing a prediction model to classify subgroup memberships of new samples by finding a set of predictors. Each subgroup can represent different pathogen serotypes of microorganisms, different tumor subtypes in cancer patients, or different genetic makeups of patients related to treatment response. Methods This paper proposes a composite model for subgroup identification and prediction using biclusters. A biclustering technique is first used to identify a set of biclusters from the sampled data. For each bicluster, a subgroup-specific binary classifier is built to determine if a particular sample is either inside or outside the bicluster. A composite model, which consists of all binary classifiers, is constructed to classify samples into several disjoint subgroups. The proposed composite model neither depends on any specific biclustering algorithm or patterns of biclusters, nor on any classification algorithms. Results The composite model was shown to have an overall accuracy of 97.4% for a synthetic dataset consisting of four subgroups. The model was applied to two datasets where the sample’s subgroup memberships were known. The procedure showed 83.7% accuracy in discriminating lung cancer adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma subtypes, and was able to identify 5 serotypes and several subtypes with about 94% accuracy in a pathogen dataset. Conclusion The composite model presents a novel approach to developing a biclustering-based classification model from unlabeled sampled data. The proposed approach combines unsupervised biclustering and supervised classification techniques to classify samples into disjoint subgroups based on their associated attributes, such as genotypic factors, phenotypic outcomes, efficacy/safety measures

  4. Effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment on gastric cancer incidence and mortality in subgroups.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Ma, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Lian; Brown, Linda M; Li, Ji-You; Shen, Lin; Pan, Kai-Feng; Liu, Wei-Dong; Hu, Yuanreng; Han, Zhong-Xiang; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Pee, David; Blot, William J; Fraumeni, Joseph F; You, Wei-Cheng; Gail, Mitchell H

    2014-07-01

    Among 2258 Helicobacter pylori-seropositive subjects randomly assigned to receive one-time H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin-omeprazole or its placebo, we evaluated the 15-year effect of treatment on gastric cancer incidence and mortality in subgroups defined by age, baseline gastric histopathology, and post-treatment infection status. We used conditional logistic and Cox regressions for covariable adjustments in incidence and mortality analyses, respectively. Treatment was associated with a statistically significant decrease in gastric cancer incidence (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17 to 0.79) and mortality (hazard ratio = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.79) at ages 55 years and older and a statistically significant decrease in incidence among those with intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia at baseline (odds ratio = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.91). Treatment benefits for incidence and mortality among those with and without post-treatment infection were similar. Thus H. pylori treatment can benefit older members and those with advanced baseline histopathology, and benefits are present even with post-treatment infection, suggesting treatment can benefit an entire population, not just the young or those with mild histopathology. PMID:24925350

  5. Identification of Patient Benefit From Proton Therapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on Individual and Subgroup Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Annika; Bandurska-Luque, Anna; Stützer, Kristin; Haase, Robert; Löck, Steffen; Wack, Linda-Jacqueline; Mönnich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela; and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine, by treatment plan comparison along with normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling, whether a subpopulation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be identified that would gain substantial benefit from proton therapy in terms of NTCP. Methods and Materials: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was compared to intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Physical dose distributions were evaluated as well as the resulting NTCP values, using modern models for acute mucositis, xerostomia, aspiration, dysphagia, laryngeal edema, and trismus. Patient subgroups were defined based on primary tumor location. Results: Generally, IMPT reduced the NTCP values while keeping similar target coverage for all patients. Subgroup analyses revealed a higher individual reduction of swallowing-related side effects by IMPT for patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area, whereas the risk reduction of acute mucositis was more pronounced in patients with tumors in the larynx region. More patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area had a reduction in NTCP of more than 10%. Conclusions: Subgrouping can help to identify patients who may benefit more than others from the use of IMPT and, thus, can be a useful tool for a preselection of patients in the clinic where there are limited PT resources. Because the individual benefit differs within a subgroup, the relative merits should additionally be evaluated by individual treatment plan comparisons.

  6. The Variability Debate: More Statistics, More Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drai, Dan; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2006-01-01

    We respond to critical comments and consider alternative statistical and syntactic analyses of our target paper which analyzed comprehension scores of Broca's aphasic patients from multiple sentence types in many languages, and showed that Movement but not Complexity or Mood are factors in the receptive deficit of these patients. Specifically, we…

  7. Forensics and mitochondrial DNA: applications, debates, and foundations.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2003-01-01

    Debate on the validity and reliability of scientific methods often arises in the courtroom. When the government (i.e., the prosecution) is the proponent of evidence, the defense is obliged to challenge its admissibility. Regardless, those who seek to use DNA typing methodologies to analyze forensic biological evidence have a responsibility to understand the technology and its applications so a proper foundation(s) for its use can be laid. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an extranuclear genome, has certain features that make it desirable for forensics, namely, high copy number, lack of recombination, and matrilineal inheritance. mtDNA typing has become routine in forensic biology and is used to analyze old bones, teeth, hair shafts, and other biological samples where nuclear DNA content is low. To evaluate results obtained by sequencing the two hypervariable regions of the control region of the human mtDNA genome, one must consider the genetically related issues of nomenclature, reference population databases, heteroplasmy, paternal leakage, recombination, and, of course, interpretation of results. We describe the approaches, the impact some issues may have on interpretation of mtDNA analyses, and some issues raised in the courtroom. PMID:14527299

  8. Prognostic factors associated with the success rates of posterior orthodontic miniscrew implants: A subgroup meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Bin; Kusnoto, Budi; Kim, Eun-Jeong; BeGole, Ellen A; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically review previous studies and to assess, via a subgroup meta-analysis, the combined odds ratio (OR) of prognostic factors affecting the success of miniscrew implants (MIs) inserted into the buccal posterior region. Methods Three electronic searches that were limited to articles on clinical human studies using MIs that were published in English prior to March 2015 were conducted. The outcome measure was the success of MIs. Patient factors included age, sex, and jaw of insertion (maxilla vs. mandible), while the MI factors included length and diameter. A meta-analysis was performed on 17 individual studies. The quality of each study was assessed for non-randomized studies and quantified using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The meta-analysis outcome was a combined OR. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses based on the study design, study quality, and sample size of miniscrews implanted were performed. Results Significantly higher success rates were revealed for MIs inserted in the maxilla, for patients ≥ 20 years of age, and for long MIs (≥ 8 mm) and MIs with a large diameter (> 1.4 mm). All subgroups acquired homogeneity, and the combined OR of the prospective studies (OR, 3.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.10-6.44) was significantly higher in the maxilla than that in the retrospective studies (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.60-2.74). Conclusions When a treatment plan is made, these risk factors, i.e. jaw of insertion, age, MI length, and MI diameter, should be taken into account, while sex is not critical to the success of MIs. PMID:27019826

  9. The origins of species: the debate between August Weismann and Moritz Wagner.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Weismann's ideas on species transmutation were first expressed in his famous debate with Moritz Wagner on the mechanism of speciation. Wagner suggested that the isolation of a colony from its original source is a preliminary and necessary factor for speciation. Weismann accepted a secondary, facilitating role for isolation, but argued that natural and sexual selection are the primary driving forces of species transmutation, and are always necessary and often sufficient causes for its occurrence. The debate with Wagner, which occurred between 1868 and 1872 within the framework of Darwin's discussions of geographical distribution, was Weismann's first public battle over the mechanism of evolution. This paper, which offers the first comprehensive analysis of this debate, extends previous analyses and throws light on the underlying beliefs and motivations of these early evolutionists, focusing mainly on Weismann's views and showing his commitment to what he later called "the all sufficiency of Natural Selection." It led to the crystallization of his ideas on the central and essential role of selection, both natural and sexual, in all processes of evolution, and, already at this early stage in his theoretical thinking, was coupled with sophisticated and nuanced approach to biological organization. The paper also discusses Ernst Mayr's analysis of the debate and highlights aspects of Weismann's views that were overlooked by Mayr and were peripheral to the discussions of other historians of biology. PMID:20665079

  10. At the Speed of Sound: Rate of Delivery as a Dividing Factor in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudash, Elizabeth

    The rate of speech in intercollegiate debate has been increasing and might have contributed to the proliferation of divisions in debate. The American Debate Association (ADA), National Parliamentary Debate Association (NPDA), American Parliamentary Debate Association (APDA), Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA), National Education Debate…

  11. What do low-dysfunctional beliefs obsessive-compulsive disorder subgroups believe?

    PubMed

    Chik, Heather M; Calamari, John E; Rector, Neil A; Riemann, Bradley C

    2010-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) heterogeneity research identified a patient subgroup that endorsed few of the dysfunctional beliefs posited to be important to development of obsessional disorders. Because of the clinical and theoretical importance of such heterogeneity, we attempted to elucidate the concerns of a low-beliefs OCD subgroup. We evaluated specific metacognitive beliefs and monitoring tendencies assessed on the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30; Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004), and feelings of incompleteness ("not just right experiences" [NJREs]) believed to reflect an inability to use emotional experience and sensory feedback to guide behavior (Summerfeldt, 2007). Low (OCD-L) and high dysfunctional beliefs (OCD-H) OCD patient subgroups, and anxious and student comparison groups, completed measures. Scoring on the MCQ-30 differentiated OCD subgroups, although evaluations of differences and correlations with OCD symptom measures indicated that these metacognitive beliefs more so characterized the thinking of the OCD-H subgroup. Scoring on NJREs measures also differentiated OCD subgroups. NJREs scores were consistently related to OCD symptoms only for the OCD-L subgroup. Results are congruent with theoretical formulations positing that harm avoidance and feelings of incompleteness are important and distinct motivations that underlie specific variants of OCD. PMID:20621440

  12. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  13. Debating the Future: A Social Security Political Leadership Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackaway, Chapman; Goertzen, Brent J.

    2008-01-01

    Students are well served by course simulations that employ active learning styles and student-driven interaction. For debate on political issues, particular public policies are quite effective in stimulating that discussion. We developed an in-class simulation of political debate on the issue of Social Security. We describe the simulation itself,…

  14. Debates Contribute to the Development of the Journalistic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Xifen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses seven major debates on journalism that typify the Chinese journalism reform's ideological and operational dilemmas. Maintains that these debates have opened up Chinese journalists to alternatives and contributed to the development of journalism in China since reform was launched in 1979. (SR)

  15. The Pre-K Debates: Current Controversies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Gilliam, Walter S., Ed.; Barnett, W. Steven, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted or universal pre-K? Direct instruction or learning through play? These and other debates are heating up as more and more young children across the country gain access to pre-K programs. Now there's a single volume that spotlights today's most urgent pre-K debates, explores each one from all sides, and paves the way for sound, educated…

  16. Overlooked Issues of Religious Identity in the School Dinners Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiner, Alison; Cook, Guy; Gillen, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The TV broadcast of "Jamie's school dinners" in 2005 prompted action throughout the UK to improve the standards of school meals. A public debate continues across the media around changes, resistance to them and consequences. This article draws upon the findings of a one-year ESRC-funded project on the English school dinners debate, which analysed…

  17. The College Access Debate: Class Considerations and College Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgman, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The college access debate in America remains an important one. Affirmative action policies and practices continue to occupy a significant sub-component of the overall college access discussion. Recent legal debates and policy changes pertaining to affirmative action have encouraged analysis surrounding the overall viability and fairness of these…

  18. The Parameters of the Liberal-Communitarian Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Dinkelman, Todd

    This essay presents components of the debate between liberals and communitarians, discusses how this debate centers around policies affecting market economies and the role of government, and points out implications for school reform. The chief criticism communitarians aim at liberalism is that it promotes obsessive individualism, and in this…

  19. Preparing Students in Online Debates with Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollison, Scott; Xie, Kui

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the effects of preparing students for an online debate through a worked example in terms of student perception, participation, and level of cognitive skills. The study found that students prepared for online debate through a worked example participated more frequently, wrote more words or phrases that encouraged the…

  20. In the Barrios: Latinos and the Underclass Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan, Ed.; Pinderhughes, Raquel, Ed.

    This book includes nine articles that broaden current debates on the American urban "underclass" by assessing the circumstances of inner-city Latino communities. An introduction provides background information on the U.S. Latino population and addresses factors related to urban poverty and to the "underclass" debate, including economic…

  1. Using Debate to Maximize Learning Potential: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Vaughn, Aaron; Dye, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Following a review of the literature, an educational case study is provided for the benefit of faculty preparing college courses. In particular, we provide a transcribed debate utilized in a General Psychology course as a best practice example of how to craft a debate which maximizes student learning. The work is presented as a model for the…

  2. Credentials, Curriculum, and Access: The Debate Over Nurse Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Jacobs, James; Hughes, Katherine L.

    The question of how to best prepare nurses for practice continues to be debated extensively. The crux of the debate is whether a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) should be required of all registered nurses in the United States or whether an associate degree in nursing (ADN) and diploma programs adequately prepare novice nurses for practice.…

  3. A Historical Materialist Analysis of the Debate in Swedish Print Media on Mobile Phones in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for teaching and learning in schools has been a controversial matter. In this paper the debate in two Swedish newspapers on the use of mobile phones in schools is analysed using a historical materialist framework. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary research on mobile learning. The analysis reveals that…

  4. Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

    2008-12-01

    those slow turnover pools will be estimated by continuously monitoring the remaining 13C signals. Those MRTs are expected to offer more realistic fine root turnover estimates and could possibly end the root longevity debate.

  5. Team negotiation: social, epistemic, economic, and psychological consequences of subgroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2008-12-01

    Large collectives (e.g., organizations, political parties, nations) are seldom unitary players. Rather, they consist of different subgroups that often have conflicting interests. Nonetheless, negotiation research consistently regards negotiating teams, who represent these collectives, as monolithic parties with uniform interests. This article integrates concepts from social psychology, management, political science, and behavioral game theory to explore the effects of subgroup conflict on team negotiation. Specifically, the present research introduced a conflict of interests within negotiating teams and investigated how this internal conflict affects the outcome of the negotiation between teams. An experiment with 80 four-person teams found that conflict between subgroups had a detrimental effect on the performance of negotiating teams. This research also employed a recent model of motivated information processing in groups to investigate possible processes underlying the effect of subgroup conflict on team negotiation.

  6. On the use of genetic programming for mining comprehensible rules in subgroup discovery.

    PubMed

    Luna, José María; Romero, José Raúl; Romero, Cristóbal; Ventura, Sebastián

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel grammar-guided genetic programming algorithm for subgroup discovery. This algorithm, called comprehensible grammar-based algorithm for subgroup discovery (CGBA-SD), combines the requirements of discovering comprehensible rules with the ability to mine expressive and flexible solutions owing to the use of a context-free grammar. Each rule is represented as a derivation tree that shows a solution described using the language denoted by the grammar. The algorithm includes mechanisms to adapt the diversity of the population by self-adapting the probabilities of recombination and mutation. We compare the approach with existing evolutionary and classic subgroup discovery algorithms. CGBA-SD appears to be a very promising algorithm that discovers comprehensible subgroups and behaves better than other algorithms as measures by complexity, interest, and precision indicate. The results obtained were validated by means of a series of nonparametric tests.

  7. Gardnerella vaginalis Subgroups Defined by cpn60 Sequencing and Sialidase Activity in Isolates from Canada, Belgium and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, John J; Paramel Jayaprakash, Teenus; Withana Gamage, Niradha; Patterson, Mo H; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Hill, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Increased abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and sialidase activity in vaginal fluid is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common but poorly understood clinical entity associated with poor reproductive health outcomes. Since most women are colonized with G. vaginalis, its status as a normal member of the vaginal microbiota or pathogen causing BV remains controversial, and numerous classification schemes have been described. Since 2005, sequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT) has distinguished four subgroups in isolate collections, clone libraries and deep sequencing datasets. To clarify potential clinical and diagnostic significance of cpn60 subgroups, we undertook phenotypic and molecular characterization of 112 G. vaginalis isolates from three continents. A total of 36 subgroup A, 33 B, 35 C and 8 D isolates were identified through phylogenetic analysis of cpn60 sequences as corresponding to four "clades" identified in a recently published study, based on sequencing 473 genes across 17 isolates. cpn60 subgroups were compared with other previously described molecular methods for classification of Gardnerella subgroups, including amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and real-time PCR assays designed to quantify subgroups in vaginal samples. Although two ARDRA patterns were observed in isolates, each was observed in three cpn60 subgroups (A/B/D and B/C/D). Real-time PCR assays corroborated cpn60 subgroups overall, but 13 isolates from subgroups A, B and D were negative in all assays. A putative sialidase gene was detected in all subgroup B, C and D isolates, but only in a single subgroup A isolate. In contrast, sialidase activity was observed in all subgroup B isolates, 3 (9%) subgroup C isolates and no subgroup A or D isolates. These observations suggest distinct roles for G. vaginalis subgroups in BV pathogenesis. We conclude that cpn60 UT sequencing is a robust approach for defining G. vaginalis subgroups within the

  8. Gardnerella vaginalis Subgroups Defined by cpn60 Sequencing and Sialidase Activity in Isolates from Canada, Belgium and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, John J.; Paramel Jayaprakash, Teenus; Withana Gamage, Niradha; Patterson, Mo H.; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Hill, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Increased abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and sialidase activity in vaginal fluid is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common but poorly understood clinical entity associated with poor reproductive health outcomes. Since most women are colonized with G. vaginalis, its status as a normal member of the vaginal microbiota or pathogen causing BV remains controversial, and numerous classification schemes have been described. Since 2005, sequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT) has distinguished four subgroups in isolate collections, clone libraries and deep sequencing datasets. To clarify potential clinical and diagnostic significance of cpn60 subgroups, we undertook phenotypic and molecular characterization of 112 G. vaginalis isolates from three continents. A total of 36 subgroup A, 33 B, 35 C and 8 D isolates were identified through phylogenetic analysis of cpn60 sequences as corresponding to four “clades” identified in a recently published study, based on sequencing 473 genes across 17 isolates. cpn60 subgroups were compared with other previously described molecular methods for classification of Gardnerella subgroups, including amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and real-time PCR assays designed to quantify subgroups in vaginal samples. Although two ARDRA patterns were observed in isolates, each was observed in three cpn60 subgroups (A/B/D and B/C/D). Real-time PCR assays corroborated cpn60 subgroups overall, but 13 isolates from subgroups A, B and D were negative in all assays. A putative sialidase gene was detected in all subgroup B, C and D isolates, but only in a single subgroup A isolate. In contrast, sialidase activity was observed in all subgroup B isolates, 3 (9%) subgroup C isolates and no subgroup A or D isolates. These observations suggest distinct roles for G. vaginalis subgroups in BV pathogenesis. We conclude that cpn60 UT sequencing is a robust approach for defining G. vaginalis subgroups within

  9. C-normal and C-permutable subgroups in finite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sharo, Doaa Mustafa; Sulaiman, Hajar

    2014-12-01

    All groups considered here are finite. The c-normality and c-permutability of subgroups in finite groups were recently discovered and a number of related results have been published. Here, we present new classes of groups which we call SCN-groups and SCP-groups. We call a group an SCN-group (resp. SCP-group) if all its subnormal subgroups are c-normal (resp. c-permutable).

  10. Resolution and Characterization of Distinct cpn60-Based Subgroups of Gardnerella vaginalis in the Vaginal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Paramel Jayaprakash, Teenus; Schellenberg, John J.; Hill, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), characterized by a shift of the vaginal microbiota from a Lactobacillus-dominated community to a dense biofilm containing a complex mixture of organisms, is an important risk factor in poor reproductive health outcomes. The Nugent score, based on Gram stain, is used to diagnose BV and Gardnerella vaginalis abundance in the sample is one factor determining Nugent score. A high Nugent score is indicative of BV but does not always correspond to the presence of clinical symptoms. G. vaginalis is recognized as a heterogeneous group of organisms, which can also be part of the normal, healthy vaginal microbiome. In addition, asymptomatic BV and non-Gardnerella types of BV are being recognized. In an attempt to resolve the heterogeneous group of G. vaginalis, a phylogenetic tree of cpn60 universal target sequences from G. vaginalis isolates was constructed that indicates the existence of four subgroups of G. vaginalis. This subdivision, supported by whole genome similarity calculation of representative strains using JSpecies, demonstrates that these subgroups may represent different species. The cpn60 subgroupings did not correspond with the Piot biotyping scheme, but did show consistency with ARDRA genotyping and sialidase gene presence. Isolates from all four subgroups produced biofilm in vitro. We also investigated the distribution of G. vaginalis subgroups in vaginal samples from Kenyan women with Nugent scores consistent with BV, Intermediate and Normal microbiota (n = 44). All subgroups of G. vaginalis were detected in these women, with a significant difference (z = −3.372, n = 39, p = 0.001) in frequency of G. vaginalis subgroup B between BV and Normal groups. Establishment of a quantifiable relationship between G. vaginalis subgroup distribution and clinical status could have significant diagnostic implications. PMID:22900080

  11. Epidemiology of rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in Belem, Brazil: a three-year study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, A C; Gabbay, Y B; Mascarenhas, J D; Freitas, R B; Flewett, T H; Beards, G M

    1988-01-01

    Rotavirus subgroups and serotypes were determined in 61 rotavirus-positive faecal samples obtained from children living in Belém, Brazil, followed up from birth to 3 years of age. Fifty-five (90%) of the specimens were subgrouped and the serotypes of 30 (49%) of them were determined. Subgroup II was detected in 49 (89%) of the 55 subgrouped strains. Serotype 1 was present in 15 (50%) of the 30 serotyped samples; serotypes 2, 3 and 4 were found in 30%, 3.3% and 16.7% respectively, of these specimens. Absence of Vp7, the major outer capsid glycoprotein, did not allow serotyping in 21 (34.4%) of the 61 rotavirus-positive specimens, and an unidentifiable new serotype was found in faeces of one child. In addition, 4 samples were classified as subgroup II serotype 2 (which is very unusual). Twelve (80%) of the 15 serotype 1 (subgroup II) specimens were collected from children (5 of them asymptomatic) during their first year of life. All 9 serotype 2 (subgroups I, II, or not determined) samples were detected during the second and third years of life, 7 (77.8%) of them were related to apparent infections. The 5 serotype 4 (subgroup II) samples were obtained throughout the study period, and were associated with both symptomatic (3 cases) and asymptomatic infections. Thirteen children had more than 1 rotavirus infection. Three had 3 successive infections. In 3 cases, the initial infection (either symptomatic or asymptomatic) caused by serotype 1, was followed by a subsequent diarrhoeic episode associated with serotype 2.

  12. American biofutures: ideology and utopia in the Fukuyama/Stock debate.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, R E

    2003-02-01

    Francis Fukuyama, in his Our Posthuman Future, and Gregory Stock, in his Redesigning Humans, present competing versions of the biomedical future of human beings, and debate the merits of more or less stringent regimes of regulation for biomedical innovation. In this article, these positions are shown to depend on a shared discourse of market liberalism, which limits both the range of ends for such innovation discussed by the authors, and the scope of their policy analyses and proposals. A proper evaluation of the human significance and policy imperatives for biomedical innovation needs to be both more utopian in its imagination, and more sophisticated in its political economy. In essence, the Fukuyama/Stock debate tells us more about current US political ideology than it does about the morality of human genetic and biopsychological engineering.

  13. Fracking in the UK press: threat dynamics in an unfolding debate.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-04-01

    Shale gas is a novel source of fossil fuel which is extracted by induced hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking". This article examines the socio-political dimension of fracking as manifested in the UK press at three key temporal points in the debate on the practice. Three newspaper corpora were analysed qualitatively using Thematic Analysis and Social Representations Theory. Three overarching themes are discussed: "April-May 2011: from Optimism to Scepticism"; "November 2011: (De-) Constructing and Re-Constructing Risk and Danger"; "April 2012: consolidating Social Representations of Fracking". In this article, we examine the emergence of and inter-relations between competing social representations, discuss the dynamics of threat positioning and show how threat can be re-construed in order to serve particular socio-political ends in the debate on fracking.

  14. Fracking in the UK press: threat dynamics in an unfolding debate.

    PubMed

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-04-01

    Shale gas is a novel source of fossil fuel which is extracted by induced hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking". This article examines the socio-political dimension of fracking as manifested in the UK press at three key temporal points in the debate on the practice. Three newspaper corpora were analysed qualitatively using Thematic Analysis and Social Representations Theory. Three overarching themes are discussed: "April-May 2011: from Optimism to Scepticism"; "November 2011: (De-) Constructing and Re-Constructing Risk and Danger"; "April 2012: consolidating Social Representations of Fracking". In this article, we examine the emergence of and inter-relations between competing social representations, discuss the dynamics of threat positioning and show how threat can be re-construed in order to serve particular socio-political ends in the debate on fracking. PMID:23942831

  15. More frequent moments in the climate change debate as emissions continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntingford, Chris; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed unprecedented interest in how the burning of fossil fuels may impact on the global climate system. Such visibility of this issue is in part due to the increasing frequency of key international summits to debate emissions levels, including the 2015 21st Conference of Parties meeting in Paris. In this perspective we plot a timeline of significant climate meetings and reports, and against metrics of atmospheric greenhouse gas changes and global temperature. One powerful metric is cumulative CO2 emissions that can be related to past and future warming levels. That quantity is analysed in detail through a set of papers in this ERL focus issue. We suggest it is an open question as to whether our timeline implies a lack of progress in constraining climate change despite multiple recent keynote meetings—or alternatively—that the increasing level of debate is encouragement that solutions will be found to prevent any dangerous warming levels?

  16. A tiny membrane defending 'us' against 'them': Arabic Internet debate about hymenorraphy in Sunni Islamic law.

    PubMed

    Eich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In the Sunni Arab world, hymen repair has become a subject of considerable controversy due to a public statement of Egypt's Mufti Guma a in 2007. This paper analyses Guma a's position and the ensuing public debate about it as a means to study the larger conceptions of virginity and the hymen in Middle Eastern societies. In line with critical feminist studies it is shown that supporters as well as critics of the operation rely heavily on patriarchal arguments, views and rhetoric. Both share the societal vision that sexuality can only be lived out licitly in the framework of marriage and both agree that this ideal is in crisis. Where the two sides disagree is over the way in which this ideal should be protected, which derives from their conceptualisation of creation in general and female nature in particular. As a result, debate about hymen repair is not only not transforming social structures but is perpetuating them.

  17. The value of heterogeneity for cost-effectiveness subgroup analysis: conceptual framework and application.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Manuel A; Manca, Andrea; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    This article develops a general framework to guide the use of subgroup cost-effectiveness analysis for decision making in a collectively funded health system. In doing so, it addresses 2 key policy questions, namely, the identification and selection of subgroups, while distinguishing 2 sources of potential value associated with heterogeneity. These are 1) the value of revealing the factors associated with heterogeneity in costs and outcomes using existing evidence (static value) and 2) the value of acquiring further subgroup-related evidence to resolve the uncertainty given the current understanding of heterogeneity (dynamic value). Consideration of these 2 sources of value can guide subgroup-specific treatment decisions and inform whether further research should be conducted to resolve uncertainty to explain variability in costs and outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to a cost-effectiveness analysis for the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study presents the expected net benefits under current and perfect information when subgroups are defined based on the use and combination of 6 binary covariates. The results of the case study confirm the theoretical expectations. As more subgroups are considered, the marginal net benefit gains obtained under the current information show diminishing marginal returns, and the expected value of perfect information shows a decreasing trend. We present a suggested algorithm that synthesizes the results to guide policy.

  18. The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Christina; Shah, Sohrab P; Chin, Suet-Feung; Turashvili, Gulisa; Rueda, Oscar M; Dunning, Mark J; Speed, Doug; Lynch, Andy G; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Yuan, Yinyin; Gräf, Stefan; Ha, Gavin; Haffari, Gholamreza; Bashashati, Ali; Russell, Roslin; McKinney, Steven; Langerød, Anita; Green, Andrew; Provenzano, Elena; Wishart, Gordon; Pinder, Sarah; Watson, Peter; Markowetz, Florian; Murphy, Leigh; Ellis, Ian; Purushotham, Arnie; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brenton, James D; Tavaré, Simon; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel

    2012-04-18

    The elucidation of breast cancer subgroups and their molecular drivers requires integrated views of the genome and transcriptome from representative numbers of patients. We present an integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression in a discovery and validation set of 997 and 995 primary breast tumours, respectively, with long-term clinical follow-up. Inherited variants (copy number variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms) and acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) were associated with expression in ~40% of genes, with the landscape dominated by cis- and trans-acting CNAs. By delineating expression outlier genes driven in cis by CNAs, we identified putative cancer genes, including deletions in PPP2R2A, MTAP and MAP2K4. Unsupervised analysis of paired DNA–RNA profiles revealed novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort. These include a high-risk, oestrogen-receptor-positive 11q13/14 cis-acting subgroup and a favourable prognosis subgroup devoid of CNAs. Trans-acting aberration hotspots were found to modulate subgroup-specific gene networks, including a TCR deletion-mediated adaptive immune response in the ‘CNA-devoid’ subgroup and a basal-specific chromosome 5 deletion-associated mitotic network. Our results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome.

  19. Latent Class Analysis: An Alternative Perspective on Subgroup Analysis in Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Brittany L.

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to introduce latent class analysis (LCA) as an alternative approach to latent subgroup analysis. Traditionally, subgroup analysis aims to determine whether individuals respond differently to a treatment based on one or more measured characteristics. LCA provides a way to identify a small set of underlying subgroups characterized by multiple dimensions which could, in turn, be used to examine differential treatment effects. This approach can help to address methodological challenges that arise in subgroup analysis, including a high Type I error rate, low statistical power, and limitations in examining higher-order interactions. An empirical example draws on N=1,900 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. Six characteristics (household poverty, single-parent status, peer cigarette use, peer alcohol use, neighborhood unemployment, and neighborhood poverty) are used to identify five latent subgroups: Low Risk, Peer Risk, Economic Risk, Household & Peer Risk, and Multi-Contextual Risk. Two approaches for examining differential treatment effects are demonstrated using a simulated outcome: 1) a classify-analyze approach and, 2) a model-based approach based on a reparameterization of the LCA with covariates model. Such approaches can facilitate targeting future intervention resources to subgroups that promise to show the maximum treatment response. PMID:21318625

  20. A novel subgroup of class I G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Schöneberg, T; Schulz, A; Grosse, R; Schade, R; Henklein, P; Schultz, G; Gudermann, T

    1999-07-01

    Based on structural similarities of an expressed sequence tag with the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor a cDNA clone encoding a novel G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), named GPR34, was isolated from a human fetal brain cDNA library. Genomic DNA analyses revealed the receptor to be encoded by an intronless single-copy gene at Xp11. 3-11.4. The predicted 381-amino-acid protein disclosed all structural features characteristic of a member of the class I GPCR family. Except an obvious sequence homology in transmembrane domain 6, no further similarities to the PAF receptor or any other known GPCR were found. The corresponding mouse receptor DNA was isolated from a genomic P1 library displaying a 90% amino acid identity compared to the human receptor. Phylogenetic studies showed that GPR34 is preserved among vertebrates, and the existence of GPR34 subtypes was demonstrated. The receptor mRNA is abundantly expressed in human and mouse tissues. In addition to the major 2-kb transcript, a 4-kb transcript was found only in mouse liver and testis. Expression of the human GPR34 in COS-7 cells followed by Western blot studies revealed specific bands of a highly glycosylated protein between 75 and 90 kDa. A number of potential ligands including phospholipids, leukotrienes, hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids, nucleotides and peptides were tested in functional assays. Since none of the applied substances led to significant changes in second messenger levels (cAMP and inositol phosphates), the natural ligand and coupling profile of this novel GPCR subgroup remains unknown. PMID:10395919

  1. Immunoglobulin Gene Polymorphisms are Susceptibility Factors for Clinical and Autoantibody Subgroups of the Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Rider, Lisa G.; Schiffenbauer, Adam; Targoff, Ira N.; Malley, Karen; Pandey, Janardan P.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible associations of GM and KM markers in European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) with adult and juvenile forms of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Methods We performed serologic analyses of polymorphic determinants associated with immunoglobulin gamma heavy (GM) and kappa light chains (KM) in large populations of EA (n=514: 297 adults and 217 juveniles) and AA IIM patients (n=109: 73 adults and 50 juveniles) representing the major clinicopathologic and autoantibody groups. Results For EA dermatomyositis (DM) patients, the GM 3 23 5,13 phenotype was a risk factor for both adults (OR=2.2; Pc=0.020) and juveniles (OR=2.2; Pc=0.0013). Of interest, the GM 13 allotype was a risk factor for juvenile DM (JDM) for both EA (OR=3.9; Pc<0.0001) and AA (OR=4.8; Pc=0.033). However, the GM 1,3,17 5,13,21 phenotype was a risk factor for JDM in EA but not in AA. Among the IIM autoantibody groups, GM 3 23 5,13 was a risk factor for EA adults with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies (OR=3.4; Pc=0.0031), while the GM 3 allotype was protective for adults with anti-threonyl tRNA synthetase or anti-RNP autoantibodies (OR=0.1; Pc=0.047 and OR=0.2; Pc=0.034, respectively). In contrast, GM 6 was a risk factor for AA adults with anti-SRP autoantibodies (OR=7.5; Pc=0.041). Conclusions These data suggest that polymorphic alleles of GM and KM loci are differentially associated with IIM subgroups defined by age, ethnicity, clinical features and autoantibodies, and expand the list of immune response genes possibly important in the pathogenesis of myositis. PMID:18821675

  2. An Analysis of Judging Philosophies in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John D.; Matlon, Ronald J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes current judging philosophies in academic debate and attempts to define policymaking, hypothesis testing, stock issues, and "tabula rasa" judging philosophies by examining the responses of judges so labeled to specific judging situations. (JMF)

  3. Using Debate Skills to Engage Students in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, Anna

    2016-04-01

    To increase the excitement for the astronomy unit and to expose the subject in all of its weird glory, students debate each other in a bracket style tournament defending their idea of the coolest object in the universe. At the start of May, causing the name of this event to be called May Madness, students choose an object or concept in the universe to research and construct an opening argument on how it is the coolest object in the universe. Every student in the eighth grade selects an object and proceeds to debate its attributes in a head-to-head competition leading to a class winner. The class winners then debate in front of the grade with celebrity guest judges. In the four minute debate, two students defend, cross examine, and construct a rebuttal for their chosen object.

  4. The Great Nuclear Power Debate (1)--A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Five issues concerning nuclear power--economics, danger from accidents, environmental effects, terrorism, and alternatives are debated, with one paragraph statements from opponents and advocates on each of the topics. (CP)

  5. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  6. The rise of pragmatism in state/market debate.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B

    2009-10-01

    Discussion about the relative role of public and private in health care has evolved substantially across Europe since the 1980s. The previous, broadly ideological debate about state 'versus' market has been superceded by pragmatic considerations on how best to combine state 'and' market to achieve specific health sector outcomes. The London School of Economics debate about expanded patient choice demonstrated the extent to which pragmatism has gained the upper hand.

  7. [Experiments on living subjects: the vivisection debate in German and British medical weekly journals 1919-1939].

    PubMed

    Lisner, Wiebke

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 1920s, animal experiments were considered a standardized procedure for testing medical substances and therapies. In the context of the so-called "crisis of medicine", however, some physicians and the wider lay public in Germany and Great Britain criticized animal based research. While British antivivisectionists had little relevance in the 1930s, their German counterparts allied with the National Socialist Party and gained social and political force. The debates within the German and British medical profession about doctors' interventions in that debate, as well as the public perception of doctors will be analysed on the basis of the most important medical weekly journals of the time, that were involved in these debates.

  8. Qualitative interaction trees: a tool to identify qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2014-01-30

    When two alternative treatments (A and B) are available, some subgroup of patients may display a better outcome with treatment A than with B, whereas for another subgroup, the reverse may be true. If this is the case, a qualitative (i.e., disordinal) treatment-subgroup interaction is present. Such interactions imply that some subgroups of patients should be treated differently and are therefore most relevant for personalized medicine. In case of data from randomized clinical trials with many patient characteristics that could interact with treatment in a complex way, a suitable statistical approach to detect qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions is not yet available. As a way out, in the present paper, we propose a new method for this purpose, called QUalitative INteraction Trees (QUINT). QUINT results in a binary tree that subdivides the patients into terminal nodes on the basis of patient characteristics; these nodes are further assigned to one of three classes: a first for which A is better than B, a second for which B is better than A, and an optional third for which type of treatment makes no difference. Results of QUINT on simulated data showed satisfactory performance, with regard to optimization and recovery. Results of an application to real data suggested that, compared with other approaches, QUINT provided a more pronounced picture of the qualitative interactions that are present in the data.

  9. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations.

  10. The association between immigrant subgroup and poor mental health: a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Bruce, Daniel; Burström, Bo; Ekblad, Solvig

    2013-08-01

    Ethnicity and immigrant subgroup (classified as refugee or nonrefugee) are associated with poor mental health among immigrants. The aim of this study was to assess whether national origin-based differences in poor mental health can be explained by immigrant subgroup and if its importance varies depending on origin. A cross-sectional, population-based study of Swedish residents was conducted in 2006. The outcome was poor mental health, measured with the proxy variable psychotropic drugs purchased. Explanatory variables included immigrant subgroup and origin. Potential confounders were age, marital status, education, time in Sweden, and children. Logistic regression was carried out. The total population was 5,507,262. Immigrants from countries outside the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) numbered 298,641. Immigrant subgroup partly explained the higher likelihood of poor mental health among non-OECD immigrants; when each country or area was analyzed separately, most refugees had a higher likelihood than nonrefugees did. Immigrant subgroup partly explained the origin-based differences in mental health, but this varied between different groups of origin. PMID:23896844

  11. Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Among Three Ethnic Subgroups of US Blacks: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Jean-Francois, Emmanuel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Tarver, Will L.; Thomas, Kamilah B.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently associated with one of the highest burdens of morbidity and mortality among American men and women. Racial/ethnic disparities are well documented and the subject of intense research and intervention. Our understanding of disparities related to awareness and perceptions about causes, risk, factors, and screening for CRC among subgroups of blacks in the United States is limited. This may be in part because grouping. US-born blacks and foreign-born blacks as one homogeneous group obscures possible within-group differences. This study aimed to explore the cultural perceptions of CRC among 3 ethnic subgroups of blacks: African Americans (US born), foreign-born blacks from English-speaking Caribbean countries, and Haitian-born blacks. The study was informed by a community-based participatory research approach, using a cross-sectional mixed qualitative and quantitative methods design. A total of 62 individuals from the 3 ethnic subgroups participated in semistructured, in-depth qualitative and structured quantitative interviews. Qualitative findings revealed no stark differences among the 3 ethnic subgroups in their overall perceptions of cancer as well as their attitudes related to barriers, motivation, and resources for CRC screening. However, there were subtle differences in perceptions of curability, preventive practices, and preferred sources of information among the three ethnic subgroups of US blacks. The study has important implications for the design of educational materials and targeted interventions for diverse groups of US blacks. PMID:22046844

  12. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations. PMID:27672394

  13. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Bijou R

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009-2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations. PMID:27672394

  14. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  15. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution.

  16. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Louise; Pina-Araujo I, Isabel de; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-09-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution.

  17. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  18. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Louise; Pina-Araujo I, Isabel de; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-09-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  19. Genetically modified food in the news: media representations of the GM debate in the UK.

    PubMed

    Augoustinos, Martha; Crabb, Shona; Shepherd, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses a corpus of articles on GM crops and food which appeared in six UK newspapers in the first three months of 2004, the year following the GM Nation? debate (2003). Using the methods of critical discourse analysis we focus on how specific and pervasive representations of the major stakeholders in the national debate on GM--the British public, the British government, the science of GM, and biotechnology companies--served significant rhetorical functions in the controversy. Of particular significance was the pervasive representation of the British public as uniformly opposed to GM crops and food which served rhetorically to position the British government as undemocratic and as being beholden to powerful political and economic interests. Of significance also in our analysis, is how the science of GM farming itself became a highly contested arena. In short, our analysis demonstrates how the GM debate was represented in the newsprint media as a "battleground" of competing interests. We conclude by considering the possible implications of this representation given the increasing emphasis placed on the importance of deliberative and inclusive forms of science policy decision-making.

  20. Debate on GMOs health risks after statistical findings in regulatory tests.

    PubMed

    de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Vélot, Christian; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2010-01-01

    We summarize the major points of international debate on health risk studies for the main commercialized edible GMOs. These GMOs are soy, maize and oilseed rape designed to contain new pesticide residues since they have been modified to be herbicide-tolerant (mostly to Roundup) or to produce mutated Bt toxins. The debated alimentary chronic risks may come from unpredictable insertional mutagenesis effects, metabolic effects, or from the new pesticide residues. The most detailed regulatory tests on the GMOs are three-month long feeding trials of laboratory rats, which are biochemically assessed. The tests are not compulsory, and are not independently conducted. The test data and the corresponding results are kept in secret by the companies. Our previous analyses of regulatory raw data at these levels, taking the representative examples of three GM maize NK 603, MON 810, and MON 863 led us to conclude that hepatorenal toxicities were possible, and that longer testing was necessary. Our study was criticized by the company developing the GMOs in question and the regulatory bodies, mainly on the divergent biological interpretations of statistically significant biochemical and physiological effects. We present the scientific reasons for the crucially different biological interpretations and also highlight the shortcomings in the experimental protocols designed by the company. The debate implies an enormous responsibility towards public health and is essential due to nonexistent traceability or epidemiological studies in the GMO-producing countries. PMID:20941377

  1. Debate on GMOs health risks after statistical findings in regulatory tests.

    PubMed

    de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Vélot, Christian; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2010-10-05

    We summarize the major points of international debate on health risk studies for the main commercialized edible GMOs. These GMOs are soy, maize and oilseed rape designed to contain new pesticide residues since they have been modified to be herbicide-tolerant (mostly to Roundup) or to produce mutated Bt toxins. The debated alimentary chronic risks may come from unpredictable insertional mutagenesis effects, metabolic effects, or from the new pesticide residues. The most detailed regulatory tests on the GMOs are three-month long feeding trials of laboratory rats, which are biochemically assessed. The tests are not compulsory, and are not independently conducted. The test data and the corresponding results are kept in secret by the companies. Our previous analyses of regulatory raw data at these levels, taking the representative examples of three GM maize NK 603, MON 810, and MON 863 led us to conclude that hepatorenal toxicities were possible, and that longer testing was necessary. Our study was criticized by the company developing the GMOs in question and the regulatory bodies, mainly on the divergent biological interpretations of statistically significant biochemical and physiological effects. We present the scientific reasons for the crucially different biological interpretations and also highlight the shortcomings in the experimental protocols designed by the company. The debate implies an enormous responsibility towards public health and is essential due to nonexistent traceability or epidemiological studies in the GMO-producing countries.

  2. Debate on GMOs Health Risks after Statistical Findings in Regulatory Tests

    PubMed Central

    de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Vélot, Christian; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2010-01-01

    We summarize the major points of international debate on health risk studies for the main commercialized edible GMOs. These GMOs are soy, maize and oilseed rape designed to contain new pesticide residues since they have been modified to be herbicide-tolerant (mostly to Roundup) or to produce mutated Bt toxins. The debated alimentary chronic risks may come from unpredictable insertional mutagenesis effects, metabolic effects, or from the new pesticide residues. The most detailed regulatory tests on the GMOs are three-month long feeding trials of laboratory rats, which are biochemically assessed. The tests are not compulsory, and are not independently conducted. The test data and the corresponding results are kept in secret by the companies. Our previous analyses of regulatory raw data at these levels, taking the representative examples of three GM maize NK 603, MON 810, and MON 863 led us to conclude that hepatorenal toxicities were possible, and that longer testing was necessary. Our study was criticized by the company developing the GMOs in question and the regulatory bodies, mainly on the divergent biological interpretations of statistically significant biochemical and physiological effects. We present the scientific reasons for the crucially different biological interpretations and also highlight the shortcomings in the experimental protocols designed by the company. The debate implies an enormous responsibility towards public health and is essential due to nonexistent traceability or epidemiological studies in the GMO-producing countries. PMID:20941377

  3. Debates on Genetically Modified Crops in the Context of Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, Ksenia

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses conflicts in perceptions of GM crops illustrating the complexities of GM debates and applications of the concept of sustainable development. The concept consists of three discourses that both opponents and supporters of GM crops refer to in their analyses: environmentalism, social and economic development and the two sub-issues of sustainable development-biodiversity loss and food security. This creates a unique situation when both proponents and opponents of GM food use the same framework of sustainable development to support their arguments and do not reach a common ground. This will be illustrated by a review of the arguments brought by these two groups. PMID:26062746

  4. Debates on Genetically Modified Crops in the Context of Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, Ksenia

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses conflicts in perceptions of GM crops illustrating the complexities of GM debates and applications of the concept of sustainable development. The concept consists of three discourses that both opponents and supporters of GM crops refer to in their analyses: environmentalism, social and economic development and the two sub-issues of sustainable development-biodiversity loss and food security. This creates a unique situation when both proponents and opponents of GM food use the same framework of sustainable development to support their arguments and do not reach a common ground. This will be illustrated by a review of the arguments brought by these two groups.

  5. [Psychiatric contribution to the debate on films of the silent movie era in Germany].

    PubMed

    Podoll, K; Ebel, H

    1998-09-01

    Literary writers and scientists of various disciplines have contributed to debates about the silent movie in the 10s and 20s in Germany, leading to basic insights into the structure and effects of the new film medium. Psychiatric authors of the documented period have elaborated propositions towards a theory of film perception and analyses of different possibly nocuous film effects. The hypothesis of a causal effect of the film medium on violence and the notion of a transmission of suicidal behaviour by fictitious film models are still controversially discussed. PMID:9782419

  6. Decreased expression of Yes-associated protein is associated with outcome in the luminal A breast cancer subgroup and with an impaired tamoxifen response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yes-associated protein (YAP1) is frequently reported to function as an oncogene in many types of cancer, but in breast cancer results remain controversial. We set out to clarify the role of YAP1 in breast cancer by examining gene and protein expression in subgroups of patient material and by downregulating YAP1 in vitro and studying its role in response to the widely used anti-estrogen tamoxifen. Methods YAP1 protein intensity was scored as absent, weak, intermediate or strong in two primary breast cancer cohorts (n = 144 and n = 564) and mRNA expression of YAP1 was evaluated in a gene expression dataset (n = 1107). Recurrence-free survival was analysed using the log-rank test and Cox multivariate analysis was used to test for independence. WST-1 assay was employed to measure cell viability and a luciferase ERE (estrogen responsive element) construct was used to study the effect of tamoxifen, following downregulation of YAP1 using siRNAs. Results In the ER+ (Estrogen Receptor α positive) subgroup of the randomised cohort, YAP1 expression was inversely correlated to histological grade and proliferation (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively) whereas in the ER- (Estrogen Receptor α negative) subgroup YAP1 expression correlated positively to proliferation (p = 0.005). Notably, low YAP1 mRNA was independently associated with decreased recurrence-free survival in the gene expression dataset, specifically for the luminal A subgroup (p < 0.001) which includes low proliferating tumours of lower grade, usually associated with a good prognosis. This subgroup specificity led us to hypothesize that YAP1 may be important for response to endocrine therapies, such as tamoxifen, extensively used for luminal A breast cancers. In a tamoxifen randomised patient material, absent YAP1 protein expression was associated with impaired tamoxifen response which was significant upon interaction analysis (p = 0.042). YAP1 downregulation resulted in increased

  7. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  8. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors Are Comprised of Three Epigenetic Subgroups with Distinct Enhancer Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Johann, Pascal D; Erkek, Serap; Zapatka, Marc; Kerl, Kornelius; Buchhalter, Ivo; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Sturm, Dominik; Hermann, Carl; Segura Wang, Maia; Korshunov, Andrey; Rhyzova, Marina; Gröbner, Susanne; Brabetz, Sebastian; Chavez, Lukas; Bens, Susanne; Gröschel, Stefan; Kratochwil, Fabian; Wittmann, Andrea; Sieber, Laura; Geörg, Christina; Wolf, Stefan; Beck, Katja; Oyen, Florian; Capper, David; van Sluis, Peter; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; von Deimling, Andreas; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Kulozik, Andreas E; Ebinger, Martin; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Sumerauer, David; Zamecnik, Josef; Mora, Jaume; Jabado, Nada; Taylor, Michael D; Huang, Annie; Aronica, Eleonora; Bertoni, Anna; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pietsch, Torsten; Schüller, Ulrich; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Northcott, Paul A; Korbel, Jan O; Siebert, Reiner; Frühwald, Michael C; Lichter, Peter; Eils, Roland; Gajjar, Amar; Hasselblatt, Martin; Pfister, Stefan M; Kool, Marcel

    2016-03-14

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is one of the most common brain tumors in infants. Although the prognosis of ATRT patients is poor, some patients respond favorably to current treatments, suggesting molecular inter-tumor heterogeneity. To investigate this further, we genetically and epigenetically analyzed 192 ATRTs. Three distinct molecular subgroups of ATRTs, associated with differences in demographics, tumor location, and type of SMARCB1 alterations, were identified. Whole-genome DNA and RNA sequencing found no recurrent mutations in addition to SMARCB1 that would explain the differences between subgroups. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and H3K27Ac chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing of primary tumors, however, revealed clear differences, leading to the identification of subgroup-specific regulatory networks and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26923874

  9. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-06-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  10. Hot Gas in Merging Subgroups; Probing the Early Stages of Structure Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, Marie

    2014-08-01

    To fully understand the growth of large scale structure in hierarchical cosmological models, we must first understand how their building blocks, low mass galaxy subgroups, evolve through mergers. These galaxy subgroups are X-ray faint and difficult to observe at high redshift. The study of near-by subgroup mergers may be used as templates to gain insight into the dominant dynamical processes that are at work in the early universe. We use Chandra observations of edges, tails and wings in a sample of near-by galaxy groups ( Pavo, Telescopium, Pegasus, NGC7618/UGC12491 to measure the properties of the diffuse gas, merger velocities, shocks and non-hydrostatic gas 'sloshing', as their common ICM envelopes evolves.

  11. Strains from both Theiler's virus subgroups encode a determinant for demyelination.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, J; Rodriguez, M; Roos, R P

    1990-01-01

    The GDVII strain and other members of the GDVII subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses (TMEV) cause an acute lethal neuronal infection in mice, whereas the DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of TMEV cause a chronic demyelinating disease associated with a persistent virus infection. We used GDVII/DA chimeric infectious cDNAs to produce intratypic recombinant viruses in order to clarify reasons for the TMEV subgroup-specific difference in demyelinating activity. We found that both the GDVII and DA strains contain a genetic determinant(s) for demyelinating activity. No demyelination occurs following GDVII strain inoculation because this strain produces an early neuronal disease that kills mice before white matter disease and persistent infection can occur. Images PMID:2243399

  12. Eating disorder behavior and early maladaptive schemas in subgroups of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; Tölgyes, Tamás; Czobor, Pál; Simon, Lajos

    2010-06-01

    To examine relationship between Eating Disorder Behaviors (EDB) and Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) across eating disorder (ED) subgroups. EMS and ED behaviors were measured by Young Schema Questionnaire and Eating Behavior Severity Scale, respectively, among patients diagnosed with Restrictive or Binge/purging Anorexia, or bulimia nervosa. Canonical component analysis showed significant association between ED behaviors and EMSs. Canonical factor-pairs (EDB and EMS) revealed specific associations between certain patterns of EDBs, including binge-purging and physical exercise, and certain patterns of maladaptive cognitive schema, including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment, Enmeshments, Subjugation, and Emotional inhibition. ED subgroups significantly differred between the EMS and EDB canonical factors, respectively. Our findings indicate that EMS and EDB are associated, and that the factors that potentially mediate the association differ significantly among ED subgroups. These results are consistent with the notion that EMSs play a specific role in the development and maintenance of ED behaviors. PMID:20531121

  13. POSSIBLE SUBGROUPS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND PLANETARY NEBULAE IN NGC 5128

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Kristin A.; Harris, William E. E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2011-01-15

    We use recently compiled position and velocity data for the globular cluster and planetary nebula subsystems in NGC 5128, the nearby giant elliptical, to search for evidence of past dwarf-satellite accretion events. Beyond a 10' ({approx}11 kpc) radius in galactocentric distance, we find tentative evidence for four subgroups of globular clusters and four subgroups of planetary nebulae. These each have more than four members within a search radius of 2' and internal velocity dispersion of {approx}<40 km s{sup -1}, typical parameters for a dwarf galaxy. In addition, two of the globular cluster groupings overlap with two of the planetary nebulae groupings, and two subgroupings also appear to overlap with previously known arc and shell features in the halo light. Simulation tests of our procedure indicate that the probability of finding false groups due to chance is <1%.

  14. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  15. Eating disorder behavior and early maladaptive schemas in subgroups of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; Tölgyes, Tamás; Czobor, Pál; Simon, Lajos

    2010-06-01

    To examine relationship between Eating Disorder Behaviors (EDB) and Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) across eating disorder (ED) subgroups. EMS and ED behaviors were measured by Young Schema Questionnaire and Eating Behavior Severity Scale, respectively, among patients diagnosed with Restrictive or Binge/purging Anorexia, or bulimia nervosa. Canonical component analysis showed significant association between ED behaviors and EMSs. Canonical factor-pairs (EDB and EMS) revealed specific associations between certain patterns of EDBs, including binge-purging and physical exercise, and certain patterns of maladaptive cognitive schema, including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment, Enmeshments, Subjugation, and Emotional inhibition. ED subgroups significantly differred between the EMS and EDB canonical factors, respectively. Our findings indicate that EMS and EDB are associated, and that the factors that potentially mediate the association differ significantly among ED subgroups. These results are consistent with the notion that EMSs play a specific role in the development and maintenance of ED behaviors.

  16. Methods for identification and confirmation of targeted subgroups in clinical trials: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ondra, Thomas; Dmitrienko, Alex; Friede, Tim; Graf, Alexandra; Miller, Frank; Stallard, Nigel; Posch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Important objectives in the development of stratified medicines include the identification and confirmation of subgroups of patients with a beneficial treatment effect and a positive benefit-risk balance. We report the results of a literature review on methodological approaches to the design and analysis of clinical trials investigating a potential heterogeneity of treatment effects across subgroups. The identified approaches are classified based on certain characteristics of the proposed trial designs and analysis methods. We distinguish between exploratory and confirmatory subgroup analysis, frequentist, Bayesian and decision-theoretic approaches and, last, fixed-sample, group-sequential, and adaptive designs and illustrate the available trial designs and analysis strategies with published case studies. PMID:26378339

  17. The deformation of Poincaré subgroups concerning very special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Xue, Xun

    2014-05-01

    We investigate here various kinds of semi-product subgroups of Poincaré group in the scheme of Cohen-Glashow's very special relativity along the deformation approach by Gibbons-Gomis-Pope. For each proper Poincaré subgroup which is a semi-product of proper lorentz group with the spacetime translation group T(4), we investigate all possible deformations and obtain all the possible natural representations inherited from the 5 - d representation of Poincaré group. We find from the obtained natural representation that rotation operation may have additional accompanied scale transformation when the original Lorentz subgroup is deformed and the boost operation gets the additional accompanied scale transformation in all the deformation cases. The additional accompanied scale transformation has a strong constrain on the possible invariant metric function of the corresponding geometry and the field theories in the spacetime with the corresponding geometry.

  18. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    PubMed Central

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5′UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

  19. Methodologic issues in terminating enrollment of a subgroup of patients in a multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shing M; Wise, Robert; Sternberg, Alice L; Tonascia, James; Piantadosi, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) was a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing medical treatment plus lung-volume-reduction surgery (LVRS) to medical treatment alone for the treatment of severe emphysema. The primary outcomes specified for the trial were mortality from all causes and change in functional status as indicated by the change in maximum exercise capacity measured two years after randomization. A secondary objective of the trial was to define criteria to identify subgroups of patients at risk of harm or benefit from LVRS. Stopping guidelines for safety and efficacy based on 30-day mortality and a combination of overall mortality and functional status at two years were specified at the inception of the trial. Although specific subgroups of patients likely to benefit were not identified in advance, several clinical factors were specified as likely to be important in defining subgroups with differential outcome. In May 2001, with 40% of expected deaths accrued, the Data and Safety Monitoring Board determined that a subgroup of patients was at significantly higher risk of 30-day mortality from LVRS without counterbalancing evidence of functional benefit, and recommended that the protocol be modified to exclude further randomization of such patients. The trial's sponsor, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, accepted the recommendation, which was rapidly communicated to participating clinics. This paper describes the operational aspects of identification of the subgroup and implementation of the recommendation to continue the trial, but to terminate enrollment of new patients in the subgroup. These aspects include notification of the investigators, the institutional review boards, the Research Group, the patients and the medical community. We also describe the repercussions of the publication and the misinterpretations of the results based on media coverage.

  20. Targeted interventions for patellofemoral pain syndrome (TIPPS): classification of clinical subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Callaghan, Michael; Witvrouw, Erik; Richards, James; Dey, Maria Paola; Sutton, Chris; Dixon, John; Martin, Denis; Stokes, Maria; Janssen, Jessie; Ritchie, Elizabeth; Turner, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patellofemoral pain (PFP) can cause significant pain leading to limitations in societal participation and physical activity. An international expert group has highlighted the need for a classification system to allow targeted intervention for patients with PFP; we have developed a work programme systematically investigating this. We have proposed six potential subgroups: hip abductor weakness, quadriceps weakness, patellar hypermobility, patellar hypomobility, pronated foot posture and lower limb biarticular muscle tightness. We could not uncover any evidence of the relative frequency with which patients with PFP fell into these subgroups or whether these subgroups were mutually exclusive. The aim of this study is to provide information on the clinical utility of our classification system. Methods and analysis 150 participants will be recruited over 18 months in four National Health Services (NHS) physiotherapy departments in England. Inclusion criteria: adults 18–40 years with PFP for longer than 3 months, PFP in at least two predesignated functional activities and PFP elicited by clinical examination. Exclusion criteria: prior or forthcoming lower limb surgery; comorbid illness or health condition; and lower limb training or pregnancy. We will record medical history, demographic details, pain, quality of life, psychomotor movement awareness and knee temperature. We will assess hip abductor and quadriceps weakness, patellar hypermobility and hypomobility, foot posture and lower limb biarticular muscle tightness. The primary analytic approach will be descriptive. We shall present numbers and percentages of participants who meet the criteria for membership of (1) each of the subgroups, (2) none of the subgroups and (3) multiple subgroups. Exact (binomial) 95% CIs for these percentages will also be presented. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee North West—Greater Manchester

  1. The Direct Assignment Option as a Modular Design Component: An Example for the Setting of Two Predefined Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    An, Ming-Wen; Lu, Xin; Sargent, Daniel J.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A phase II design with an option for direct assignment (stop randomization and assign all patients to experimental treatment based on interim analysis, IA) for a predefined subgroup was previously proposed. Here, we illustrate the modularity of the direct assignment option by applying it to the setting of two predefined subgroups and testing for separate subgroup main effects. Methods. We power the 2-subgroup direct assignment option design with 1 IA (DAD-1) to test for separate subgroup main effects, with assessment of power to detect an interaction in a post-hoc test. Simulations assessed the statistical properties of this design compared to the 2-subgroup balanced randomized design with 1 IA, BRD-1. Different response rates for treatment/control in subgroup 1 (0.4/0.2) and in subgroup 2 (0.1/0.2, 0.4/0.2) were considered. Results. The 2-subgroup DAD-1 preserves power and type I error rate compared to the 2-subgroup BRD-1, while exhibiting reasonable power in a post-hoc test for interaction. Conclusion. The direct assignment option is a flexible design component that can be incorporated into broader design frameworks, while maintaining desirable statistical properties, clinical appeal, and logistical simplicity. PMID:25649690

  2. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    PubMed

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  3. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    PubMed

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter. PMID:22586778

  4. TP53 Polymorphisms allow for genetic sub-grouping of the canine transmissible venereal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Servín, Abel; Córdova-Alarcon, Emilio; Fajardo, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    The canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is found mainly in dogs' sexual organs. Currently, it is widely accepted that all samples of CTVT show similar histopathological characteristics and share common genetic alterations. Despite the common genetic origin of CTVT, mutations in the P53 gene have been reported. In this study, we proposed that tumor samples can be genetically grouped using this gene. The presence of different subgroups of CTVT was determined in Mexican dogs using the TP53 gene sequence in CTVT samples. Four new polymorphisms were found and therefore, the CTVT samples were classified in five subgroups. PMID:19934603

  5. N=2 gauge theories: Congruence subgroups, coset graphs, and modular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui; McKay, John

    2013-01-01

    We establish a correspondence between generalized quiver gauge theories in four dimensions and congruence subgroups of the modular group, hinging upon the trivalent graphs, which arise in both. The gauge theories and the graphs are enumerated and their numbers are compared. The correspondence is particularly striking for genus zero torsion-free congruence subgroups as exemplified by those which arise in Moonshine. We analyze in detail the case of index 24, where modular elliptic K3 surfaces emerge: here, the elliptic j-invariants can be recast as dessins d'enfant, which dictate the Seiberg-Witten curves.

  6. A new look at the space motions of the white dwarf spectroscopic subgroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Fritz, Matthew L.; Sion, Edward M.

    The authors have computed the vector components of the space motions, u, v, w, and the total motion, V, with the assumption of a null radial velocity vector, for over 600 degenerate stars broken down by spectroscopic subgroup as follows: 420 DA stars, 53 DB stars, 26 DQ stars, 88 DC stars, 24 DZ stars, and 13 magnetics (DH, DX, DAH, DAP, etc,). With the exception of the magnetic degenerates and carbon band (DQ) degenerates, they find little evidence to suggest kinematical differences among the spectroscopic subgroups. Implications are briefly discussed.

  7. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Suicide: Understanding Subgroup Differences to Inform Interventions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D

    2016-08-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.

  8. Identification of a novel subgroup of Koala retrovirus from Koalas in Japanese zoos.

    PubMed

    Shojima, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Hoshino, Shigeki; Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Ohata, Takuji; Nakaoka, Rie; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2013-09-01

    We identified a new subgroup of koala retrovirus (KoRV), named KoRV-J, which utilizes thiamine transport protein 1 as a receptor instead of the Pit-1 receptor used by KoRV (KoRV-A). By subgroup-specific PCR, KoRV-J and KoRV-A were detected in 67.5 and 100% of koalas originating from koalas from northern Australia, respectively. Altogether, our results indicate that the invasion of the koala population by KoRV-J may have occurred more recently than invasion by KoRV-A.

  9. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Suicide: Understanding Subgroup Differences to Inform Interventions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D

    2016-08-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes. PMID:27348621

  10. PCR-Based Simple Subgrouping Is Validated for Classification of Gliomas and Defines Negative Prognostic Copy Number Aberrations in IDH Mutant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Hikaru; Hayashi, Saeko; Hattori, Natsuki; Kumon, Masanobu; Nishiyama, Yuya; Adachi, Kazuhide; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hayashi, Takuro; Inamasu, Joji; Abe, Masato; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic subgrouping of gliomas has been emphasized recently, particularly after the finding of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations. In a previous study, we investigated whole-chromosome copy number aberrations (CNAs) of gliomas and have described genetic subgrouping based on CNAs and IDH1 mutations. Subsequently, we classified gliomas using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to improve the availability of genetic subgrouping. We selected IDH1/2 and TP53 as markers and analyzed 237 adult supratentorial gliomas using Sanger sequencing. Using these markers, we classified gliomas into three subgroups that were strongly associated with patient prognoses. These included IDH mutant gliomas without TP53 mutations, IDH mutant gliomas with TP53 mutations, and IDH wild-type gliomas. IDH mutant gliomas without TP53 mutations, which mostly corresponded to gliomas carrying 1p19q co-deletions, showed lower recurrence rates than the other 2 groups. In the other high-recurrence groups, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with IDH mutant gliomas with TP53 mutations were significantly longer than those of patients with IDH wild-type gliomas. Notably, most IDH mutant gliomas with TP53 mutations had at least one of the CNAs +7q, +8q, −9p, and −11p. Moreover, IDH mutant gliomas with at least one of these CNAs had a significantly worse prognosis than did other IDH mutant gliomas. PCR-based mutation analyses of IDH and TP53 were sufficient for simple genetic diagnosis of glioma that were strongly associated with prognosis of patients and enabled us to detect negative CNAs in IDH mutant gliomas. PMID:26558387

  11. Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Duarte, C. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. A.; Blanco, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Method Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, ‘Other Latinos’). Results Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ12=11.04, p < 0.001), (2) longer time in the United States (linear χ12=10.52, p < 0.01), (3) greater English-language orientation (linear χ12=14.57, p < 0.001), (4) lower Latino composition of social network (linear χ12=15.03, p < 0.001), and (5) lower Latino ethnic identification (linear χ12=7.29, p < 0.01). However, the associations were less consistent among Cubans and Other Latinos, and no associations with acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. Conclusions The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions. PMID:27087570

  12. A philosophical analysis of the evidence-based medicine debate

    PubMed Central

    Sehon, Scott R; Stanley, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Background The term "evidence-based medicine" (or EBM) was introduced about ten years ago, and there has been considerable debate about the value of EBM. However, this debate has sometimes been obscured by a lack of conceptual clarity concerning the nature and status of EBM. Discussion First, we note that EBM proponents have obscured the current debate by defining EBM in an overly broad, indeed almost vacuous, manner; we offer a clearer account of EBM and its relation to the alternative approaches to medicine. Second, while EBM proponents commonly cite the philosophical work of Thomas Kuhn and claim that EBM is a Kuhnian 'paradigm shift,' we argue that such claims are seriously mistaken and unduly polarize the EBM debate. Third, we suggest that it is much more fruitful to understand the relationship between EBM and its alternatives in light of a different philosophical metaphor: W.V. Quine's metaphor of the web of belief. Seen in this way, we argue that EBM is an approach to medical practice that is indeed importantly different from the alternatives. Summary We can have a more productive debate about the value of EBM by being clearer about the nature of EBM and its relationship to alternative approaches to medicine. PMID:12873351

  13. Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity.

  14. Consumer-mediated health information exchanges: the 2012 ACMI debate.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Frisse, Mark E; Halamka, John; Sweeney, Latanya; Yasnoff, William

    2014-04-01

    The American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI) sponsors periodic debates during the American Medical Informatics Fall Symposium to highlight important informatics issues of broad interest. In 2012, a panel debated the following topic: "Resolved: Health Information Exchange Organizations Should Shift Their Principal Focus to Consumer-Mediated Exchange in Order to Facilitate the Rapid Development of Effective, Scalable, and Sustainable Health Information Infrastructure." Those supporting the proposition emphasized the need for consumer-controlled community repositories of electronic health records (health record banks) to address privacy, stakeholder cooperation, scalability, and sustainability. Those opposing the proposition emphasized that the current healthcare environment is so complex that development of consumer control will take time and that even then, consumers may not be able to mediate their information effectively. While privately each discussant recognizes that there are many sides to this complex issue, each followed the debater's tradition of taking an extreme position in order emphasize some of the polarizing aspects in the short time allotted them. In preparing this summary, we sought to convey the substance and spirit of the debate in printed form. Transcripts of the actual debate were edited for clarity, and appropriate supporting citations were added for the further edification of the reader.

  15. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate.

  16. Complex Factors in the Etiology of Gulf War Illness: Wartime Exposures and Risk Factors in Veteran Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Antonio; Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cook, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: At least one-fourth of U.S. veterans who served in the 1990–1991 Gulf War are affected by the chronic symptomatic illness known as Gulf War illness (GWI). Clear determination of the causes of GWI has been hindered by many factors, including limitations in how epidemiologic studies have assessed the impact of the complex deployment environment on veterans’ health. Objective: We sought to address GWI etiologic questions by evaluating the association of symptomatic illness with characteristics of veterans’ deployment. Methods: We compared veteran-reported wartime experiences in a population-based sample of 304 Gulf War veterans: 144 cases who met preestablished criteria for GWI and 160 controls. Veteran subgroups and confounding among deployment variables were considered in the analyses. Results: Deployment experiences and the prevalence of GWI differed significantly by veterans’ location in theater. Among personnel who were in Iraq or Kuwait, where all battles took place, GWI was most strongly associated with using pyridostigmine bromide pills [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 7.4] and being within 1 mile of an exploding SCUD missile (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.1). For veterans who remained in support areas, GWI was significantly associated only with personal pesticide use, with increased prevalence (OR = 12.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 61.5) in the relatively small subgroup that wore pesticide-treated uniforms, nearly all of whom also used skin pesticides. Combat service was not significantly associated with GWI. Conclusions: Findings support a role for a limited number of wartime exposures in the etiology of GWI, which differed in importance with the deployment milieu in which veterans served. PMID:21930452

  17. Debating the Effectiveness and Necessity of Tenure in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Asbill, Scott; Moultry, Aisha Morris; Policastri, Anne; Sincak, Carrie A.; Smith, Lisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Academic tenure is a controversial and highly debated topic. Is tenure truly outdated or does it simply need to be reformed? On one hand, the tenure system has shortcomings including deincentivizing productive faculty members, inconsistent application of tenure policies and procedures, and the potential for discrimination during tenure decisions. On the other hand, the tenure system is a long held tradition in the academy, essential in higher education to ensure academic standards and values are upheld in the best interest of students. It provides faculty members with the academic freedom to try innovative teaching strategies and conduct research and assists with faculty retention and recruitment. Regardless of one’s opinion, the tenure debate is not going away and warrants further discussion. This paper represents the work of a group of academic leaders participating in the 2014-2015 AACP Academic Leadership Fellowship Program. This work was presented as a debate at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting in Austin, TX in February 2015.

  18. Epilogue: continuing points of contention in the recovered memory debate.

    PubMed

    Belli, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Four contentious issues in the recovered memory debate are explored. Volume contributors offer differing perspectives on the generalizability of laboratory research, on the role of emotion in memory, on the prevalence of false recoveries, and on the motivations that underlie differences in opinion, especially with regard to whether the debate ought to be framed within a larger sociopolitical context. The recovered memory debate is argued to center on two ethical concerns that happen to be in conflict, equality among groups on one hand and due process protections on the other. Additional movement toward reconciliation is possible with a fair assessment of all available evidence, with a mutual understanding of differing perspectives, and with civil discourse.

  19. Epilogue: continuing points of contention in the recovered memory debate.

    PubMed

    Belli, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Four contentious issues in the recovered memory debate are explored. Volume contributors offer differing perspectives on the generalizability of laboratory research, on the role of emotion in memory, on the prevalence of false recoveries, and on the motivations that underlie differences in opinion, especially with regard to whether the debate ought to be framed within a larger sociopolitical context. The recovered memory debate is argued to center on two ethical concerns that happen to be in conflict, equality among groups on one hand and due process protections on the other. Additional movement toward reconciliation is possible with a fair assessment of all available evidence, with a mutual understanding of differing perspectives, and with civil discourse. PMID:22303769

  20. [The first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Bijker, Liselotte E

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Dutch medical guideline on pharmacological analgesia during childbirth in 2008, the question of whether pharmacological pain relief should be permissible during labour was hotly debated. This discussion has been going on since the second half of the 19th century when the introduction of ether and chloroform was extensively studied and described in Great Britain. This article looks back on the same debate in the Netherlands when inhalational anaesthetics were introduced into obstetrics. Study of historical journals and textbooks, originating in the Netherlands and elsewhere, and of historical medical literature on anaesthesia and obstetrics shows that the Dutch protagonists adopted more nuanced ideas on this issue than many of their foreign colleagues. This description of the first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics shows that in fact the issues and arguments are timeless.

  1. Broadening the scope of debates around stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Tamra; Campbell, Alastair V

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, stem cell research has generated an enormous amount of public, political and bioethical debate. These debates have overwhelmingly tended to focus on two moral issues: the moral status of human embryos and the duty to care for the sick and vulnerable. This preoccupation, especially on the question of moral status, has not only dichotomized the debate around two fundamentally incommensurable positions, it has come at the cost of other important issues largely being ignored. In highlighting some of the bioethical and regulatory deficiencies of this fixation, we draw on recent developments in the experimental use of autologous adult stem cells to argue for a more inclusive approach to the ethical issues surrounding stem cell research.

  2. Debating the Effectiveness and Necessity of Tenure in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Asbill, Scott; Moultry, Aisha Morris; Policastri, Anne; Sincak, Carrie A; Smith, Lisa S; Ulbrich, Timothy R

    2016-08-25

    Academic tenure is a controversial and highly debated topic. Is tenure truly outdated or does it simply need to be reformed? On one hand, the tenure system has shortcomings including deincentivizing productive faculty members, inconsistent application of tenure policies and procedures, and the potential for discrimination during tenure decisions. On the other hand, the tenure system is a long held tradition in the academy, essential in higher education to ensure academic standards and values are upheld in the best interest of students. It provides faculty members with the academic freedom to try innovative teaching strategies and conduct research and assists with faculty retention and recruitment. Regardless of one's opinion, the tenure debate is not going away and warrants further discussion. This paper represents the work of a group of academic leaders participating in the 2014-2015 AACP Academic Leadership Fellowship Program. This work was presented as a debate at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting in Austin, TX in February 2015. PMID:27667831

  3. Debate: a strategy for increasing interaction in audio teleconferencing.

    PubMed

    Wuest, J

    1989-10-01

    Increased demand for audio teleconferenced undergraduate nursing courses for registered nurses in New Brunswick, Canada, has resulted in nurse educators being challenged to meet the needs of adult learners within the constraints of this technology. In this paper the problem of limited interaction among adult nursing students in a teleconferenced course is examined in light of the theoretical frameworks of adult education and distance education. The effects of implementing debate as a learning strategy to increase participation are discussed. The debate process increased site to site interaction and encouraged nurses to consider pragmatic issues from new perspectives.

  4. Principal Stratification: A Tool for Understanding Variation in Program Effects across Endogenous Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lindsay C.; Feller, Avi; Grindal, Todd; Miratrix, Luke; Somers, Marie-Andree

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are interested in questions regarding treatment-effect variation across partially or fully latent subgroups defined not by pretreatment characteristics but by postrandomization actions. One promising approach to address such questions is principal stratification. Under this framework, a researcher defines endogenous…

  5. Phononic Structure Relationships in the Subgroup Phases of Ferroelectric Ca3Mn2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoko, Elvis; Al Dawood, Eman; Schwingenschlogl, Udo

    The Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) compound, Ca3Mn2O7, exhibits hybrid improper ferroelectric (FE) behavior in its A21am phase. However, a new phase (space group Acaa), co-existing with the FE phase (200-320 K) and exhibiting negative thermal expansion (NTE) was recently discovered. This discovery highlighted the complexity of the phase relationships in the subgroup structure of Ca3Mn2O7. Successful exploitation of RP compounds for FE applications depends on a clear understanding of the phononic relationships among the different relevant subgroup phases. Accordingly, we have used density functional theory (DFT) to map out the total energy landscape for the principal subgroup phases relative to the tetragonal phase. In order to elucidate the interrelationships of the soft phonon modes among the different subgroup phases, we performed lattice dynamics and quasi-harmonic approximation calculations. In addition, the latter calculations enabled us to extract mode Gruneisen parameters leading to new insights into the NTE behavior of Ca3Mn2O7. The implications of our findings are discussed in the context of the potential of RP compounds as FE materials.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19, indicating two subgroups of genotype 1 in Vietnamese patients.

    PubMed

    Toan, Nguyen L; Duechting, Anja; Kremsner, Peter G; Song, Le H; Ebinger, Martin; Aberle, Susanne; Binh, Vu Q; Duy, Dinh Ng; Torresi, Joseph; Kandolf, Reinhard; Bock, C-Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Recently, three distinct genotypes (1, 2 and 3) of human parvovirus B19 (B19) have been identified. However, the characteristics and distribution of B19 genotypes in Vietnam have not been investigated. Phylogenetic analysis using 49 subgenomic NS1/VP1u regions and two coding NS1-VP1/VP2 regions has been applied to investigate the prevalence of B19 genotypes in Vietnamese patients co-infected with Hepatitis B virus. Genetic analysis of the subgenomic NS1/VP1u region of B19 revealed that two genotypes of B19 were identified in these populations, with predominance of genotype 1 (47/49, 96 %) followed by genotype 2 (2/49, 4 %), but not genotype 3. Further, phylogenetic analysis of subgenomic B19 genomes revealed two major subgroups within genotype 1 (B19-1A and B19-1B) with an estimated nucleotide difference of >5 % between each subgroup, forming different branches. The mean percentage of amino acid variation between subgroup B19-1A and B19-1B was >2 % of the NS1, VP1 and VP2 proteins. Our results indicated that two of the three known genotypes of B19 were present in Vietnamese patients, with genotype 1 predominating, and that this genotype can be classified into at least two subgroups, B19-1A and B19-1B.

  7. Diagnostic Subgroups of Depression in Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmanico, Sharon J.; Erickson, Marilyn T.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Best, Al M.; Sood, Aradhana A.; Oswald, Donald P.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five adolescent inpatients with emotional and behavioral disorders completed two self-report measures for depression and a structured diagnostic interview of depression. A cluster analysis found the following depression subgroups: nondepressed, endogenous depression, depressed mood with subclinical features, depression with…

  8. Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Olino, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with…

  9. Does Mortality Vary between Asian Subgroups in New Zealand: An Application of Hierarchical Bayesian Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken; Blakely, Tony; Dayal, Saira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25–75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0–9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners. PMID:25140523

  10. Importance of Subgroup Membership and Its Contribution to Equitable School District Comparisons. Research Brief. Volume 1005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry

    2011-01-01

    When one compares summary FCAT data from the Miami-Dade district to other major districts in the State, it appears that student performance in Miami-Dade district is generally lower. However, overall summary data can be deceiving. Part of the reason is that the subgroups that make up each district have distinctly different success rates. One can…

  11. Distinguishing 6 Population Subgroups by Timing and Characteristics of the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaobi; Harlow, Siobán D.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in women’s menstrual bleeding patterns precede the onset of menopause. In this paper, the authors identify population subgroups based on menstrual characteristics of the menopausal transition experience. Using the TREMIN data set (1943–1979), the authors apply a Bayesian change-point model with 8 parameters for each woman that summarize change in menstrual bleeding patterns during the menopausal transition. The authors then use estimates from this model to classify menstrual patterns into subgroups using a K-medoids algorithm. They identify 6 subgroups of women whose transition experience can be distinguished by age at onset, variability of the menstrual cycle, and duration of the early transition. These results suggest that for most women, mean and variance change points are well aligned with proposed bleeding markers of the menopausal transition, but for some women they are not clearly associated. Increasing understanding of population differences in the transition experience may lead to new insights into ovarian aging. Because of age inclusion criteria, most longitudinal studies of the menopausal transition probably include only a subset of the 6 subgroups of women identified in this paper, suggesting a potential bias in the understanding of both the menopausal transition and the linkage between the transition and chronic disease. PMID:22138039

  12. Preparation of respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A and B antigens for enzyme immunoassay antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Mlinarić-Galinović, G; Chonmaintree, T; Abraham, R; Garofalo, R; Patel, J A; Ogra, P L

    1994-01-01

    A simplified method was described for purification of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroup A and B aimed to be used as antigens in enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The titer of each RSV subgroup and the amount of protein was determined from the visible band in 45% sucrose gradient. The quality of prepared RSV subgroup antigens for EIA was described in terms of the achievable final titer, the amount of protein, and EIA criss-cross titration. The RSV subgroup A and B antigens, diluted as 1:100 (low opalescent band in 45% sucrose layer) or 1:800 (high opalescent band in 45% sucrose layer) produced a positive reaction in EIA criss-cross titration with IgG antibodies from the patient's serum (convalescent phase) diluted as 1:25,600 (for RSV A) and 1:6,400 (for RSV B). This method offers shorter and more simplified steps of viral antigen purification, and provides acceptable quantity and quality of viral antigens appropriate for use in EIA.

  13. Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviour: Do Those with Learning Disabilities Form a Distinct Subgroup?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…

  14. The Importance of Test Validity: An Examination of Measurement Invariance across Subgroups on a Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Anita Michelle Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The study discussed the importance of test validity, often established when making decisions that may affect a student's future. The decisions made by policymakers and educators must not adversely affect any particular subgroups of students (i.e., year of administration, gender, ethnicity, level English proficiency, socioeconomic status, and…

  15. Psychosocial and Friendship Characteristics of Bully/Victim Subgroups in Korean Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yoolim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial and friendship characteristics of Korean children who engaged in bully/victim subgroups among their peer groups. The participants were 605 elementary school students in Bucheon City, Korea. The participants completed a peer nomination inventory as well as loneliness and social anxiety scales. Friendship quality…

  16. Identification of Neuroblastoma Subgroups Based on Three-Dimensional Telomere Organization.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Alexandra; Gartner, John; Mai, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Using 3D telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, we determined the 3D telomere organization of 74 neuroblastoma tissue samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the measured telomere parameters identified three subgroups from our patient cohort. These subgroups have unique telomere profiles based on telomere length and nuclear architecture. Subgroups with higher levels of telomere dysfunction were comprised of tumors with greater numbers of telomeres, telomeric aggregates, and short telomeres (P<.0001). Tumors with greater telomere dysfunction were associated with unfavorable tumor characteristics (greater age at diagnosis, unfavorable histology, higher stage of disease, MYCN amplification, and higher MYCN expression) and poor prognostic risk (P<.001). Subgroups with greater telomere dysfunction also had higher intratumor heterogeneity. MYCN overexpression in two neuroblastoma cell lines with constitutively low MYCN expression induced changes in their telomere profile that were consistent with increased telomere dysfunction; this illustrates a functional relationship between MYCN and 3D telomere organization. This study demonstrates the ability to classify neuroblastomas based on the level of telomere dysfunction, which is a novel approach for this cancer. PMID:27567959

  17. Does mortality vary between Asian subgroups in New Zealand: an application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    PubMed

    Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken; Blakely, Tony; Dayal, Saira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25-75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0-9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners.

  18. Comparative Persistence of Subgroups of F-Specific RNA Phages in River Water

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongheng

    2013-01-01

    F-specific (F+) RNA phages are widely used as indicators for the presence of fecal contamination and/or enteric viruses in water, and identifying subgroups of F+ RNA phages provides an approach for microbial source tracking. Different survival characteristics of the F+ RNA phage subgroups result in a misinterpretation of their original proportion in water, thus giving misleading information when they are used for microbial source tracking. This study investigated the comparative persistence of subgroups of F+ RNA phages in river water under different conditions. Results suggested that temperature and pH are the major factors affecting the persistence of F+ RNA phages in river water, and organic substances promote phage survival. The comparative persistence patterns of subgroups of F+ RNA phages varied and may bias extrapolation of their initial proportions in surface water. Thus, the characteristics of water should be taken into consideration and the results should be carefully interpreted when F+ RNA phages are used for microbial source tracking. PMID:23686274

  19. Summary of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, D.; Keller, S.

    1996-12-31

    We summarize the activity of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup during Snowmass 96. Members of the group: M. Albrow, R. Diebold, S. Feher, L. Jones, R. Harris, D. Hedin, W. Kilgore, J. Lykken, F. Olness, T. Rizzo, V. Sirotenko, and J. Womersley. 9 refs.

  20. Affine spherical homogeneous spaces with good quotient by a maximal unipotent subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeev, Roman S

    2012-11-30

    For an affine spherical homogeneous space G/H of a connected semisimple algebraic group G, we consider the factorization morphism by the action on G/H of a maximal unipotent subgroup of G. We prove that this morphism is equidimensional if and only if the weight semigroup of G/H satisfies a simple condition. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  1. 26 CFR 1.1502-92 - Ownership change of a loss group or a loss subgroup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... losses (or a net unrealized built-in loss) of the common parent; and (B) The common parent determines the... treated as net operating losses (or a net unrealized built-in loss) of the loss subgroup parent; (B) The... included in determining whether the group has a net unrealized built-in loss. (ii) Newly created...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1502-92 - Ownership change of a loss group or a loss subgroup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... losses (or a net unrealized built-in loss) of the common parent; and (B) The common parent determines the... treated as net operating losses (or a net unrealized built-in loss) of the loss subgroup parent; (B) The... included in determining whether the group has a net unrealized built-in loss. (ii) Newly created...

  3. Dropouts in Two-Year Colleges: Better Prediction with the Use of Moderator Subgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capoor, Madan; Eagle, Norman

    Failure to identify and account for the effect of moderator variables is an important reason for the low explanatory power of much educational research. Pre-existing subgroups such as sex, ethnicity, and curriculum offer an easily identifiable and theoretically meaningful source of moderator variables. Tests for intercept and slope differences in…

  4. Does mortality vary between Asian subgroups in New Zealand: an application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    PubMed

    Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken; Blakely, Tony; Dayal, Saira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25-75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0-9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners. PMID:25140523

  5. Relating plaque morphology to respiratory syncytial virus subgroup, viral load, and disease severity in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-In; Murphy, Ryan; Majumdar, Sirshendu; Harrison, Lisa G.; Aitken, Jody; DeVincenzo, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral culture plaque morphology in human cell lines are markers for growth capability and cytopathic effect, and have been used to assess viral fitness and select pre-attenuation candidates for live viral vaccines. We classified RSV plaque morphology and analyzed the relationship between plaque morphology as compared to subgroup, viral load and clinical severity of infection in infants and children. Methods We obtained respiratory secretions from 149 RSV-infected children. Plaque morphology and viral load was assessed within the first culture passage in HEp-2 cells. Viral load was measured by PCR, as was RSV subgroup. Disease severity was determined by hospitalization, length of stay, intensive care requirement, and respiratory failure. Results Plaque morphology varied between individual subjects; however, similar results were observed among viruses collected from upper and lower respiratory tracts of the same subject. Significant differences in plaque morphology were observed between RSV subgroups. No correlations were found among plaque morphology and viral load. Plaque morphology did not correlate with disease severity. Conclusions Plaque morphology measures parameters that are viral-specific and independent of the human host. Morphologies vary between patients and are related to RSV subgroup. In HEp-2 cells, RSV plaque morphology appears unrelated to disease severity in RSV-infected children. PMID:26107392

  6. Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2008-01-01

    This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

  7. Do Different Components of Working Memory Underlie Different Subgroups of Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Howard, Crystal B.; Saez, Leilani

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the components of working memory (WM) that underlie less skilled readers' comprehension and word recognition difficulties. Performance of 3 less skilled reading subgroups--children with reading disabilities (RD) in both word recognition and comprehension; children with comprehension deficits only; and…

  8. The Influence of Working Memory on Reading Growth in Subgroups of Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Jerman, Olga

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study determined whether (a) subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD) (children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal IQ readers) and skilled readers varied in working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) growth and (b) whether growth in an executive system and/or a…

  9. A Comparison of Linguistic Profiles in Subgroups of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskill, Allison M.; Tyler, Ann A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare morphosyntactic skills of preschoolers in different subgroups of language impairment. Method: Eighty-three children participated in this study. They represented 4 groups: (a) language impairment-only, (b) speech-language impairment with minimal or no final cluster reduction/consonant deletion, (c) speech-language impairment…

  10. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, S.; Rice, D.; McIntyre, A.; Getty, H.; Speechley, M.; Sequeira, K.; Shapiro, A. P.; Morley-Forster, P.; Teasell, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). Significant difference in disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery. PMID:27445616

  11. Pathobiology and subgroup specificity of disease induced by Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.Y.

    1983-01-01

    When Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7) was injected intravenously into 10-day old chicken embryos, a disease syndrome developed which was characterized by stunting, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperinsulinemia. Stocks of RAV-7, a subgroup C avian leukosis virus, were obtained by end-point purification on chick embryo fibroblast cells. The size of the viral RNA was 8.2 kb and the protein banding pattern on polyacrylamide gels was typical of avian leukosis viruses. These results indicated that RAV-7 was a non-defective avian leukosis virus and no sarcoma or defective leukemia viruses were present in the RAV-7 stock. RAV-7 induced a unique disease syndrome although infection by three other subgroup C avian leukosis viruses (tdB77, tdPrC, and RAV-49) resulted in an identical lymphoblastoid infiltration of the thyroid and pancreas. An examination of disease induced by avian leukosis viruses from subgroups A, B, D, and F showed that infection by any of these subgroups did not result in the typical RAV-7 disease syndrome.

  12. Serum peptide reactivities may distinguish neuromyelitis optica subgroups and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Beißbarth, Tim; Ellenberger, David; Pache, Florence; Stork, Lidia; Ringelstein, Marius; Aktas, Orhan; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Dihazi, Hassan; Friede, Tim; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess in an observational study whether serum peptide antibody reactivities may distinguish aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody (Ab)–positive and -negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: We screened 8,700 peptides that included human and viral antigens of potential relevance for inflammatory demyelinating diseases and random peptides with pooled sera from different patient groups and healthy controls to set up a customized microarray with 700 peptides. With this microarray, we tested sera from 66 patients with AQP4-Ab-positive (n = 16) and AQP4-Ab-negative (n = 19) NMOSD, RRMS (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 20). Results: Differential peptide reactivities distinguished NMOSD subgroups from RRMS in 80% of patients. However, the 2 NMOSD subgroups were not well-discriminated, although those patients are clearly separated by their antibody reactivities against AQP4 in cell-based assays. Elevated reactivities to myelin and Epstein-Barr virus peptides were present in RRMS and to AQP4 and AQP1 peptides in AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD. Conclusions: While AQP4-Ab-positive and -negative NMOSD subgroups are not well-discriminated by peptide antibody reactivities, our findings suggest that peptide antibody reactivities may have the potential to distinguish between both NMOSD subgroups and MS. Future studies should thus concentrate on evaluating peptide antibody reactivities for the differentiation of AQP4-Ab-negative NMOSD and MS. PMID:26894206

  13. Improved Gene Delivery to Intestinal Mucosa by Adenoviral Vectors Bearing Subgroup B and D Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Lecollinet, S.; Gavard, F.; Havenga, M. J. E.; Spiller, O. B.; Lemckert, A.; Goudsmit, J.; Eloit, M.; Richardson, J.

    2006-01-01

    A major obstacle to successful oral vaccination is the lack of antigen delivery systems that are both safe and highly efficient. Conventional replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors, derived from human adenoviruses of subgroup C, are poorly efficient in delivering genetic material to differentiated intestinal epithelia. To date, 51 human adenovirus serotypes have been identified and shown to recognize different cellular receptors with different tissue distributions. This natural diversity was exploited in the present study to identify suitable adenoviral vectors for efficient gene delivery to the human intestinal epithelium. In particular, we compared the capacities of a library of adenovirus type 5-based vectors pseudotyped with fibers of several human serotypes for transduction, binding, and translocation toward the basolateral pole in human and murine tissue culture models of differentiated intestinal epithelia. In addition, antibody-based inhibition was used to gain insight into the molecular interactions needed for efficient attachment. We found that vectors differing merely in their fiber proteins displayed vastly different capacities for gene transfer to differentiated human intestinal epithelium. Notably, vectors bearing fibers derived from subgroup B and subgroup D serotypes transduced the apical pole of human epithelium with considerably greater efficiency than a subgroup C vector. Such efficiency was correlated with the capacity to use CD46 or sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates as opposed to CAR as attachment receptors. These results suggest that substantial gains could be made in gene transfer to digestive epithelium by exploiting the tropism of existing serotypes of human adenoviruses. PMID:16501084

  14. Using Propensity Scoring to Estimate Program-Related Subgroup Impacts in Experimental Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter; Burghardt, John

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the use of propensity scoring in experimental program evaluations to estimate impacts for subgroups defined by program features and participants' program experiences. The authors discuss estimation issues and provide specification tests. They also discuss the use of an overlooked data collection design--obtaining predictions…

  15. Divide and Conquer: Sub-Grouping of ASD Improves ASD Detection Based on Brain Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Katuwal, Gajendra J; Baum, Stefi A; Cahill, Nathan D; Michael, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Low success (<60%) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) classification using brain morphometry from the large multi-site ABIDE dataset and inconsistent findings on brain morphometric abnormalities in ASD can be attributed to the ASD heterogeneity. In this study, we show that ASD brain morphometry is highly heterogeneous, and demonstrate that the heterogeneity can be mitigated and classification improved if autism severity (AS), verbal IQ (VIQ) and age are used with morphometric features. Morphometric features from structural MRIs (sMRIs) of 734 males (ASD: 361, controls: 373) of ABIDE were derived using FreeSurfer. Applying the Random Forest classifier, an AUC of 0.61 was achieved. Adding VIQ and age to morphometric features, AUC improved to 0.68. Sub-grouping the subjects by AS, VIQ and age improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.8 in the moderate-AS sub-group (AS = 7-8). Matching subjects on age and/or VIQ in each sub-group further improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.92 in the low AS sub-group (AS = 4-5). AUC decreased with AS and VIQ, and was the lowest in the mid-age sub-group (13-18 years). The important features were mainly from the frontal, temporal, ventricular, right hippocampal and left amygdala regions. However, they highly varied with AS, VIQ and age. The curvature and folding index features from frontal, temporal, lingual and insular regions were dominant in younger subjects suggesting their importance for early detection. When the experiments were repeated using the Gradient Boosting classifier similar results were obtained. Our findings suggest that identifying brain biomarkers in sub-groups of ASD can yield more robust and insightful results than searching across the whole spectrum. Further, it may allow identification of sub-group specific brain biomarkers that are optimized for early detection and monitoring, increasing the utility of sMRI as an important tool for early detection of ASD.

  16. Divide and Conquer: Sub-Grouping of ASD Improves ASD Detection Based on Brain Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Low success (<60%) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) classification using brain morphometry from the large multi-site ABIDE dataset and inconsistent findings on brain morphometric abnormalities in ASD can be attributed to the ASD heterogeneity. In this study, we show that ASD brain morphometry is highly heterogeneous, and demonstrate that the heterogeneity can be mitigated and classification improved if autism severity (AS), verbal IQ (VIQ) and age are used with morphometric features. Morphometric features from structural MRIs (sMRIs) of 734 males (ASD: 361, controls: 373) of ABIDE were derived using FreeSurfer. Applying the Random Forest classifier, an AUC of 0.61 was achieved. Adding VIQ and age to morphometric features, AUC improved to 0.68. Sub-grouping the subjects by AS, VIQ and age improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.8 in the moderate-AS sub-group (AS = 7–8). Matching subjects on age and/or VIQ in each sub-group further improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.92 in the low AS sub-group (AS = 4–5). AUC decreased with AS and VIQ, and was the lowest in the mid-age sub-group (13–18 years). The important features were mainly from the frontal, temporal, ventricular, right hippocampal and left amygdala regions. However, they highly varied with AS, VIQ and age. The curvature and folding index features from frontal, temporal, lingual and insular regions were dominant in younger subjects suggesting their importance for early detection. When the experiments were repeated using the Gradient Boosting classifier similar results were obtained. Our findings suggest that identifying brain biomarkers in sub-groups of ASD can yield more robust and insightful results than searching across the whole spectrum. Further, it may allow identification of sub-group specific brain biomarkers that are optimized for early detection and monitoring, increasing the utility of sMRI as an important tool for early detection of ASD. PMID:27065101

  17. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Conclusions Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these

  18. Biopsychosocial influence on shoulder pain: risk subgroups translated across preclinical and clinical prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    George, Steven Z; Wallace, Margaret R; Wu, Samuel S; Moser, Michael W; Wright, Thomas W; Farmer, Kevin W; Borsa, Paul A; Parr, Jeffrey J; Greenfield, Warren H; Dai, Yunfeng; Li, Hua; Fillingim, Roger B

    2015-01-01

    Tailored treatment based on individual risk factors is an area with promise to improve options for pain relief. Musculoskeletal pain has a biopsychosocial nature, and multiple factors should be considered when determining risk for chronic pain. This study investigated whether subgroups comprised genetic and psychological factors predicted outcomes in preclinical and clinical models of shoulder pain. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed for an exercise-induced shoulder injury cohort (n = 190) to identify high-risk subgroups, and a surgical pain cohort (n = 150) was used for risk validation. Questionnaires for fear of pain and pain catastrophizing were administered before injury and preoperatively. DNA collected from saliva was genotyped for a priori selected genes involved with pain modulation (COMT and AVPR1A) and inflammation (IL1B and TNF/LTA). Recovery was operationalized as a brief pain inventory rating of 0/10 for current pain intensity and <2/10 for worst pain intensity. Follow-up for the preclinical cohort was in daily increments, whereas follow-up for the clinical cohort was at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Risk subgroups comprised the COMT high pain sensitivity variant and either pain catastrophizing or fear of pain were predictive of heightened shoulder pain responses in the preclinical model. Further analysis in the clinical model identified the COMT high pain sensitivity variant and pain catastrophizing subgroup as the better predictor. Future studies will determine whether these findings can be replicated in other anatomical regions and whether personalized medicine strategies can be developed for this risk subgroup. PMID:25599310

  19. Somatosensory nociceptive characteristics differentiate subgroups in people with chronic low back pain: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Martin; Slater, Helen; OʼSullivan, Peter; Beales, Darren; Smith, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n = 294) based on the results of multimodal sensory testing and profile subgroups on demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and general health factors. Bedside (2-point discrimination, brush, vibration and pinprick perception, temporal summation on repeated monofilament stimulation) and laboratory (mechanical detection threshold, pressure, heat and cold pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation) sensory testing were examined at wrist and lumbar sites. Data were entered into principal component analysis, and 5 component scores were entered into latent class analysis. Three clusters, with different sensory characteristics, were derived. Cluster 1 (31.9%) was characterised by average to high temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 2 (52.0%) was characterised by average to high pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 3 (16.0%) was characterised by low temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Temporal summation occurred significantly more frequently in cluster 1. Subgroups were profiled on pain intensity, disability, depression, anxiety, stress, life events, fear avoidance, catastrophizing, perception of the low back region, comorbidities, body mass index, multiple pain sites, sleep, and activity levels. Clusters 1 and 2 had a significantly greater proportion of female participants and higher depression and sleep disturbance scores than cluster 3. The proportion of participants undertaking <300 minutes per week of moderate activity was significantly greater in cluster 1 than in clusters 2 and 3. Low back pain, therefore, does not appear to be homogeneous. Pain mechanisms relating to presentations of each subgroup were postulated. Future research may investigate prognoses and interventions tailored towards these subgroups. PMID:26020225

  20. B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: a specific subgroup of mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Vincent H J; Hoogeveen, Patricia G; de Ridder, Dick; Schindler-van der Struijk, Magdalena; van Zelm, Menno C; Sanders, Mathijs; Karsch, Dennis; Beverloo, H Berna; Lam, King; Orfao, Alberto; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J; Böttcher, Sebastian; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Langerak, Anton W; Kappers-Klunne, Mies; van Lom, Kirsten

    2014-07-17

    B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare mature B-cell malignancy that may be hard to distinguish from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). B-PLL cases with a t(11;14) were redefined as MCL in the World Health Organization 2008 classification. We evaluated 13 B-PLL patients [7 being t(11;14)-positive (B-PLL+) and 6 negative (B-PLL-)] and compared them with MCL and CLL patients. EuroFlow-based immunophenotyping showed significant overlap between B-PLL+ and B-PLL-, as well as between B-PLL and MCL, whereas CLL clustered separately. Immunogenotyping showed specific IGHV gene usage partly resembling MCL. Gene expression profiling showed no separation between B-PLL+ and B-PLL- but identified 3 subgroups. One B-PLL subgroup clustered close to CLL and another subgroup clustered with leukemic MCL; both were associated with prolonged survival. A third subgroup clustered close to nodal MCL and was associated with short survival. Gene expression profiles of both B-PLL+ and B-PLL- showed best resemblance with normal immunoglobulin M-only B-cells. Our data confirm that B-PLL+ is highly comparable to MCL, indicate that B-PLL- also may be considered as a specific subgroup of MCL, and suggest that B-PLL is part of a spectrum, ranging from CLL-like B-PLL, to leukemic MCL-like B-PLL, to nodal MCL-like B-PLL.

  1. Environmental Factors Affect Acidobacterial Communities below the Subgroup Level in Grassland and Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Naether, Astrid; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Naegele, Verena; Wüst, Pia K.; Weinert, Jan; Bonkowski, Michael; Alt, Fabian; Oelmann, Yvonne; Polle, Andrea; Lohaus, Gertrud; Gockel, Sonja; Hemp, Andreas; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard; Pfeiffer, Simone; Renner, Swen; Schöning, Ingo; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wells, Konstans; Fischer, Markus; Overmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In soil, Acidobacteria constitute on average 20% of all bacteria, are highly diverse, and are physiologically active in situ. However, their individual functions and interactions with higher taxa in soil are still unknown. Here, potential effects of land use, soil properties, plant diversity, and soil nanofauna on acidobacterial community composition were studied by cultivation-independent methods in grassland and forest soils from three different regions in Germany. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries representing all studied soils revealed that grassland soils were dominated by subgroup Gp6 and forest soils by subgroup Gp1 Acidobacteria. The analysis of a large number of sites (n = 57) by 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting methods (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism [T-RFLP] and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) showed that Acidobacteria diversities differed between grassland and forest soils but also among the three different regions. Edaphic properties, such as pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, phosphorus, nitrate, ammonium, soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil respiration, had an impact on community composition as assessed by fingerprinting. However, interrelations with environmental parameters among subgroup terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) differed significantly, e.g., different Gp1 T-RFs correlated positively or negatively with nitrogen content. Novel significant correlations of Acidobacteria subpopulations (i.e., individual populations within subgroups) with soil nanofauna and vascular plant diversity were revealed only by analysis of clone sequences. Thus, for detecting novel interrelations of environmental parameters with Acidobacteria, individual populations within subgroups have to be considered. PMID:22885760

  2. Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits.

    PubMed

    Törnwall, Outi; Silventoinen, Karri; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Perola, Markus; Tuorila, Hely; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-04-01

    Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21-25years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based on liking responses to food names representing sour, umami, and spicy flavor qualities. Furthermore, sensory tests were conducted, a questionnaire on food likes completed, and various eating behavior related traits measured with validated scales. Sensory data included intensity ratings of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil-impregnated filter paper), hedonic and intensity responses to sourness (orange juice with and without added citric acid, 0.42%), pungency (strawberry jelly with and without added capsaicin 0.00013%) and umami ('mouthfeel flavor' taste solution). Ratings of liking of 41 general food names were categorized into salty-and-fatty, sweet-and-fatty, fruits and vegetables and fish foods. Subgroup differences (complex samples procedure) and the genetics underlying the subgroups (structural equation modeling) were investigated. Of the resulting two groups (basic, n=140, adventurous n=152; non-grouped n=39), the adventurous expressed higher liking for sour and spicy foods, and had more tolerance for capsaicin burn in the sensory-hedonic test. The adventurous were also less food neophobic (25.9±9.1 vs. 32.5±10.6, respectively) and expressed higher liking for fruits and vegetables compared to the basic group. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the subgroups (heritability 72%, CI: 36-92%). Linkage analysis for 27 candidate gene regions revealed suggestively that being adventurous is linked to TAS1R1 and PKD1L3 genes. These results indicate that food neophobia and genetic differences may form a barrier through which individual flavor preferences are generated. PMID:24361469

  3. Serological relationships among subgroups in bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1).

    PubMed

    Alpay, Gizem; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2015-01-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has various economic impacts associated with diarrhea, poor performance, an increase in the frequency of other infections and lethal outcomes. Both genotypes, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, as well as different subgroups within these genotypes have been reported worldwide. Understanding the serological differences among the BVDV subgroups is important for disease epidemiology and prevention as well as vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to determine the serological relatedness among the subgroups in BVDV-1. For that purpose, sheep hyperimmune sera were collected against representative strains from 6 of the subgroups of BVDV-1 (BVDV-1a, -1b, -1d, -1f, -1h and -1l). The serum samples that gave the peak antibody titer to the homologous strains were used to perform cross neutralization assays. The highest homologous antibody titer (1:5160) was obtained against BVDV-1h. Regarding the cross neutralizing (heterologous) antibodies, the lowest titer (1:20) was produced by the BVDV-1f antiserum against the BVDV-1a and BVDV1-b viruses. The highest cross neutralizing titer (1:2580) achieved by the BVDV-1h antiserum was against the BVDV-1b strain. The cross neutralization results indicated particular serological differences between the recently described subgroup (BVDV-1l) and BVDV-1a/-1b, which are widely used in commercial vaccines. Considering the cross neutralization titers, it is concluded that selected BVDV-1l and BVDV-1h strains can be used for the development of diagnostic and control tools.

  4. Somatosensory nociceptive characteristics differentiate subgroups in people with chronic low back pain: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Martin; Slater, Helen; OʼSullivan, Peter; Beales, Darren; Smith, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n = 294) based on the results of multimodal sensory testing and profile subgroups on demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and general health factors. Bedside (2-point discrimination, brush, vibration and pinprick perception, temporal summation on repeated monofilament stimulation) and laboratory (mechanical detection threshold, pressure, heat and cold pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation) sensory testing were examined at wrist and lumbar sites. Data were entered into principal component analysis, and 5 component scores were entered into latent class analysis. Three clusters, with different sensory characteristics, were derived. Cluster 1 (31.9%) was characterised by average to high temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 2 (52.0%) was characterised by average to high pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 3 (16.0%) was characterised by low temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Temporal summation occurred significantly more frequently in cluster 1. Subgroups were profiled on pain intensity, disability, depression, anxiety, stress, life events, fear avoidance, catastrophizing, perception of the low back region, comorbidities, body mass index, multiple pain sites, sleep, and activity levels. Clusters 1 and 2 had a significantly greater proportion of female participants and higher depression and sleep disturbance scores than cluster 3. The proportion of participants undertaking <300 minutes per week of moderate activity was significantly greater in cluster 1 than in clusters 2 and 3. Low back pain, therefore, does not appear to be homogeneous. Pain mechanisms relating to presentations of each subgroup were postulated. Future research may investigate prognoses and interventions tailored towards these subgroups.

  5. Outcomes of Adult Learning: Taking the Debate Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications. "Learning…

  6. Reel Reform: Documentaries Spur Debate about Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Three new American documentaries including "Waiting for Superman," "The Lottery, Race to Nowhere" and one British entry, "We are the People We've Been Waiting For," have animated school reform debates. Each of these documentaries seeks to disturb the entrenched thinking by claiming that our educational institutions are suffering from a malaise…

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury and neural recovery: rethinking the debate.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Ronald M

    2011-01-01

    A debate exists concerning whether a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) can cause permanent brain-based residuals. This debate is examined by reviewing meta-analytic studies that found no significant effect sizes between large samples of patients with and without MTBI at three months post-accident. In contrast, research studies with MTBI patients have captured cognitive deficits corroborated by positive neuroimaging, which supports the viewpoint that brain-based postconcussive disorders likely exist in a small minority of individuals. Ongoing hurdles that likely contribute to this debate are identified. This includes the lack of agreed upon definitions; substantial differences exist between the ICD-10 definition for Postconcussion Syndrome and the DSM-IV-TR definition for Postconcussional Disorder. Confining the debate to brain-based versus psychologically-based viewpoints results in a false dichotomy. Instead, a more refined sub-classification of the postconcussive complex is proposed that captures different constellations across the physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms complex. Moreover, this diagnostic framework attempts to expand discipline-based approaches with a patient-based understanding. PMID:21558623

  8. Size Matters: The Debate over Reference Desk Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnement, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the debate concerning use of desks versus counters in reference areas of academic libraries. Librarians argued whether patrons were more likely to approach a standing or a sitting librarian. In general, patrons preferred approaching a standing librarian; however, only small studies were conducted. In practice, libraries are designed in…

  9. A Children's Place? The School Playground Debate in Postwar Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Starting from theoretical issues concerning places for children and from historical studies of childhood and education, the present article deals with the history of the school playground in a Swedish context. The focus is on a school playground debate in the 1970s, in which school playgrounds were the subject of lively discussion and the object…

  10. Ideology and Interaction: Debating Determinisms in Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross; Street, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    In this exchange, Street and Collin debate the merits of the interaction model of literacy that Collin outlined in a recent issue of Reading Research Quarterly. Built as a complement and a counter to Street's ideological model of literacy, Collin's interaction model defines literacies as technologies that coevolve with sociocultural…

  11. Reframing the Student Loan Costing Debate: The Benefits of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Fred; Wilson, Hoke

    2005-01-01

    As debate in Washington heats up regarding congressional reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, a central question involves what to do about the continued coexistence of the two student loan programs--the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and the Direct Loan Program (DLP). With hundreds of millions of dollars at stake for banks,…

  12. Debates about the Future of Media Literacy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmak, Ebubekir; Tuzel, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy has been widely debated in Turkey since the early 2000s and has been in the curriculum of the secondary schools as an optional subject for nearly a decade. During this time period, about four million students have received media literacy education. The multidisciplinary structure of media literacy has contributed to the interest of…

  13. Issues in Sociobiology: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Explains the two theories on the origins of human and animal behavior. Introduces the new discipline of sociobiology, a merging of biology and sociology. Describes the central dogma of sociobiology and its societal implications, and discusses criticism of sociobiology. Presents the nature vs. nurture debate. (YDS)

  14. Cultural Literacy: Is It Time to Revisit the Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The author went to graduate school during the height of the culture wars, when the debate over the place of cultural literacy in the curriculum and the legitimacy of the great books approach was still raging. The first college class that he taught was structured around the theme "education and the making of knowledge," with E.D. Hirsch and Paulo…

  15. The Boussinesq Debate: Reversibility, Instability, and Free Will.

    PubMed

    Michael Mueller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In 1877, a young mathematician named Joseph Boussinesq presented a mémoire to the Académie des sciences which demonstrated that some differential equations may have more than one solution. Boussinesq linked this fact to indeterminism and to a possible solution to the free will versus determinism debate. Boussinesq's main interest was to reconcile his philosophical and religious views with science by showing that matter and motion do not suffice to explain all there is in the world. His argument received mixed criticism that addressed both his philosophical views and the scientific content of his work, pointing to the physical "realisticness" of multiple solutions. While Boussinesq proved to be able to face the philosophical criticism, the scientific objections became a serious problem, thus slowly moving the focus of the debate from the philosophical plane to the scientific one. This change of perspective implied a wide discussion on topics such as instability, the sensitivity to initial conditions, and the conservation of energy. The Boussinesq debate is an example of a philosophically motivated debate that transforms into a scientific one, an example of the influence of philosophy on the development of science.

  16. The Class Debate: A Project to Revitalize the Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallin, Marlene Boyd

    Teaching the basic course in speech communication can be challenging in many ways. A class debate revitalizes the course, while offering an excellent means for evaluating learning at the end of a semester course. Proficient use of interpersonal skills is necessary to organize group members and control group discussion; sufficient knowledge of…

  17. Teaching Critical Thinking in World Regional Geography through Stakeholder Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sziarto, Kristin M.; McCarthy, Linda; Padilla, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a stakeholder debate based on a real-world case of regional construction--that of Turkey's application to join the European Union--improved students' critical thinking in an introductory world regional geography course. Such courses are a staple offering among US geography departments, and often the only exposure of non-majors to…

  18. Toward a Broader Perspective in the Evolutionism-Creationism Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahler, Arthur N.

    1983-01-01

    Examines creationism/evolution debate in context of philosophy using ontological models in which reality is assigned to one or both natural or transnatural (supernatural) realms. The six models (theistic-teleological dualism; deistic-mechanistic dualism; fundamentalist creationism; atheistic monism; theistic monism; mechanistic monism) deal with…

  19. The "Aversives" Debate Is Over: And Now the Work Begins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper offers modifications to the position of Horner and others (EC 232 976), including tying the level of approval required for an intervention to the seriousness of the behavior problem. The paper proposes that the debate over the use of "aversives" is finished, and attention should now be turned to how best to use positive behavioral…

  20. The 'political correctness' debate and caring in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Hopton, J

    1995-10-01

    In recent years the controversy over so-called 'political correctness' has figured prominently in discourses of higher education. In terms of nursing, the issue of 'political correctness' cannot be confined to intellectual word-games, but is of key significance in the debate around the nature of professional caring. This paper is a discussion of the relevance of the controversy around 'political correctness' to the practice of psychiatric nursing. It placed the 'political correctness' debate in the context of the current debate within nursing about definitions of 'caring', and discusses the connections between both these debates and the theoretical imperatives of person-centered psychology. After discussing the particular problems which arise when the three issues of 'political correctness', 'caring' and humanistic psychology are brought together in this way; it proposes a politically focused strategy for the future development of psychiatric nursing. Although it is written from the perspective of psychiatric nursing in Britain and is very much concerned with the use of a particular language; the arguments put forward are equally appropriate to other English-speaking countries, and perhaps also to non-English speaking countries.