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Sample records for debate vii neurobiology

  1. The brain decade in debate: VII. Neurobiology of sleep and dreams.

    PubMed

    Aloe, F; Amzica, F; Hening, W; Menna-Barreto, L; Pinto, L R; Velluti, R; Vertes, R; Timo-Iaria, C

    2001-12-01

    This article is a transcription of an electronic symposium held on February 5, 2001 by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC) during which eight specialists involved in clinical and experimental research on sleep and dreaming exposed their personal experience and theoretical points of view concerning these highly polemic subjects. Unlike most other bodily functions, sleep and dreaming cannot, so far, be defined in terms of definitive functions that play an ascribable role in maintaining the organism as a whole. Such difficulties appear quite clearly all along the discussions. In this symposium, concepts on sleep function range from a protective behavior to an essential function for maturation of the nervous system. Kleitman's hypothesis [Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1974), 159: 293-294] was discussed, according to which the basal state is not the wakeful state but sleep, from which we awake to eat, to protect ourselves, to procreate, etc. Dreams, on the other hand, were widely discussed, being considered either as an important step in consolidation of learning or simply the conscious identification of functional patterns derived from the configuration of released or revoked memorized information.

  2. The brain decade in debate: I. Neurobiology of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, A; Bueno, O; Cahill, L; Fuster, J M; Izquierdo, I; McGaugh, J L; Morris, R G; Nadel, L; Routtenberg, A; Xavier, G; Da Cunha, C

    2000-09-01

    This article is a transcription of an electronic symposium in which some active researchers were invited by the Brazilian Society for Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC) to discuss the last decade's advances in neurobiology of learning and memory. The way different parts of the brain are recruited during the storage of different kinds of memory (e.g., short-term vs long-term memory, declarative vs procedural memory) and even the property of these divisions were discussed. It was pointed out that the brain does not really store memories, but stores traces of information that are later used to create memories, not always expressing a completely veridical picture of the past experienced reality. To perform this process different parts of the brain act as important nodes of the neural network that encode, store and retrieve the information that will be used to create memories. Some of the brain regions are recognizably active during the activation of short-term working memory (e.g., prefrontal cortex), or the storage of information retrieved as long-term explicit memories (e.g., hippocampus and related cortical areas) or the modulation of the storage of memories related to emotional events (e.g., amygdala). This does not mean that there is a separate neural structure completely supporting the storage of each kind of memory but means that these memories critically depend on the functioning of these neural structures. The current view is that there is no sense in talking about hippocampus-based or amygdala-based memory since this implies that there is a one-to-one correspondence. The present question to be solved is how systems interact in memory. The pertinence of attributing a critical role to cellular processes like synaptic tagging and protein kinase A activation to explain the memory storage processes at the cellular level was also discussed.

  3. 'One can always say no.' enriching the bioethical debate on antisocial behaviour, neurobiology and prevention: views of juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; Feron, Frans; De Wert, Guido

    2014-06-01

    Genomic and neuro-scientific research into the causes and course of antisocial behaviour triggers bioethical debate. Often, these new developments are met with reservation, and possible drawbacks and negative side-effects are pointed out. This article reflects on these scientific developments and the bioethical debate by means of an exploration of the perspectives of one important stakeholder group: juveniles convicted of a serious crime who stay in a juvenile justice institution. The views of juveniles are particularly interesting, as possible applications of current and future scientific findings are considered to be most effective if applied early in life. Based on their statements we come to the following provisional conclusions. Concerns about labelling and stigmatization are recognized and widely shared. Possible effects on one's identity are acknowledged too. Yet, a possible biological underpinning of one's antisocial behaviour is not considered to result in the development of a criminal identity. Nonetheless, psychopharmacological interventions are experienced as endangering one's current self. Concerns regarding the refusal of responsibility and the blaming of one's genes or brain can be put into perspective. Instead, participants emphasize the motive of own choice as underlying their criminal behaviour. Moreover, bioethical debate should pay attention to the role of parents of children at risk and the parent-child relationship in families at-risk. We argue that the short-term and long-term interests of children at risk, as well as their interests and those of society at large, may conflict. In order to deal appropriately with newly arising dilemmas, a normative framework needs to be developed.

  4. Suicide neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Carl; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    In this review, we examine the history of the neurobiology of suicide, as well as the genetics, molecular and neurochemical findings in suicide research. Our analysis begins with a summary of family, twin, and adoption studies, which provide support for the investigation of genetic variation in suicide risk. This leads to an overview of neurochemical findings restricted to neurotransmitters and their receptors, including recent findings in whole genome gene expression studies. Next, we look at recent studies investigating lipid metabolism, cell signalling with a particular emphasis on growth factors, stress systems with a focus on the role of polyamines, and finally, glial cell pathology in suicide. We conclude with a description of new ideas to study the neurobiology of suicide, including subject-specific analysis, protein modification assessment, neuroarchitecture studies, and study design strategies to investigate the complex suicide phenotype.

  5. Factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  6. Fundamentals of neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Greg Hall, D

    2011-01-01

    Session 1 of the 2010 STP/IFSTP Joint Symposium on Toxicologic Neuropathology, titled "Fundamentals of Neurobiology," was organized to provide a foundation for subsequent sessions by presenting essential elements of neuroanatomy and nervous system function. A brief introduction to the session titled "Introduction to Correlative Neurobiology" was provided by Dr. Greg Hall (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN). Correlative neurobiology refers to considerations of the relationships between the highly organized and compartmentalized structure of nervous tissues and the functioning within this system.

  7. Neurobiology of social phobia.

    PubMed

    Tancer, M E

    1993-12-01

    The neurobiology of social phobia has been examined using four research strategies employed to investigate the neurobiology of patients with other anxiety or mood disorders--chemical challenge paradigms, psychoneuroendocrine assessments, naturalistic challenges, and neuropharmacologic challenges. This article reviews the studies that used each of the research paradigms in patients with social phobia. The author describes these results in the context of the results of other anxiety disorder studies using these four strategies and discusses implications for future research.

  8. Neurobiology of song learning

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Birdsong is a culturally transmitted behavior that depends on a juvenile songbird’s ability to imitate the song of an adult tutor. Neurobiological studies of birdsong can reveal how a complex form of imitative learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood at the level of underlying circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies that illuminate the neurobiological mechanisms for singing and song learning. PMID:19892546

  9. Homosexuals and Title VII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Juan R.; Galvan, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of dealing with the problems of discrimination against homosexuals in private employment through the application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is discussed. The scope of the paper is limited to male homosexuals. (LBH)

  10. Fokker D.VII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Fokker D.VII: The Fokker D.VII was one of the best fighter aircraft of World War I, and was the only weapon used by the Central Powers specifically mentioned in the Versailles Treaty. The Central Powers surrendered 142 at the close of the war, and the Fokker company sold even more to the U. S. Air Service. Several were flown at Langley Field, but this one was the sole example operated by the NACA.

  11. Cannabis and psychosis: Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a ‘cause-effect’ relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the ‘transition-to-psychosis’ due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553

  12. Microelectrodes for Studying Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Justin M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Microelectrodes have emerged as an important tool used by scientists to study biological changes in the brain and in single cells. This review briefly summarizes the ways in which microelectrodes as chemical sensors have furthered the field of neurobiology by reporting on changes that occur on the sub-second time scale. Microelectrodes have been used in a variety of fields including their use by electrophysiologists to characterize neuronal action potentials and development of neural prosthetics. Here we restrict our review to microelectrodes that have been used as chemical sensors. They have played a major role in many important neurobiological findings. PMID:18675377

  13. Neurobiology of Gambling Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    For many, gambling is a recreational activity that is performed periodically without ill effects, but for some, gambling may interfere with life functioning. A diagnostic entity, pathological gambling, is currently used to define a condition marked by excessive and problematic gambling. In this review, the current status of understanding of the neurobiologies of gambling and pathological gambling is described. Multiple neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioid and glutamate) and brain regions (ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, among others) have been implicated in gambling and pathological gambling. Considerations for future directions in gambling research, with a view towards translating neurobiological advances into more effective prevention and treatment strategies, are discussed. PMID:23541597

  14. The Neurobiology of Love.

    PubMed

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2005-06-01

    Love is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on trust, belief, pleasure and reward activities within the brain, i.e., limbic processes. These processes critically involve oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine, and serotonergic signaling. Moreover, endorphin and endogenous morphinergic mechanisms, coupled to nitric oxide autoregulatory pathways, play a role. Naturally rewarding or pleasurable activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex, and reproduction. Yet, a broad basis of common signaling and beneficial neurobiological features exists with connection to the love concept, thereby combining physiological aspects related to maternal, romantic or sexual love and attachment with other healthy activities or neurobiological states. Medical practice can make use of this concept, i.e., mind/body or integrative medicine. Thus, love, pleasure, and lust have a stress-reducing and health-promoting potential, since they carry the ability to heal or facilitate beneficial motivation and behavior. In addition, love and pleasure ensure the survival of individuals and their species. After all, love is a joyful and useful activity that encompasses wellness and feelings of well-being.

  15. [Neurobiology of Tourette Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ünal, Dilek; Akdemir, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although it is a common disorder in childhood, the etiology of Tourette Syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet. Studies, -conducted so far- have revealed differences in neurobiological structures of individuals who suffer from Tourette Syndrome. The objective of this review is to assess etiological and pathophysiological studies in the Tourette Syndrome literature. An electronical search was conducted in PubMed database using the keywords tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome, neurobiology, genetics, neuroimaging and animal models. Research and review studies published between 1985 and 2015, with a selection preference towards recent publications, were reviewed. According to the studies, genetic predisposition hypothesis is considered as a priority. However, a precise genetic disorder associated with Tourette Syndrome has not been found. The evidence from postmortem and neuroimaging studies in heterogenous patient groups and animal studies supports the pathological involvement of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits in Tourette Syndrome. Consequently, the most emphasized hypothesis in the pathophysiology is the dopaminergic dysfunction in these circuits. Furthermore, these findings of the animal, postmortem and neuroimaging studies have confirmed the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of Tourette Syndrome. In conclusion, more studies are needed to understand the etiology of the disorder. The data obtained from neurobiological studies of the disorder will not only shed light on the way of Tourette Syndrome, but also guide studies on its treatment options.

  16. The neurobiology of punishment.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Ben; Singer, Tania; Dolan, Ray

    2007-04-01

    Animals, in particular humans, frequently punish other individuals who behave negatively or uncooperatively towards them. In animals, this usually serves to protect the personal interests of the individual concerned, and its kin. However, humans also punish altruistically, in which the act of punishing is personally costly. The propensity to do so has been proposed to reflect the cultural acquisition of norms of behaviour, which incorporates the desire to uphold equity and fairness, and promotes cooperation. Here, we review the proximate neurobiological basis of punishment, considering the motivational processes that underlie punishing actions.

  17. Neurobiology of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Beach, Sara D.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences prior to formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. PMID:25290881

  18. Neurobiology of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Beach, Sara D; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-02-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences before formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The neurobiology of neurooncology.

    PubMed

    Read, Tracy-Ann; Hegedus, Balazs; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Gutmann, David H

    2006-07-01

    The histological classification of brain tumors currently is based on the morphological appearance and protein expression patterns that reflect specific cell types within the central nervous system. Recent studies have suggested that the cells of origin for brain tumors may persist in the fully formed tumors, and that these "cancer stem cells" might represent the relevant cellular targets for anticancer therapy. In this regard, insights into the developmental neurobiology of brain tumors has significant impact on our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of these devastating cancers, as well as the development of new strategies for treating brain tumors.

  20. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  1. Neurobiological studies of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a symptom associated with many disorders, is especially common in women and in older adults, and can have a huge negative influence on quality of life. Although most past research on fatigue uses human subjects instead of animal models, the use of appropriate animal models has recently begun to advance our understanding of the neurobiology of fatigue. In this review, results from animal models using immunological, developmental, or physical approaches to study fatigue are described and compared. Common across these animal models is that fatigue arises when a stimulus induces activation of microglia and/or increased cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Neurobiological studies implicate structures in the ascending arousal system, sleep executive control areas, and areas important in reward. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus clearly plays an important role in homeostatic regulation of the neural network mediating fatigue. This nucleus responds to cytokines, shows decreased amplitude firing rate output in models of fatigue, and responds to exercise, one of our few treatments for fatigue. This is a young field but very important as the symptom of fatigue is common across many disorders and we do not have effective treatments. PMID:22841649

  2. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This debate is part of a larger discussion on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language and focuses on assessing the quality of source texts and target texts in translation, the nature of translation versus the changing job profile of the translator, the…

  3. Debating Paul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbett, David

    2007-01-01

    This classroom note describes the lessons I learned from the use of formal debates during the two semesters I taught "Paul and Early Christianity" to undergraduates at a liberal arts college in Ohio. The purpose of the course was primarily to give students the exegetical skills to understand Paul in his own context. The secondary purpose…

  4. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The transcript of a debate within a group of specialists in translation is presented. The discussion addresses: translator "visibility" in translations and reader reception; the relationship of functionalism in translation, comparative linguistics, and intercultural communication; the client's power; literary translation; the…

  5. Seniority Rights and Title VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    This chapter provides an analysis of seniority rights under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bars discrimination in employment. Two legal theories have arisen in assessing Title VII claims: discriminatory treatment, in which the burden of proof of discriminatory intent lies with the plaintiff, and discriminatory impact of neutral…

  6. Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2016-01-01

    Until now, hypersexuality has not found entry into the common diagnostic classification systems. However it is a frequently discussed phenomenon consisting of excessive sexual appetite that is maladaptive for the individual. Initial studies investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of hypersexuality, but current literature is still insufficient to draw unequivocal conclusions. In the present review, we summarize and discuss findings from various perspectives: neuroimaging and lesion studies, studies on other neurological disorders that are sometimes accompanied by hypersexuality, neuropharmacological evidence, genetic as well as animal studies. Taken together, the evidence seems to imply that alterations in the frontal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, septum, and brain regions that process reward play a prominent role in the emergence of hypersexuality. Genetic studies and neuropharmacological treatment approaches point at an involvement of the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stalking: a neurobiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Falaschi, Valentina; Lombardi, Amedeo; Mungai, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward. In addition, it seems to be modulated by excessive functioning of the dopamine system coupled with decreased serotonin tone. It is believed that the investigation and deepening of its possible neurobiological substrates may be helpful in the prevention of the severe consequences of stalking.

  8. Neurobiology of Infant Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Moriceau, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to a caregiver, thus enhancing survival in the nest. Specifically, the hyper-functioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) enables pups to learn rapid, robust preference for the caregiver. Conversely, a hypo-functional amygdala appears to prevent the infant from learning aversions to the caregiver. Adult LC and amygdala functional emergence correlates with sensitive period termination. This study suggests the neonatal brain is not an immature version of the adult brain but is uniquely designed to optimize attachment to the caregiver. Although human attachment may not rely on identical circuitry, the work reviewed here suggests a new conceptual framework in which to explore human attachments, particularly attachments to abusive caregivers. PMID:16252291

  9. Neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christopher A; Margolis, Russell L; Reading, Sarah A J; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Coyle, Joseph T

    2006-10-05

    With its hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and cognitive deficits, schizophrenia affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. Evidence increasingly suggests that schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity. Genetic studies are beginning to identify proteins of candidate genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, including dysbindin, neuregulin 1, DAOA, COMT, and DISC1, and neurobiological studies of the normal and variant forms of these genes are now well justified. We suggest that DISC1 may offer especially valuable insights. Mechanistic studies of the properties of these candidate genes and their protein products should clarify the molecular, cellular, and systems-level pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This can help redefine the schizophrenia phenotype and shed light on the relationship between schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders. Understanding these basic pathologic processes may yield novel targets for the development of more effective treatments.

  10. Neurobiology of Aversive States

    PubMed Central

    Umberg, Erin N.; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

    2011-01-01

    Hoebel and colleagues are often known as students of reward and how it is coded in the CNS. This article, however, attempts to focus on the significant advances by Hoebel and others in dissecting out behavioral components of distinct aversive states and in understanding the neurobiology of aversion and the link between aversive states and addictive behaviors. Reward and aversion are not necessarily dichotomous and may reflect an affective continuum contingent upon environmental conditions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies pioneered by Bart Hoebel have demonstrated that the shift in the reward-aversion spectrum may be, in part, a result of changes in central dopamine/ACh ratio, particularly in the NAc. The path to aversion appears to include a specific neurochemical signature: reduced dopamine activity and increased ACh activity in “reward centers” of the brain. Opioid receptors may have a neuromodulatory role on both of these neurotransmitters. PMID:21549137

  11. Neurobiology of aversive states.

    PubMed

    Umberg, Erin N; Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2011-07-25

    Hoebel and colleagues are often known as students of reward and how it is coded in the CNS. This article, however, attempts to focus on the significant advances by Hoebel and others in dissecting out behavioral components of distinct aversive states and in understanding the neurobiology of aversion and the link between aversive states and addictive behaviors. Reward and aversion are not necessarily dichotomous and may reflect an affective continuum contingent upon environmental conditions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies pioneered by Bart Hoebel have demonstrated that the shift in the reward-aversion spectrum may be, in part, a result of changes in central dopamine/acetylcholine ratio, particularly in the nucleus accumbens. The path to aversion appears to include a specific neurochemical signature: reduced dopamine release and increased acetylcholine release in "reward centers" of the brain. Opioid receptors may have a neuromodulatory role on both of these neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The neurobiology of successful abstinence.

    PubMed

    Garavan, H; Brennan, K L; Hester, R; Whelan, R

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiological processes involved in achieving successful abstinence from drugs of abuse. While there is clinical and public health value in knowing if the deficits associated with drug use correct with abstinence, studying the neurobiology that underlies successful abstinence can also illuminate the processes that enable drug-dependent individuals to successfully quit. Here, we review studies on human addicts that assess the neurobiological changes that arise with abstinence and the neurobiological predictors of successfully avoiding relapse. The literature, while modest in size, suggests that abstinence is associated with improvement in prefrontal structure and function, which may underscore the importance of prefrontally mediated cognitive control processes in avoiding relapse. Given the implication that the prefrontal cortex may be an important target for therapeutic interventions, we also review evidence indicating the efficacy of cognitive control training for abstinence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Neurobiology of Successful Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Garavan, H; Brennan, K.L.; Hester, R.; Whelan, R.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiological processes involved in achieving successful abstinence from drugs of abuse. While there is clinical and public health value in knowing if the deficits associated with drug use correct with abstinence, studying the neurobiology that underlies successful abstinence can also illuminate the processes that enable drug-dependent individuals to successfully quit. Here, we review studies on human addicts that assess the neurobiological changes that arise with abstinence and the neurobiological predictors of successfully avoiding relapse. The literature, while modest in size, suggests that abstinence is associated with improvement in prefrontal structure and function, which may underscore the importance of prefrontally-mediated cognitive control processes in avoiding relapse. Given the implication that the prefrontal cortex may be an important target for therapeutic interventions, we also review evidence indicating the efficacy of cognitive control training for abstinence. PMID:23510740

  14. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence. PMID:19042204

  15. The neurobiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Carlos A; Eberhart, Charles G

    2007-10-01

    Improving clinical tests are allowing us to more precisely classify autism spectrum disorders and diagnose them at earlier ages. This raises the possibility of earlier and potentially more effective therapeutic interventions. To fully capitalize on this opportunity, however, will require better understanding of the neurobiological changes underlying this devastating group of developmental disorders. It is becoming clear that the normal trajectory of neurodevelopment is altered in autism, with aberrations in brain growth, neuronal patterning and cortical connectivity. Changes to the structure and function of synapses and dendrites have also been strongly implicated in the pathology of autism by morphological, genetic and animal modeling studies. Finally, environmental factors are likely to interact with the underlying genetic profile, and foster the clinical heterogeneity seen in autism spectrum disorders. In this review we attempt to link the molecular pathways altered in autism to the neurodevelopmental and clinical changes that characterize the disease. We focus on signaling molecules such as neurotrophin, Reelin, PTEN and hepatocyte growth factor, neurotransmitters such as serotonin and glutamate, and synaptic proteins such as neurexin, SHANK and neuroligin. We also discuss evidence implicating oxidative stress, neuroglial activation and neuroimmunity in autism.

  16. Neurobiology of Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation aims to lessen the physical and cognitive impairments and disabilities of patients with stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord or brain injury, and other neurologic diseases. Conventional approaches beyond compensatory adjustments to disability may be augmented by applying some of the myriad experimental results about mechanisms of intrinsic biological changes after injury and the effects of extrinsic manipulations on spared neuronal assemblies. The organization and inherent adaptability of the anatomical nodes within distributed pathways of the central nervous system offer a flexible substrate for treatment strategies that drive activity-dependent plasticity. Opportunities for a new generation of approaches are manifested by rodent and non-human primate studies that reveal morphologic and physiologic adaptations induced by injury, by learning-associated practice, by the effects of pharmacologic neuromodulators, by the behavioral and molecular bases for enhancing activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and by cell replacement, gene therapy, and regenerative biologic strategies. Techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation will help determine the most optimal physiologic effects of interventions in patients as the cortical representations for skilled movements and cognitive processes are modified by the combination of conventional and biologic therapies. As clinicians digest the finer details of the neurobiology of rehabilitation, they will translate laboratory data into controlled clinical trials. By determining how much they can influence neural reorganization, clinicians will extend the opportunities for neurorestoration. PMID:15838110

  17. Nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen G; Jung, Hea-Jin; Lee, John M; Fong, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Much of the work on nuclear lamins during the past 15 years has focused on mutations in LMNA (the gene for prelamin A and lamin C) that cause particular muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, partial lipodystrophy, and progeroid syndromes. These disorders, often called "laminopathies," mainly affect mesenchymal tissues (e.g., striated muscle, bone, and fibrous tissue). Recently, however, a series of papers have identified important roles for nuclear lamins in the central nervous system. Studies of knockout mice uncovered a key role for B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) in neuronal migration in the developing brain. Also, duplications of LMNB1 (the gene for lamin B1) have been shown to cause autosome-dominant leukodystrophy. Finally, recent studies have uncovered a peculiar pattern of nuclear lamin expression in the brain. Lamin C transcripts are present at high levels in the brain, but prelamin A expression levels are very low-due to regulation of prelamin A transcripts by microRNA 9. This form of prelamin A regulation likely explains why "prelamin A diseases" such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome spare the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent progress in elucidating links between nuclear lamins and neurobiology.

  18. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pearlson, G D

    2000-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a common chronic and disabling brain disease of unknown etiology, pathogenesis, and mechanism. Whether schizophrenia represents a single disorder of markedly variable expression or a family of clinically related disorders is unclear. Genetic factors, most likely multiple genes of modest effect, play a major role in its etiology, but an environmental "second hit" may be necessary for clinical expression. The inherited biological susceptibility to schizophrenia is probably expressed clinically as nonpsychotic abnormal personality traits, plus numerous biological markers (cognitive, anatomical, and psychophysiological) that are all found significantly more commonly in the population than is schizophrenia. Neuropathological studies suggest that schizophrenia may be a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by reduced neuropil, with no evidence for ongoing cell death. A hypothesized mechanism for these changes involves cell migrational abnormalities occurring in the fetal brain. Schizophrenia is also distinguished by biochemical abnormalities involving the dopamine, GABA, and glutamate systems, and NMDA and nicotinic receptors. Structural and functional brain imaging studies suggest both global and regional abnormalities as well as "disconnections" of specific cerebral circuits. Despite the lack of knowledge regarding pathophysiology, there are reasonably effective treatments for schizophrenia. As the neurobiology of the disorder is unraveled, more effective, targeted treatments will become available.

  20. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits. PMID:22129781

  1. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  3. Intelsat VII planning and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, P.; Neyret, P.; Allnutt, J.; Chidambaram, T.

    This paper describes the evolution of the Intelsat VII concept from among a number of spacecraft concepts considered in the planning process. The considerations of greatest importance in this evolution are examined, including the compatibility with small earth stations, available digital services and circuit multiplication techniques, schedule considerations, launch vehicle considerations, and operational flexibility. The roles of demand analysis and of architecture selection in the development of the Intelsat VII concept are addressed.

  4. The neurobiology of pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Potenza, M N

    2001-07-01

    Despite relatively high prevalence rates and significant morbidity and mortality associated with pathological gambling (PG), our understanding of the neurobiological basis of PG lags in comparison to that for other psychiatric illnesses of comparable magnitude. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of PG would facilitate targeted investigations into more effective treatments. Emerging data suggest shared neurobiological features determine in part pathological gambling and substance use disorders. These findings both challenge current conceptualizations of addictions and provide a substantial basis of knowledge on which to design investigations into the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling. The findings that substance use disorders and the behavioral "addiction" of PG share common causative features raise the question as to what extent other compulsive disorders (eg, compulsive shopping, compulsive sexual behaviors, compulsive computer use) might be biologically related.

  5. Neurodynamics: nonlinear dynamics and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Abarbanel, H D; Rabinovich, M I

    2001-08-01

    The use of methods from contemporary nonlinear dynamics in studying neurobiology has been rather limited.Yet, nonlinear dynamics has become a practical tool for analyzing data and verifying models. This has led to productive coupling of nonlinear dynamics with experiments in neurobiology in which the neural circuits are forced with constant stimuli, with slowly varying stimuli, with periodic stimuli, and with more complex information-bearing stimuli. Analysis of these more complex stimuli of neural circuits goes to the heart of how one is to understand the encoding and transmission of information by nervous systems.

  6. [Neurobiology and genetics of addiction].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, F

    2010-04-01

    Recent results on the neurobiological bases of addictive disorders allow new insights into the etiopathogenesis of addiction to be made and allow targets for new therapeutic strategies to be defined. An important advancement in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology derives from recent research results, showing similarities between addiction and physiological neural plasticity in learning and memory. These include basic mechanisms involving dopamine, glutamate, and their cellular and molecular targets leading to drug-induced synaptic alterations in the mesolimbic reward system. Genetic factors modulate the individual vulnerability. The challenge of future research will be to generate more efficient and individualized therapies based on the insights from neurobiology and genetics.

  7. The neurobiology of social play behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, L J; Niesink, R J; Van Ree, J M

    1997-05-01

    Social play behavior is one of the earliest forms of non-mother-directed social behavior appearing in ontogeny in mammalian species. During the last century, there has been a lot of debate on the significance of social play behavior, but behavioral studies have indicated that social play behavior is a separate and relevant category of behavior. The present review provides a comprehensive survey of studies on the neurobiology of social play behavior. Evidence is presented that opioid and dopamine systems play a role in the reward aspect of social play behavior. The role of cholinergic, noradrenergic and opioid systems in attentional processes underlying the generation of social play behavior and the involvement of androgens in the sexual differentiation of social play behavior in rats is summarized. It is concluded that there is not only behavioral, but also neurobiological evidence to suggest that social play behavior represents a separate category of behavior, instead of a precursor for adult social, sexual or aggressive behavior.

  8. Sociobiology, Neurobiology and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elliott

    Political science and its subfields cannot ignore the work being done in two areas of the life sciences: sociobiology and neurobiology. Current theories of political socialization which suggest that society molds the child will be increasingly affected by sociobiological theory which posits that children operate as independent actors in the…

  9. [Aphasia: debates].

    PubMed

    Roch Lecours, A

    1999-10-01

    . The meeting of 9th July (27th anniversary of the Charcot Chair) was dedicated to cerebral anatomy and the "quadrilateral". The subject of Dejerine's questionnaire was again raised. Accompanied by Georges Guillain, Fulgence Raymond was present on this occasion (but refrained from speaking). This time the star was Augusta Dejerine Klumpke, born on a Spanish sand dune now known as San Francisco, U.S.A. Mrs Dejerine contested the "lenticular zone" and gave it a quite different dimension by proving that its anterodorsal part included associative axons originating in or projecting to Broca's area, the remainder of the "Pierre Marie quadrilateral" being called into question. Brissaud was impressed by the performance of Madame Dejerine, and Pierre Marie found himself in an awkward position. His student François Moutier, present at his request, discussed his own clinical cases and then, on the subject of "Lelong's" brain' (autumn 1861), let it be known that Broca had scratched it with his finger nails while removing the meninges. André-Thomas and Georges Guillain took part in the discussion. At the last meeting, on 23rd July, Brissaud was absent. Fulgence Raymond was again present but remained silent. The only subject on the agenda was "physiological pathology", but several points that had not been resolved on the 9th July were brought up again. On this occasion, Pierre Marie opened the debate and adopted a very cautious approach. However, his patience eventually ran out and he replied sharply to the comments of Dejerine on "images of language" and those of Dupré on "mental representations". Metaphorically speaking, it might be said that the gold medal was not awarded, Augusta Dejerine Klumpke took the silver, Dupré and André-Thomas shared the bronze, and Souques and Moutier each deserved a special mention. It might also be suggested that in 1908 the Society sketched out to a large extent the programme for research on aphasia for the century to come. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE

  10. 1977 National Debate Tournament Final Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rives, Stanley G., ed.; Boaz, John K., ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a transcript of the final debate of the Thirty-First National Debate Tournament sponsored by the American Forensic Association in 1977. Focuses on the necessity and desirability of requiring airbags to promote automobile safety. (MH)

  11. Parenting and addiction: neurobiological insights.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Helena Jv; Mayes, Linda C

    2017-06-01

    Addiction remains a significant public health concern that affects multiple generations within families, and in particular the early relationship between parents and their developing child. This article will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of parenting and addiction. Specifically, the discussion will focus on the reward-stress dysregulation model of addicted parenting, which proposes that the dysregulation of stress and reward neural circuits by addiction represents a neurobiological pathway through which to understand how caregiving may be compromised in addicted parents. Empirical research in parents and non-parents will be discussed in support of this model and critical consideration of the model and its limitations will be provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurobiological Substrates of Tourette's Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Smith, Megan E.; Larabi, Daouia; Hampson, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD). Methods The electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies using relevant search terms. Results Neuropathological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies of TD implicate not only the sensorimotor corticostriatal circuit, but also the limbic and associative circuits as well. Preliminary evidence also points to abnormalities in the frontoparietal network that is thought to maintain adaptive online control. Evidence supporting abnormalities in dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission remains strong, although the precise mechanisms remain the subject of speculation. Conclusion Structural and functional abnormalities in multiple parallel corticostriatal circuits may underlie the behavioral manifestations of TD and related neuropsychiatric disorders over the course of development. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate these neurobiological substrates. PMID:20807062

  13. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Neurobiology of Anesthetic Emergence.

    PubMed

    Tarnal, Vijay; Vlisides, Phillip E; Mashour, George A

    2016-07-01

    Achieving a smooth and rapid emergence from general anesthesia is of particular importance for neurosurgical patients and is a clinical goal for neuroanesthesiologists. Recent data suggest that the process of emergence is not simply the mirror image of induction, but rather controlled by distinct neural circuits. In this narrative review, we discuss (1) hysteresis, (2) the concept of neural inertia, (3) the asymmetry between the neurobiology of induction and emergence, and (4) recent attempts at actively inducing emergence.

  15. The New Neurobiology of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Williams, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    This review covers a fraction of the new research developments in autism but establishes the basic elements of the new neurobiologic understanding of autism. Autism is a polygenetic developmental neurobiologic disorder with multiorgan system involvement, though it predominantly involves central nervous system dysfunction. The evidence supports autism as a disorder of the association cortex, both its neurons and their projections. In particular, it is a disorder of connectivity, which appears, from current evidence, to primarily involve intrahemispheric connectivity. The focus of connectivity studies thus far has been on white matter, but alterations in functional magnetic resonance imaging activation suggest that intracortical connectivity is also likely to be disturbed. Furthermore, the disorder has a broad impact on cognitive and neurologic functioning. Deficits in high-functioning individuals occur in processing that places high demands on integration of information and coordination of multiple neural systems. Intact or enhanced abilities share a dependence on low information-processing demands and local neural connections. This multidomain model with shared characteristics predicts an underlying pathophysiologic mechanism that impacts the brain broadly, according to a common neurobiologic principle. The multiorgan system involvement and diversity of central nervous system findings suggest an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:17620483

  16. Caesium cis-tetrachloridodioxidorhenate(VII).

    PubMed

    Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Lis, Tadeusz

    2008-02-01

    The title crystal structure, Cs[ReCl(4)O(2)], consists of cis-tetrachloridodioxidorhenate(VII) anions and caesium cations. The distorted octahedral anion has nearly C(2v) symmetry, with a cis arrangement of the oxide ligands. The Re-Cl bond lengths for the Cl atoms trans to the oxide ligands are affected by the trans influence of the Re-O bonds and are longer than for the Cl atoms cis to the oxide ligands [average of 2.472 (2) A versus average of 2.322 (2) A, respectively]. There are ten Cl atoms from six cis-tetrachloridodioxidorhenate(VII) anions in the neighbourhood of the caesium cation.

  17. Congenital deficiency of factor VII.

    PubMed

    Sikka, M; Gomber, S; Madan, N; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of congenital factor VII deficiency in a five-year-old child is reported. The patient, born of a non-consanguineous marriage, presented with repeated bouts of epistaxis since childhood. The prothrombin time (PT) was markedly prolonged with a normal bleeding time (BT), partial thromboplastin time with Kaolin (PTTK) and platelet count. The patient has been on follow up for the last four years and is doing apparently well.

  18. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may provide insight into new treatment options that target elevated impulsivity and psychopathologies such as addictions. PMID:25431750

  19. The molecular neurobiology of depression

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling the pathophysiology of depression is a unique challenge. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but symptoms such as guilt and suicidality are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, other symptoms have been accurately modelled, and these, together with clinical data, are providing insight into the neurobiology of depression. Recent studies combining behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological techniques reveal that certain aspects of depression result from maladaptive stress-induced neuroplastic changes in specific neural circuits. They also show that understanding the mechanisms of resilience to stress offers a crucial new dimension for the development of fundamentally novel antidepressant treatments. PMID:18923511

  20. Addiction Science: Uncovering Neurobiological Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Baler, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until very recently addiction-research was limited by existing tools and strategies that were inadequate for studying the inherent complexity at each of the different phenomenological levels. However, powerful new tools (e.g., optogenetics and designer drug receptors) and high throughput protocols are starting to give researchers the potential to systematically interrogate “all” genes, epigenetic marks, and neuronal circuits. These advances, combined with imaging technologies (both for preclinical and clinical studies) and a paradigm shift towards open access have spurred an unlimited growth of datasets transforming the way we investigate the neurobiology of substance use disorders (SUD) and the factors that modulate risk and resilience. PMID:23688927

  1. Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythm Regulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Turek, Fred W

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few decades, multilevel research has elucidated the basic neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and molecular neurobiology of the master circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The circadian timing system is composed of a large number of cellular oscillators located in the SCN, in non-SCN brain structures, and throughout the body. Cellular-level oscillations are generated by a molecular feedback loop in which circadian clock genes rhythmically regulate their own transcription, as well as that of hundreds of clock-controlled genes. The maintenance of proper coordination within this network of cellular- and tissue-level clocks is essential for health and well-being.

  2. Neurobiology of emotions: an update.

    PubMed

    Esperidião-Antonio, Vanderson; Majeski-Colombo, Marilia; Toledo-Monteverde, Diana; Moraes-Martins, Glaciele; Fernandes, Juliana José; Bauchiglioni de Assis, Marjorie; Montenegro, Stefânia; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article.

  3. Preface: STATPHYS-Kolkata VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Jayanta Kumar; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Sen, Parongama

    2011-04-01

    In the past two decades, a series of international conferences on Statistical Physics, going by the name Statphys Kolkata, have been organized in Kolkata (previously Calcutta) at roughly three-year intervals, the first one being held in 1992-93. The seventh of this series, Statphys Kolkata VII (http://www.saha.ac.in/cmp/stat.vii/index.php) was held from 26-30 November 2010. This meeting was organized as part of the Silver Jubilee Celebration of the Satyendra Nath Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata, in collaboration with the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. In Statphys Kolkata VII, a few topics of current interest such as Collective behavior and emergent phenomena, Systems far from equilibrium, Soft matter, and Quantum critical phenomena were given special emphasis, while various other issues of Statistical Physics were also addressed. We were happy to note that the conference attracted a large number of participants, and the talk and poster sessions generated a lot of discussions, arguments and collaborations. The articles appearing in this proceedings are based on the invited talks and selected poster presentations. We would like to thank the Journal of Physics Conference Series, IOP, for publishing the proceedings of the conference, and the referees for their prompt and active support. The proceedings of the earlier Statphys Kolkata conferences have appeared in Physica A, vol 384 (2007); Physica A, vol 346 (2005); Physica A, vol 318 (2003); Physica A, vol 270 (1999); Physica A, vol 224 (1996); and Physica A, vol 186 (1992). We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the members of the organizing committee (especially Dr Anjan Kumar Chandra for extensive all-round help), and acknowledge the Centre for Applied Mathematics and Computational Science (CAMCS, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata) and Satyendra Nath Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata, for their financial support. Jayanta Kumar Bhattacharjee, Bikas K

  4. Electrical conductivity of ice VII

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Taku; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Yagi, Takehiko; Aoki, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    It was discovered that a peak appears near a pressure of Pc = 10 GPa in the electrical conductivity of ice VII as measured through impedance spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) during the process of compression from 2 GPa to 40 GPa at room temperature. The activation energy for the conductivity measured in the cooling/heating process between 278 K and 303 K reached a minimum near Pc. Theoretical modelling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the origin of this unique peak is the transition of the major charge carriers from the rotational defects to the ionic defects. PMID:25047728

  5. The neurobiology of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is increasingly understood as a neurobiological illness where repetitive substance abuse corrupts the normal circuitry of rewarding and adaptive behaviors causing drug-induced neuroplastic changes. The addictive process can be examined by looking at the biological basis of substance initiation to the progression of substance abuse to dependence to the enduring risk of relapse. Critical neurotransmitters and neurocircuits underlie the pathological changes at each of these stages. Enhanced dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is part of the common pathway for the positively rewarding aspects of drugs of abuse and for initiation of the addictive process. F-Aminobutyric acid,opioid peptides, serotonin, acetylcholine, the endocannabinoids, and glutamate systems also play a role in the initial addictive process. Dopamine also plays a key role in conditioned responses to drugs of abuse, and addiction is now recognized as a disease of pathological learning and memory. In the path from substance abuse to addiction, the neurochemistry shifts from a dopamine-based behavioral system to a predominantly glutamate-based one marked by dysregulated glutamate transmission from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens in relation to drug versus biologically oriented stimuli. This is a core part of the executive dysfunction now understood as one of the hallmark features of addiction that also includes impaired decision making and impulse dysregulation.Understanding the neurobiology of the addictive process allows for a theoretical psychopharmacological approach to treating addictive disorders,one that takes into account biological interventions aimed at particular stages of the illness.

  6. Neurobiological Basis of Learning Disabilities: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedorowicz, C.; Benezra, E.; MacDonald, W.; McElgunn, B.; Wilson, A.; Kaplan, B.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews recent research in the field of learning disabilities and, in particular, dyslexia. It summarizes findings from numerous studies employing widely divergent methodologies that have attempted to establish the neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities and concludes that it is impossible to deny a neurobiological basis…

  7. What Neurobiology Can Buy Language Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann

    1995-01-01

    Responds to L. Eubank and K. R. Gregg article (this issue), negating their rejection of neurobiological accounts of language acquisition because they are not based on Government and Binding theory and addressing their ideas on the explanatory power of associative learning. A discourse between neurobiology and linguistics is possible only if…

  8. Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

  9. Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

  10. LEA Title VII Program Evaluations. Panel Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balu, Raj

    These panel presentations focus on LEA Title VII Program Evaluations. Raj Balu, an administrator of bilingual programs in Chicago presents information regarding the bilingual education program in the Chicago public schools, as well as information on Title VII programs and what kind of evaluation is being done. Jesus Salazar, who is currently…

  11. Whole Language: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Comp.

    This book presents a debate between "reasonable" educators who either claim that there is evidence for the effectiveness of whole language, or who challenge the claim that whole language works across the broad spectrum of learners. The book presents the debate in the form of formal debate resolutions, opening "statements,"…

  12. Fluorescence applications in molecular neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Taraska, Justin W; Zagotta, William N

    2010-04-29

    Macromolecules drive the complex behavior of neurons. For example, channels and transporters control the movements of ions across membranes, SNAREs direct the fusion of vesicles at the synapse, and motors move cargo throughout the cell. Understanding the structure, assembly, and conformational movements of these and other neuronal proteins is essential to understanding the brain. Developments in fluorescence have allowed the architecture and dynamics of proteins to be studied in real time and in a cellular context with great accuracy. In this review, we cover classic and recent methods for studying protein structure, assembly, and dynamics with fluorescence. These methods include fluorescence and luminescence resonance energy transfer, single-molecule bleaching analysis, intensity measurements, colocalization microscopy, electron transfer, and bimolecular complementation analysis. We present the principles of these methods, highlight recent work that uses the methods, and discuss a framework for interpreting results as they apply to molecular neurobiology.

  13. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  14. Fluorescence applications in molecular neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Justin W.; Zagotta, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Macromolecules drive the complex behavior of neurons. For example, channels and transporters control the movements of ions across membranes, SNAREs direct the fusion of vesicles at the synapse, and motors move cargo throughout the cell. Understanding the structure, assembly, and conformational movements of these and other neuronal proteins is essential to understanding the brain. Developments in fluorescence have allowed the architecture and dynamics of proteins to be studied in real time and in a cellular context with great accuracy. In this review, we cover classic and recent methods for studying protein structure, assembly, and dynamics with fluorescence. These methods include fluorescence and luminescence resonance energy transfer, single molecule bleaching analysis, intensity measurements, co-localization microscopy, electron transfer, and bi-molecular complementation analysis. We present the principles of these methods, highlight recent work that uses the methods, and discuss a framework for interpreting results as they apply to molecular neurobiology. PMID:20434995

  15. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  16. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  17. Neurobiology of Acupuncture: Toward CAM

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    It has long been accepted that acupuncture, puncturing and scraping needles at certain points on the body, can have analgesic and anesthetic effects, as well as therapeutic effects in the treatment of various diseases. This therapy, including acupuncture anesthesia, has drawn the attention of many investigators and become a research subject of international interest around the world. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the nervous system, neurotransmitters, endogenous substances and Jingluo (meridians) may respond to needling stimulation and electrical acupuncture. An abundance of information has now accumulated concerning the neurobiological mechanisms of acupuncture, in relation to both neural pathways and neurotransmitters/hormonal factors that mediate autonomic regulation, pain relief and other therapeutics. Early studies demonstrated that the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) are mediated by opioid peptides in the periaqueductal gray. Recent evidence shows that nitric oxide plays an important role in mediating the cardiovascular responses to EA stimulation through the gracile nucleus-thalamic pathway. Other substances, including serotonin, catecholamines, inorganic chemicals and amino acids such as glutamate and α-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are proposed to mediate certain cardiovascular and analgesic effects of acupuncture, but at present their role is poorly understood. The increased interest in acupuncture health care has led to an ever-growing number of investigators pursuing research in the processes of the sense of needling touch, transduction of needling stimulation signals, stimulation parameters and placebos. In this Review, the evidence and understanding of the neurobiological processes of acupuncture research have been summarized with an emphasis on recent developments of nitric oxide mediating acupuncture signals through the dorsal medulla-thalamic pathways. PMID:15257325

  18. The Neurobiological Impact of Ghrelin Suppression after Oesophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Conor F.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin, discovered in 1999, is a 28-amino-acid hormone, best recognized as a stimulator of growth hormone secretion, but with pleiotropic functions in the area of energy homeostasis, such as appetite stimulation and energy expenditure regulation. As the intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), ghrelin appears to have a broad array of effects, but its primary role is still an area of debate. Produced mainly from oxyntic glands in the stomach, but with a multitude of extra-metabolic roles, ghrelin is implicated in complex neurobiological processes. Comprehensive studies within the areas of obesity and metabolic surgery have clarified the mechanism of these operations. As a stimulator of growth hormone (GH), and an apparent inducer of positive energy balance, other areas of interest include its impact on carcinogenesis and tumour proliferation and its role in the cancer cachexia syndrome. This has led several authors to study the hormone in the cancer setting. Ghrelin levels are acutely reduced following an oesophagectomy, a primary treatment modality for oesophageal cancer. We sought to investigate the nature of this postoperative ghrelin suppression, and its neurobiological implications. PMID:28035969

  19. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001 ...

  20. Adapting to Stress: Understanding the Neurobiology of Resilience.

    PubMed

    Osório, Carlos; Probert, Thomas; Jones, Edgar; Young, Allan H; Robbins, Ian

    2017-01-01

    There is significant variation in the way individuals react and respond to extreme stress and adversity. While some individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder, others recover from stressful experiences without displaying significant symptoms of psychological ill-health, demonstrating stress-resilience. To understand why some individuals exhibit characteristics of a resilient profile, the interplay between neurochemical, genetic, and epigenetic processes over time needs to be explained. In this review, we examine the hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and neural circuits associated with resilience and vulnerability to stress-related disorders. We debate how this increasing body of knowledge could also be useful in the creation of a stress-resilient profile. Additionally, identification of the underlying neurobiological components related to resilience may offer a contribution to improved approaches toward the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders.

  1. Toward a Neurobiology of Delusions

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, P.R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wang, X.-J.; Fletcher, P.C.; Krystal, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the false and often incorrigible beliefs that can cause severe suffering in mental illness. We cannot yet explain them in terms of underlying neurobiological abnormalities. However, by drawing on recent advances in the biological, computational and psychological processes of reinforcement learning, memory, and perception it may be feasible to account for delusions in terms of cognition and brain function. The account focuses on a particular parameter, prediction error – the mismatch between expectation and experience – that provides a computational mechanism common to cortical hierarchies, frontostriatal circuits and the amygdala as well as parietal cortices. We suggest that delusions result from aberrations in how brain circuits specify hierarchical predictions, and how they compute and respond to prediction errors. Defects in these fundamental brain mechanisms can vitiate perception, memory, bodily agency and social learning such that individuals with delusions experience an internal and external world that healthy individuals would find difficult to comprehend. The present model attempts to provide a framework through which we can build a mechanistic and translational understanding of these puzzling symptoms. PMID:20558235

  2. The neurobiology of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Panksepp, Jaak

    2006-01-01

    Compared to the study of negative emotions such as fear, the neurobiology of positive emotional processes and the associated positive affect (PA) states has only recently received scientific attention. Biological theories conceptualize PA as being related to (i) signals indicating that bodies are returning to equilibrium among those studying homeostasis, (ii) utility estimation among those favoring neuroeconomic views, and (iii) approach and other instinctual behaviors among those cultivating neuroethological perspectives. Indeed, there are probably several distinct forms of positive affect, but all are closely related to ancient sub-neocortical limbic brain regions we share with other mammals. There is now a convergence of evidence to suggest that various regions of the limbic system, including especially ventral striatal dopamine systems are implemented in an anticipatory (appetitive) positive affective state. Dopamine independent mechanisms utilizing opiate and GABA receptors in the ventral striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex are important in elaborating consummatory PA (i.e. sensory pleasure) states, and various neuropeptides mediate homeostatic satisfactions.

  3. Toward a neurobiology of delusions.

    PubMed

    Corlett, P R; Taylor, J R; Wang, X-J; Fletcher, P C; Krystal, J H

    2010-11-01

    Delusions are the false and often incorrigible beliefs that can cause severe suffering in mental illness. We cannot yet explain them in terms of underlying neurobiological abnormalities. However, by drawing on recent advances in the biological, computational and psychological processes of reinforcement learning, memory, and perception it may be feasible to account for delusions in terms of cognition and brain function. The account focuses on a particular parameter, prediction error--the mismatch between expectation and experience--that provides a computational mechanism common to cortical hierarchies, fronto-striatal circuits and the amygdala as well as parietal cortices. We suggest that delusions result from aberrations in how brain circuits specify hierarchical predictions, and how they compute and respond to prediction errors. Defects in these fundamental brain mechanisms can vitiate perception, memory, bodily agency and social learning such that individuals with delusions experience an internal and external world that healthy individuals would find difficult to comprehend. The present model attempts to provide a framework through which we can build a mechanistic and translational understanding of these puzzling symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Importance of neurobiology for modular psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Schmahl, C; Bohus, M

    2013-11-01

    In the context of continuing education in psychiatry and psychotherapy, modular psychotherapy is of special importance. In modular psychotherapy, general interventions, e.g. for regulation of emotions, have an important function. In this review examples are given to describe the importance of neurobiology for the understanding and the improvement of these mechanisms. In addition, the use of neurobiological investigations within classical psychotherapy trials in the fields of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder will be depicted.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Factor VII Deficiency World Federation of Hemophilia: Treatment Options General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) ... Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (5 links) Canadian Hemophilia Society Foundation for Women and Girls with Blood ...

  6. Neurobiology of anxious depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research.

  7. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  8. [Neurobiological determinism: questionable inferences on human freedom of choice and forensic criminal responsibility].

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, F; Hardegger, J; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2006-08-01

    Several authors argue that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. Based on this neurobiological perspective of assumed causality, the concept of free will is questioned, and the theory of neurobiological determinism of all human behavior is put forward, thus maintaining that human beings are not responsible for their actions, and consequently the principle of guilt should be given up in criminal law. In this context the controversial debate on determinism and indeterminism, which has been held for centuries, has flared up anew, especially within the science of criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results do not support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior, nor a theory of an absolute neurobiological determinism. Neither is complete determination of all phenomena in the universe--as maintained--the logical conclusion of the principle of causality, nor is it empirically confirmed. Analyzed methodically, it cannot be falsified, and thus, as a theory which cannot be empirically tested, it represents a dogma against which plausible objections can be made. The criticism of the concept of free will, and even more so of human accountability and criminal responsibility, is not put forward in a valid way. The principle of relative determinism--the evaluation of the degree of determinism of personality factors potentially reducing criminal responsibility, which includes concrete observations and analysis of behavior--thus remains a central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility. To sum up, the theories proposed by some authors on the complete neurobiological determinism of human behavior, and the subsequent impossibility of individual responsibility and guilt, reveal both methodical misconception and a lack of empirical foundation.

  9. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  10. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  11. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  12. [MicroRNAs in neurobiology].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as a new regulatory factor of gene expression. They mediate translational repression or degradation of their target mRNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The expression of each microRNA is tightly regulated in a development- and cell-specific manner by various mechanisms such as blockade of let-7 family expression by Lin-28 or RNA editing. They also act as regulatory switches for development, organogenesis, and cellular differentiation or for controlling distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of each tissue and cell subtypes. The abundant expression of microRNAs as well as the exclusive expression of certain microRNAs in the central nervous system highlights their biological importance at all stages of neural development and in postmitotic and differentiated neurons. Further, some microRNAs, such as miRNA-134, and miRNA-132 are localized and are synthesized in part at synaptic sites in dendrites to regulate synaptic formation and plasticity. In addition to the imparting of basic knowledge about the biogenesis and mechanism of action of microRNAs, this review focuses on the recent advances in microRNA studies in neurobiology, including the expression pattern of microRNAs in the mammalian brain, the role of microRNAs in neural differentiation and maturation, formation and plasticity of synaptic connections, and maintenance of neural function such as the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in selected neurons. Finally, the possible connection between microRNA dysfunction and neurological diseases, and future implications for diagnosis, and treatment of defects in human brain development and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  13. Schizophrenia: from phenomenology to neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert Hung Choy; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2003-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and debilitating illness, characterized by chronic psychotic symptoms and psychosocial impairment that exact considerable human and economic costs. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, treatment, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Although studied extensively from a clinical, psychological, biological and genetic perspective, our expanding knowledge of schizophrenia provides only an incomplete understanding of this complex disorder. Recent advances in neuroscience have allowed the confirmation or refutation of earlier findings in schizophrenia, and permit useful comparisons between the different levels of organization from which the illness has been studied. Schizophrenia is defined as a clinical syndrome that may include a collection of diseases that share a common presentation. Genetic factors are the most important in the etiology of the disease, with unknown environmental factors potentially modulating the expression of symptoms. Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder in which many genes may be implicated, with the possibility of gene-gene interactions and a diversity of genetic causes in different families or populations. A neurodevelopmental rather than degenerative process has received more empirical support as a general explanation of the pathophysiology, although simple dichotomies are not particularly helpful in such a complicated disease. Structural brain changes are present in vivo and post-mortem, with both histopathological and imaging studies in overall agreement that the temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are the most affected. Functional imaging, neuropsychological testing and clinical observation are also generally consistent in demonstrating deficits in cognitive ability that correlate with abnormalities in the areas of the brain with structural abnormalities. The dopamine and other

  14. Music medicine. A neurobiological approach.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Music medicine is a relatively new medical specialty for most countries in the world and a rediscovery of a discipline for some countries in Europe. In the scope of music medicine are health problems of musicians like stage fright and psychic stress, pain syndromes and motor disturbances. Specific demands of musicianship like performing before the public, performing under the constant critical scrutiny of conductors, being expected to perform perfectly, and the physical demands of performing on a musical instrument were seen as the determinants of the complaints, and treatment does usually not differ between musicians and non-musicians with comparable diseases. In the present article, growing neurobiological evidence will be summarized showing that musicians differ from non-musicians on brain structure and function and on some hormonal and immunological parameters. Musicians tend to have atypical brain organization for verbal and non-verbal materials, their auditory system tracks sound levels more accurately, musicians attend pre-consciously to musical material and they react to music as if it is a stressor, i.e. with increased activity of the autonomic nervous system and with an increase in stress hormone production. A musician is more likely than a non-musician to be non-righthanded and to be vulnerable to atopic diseases. Testosterone levels are assumed to be lower (male) and higher (female) than controls. Melatonin was found to be elevated, and ACTH was related to musical talent. His/her brain reflects early music practice by enlarged structures, like the anterior part of the corpus callosum and the representation for piano tones and for the left thumb and little finger in string players. In addition, the left planum temporale was found to be larger in musicians with absolute pitch. These differences between musicians and non-musicians may have implications for music medicine in theory and practice, and further research should help to improve treatment of

  15. Neurobiological Basis of Ganser Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Daniel; Duggal, Harpreet S.; Jacob, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ganser syndrome continues to be a rare and widely misunderstood condition. While DSM-IV classifies Ganser syndrome as a dissociative disorder, its etiology continues to be debated. There are episodic reports in the literature of Ganser syndrome in patients with head trauma or strokes. However, the mechanisms by which these cerebral insults lead to Ganser syndrome or other dissociative states are largely unknown.A case of a patient with Ganser syndrome with a prior history of stroke and bifrontal infarcts is described. This case demonstrates how organic pathology may predispose a patient to dissociative states, such as Ganser syndrome. We review the relationship between hyperglutamatergic states, caused by stroke and stress, and dissociative symptoms.Ganser syndrome continues to be a rare and widely misunderstood condition. While DSM-IV classifies Ganser syndrome as a dissociative disorder, its etiology continues to be debated. There are episodic reports in the literature of Ganser syndrome in patients with head trauma or strokes. However, the mechanisms by which these cerebral insults lead to Ganser syndrome or other dissociative states are largely unknown.A case of a patient with Ganser syndrome with a prior history of stroke and bifrontal infarcts is described. This case demonstrates how organic pathology may predispose a patient to dissociative states, such as Ganser syndrome. We review the relationship between hyperglutamatergic states, caused by stroke and stress, and dissociative symptoms. PMID:21206870

  16. Debating Historical Propositions: Toward a Unique Genre of NEDA Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David K.

    The best way to develop a unique identity for the National Education Debate Association (NEDA) is to debate propositions distinct from National Debate Tournament (NDT) and the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA). A neglected area of debate includes propositions temporally framed in the past. Yet, the present propositional categories of…

  17. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  18. Enhanced Born charges in III-VII, IV-VII2 , and V-VII3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2010-07-01

    We report electronic-structure and lattice dynamics calculations on selected III-VII, IV-VII2 , and V-VII3 compounds. The common characteristic of these largely ionic compounds is that their outmost cation- s states are fully occupied and thus the conduction-band states are derived from the more spatially extended cation- p states, resulting in significant cross-band-gap hybridization, which enhances Born effective charges substantially. The large Born charges cause large splitting between longitudinal and transverse optic phonon modes and large static dielectric constants resulting mostly from the lattice contribution. This can lead to effective screening of defects and impurities that would otherwise be strong carrier traps and recombination centers and may therefore have positive effects on the carrier transport properties in radiation detectors based on these soft-lattice halides.

  19. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  20. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  1. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning.

  2. [Neurotheology: neurobiological models of religious experience].

    PubMed

    Passie, T; Warncke, J; Peschel, T; Ott, U

    2013-03-01

    Religions are evolutionary selected social and cultural phenomena. They represent today belief and normative systems on which the main parts of our culture are based. For a long time religions have been seen as mainly originating from a spectrum of religious experiences. These include a broad spectrum of experiences and are astonishingly widespread in the population. The most consistent and transculturally uniform religious experiences are the mystical experiences. Only these (and the prayer experience) have factually been researched in detail neurobiologically. This article presents a review of empirical results and hypothetical approaches to explain mystical religious experiences neurobiologically. Some of the explanatory hypotheses possess logical evidence, some are even supported by neurobiological studies, but all of them have their pitfalls and are at best partially consistent. One important insight from the evidence reviewed here is that there may be a whole array of different neurophysiological conditions which may result in the same core religious mystical experiences.

  3. Microfluidics: a new cosset for neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyi; Ren, Li; Li, Li; Liu, Wenming; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Wenhao; Tong, Denwen; Chen, Shulin

    2009-03-07

    Recently, microfluidic systems have shown great potential in the study of molecular and cellular biology. With its excellent properties, such as miniaturization, integration and automation, to name just a few, microfluidics creates new opportunities for the spatial and temporal control of cell growth and environmental stimuli in vitro. In the field of neuroscience, microfluidic devices offer precise control of the microenvironment surrounding individual cells, and the delivery of biochemical or physical cues to neural networks or single neurons. The intent of this review is to outline recent advances in microfluidic-based applications in neurobiology, with emphasis on neuron culture, neuron manipulation, neural stem cell differentiation, neuropharmacology, neuroelectrophysiology, and neuron biosensors. It also aims to stimulate development of microfluidic-based applications in neurobiology by involving scientists from various disciplines, especially neurobiology and microtechnology.

  4. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  5. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  6. The Clinical Neurobiology of Drug Craving

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving- related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction. A conceptualization of drug craving on the continuum of healthy desire and compulsive seeking, and the associated neurobiological adaptations associated with the development of an increased craving/wanting state is presented. Altered dopamine neurochemistry as well as disrupted prefrontal control and hyperactive striatal-limbic responses in experiencing drug cues, stress, drug intake and in basal relaxed states are identified as neurobiological signatures that predict drug craving and drug use. Thus, the clinical and neurobiological features of the craving/wanting state are presented with specific attention to alterations in these cortico-limbic-striatal and prefrontal self-control circuits that predict drug craving and relapse risk. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed to further develop the evolving conceptual approach in the neuroscience of drug craving is presented, with a focus on identification and validation of biomarkers associated with the craving state and treatment approaches that may be of benefit in reversing the neurobiological adaptations associated with drug craving to improve treatment outcomes in addiction. PMID:23764204

  7. The clinical neurobiology of drug craving.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita

    2013-08-01

    Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving-related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse, and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction. A conceptualization of drug craving on the continuum of healthy desire and compulsive seeking, and the associated neurobiological adaptations associated with the development of an increased craving/wanting state is presented. Altered dopamine neurochemistry as well as disrupted prefrontal control and hyperactive striatal-limbic responses in experiencing drug cues, stress, drug intake and in basal relaxed states are identified as neurobiological signatures that predict drug craving and drug use. Thus, the clinical and neurobiological features of the craving/wanting state are presented with specific attention to alterations in these cortico-limbic-striatal and prefrontal self-control circuits that predict drug craving and relapse risk. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed to further develop the evolving conceptual approach to the neuroscience of drug craving is presented, with a focus on identification and validation of biomarkers associated with the craving state and treatment approaches that may be of benefit in reversing the neurobiological adaptations associated with drug craving to improve treatment outcomes in addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  9. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  10. [Recent progress in neurobiological mechanisms of depression].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Bo; Li, Liang-Ping; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2012-08-25

    Revealing the neurobiological mechanism of depression has always been a big challenge in the field of neuroscience. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but also some symptoms are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, great progress has been made on the understanding and treatment of depression in recent years. In this review, we focus on key leading hypotheses in the neurobiological mechanism of depression, examine their strengths and weaknesses critically, and also highlight new insights that promise to extend the understanding of depression and its treatment.

  11. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditi; Morrow, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    There are many facets of the neurobiology of substance use that are distinct in adolescence as compared with adulthood. The adolescent brain is subject to intense subcortical reward processes, but is left with an immature prefrontal control system that is often unable to resist the pull of potentially exciting activities like substance use, even when fully aware of the dangers involved. Peer influences serve only to magnify these effects and foster more sensation-seeking, risky behavior. The unique aspects of neurobiology should be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs and clinical interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.

  12. Facts and challenges in respiratory neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Dick, T E; Dutschmann, M; Feldman, J L; Fong, A Y; Hülsmann, S; Morris, K M; Ramirez, J M; Smith, J C

    2015-01-31

    Respiratory neurobiology has been a lead discipline in the field of neuroscience for almost a century. Despite this, research studies on the fundamental synaptic and cellular processes underlying the generation and modulation of breathing movements suffered a significant decline during the last decade. We still believe that respiratory neurobiology is one of the most exciting and imperative fields of neuroscience. With the first white paper concerned with the central control of breathing, we want to celebrate the global importance of breathing research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Neurobiology of Decision: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    We review and synthesize recent neurophysiological studies of decision-making in humans and non-human primates. From these studies, the basic outline of the neurobiological mechanism for primate choice is beginning to emerge. The identified mechanism is now known to include a multi-component valuation stage, implemented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and associated parts of striatum, and a choice stage, implemented in lateral prefrontal and parietal areas. Neurobiological studies of decision-making are beginning to enhance our understanding of economic and social behavior, as well as our understanding of significant health disorders where people’s behavior plays a key role. PMID:19778504

  14. Mechanism of Shortened Bones in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Jason A.; Zhang, Yanming; Hilton, Matthew J.; Long, Fanxin; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease in which deficiency in β-glucuronidase results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation in and around cells, causing shortened long bones through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. We demonstrate here that MPS VII mice accumulate massive amounts of the GAG chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) in their growth plates, the cartilaginous region near the ends of long bones responsible for growth. MPS VII mice also have only 60% of the normal number of chondrocytes in the growth plate and 55% of normal chondrocyte proliferation at 3 weeks of age. We hypothesized that this reduction in proliferation was due to C4S-mediated overactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). However, MPS VII mice that were FGFR3-deficient still had shortened bones, suggesting that FGFR3 is not required for the bone defect. Further study revealed that MPS VII growth plates had reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, a pro-proliferative transcription factor. This was accompanied by a decrease in expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and other interleukin 6 family cytokines, and a reduction in phosphorylated tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), and JAK2, known activators of STAT3 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, loss of function mutations in LIF and its receptor leads to shortened bones. This suggests that accumulation of C4S in the growth plate leads to reduced expression of LIF and reduced STAT3-tyrosine phosphorylation, which results in reduced chondrocyte proliferation and ultimately shortened bones. PMID:19375967

  15. Mechanism of shortened bones in mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jason A; Zhang, Yanming; Hilton, Matthew J; Long, Fanxin; Ponder, Katherine P

    2009-07-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease in which deficiency in beta-glucuronidase results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation in and around cells, causing shortened long bones through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. We demonstrate here that MPS VII mice accumulate massive amounts of the GAG chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) in their growth plates, the cartilaginous region near the ends of long bones responsible for growth. MPS VII mice also have only 60% of the normal number of chondrocytes in the growth plate and 55% of normal chondrocyte proliferation at 3weeks of age. We hypothesized that this reduction in proliferation was due to C4S-mediated overactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). However, MPS VII mice that were FGFR3-deficient still had shortened bones, suggesting that FGFR3 is not required for the bone defect. Further study revealed that MPS VII growth plates had reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, a pro-proliferative transcription factor. This was accompanied by a decrease in expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and other interleukin 6 family cytokines, and a reduction in phosphorylated tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), and JAK2, known activators of STAT3 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, loss of function mutations in LIF and its receptor leads to shortened bones. This suggests that accumulation of C4S in the growth plate leads to reduced expression of LIF and reduced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, which results in reduced chondrocyte proliferation and ultimately shortened bones.

  16. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty. PMID:22688633

  17. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty.

  18. Neurobiological Formulations: Integrating Clinical and Biological Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Jonathan; Stewart, Jonathan; Rieder, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a pilot program allowing psychiatric residents to participate in neurobiological evaluations of patients with Axis I disorders. The program aimed to familiarize residents with available tools for assessing cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities in psychiatric patients and to foster greater interest among…

  19. Neurobiology of Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an exponential increase in studies on neurobiological measures in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). There seems to be a consensus that structural changes in COS are more marked than in adolescence-onset (AdOS) or adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS). Atrophy of total brain volume is progressive throughout the course…

  20. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  1. Molecular neurobiology in neurology and psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: An Introduction to Ion Channels; Molecular Neurobiology of the Myelinated Nerve Fiber: Ion-Channel Distributions and Their Implications for Demyelinating Diseases; A Molecular Genetic Approach to Huntington's Disease; and Molecular Features of Cell Adhesion Molecules Involved in Neural Development.

  2. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rihard F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes recent research findings in the area of neurobiology and its relationship to learning and memory. The article provides definitions of associative and nonassociative learning, identifies essential memory trace circuits of the mammalian brain, and discusses some neural mechanisms of learning. (TW)

  3. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  4. Neurobiology of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark J; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Pareés, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    This review explores recent developments in understanding the neurobiological mechanism of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs). This is particularly relevant given the resurgence of academic and clinical interest in patients with functional neurological symptoms and the clear shift in diagnostic and treatment approaches away from a pure psychological model of functional symptoms. Recent research findings implicate three key processes in the neurobiology of FMD (and by extension other functional neurological symptoms): abnormal attentional focus, abnormal beliefs and expectations, and abnormalities in sense of agency. These three processes have been combined in recent neurobiological models of FMD in which abnormal predictions related to movement are triggered by self-focused attention, and the resulting movement is generated without the normal sense of agency that accompanies voluntary movement. New understanding of the neurobiology of FMD forms an important part of reappraising the way that patients with FMD (and other functional disorders) are characterized and treated. It also provides a testable framework for further exploring the pathophysiology of these common causes of ill health.

  5. Neurobiology of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark J.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Pareés, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review explores recent developments in understanding the neurobiological mechanism of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs). This is particularly relevant given the resurgence of academic and clinical interest in patients with functional neurological symptoms and the clear shift in diagnostic and treatment approaches away from a pure psychological model of functional symptoms. Recent findings Recent research findings implicate three key processes in the neurobiology of FMD (and by extension other functional neurological symptoms): abnormal attentional focus, abnormal beliefs and expectations, and abnormalities in sense of agency. These three processes have been combined in recent neurobiological models of FMD in which abnormal predictions related to movement are triggered by self-focused attention, and the resulting movement is generated without the normal sense of agency that accompanies voluntary movement. Summary New understanding of the neurobiology of FMD forms an important part of reappraising the way that patients with FMD (and other functional disorders) are characterized and treated. It also provides a testable framework for further exploring the pathophysiology of these common causes of ill health. PMID:23823467

  6. The Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rihard F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes recent research findings in the area of neurobiology and its relationship to learning and memory. The article provides definitions of associative and nonassociative learning, identifies essential memory trace circuits of the mammalian brain, and discusses some neural mechanisms of learning. (TW)

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false VII Appendix VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendix VII to Part 600 ...

  8. 77 FR 64400 - Order of Succession for HUD Region VII

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region VII AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management... Succession for the Kansas City Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region VII). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region VII. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012....

  9. 29 CFR 1601.93 - Opinions-title VII.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opinions-title VII. 1601.93 Section 1601.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.93 Opinions—title VII. Only the following may be relied upon as a “written...

  10. 29 CFR 1601.93 - Opinions-title VII.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opinions-title VII. 1601.93 Section 1601.93 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.93 Opinions—title VII. Only the following may be relied upon as a “written...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false VII Appendix VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendix VII to Part 600...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false VII Appendix VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendix VII to Part 600...

  13. Very low activated factor VII and reduced factor VII antigen in familial abetalipoproteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Miller, G J; Mitropoulos, K A; Nanjee, M N; Howarth, D J; Martin, J C; Esnouf, M P; Reeves, B E; Miller, N E; Cooper, J A

    1998-08-01

    Abetalipoproteinaemia is a rare disorder of apolipoprotein B metabolism associated with extremely low plasma concentrations of triglyceride. To discover whether the general positive association between factor VII and triglyceride levels extends to this condition, 5 patients were compared with 18 controls. All patients had a triglyceride below 100 micromol/l. Plasma unesterified fatty acid concentration was normal. Although factor IX activity was only slightly reduced (mean 88% standard) and factor IX antigen was normal, mean activated factor VII in patients was strikingly reduced to 34% of that in controls, a level similar to that found in haemophilia B. The patients' mean factor VII activity and factor VII antigen were also significantly reduced to 54% and 63% of those in controls, respectively. Mean factor XI activity and tissue factor pathway inhibitor activity were reduced in patients to 70% and 75% of control values respectively, while factor XII, factor XI antigen, factor X, prothrombin and protein C were normal.

  14. Atypical Neurotransmitters and the Neurobiology of Depression.

    PubMed

    Joca, Samia Regiane; Moreira, Fabricio Araujo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report that the mechanism of action of antidepressants involves the facilitation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain in the 1960s, the leading hypothesis about the neurobiology of depression has been the so called "monoaminergic hypothesis". However, a growing body of evidence from the last two decades also supports important involvement of non-monoaminergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoid signaling in the brain during the 1990s challenged the wellestablished criteria of classical neurotransmission. These transmitters are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons, and may act as a retrograde messenger on the presynaptic terminal, modulating neurotransmitter release. These unconventional signaling mechanisms and the important role as neural messengers have classified NO and endocannabinoids as atypical neurotransmitters. They are able to modulate neural signaling mediated by the main conventional neurotransmitters systems in the brain, including the monoaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling systems. This review aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of NO- and endocannabinoid-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of these atypical neurotransmitters in the neurobiology of depression, and in the antidepressant effects are presented here. The evidence is discussed on basis of their ability to modulate different neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including monoaminergic and glutamatergic ones. A better comprehension of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms in the neurobiology depression could provide new avenues for the development of novel non-monoamine based antidepressants.

  15. Leveraging Information Technology. Track VII: Outstanding Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track VII, Outstanding Applications, are presented. They include: "Image Databases in the University" (Reid Kaplan and Gordon Mathieson); "Using Information Technology for Travel Management at the University of Michigan" (Robert E. Russell and John C. Hufziger); "On-Line Access…

  16. Intravenous pamidronate in osteogenesis imperfecta type VII.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Cyclical intravenous treatment with pamidronate is widely used to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I, III, and IV, which are due to dominant mutations affecting collagen type I alpha chains. There is no information about the effects of pamidronate in children with OI type VII, an autosomal-recessive form of OI caused by a mutation in the cartilage-associated protein gene. In this retrospective single-center study, we compared the effects of pamidronate in four girls with OI type VII (age range 3.9-12.7 years) to those in eight girls with OI types caused by collagen type I mutations who were matched for age and disease severity. During 3 years of pamidronate therapy, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density increased and lumbar vertebral bodies improved in shape in patients with OI type VII. Other outcomes such as fracture rates and mobility scores did not show statistically significant changes in this small study cohort. There were no significant side effects noted during the time of follow-up. Thus, intravenous treatment with pamidronate seems to be safe and of some benefit in patients with OI type VII.

  17. The Artilect Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Halioris, Sam

    Twenty-first-century technologies will allow the creation of massively intelligent machines, many trillions of times as smart, fast, and durable as humans. Issues concerning industrial, consumer, and military applications of mobile autonomous robots, cyborgs, and computer-based AI systems could divisively split humanity into ideological camps regarding whether "artilects" (artificial intellects) should be built or not. The artilect debate, unlike any before it, could dominate the 21st-century political landscape, and has the potential to cause conflict on a global scale. Research is needed to inform policy and individual decisions; and healthy debate should be initiated now to prepare institutions and individuals alike for the impact of AI.

  18. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  19. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  20. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  1. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  2. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  3. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  4. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  5. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  6. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  7. The brain decade in debate: II. Panic or anxiety? From animal models to a neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Andreatini, R; Blanchard, C; Blanchard, R; Brandão, M L; Carobrez, A P; Griebel, G; Guimarães, F S; Handley, S L; Jenck, F; Leite, J R; Rodgers, J; Schenberg, L C; Da Cunha, C; Graeff, F G

    2001-02-01

    This article is a transcription of an electronic symposium sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC). Invited researchers from the European Union, North America and Brazil discussed two issues on anxiety, namely whether panic is a very intense anxiety or something else, and what aspects of clinical anxiety are reproduced by animal models. Concerning the first issue, most participants agreed that generalized anxiety and panic disorder are different on the basis of clinical manifestations, drug response and animal models. Also, underlying brain structures, neurotransmitter modulation and hormonal changes seem to involve important differences. It is also common knowledge that existing animal models generate different types of fear/anxiety. A challenge for future research is to establish a good correlation between animal models and nosological classification.

  8. The neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Brewer, Judson A; Potenza, Marc N

    2006-12-01

    Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, represent significant public health concerns and are associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and mortality. Although research into the biology of these behaviors is still in the early stages, recent advances in the understanding of motivation, reward, and addiction have provided insight into the possible pathophysiology of these disorders. Biochemical, functional neuroimaging, genetic studies, and treatment research have suggested a strong neurobiological link between behavioral addictions and substance use disorders. Given the substantial co-occurrence of these groups of disorders, improved understanding of their relationship has important implications not only for further understanding the neurobiology of both categories of disorders but also for improving prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. The neurobiological link between compassion and love.

    PubMed

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2011-02-25

    Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general 'positive state', even 'spiritual' at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain's limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly 'amazing'.

  10. PTSD: from neurobiology to pharmacological treatments.

    PubMed

    Kelmendi, Benjamin; Adams, Thomas G; Yarnell, Stephanie; Southwick, Steven; Abdallah, Chadi G; Krystal, John H

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal that can arise immediately or many years after exposure to a traumatic event and injury. Although extensive research has been done over the past 30 years, the etiology of PTSD remains largely unknown. Several neurobiological systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology and vulnerability for developing PTSD; however, first-line pharmacotherapies are limited. Less than 30% achieve full remission, and even then, approved pharmacological treatments often take weeks for therapeutic effect. This article aims to review the pathophysiology of PTSD within multiple neurobiological systems and how these mechanisms are used as pharmacologic targets of treatment, as well as their potential for future targets of intervention.

  11. The neurobiological link between compassion and love

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general ‘positive state’, even ‘spiritual’ at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain’s limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly ‘amazing’. PMID:21358615

  12. Neurobiological correlates of social functioning in autism.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Emily; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Bernier, Raphael

    2010-08-01

    Although autism is defined by deficits in three areas of functioning (social, communicative, and behavioral), impairments in social interest and restricted behavioral repertoires are central to the disorder. As a result, a detailed understanding of the neurobiological systems subserving social behavior may have implications for prevention, early identification, and intervention for affected families. In this paper, we review a number of potential neurobiological mechanisms--across several levels of analysis--that subserve normative social functioning. These include neural networks, neurotransmitters, and hormone systems. After describing the typical functioning of each system, we review available empirical findings specific to autism. Among the most promising potential mechanisms of social behavioral deficits in autism are those involving neural networks including the amygdala, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and the oxytocin system. Particularly compelling are explanatory models that integrate mechanisms across biological systems, such as those linking dopamine and oxytocin with brain regions critical to reward processing.

  13. Neurocontrol and neurobiology - New developments and connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werbos, Paul J.; Pellionisz, Andras J.

    1992-01-01

    At McDonnell-Douglas, controllers which combine adaptive critic networks with the use of backpropagation in real time have solved difficult control problems crucial to the feasibility of building the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) able to reach earth orbit. As details emerged, parallels to neurobiology have grown stronger and have begun to lead to empirical possibilities of importance to neuroscience. This has led to thoughts of institutional collaboration facilitating what could become a Newtonian revolution in neuroscience, with cognitive implications as well. The authors elaborate on each of these points. The topics discussed are recent progress in neurocontrol; progress in optimization and reinforcement learning; implications for neurobiology and science policy; and a new view of the brain.

  14. Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: a neurobiological model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psychopaths, and serial killers. An initial neurobiological model of successful and unsuccessful psychopathy is outlined. It is hypothesized that successful psychopaths have intact or enhanced neurobiological functioning that underlies their normal or even superior cognitive functioning, which in turn helps them to achieve their goals using more covert and nonviolent methods. In contrast, in unsuccessful, caught psychopaths, brain structural and functional impairments together with autonomic nervous system dysfunction are hypothesized to underlie cognitive and emotional deficits and more overt violent offending.

  15. Marmoset vocal communication: Behavior and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Steven J; Miller, Cory T

    2017-03-01

    There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities. Here a recent research into the behavioral and neurobiological basis of marmoset vocal communication was reviewed and they argued for their broader value as a neuroscientific model. They discuss potential avenues for future research including developmental neurobiology and the application of modern molecular tools to the study of primate communication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 286-299, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neurocontrol and neurobiology - New developments and connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werbos, Paul J.; Pellionisz, Andras J.

    1992-01-01

    At McDonnell-Douglas, controllers which combine adaptive critic networks with the use of backpropagation in real time have solved difficult control problems crucial to the feasibility of building the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) able to reach earth orbit. As details emerged, parallels to neurobiology have grown stronger and have begun to lead to empirical possibilities of importance to neuroscience. This has led to thoughts of institutional collaboration facilitating what could become a Newtonian revolution in neuroscience, with cognitive implications as well. The authors elaborate on each of these points. The topics discussed are recent progress in neurocontrol; progress in optimization and reinforcement learning; implications for neurobiology and science policy; and a new view of the brain.

  17. The neurobiology of appetite: hunger as addiction.

    PubMed

    Dagher, A

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is now being recognized as a neurobehavioral disorder. Although the view of appetite as an addiction to food is controversial, there are useful lessons to be learned from the neuroscience of addiction for understanding obesity. The speakers in this symposium all addressed different aspects of the neurobiology of feeding and obesity. In this overview and the associated reviews, the behavioral, genetic and neural factors that promote over-eating in animals and humans are discussed.

  18. Tactile learning in rodents: Neurobiology and neuropharmacology.

    PubMed

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ayoobi, Fateme; Fatemi, Iman; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of learning and memory have been the subject of considerable research. Rodents such as mice and rats are nocturnal animals with poor vision, and their survival depends on their sense of touch. Recent reports have shown that whisker somatosensation is the main channel through which rodents collect and process environmental information. This review describes tactile learning in rodents from a neurobiological and neuropharmacological perspective, and how this is involved in memory-related processes.

  19. Toward a Neurobiological Theory of Visual Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    instance, generate spikes according to a Poisson- process whose time -dependent average rate depends on stimulus parameters and/or attentional state. Other...AD-A270 724 1N PAGE ANNUAL 1 Sep 92 - 31 Aug 93 TOWARD A NEUROBIOLOGICAL THEORY OF VISUAL ATTENTION F49620-92-J-0454 2313 I -AOOE(5) AS 61102F Dr...temporal tagging for attentional modulation of neuronal signals into a model of several interacting cortical and subcortical areas using video-camera

  20. 'Homeopathy': untangling the debate.

    PubMed

    Relton, Clare; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J

    2008-07-01

    There are active public campaigns both for and against homeopathy, and its continuing availability in the NHS is debated in the medical, scientific and popular press. However, there is a lack of clarity in key terms used in the debate, and in how the evidence base of homeopathy is described and interpreted. The term 'homeopathy' is used with several different meanings including: the therapeutic system, homeopathic medicine, treatment by a homeopath, and the principles of 'homeopathy'. Conclusions drawn from one of these aspects are often inappropriately applied to another aspect. In interpreting the homeopathy evidence it is important to understand that the existing clinical experimental (randomised controlled trial) evidence base provides evidence as to the efficacy of homeopathic medicines, but not the effectiveness of treatment by a homeopath. The observational evidence base provides evidence as to the effectiveness of treatment by a homeopath. We make four recommendations to promote clarity in the reporting, design and interpretation of homeopathy research.

  1. The water fluoridation debate.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Pretty, Iain A

    2011-01-01

    Water fluoridation schemes have been employed for over 50 years. Water fluoridation has been a source of continuous debate between those who advocate its use as a public health measure and those who oppose it. There have been no new fluoridation schemes in the U.K. for nearly 30 years owing to principally legislative, but also geographic, financial, and political reasons. However, in early 2008, the U.K. Secretary of State for Health promoted the use of water fluoridation schemes for areas in England with the highest rates of decay. This article, the third and final article of three, aims to discuss the arguments surrounding water fluoridation and its continued relevance as a public health measure. This article aims to provide an update for general practitioners for the background and the current status of the water fluoridation debate and to enable them to answer non-clinical questions raised by patients.

  2. The neurobiological causes and effects of alloparenting.

    PubMed

    Kenkel, William M; Perkeybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2017-02-01

    Alloparenting, defined as care provided by individuals other than parents, is a universal behavior among humans that has shaped our evolutionary history and remains important in contemporary society. Dysfunctions in alloparenting can have serious and sometimes fatal consequences for vulnerable infants and children. In spite of the importance of alloparenting, they still have much to learn regarding the underlying neurobiological systems governing its expression. Here, they review how a lack of alloparental behavior among traditional laboratory species has led to a blind spot in our understanding of this critical facet of human social behavior and the relevant neurobiology. Based on what is known, they draw from model systems ranging from voles to meerkats to primates to describe a conserved set of neuroendocrine mechanisms supporting the expression of alloparental care. In this review we describe the neurobiological and behavioral prerequisites, ontogeny, and consequences of alloparental care. Lastly, they identified several outstanding topics in the area of alloparental care that deserve further research efforts to better advance human health and wellbeing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 214-232, 2017.

  3. PTSD: from neurobiology to pharmacological treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kelmendi, Benjamin; Adams, Thomas G.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Southwick, Steven; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Krystal, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal that can arise immediately or many years after exposure to a traumatic event and injury. Although extensive research has been done over the past 30 years, the etiology of PTSD remains largely unknown. Several neurobiological systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology and vulnerability for developing PTSD; however, first-line pharmacotherapies are limited. Less than 30% achieve full remission, and even then, approved pharmacological treatments often take weeks for therapeutic effect. This article aims to review the pathophysiology of PTSD within multiple neurobiological systems and how these mechanisms are used as pharmacologic targets of treatment, as well as their potential for future targets of intervention. Highlights of the article We reviewed the neurobiological abnormalities in PTSD as they relate to well-established, preliminary, and future targets for pharmacological interventions. Abnormalities across different neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PTSD but none of these systems function uniformly among all patients with PTSD First-line pharmacotherapy for PTSD provides a suboptimal response rates. Future pharmacological targets for PTSD include the cannabinoid and oxytocin systems, as well glutamatergic modulating agents. Drug development for PTSD should specifically address various dimensions of PTSD symptomatology. PMID:27837583

  4. Neurobiological findings related to Internet use disorders.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeongsu; Han, Doug Hyun; Roh, Sungwon

    2016-07-23

    In the last 10 years, numerous neurobiological studies have been conducted on Internet addiction or Internet use disorder. Various neurobiological research methods - such as magnetic resonance imaging; nuclear imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography; molecular genetics; and neurophysiologic methods - have made it possible to discover structural or functional impairments in the brains of individuals with Internet use disorder. Specifically, Internet use disorder is associated with structural or functional impairment in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. These regions are associated with the processing of reward, motivation, memory, and cognitive control. Early neurobiological research results in this area indicated that Internet use disorder shares many similarities with substance use disorders, including, to a certain extent, a shared pathophysiology. However, recent studies suggest that differences in biological and psychological markers exist between Internet use disorder and substance use disorders. Further research is required for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of Internet use disorder.

  5. Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Ramoz, Nicolas; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, has been associated with various structural and functional CNS abnormalities but findings about neurobiological mechanisms linking genes to brain phenotypes are just beginning to emerge. Despite the high heritability of the disorder and its main symptom dimensions, common individual genetic variants are likely to account for a small proportion of the phenotype's variance. Recent findings have drawn attention to the involvement of rare genetic variants in the pathophysiology of ADHD, some being shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Traditionally, neurobiological research on ADHD has focused on catecholaminergic pathways, the main target of pharmacological treatments. However, more distal and basic neuronal processes in relation with cell architecture and function might also play a role, possibly accounting for the coexistence of both diffuse and specific alterations of brain structure and activation patterns. This article aims to provide an overview of recent findings in the rapidly evolving field of ADHD neurobiology with a focus on novel strategies regarding pathophysiological analyses.

  6. Neurobiological basis of motivational deficits in psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Koychev, Ivan; Correa, Mercè; McGuire, Philip

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on the importance of motivational symptoms in depression, schizophrenia and other disorders. The present review discusses the conceptual background related to the construct of motivation, and provides a framework that for research on both physiological and pathological aspects of motivation. Particular emphasis is placed on what is known about the neurobiological basis of activational aspects of motivation, including studies from animal models. The role of limbic/prefrontal/striatal circuitry in behavioral activation and effort-related functions is examined, and the utility of behavioral tasks of effort-based decision making as models of motivational symptoms is discussed. We also review the neurobiology of motivational symptoms in relation to psychopathology, and issues related to the language used to characterize motivational dysfunctions are considered. The literature suggests that research on the neurobiology of motivational dysfunction in psychopathology, at both clinical and preclinical levels, could inform the development of novel and more effective treatments for a range of CNS disorders.

  7. [Fetal pain - neurobiological causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rebelo, Sandra; Tavares, Isaura

    2010-01-01

    The existence of putatively painful situations to the fetus demands a careful evaluation of the issue of fetal pain. Several indirect approaches are used to evaluate the existence of fetal pain. Neurobiological studies showed that from the 30th week on, the anatomical and physiological system for pain transmission is already developed, with the connections from the periphery to the cortex being successively established. Stress responses to a painful stimulation are complex but they can be detected from the 16th week on. There is activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system and hemodynamic changes in response to nociceptive stimulation. In prematures exposed to pain there are significant increases of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, hemodynamic changes, motor reflexes and facial reactions. The changes induced by strong nociceptive stimulation of newborns have important postnatal consequences since they affect future reactions to noxious stimuli. Central sensitization and immaturity of the pain inhibitory system are the main neurobiological explanations for the increased pain. Detailed studies of the neurobiological mechanisms of the transmission of painful stimuli along with follow-up studies of the consequences of exposure to pain during the development of the fetus are necessary to fully understand fetal pain.

  8. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate.

  9. Intelsat VII communications capabilities and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Nabi, T.; Koh, E.; Kennedy, D.

    This paper describes the general characteristics of the Intelsat VII communications payload and analyzes the suitability of its design for digital transmission, for efficient incorporation of small earth stations into the Intelsat network, and for a relatively straightforward transition from the current Intelsat VA/VI configuration. An overview is presented of the comunications performance of the Intelsat VII satellite for the more important Intelsat digital and analog services, and earth stations standards. Specifically, the advantages, in terms of performance and capabilities, of the improved transponder linearity characteristics associated with the C-Band SSPA's and the K(u)-Band linearized TWTA's are addressed. The enhanced ability of this spacecraft to provide bandwidth where required from several possible orbital locations is discussed.

  10. Discussion and Debate, English, Debate: 5114.117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karen P.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on discussion and debate, this guide is designed to help students learn the elements of good discussion and informal debate in a classroom atmosphere emphasizing the democratic process. Performance objective for the course include compiling information for classroom discussions and informal debates,…

  11. ENDF/B-VII.1 versus ENDF/B-VII.0: What's Different?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2012-03-20

    Recently the new ENDF/B-VII.1 library was released; this completely replaces the earlier ENDF/B-VII.0 library. One of the first questions we ask about a new library is: What's Different? Here I attempt to at least partially answer this question. I present results in both tabulated form (so you can quickly determine if any evaluations of interest to you have changed), and graphic form (so that you can see how much evaluations have changed and in what energy ranges). For the table I have compared what I refer to as the ENDF neutron data, namely MF=1 through 6. Here I did a character-by-character comparison of the same sections (MF/MT) that appear I both ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1; here I found differences in 170 evaluations. For the plots I have only compared the total cross sections for all evaluations that are common to both libraries, and I found that of the 423 evaluations in ENDF/B-VII.1, 120 of these have total cross sections that differ by 1% or more from the evaluation of the same isotope in ENDF/B-VII.0. This should be considered only a preliminary comparison; obviously there can be more subtle important differences that do not effect of total cross sections. Here I present plots comparing the total cross section of these 120 isotopes. The plots are only broad overviews of the total cross sections over their entire energy range. If you have interest in more detailed plots for specific evaluations, you can download the evaluations [1,2] and the PREPRO [3] codes I used to prepare and view the data. This is all I needed to do my comparisons, and is all you should need to do any more detailed comparisons to meet your individual needs.

  12. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  13. [Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Grosbellet, Edith; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and disabling condition in school children, with cognitive and behavioral symptoms persisting into adulthood in a majority of patients. Etiology of ADHD is considered multifactorial and heterogenous, with an important contribution of genetic factors. Apart from genetic risk factors, emphasis has been put on the early environment, and prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with subsequent ADHD symptoms. This article reviews recent findings in neurobiology, genetics and neuroimaging of ADHD. Despite their clinical heterogeneity and frequent comorbidities, key symptoms of ADHD, such as impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention are regularly improved by dopaminergic agonists, leading to consider dopaminergic dysfunction a possibly contributing factor in ADHD. Norepinephrine agonists also have clinical efficacy on ADHD symptoms and several other neurotransmission systems are likely involved in the etiology of ADHD. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems have been related to impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory control and working memory. Cognitive tasks focusing on reaction time and verbal working memory fit certain criteria for ADHD endophenotypes, offering a pathway to bridge the gap between observed traits and genetic vulnerability. Despite ADHD being a highly heritable disorder, most candidate genes with replicated findings across association studies only account for a small proportion of genetic variance. Neuroimaging studies using treatment effect or cognitive tasks show differential activation patterns in ADHD patients, with trends towards normalization under treatment. Further insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved in ADHD will arise from collaborative networks and combination of imaging, genetic and neurobiological techniques with consideration of the developmental aspects of ADHD.

  14. Neurobiology of Wisdom?: A Literature Overview

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Thomas W.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2013-01-01

    Context Wisdom is a unique psychological trait noted since antiquity, long discussed in humanities disciplines, recently operationalized by psychology and sociology researchers, but largely unexamined in psychiatry or biology. Objective We discuss recent neurobiological studies related to subcomponents of wisdom identified from several published definitions/descriptions of wisdom by clinical investigators in the field – i.e., prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social decision-making/pragmatic knowledge of life, emotional homeostasis, reflection/self-understanding, value relativism/tolerance, and acknowledgement of and dealing effectively with uncertainty. Design Literature overview focusing primarily on neuroimaging/brain localization and secondarily on neurotransmitters, including their genetic determinants. Results Functional neuroimaging permits exploration of neural correlates of complex psychological attributes such as those proposed to comprise wisdom. The prefrontal cortex figures prominently in several wisdom subcomponents (e.g., emotional regulation, decision-making, value relativism), primarily via top-down regulation of limbic and striatal regions. The lateral prefrontal cortex facilitates calculated, reason-based decision-making, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in emotional valence and prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Reward neurocircuitry (ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens) also appears important for promoting prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Monoaminergic activity (especially dopaminergic and serotonergic), influenced by several genetic polymorphisms, is critical to certain subcomponents of wisdom such as emotional regulation (including impulse control), decision-making, and prosocial behaviors. Conclusions We have proposed a speculative model of the neurobiology of wisdom involving fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic circuits and monoaminergic pathways. Wisdom may involve optimal balance between functions of phylogenetically more

  15. The neurobiology of relapse in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Remington, Gary; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Fervaha, Gagan; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Hahn, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine's proposed role in psychosis proved a starting point in our understanding of the neurobiology of relapse, fitting given the central role positive symptoms play. This link is reflected in early work examining neurotransmitter metabolite and drug (e.g. amphetamine, methylphenidate) challenge studies as a means of better understanding relapse and predictors. Since, lines of investigation have expanded (e.g. electrophysiological, immunological, hormonal, stress), an important step forward if relapse per se is the question. Arguably, perturbations in dopamine represent the final common pathway in psychosis but it is evident that, like schizophrenia, relapse is heterogeneous and multidimensional. In understanding the neurobiology of relapse, greater gains are likely to be made if these distinctions are acknowledged; for example, efforts to identify trait markers might better be served by distinguishing primary (i.e. idiopathic) and secondary (e.g. substance abuse, medication nonadherence) forms of relapse. Similarly, it has been suggested that relapse is 'neurotoxic', yet individuals do very well on clozapine after multiple relapses and the designation of treatment resistance. An alternative explanation holds that schizophrenia is characterized by different trajectories, at least to some extent biologically and/or structurally distinguishable from the outset, with differential patterns of response and relapse. Just as with schizophrenia, it seems naïve to conceptualize the neurobiology of relapse as a singular process. We propose that it is shaped by the form of illness and in place from the outset, modified by constitutional factors like resilience, as well as treatment, and confounded by secondary forms of relapse. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  17. The Neurobiological Toll of Early Human Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A; Bos, Karen; Gunnar, Megan R; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2011-12-01

    Children raised in institutions frequently suffer from a variety of behavioral, emotional, and neuropsychological sequelae, including deficits in attention, executive functions, disorders of attachment and in some cases a syndrome that mimics autism. The extent and severity of these disorders appears to be mediated, in part, by the age at which the child entered and, in some cases, left the institution. Here we review the neurobiological literature on early institutionalization that may account for the psychological and neurological sequelae discussed in other chapters in this volume.

  18. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  19. Neurobiology of wisdom: a literature overview.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Thomas W; Jeste, Dilip V

    2009-04-01

    Wisdom is a unique psychological trait noted since antiquity, long discussed in humanities disciplines, recently operationalized by psychology and sociology researchers, but largely unexamined in psychiatry or biology. To discuss recent neurobiological studies related to subcomponents of wisdom identified from several published definitions/descriptions of wisdom by clinical investigators in the field, ie, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social decision making/pragmatic knowledge of life, emotional homeostasis, reflection/self-understanding, value relativism/tolerance, and acknowledgment of and dealing effectively with uncertainty. Literature focusing primarily on neuroimaging/brain localization and secondarily on neurotransmitters, including their genetic determinants. Studies involving functional neuroimaging or neurotransmitter functioning, examining human (rather than animal) subjects, and identified via a PubMed search using keywords from any of the 6 proposed subcomponents of wisdom were included. Studies were reviewed by both of us, and data considered to be potentially relevant to the neurobiology of wisdom were extracted. Functional neuroimaging permits exploration of neural correlates of complex psychological attributes such as those proposed to comprise wisdom. The prefrontal cortex figures prominently in several wisdom subcomponents (eg, emotional regulation, decision making, value relativism), primarily via top-down regulation of limbic and striatal regions. The lateral prefrontal cortex facilitates calculated, reason-based decision making, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in emotional valence and prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Reward neurocircuitry (ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens) also appears important for promoting prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Monoaminergic activity (especially dopaminergic and serotonergic), influenced by several genetic polymorphisms, is critical to certain subcomponents of wisdom such as emotional

  20. The neurobiology of late-life psychosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, F W

    1993-01-01

    Developments in understanding the neurobiology of late-life psychosis have centered primarily on structural, functional, and neurochemical factors. Structural factors have included the study of white matter hyperintensity signals on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and associated vascular diseases as possible etiologies of psychosis in the elderly. Functional studies have continued to note frontal and medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Important neurochemical factors in psychosis include dopamine systems, serine metabolism, and the role of neurotensin. The neurochemical basis of psychosis has been proposed as a dysfunction of the corticostriatal pathways with negative feedback disinhibition of the thalamus with resultant sensory flooding, which leads to the perception of psychosis in susceptible patients.

  1. Reconstructing the stem cell debate.

    PubMed

    Sitko, Bradley J

    2002-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have been a major topic in science, medicine, and religion since their discovery in 1998. However, due to the complex discourse and rhetoric of scientific language, debate has remained within the professional realm via "expert bioethics." Using the tenets of pragmatism, the author examines the need to move the debate to society as a whole and disentangle the stem cell debate from the ideologies of the human cloning and abortion debates. Opening this issue to a societal debate will advance societal growth, resulting in informed decisions on moral issues, funding, or regulation associated with hES cell research.

  2. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  3. The great climate debate

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty The authors thinks so. The paper presents data on the rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}; projected rises in CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluoro-carbons; the changing pattern of global CO{sub 2} emissions from North America, USSR and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Developing Countries, and others; the results of 3 computer models of climate change; and the contribution to global warming from various human activities.

  4. The Neurobiology of Impulse Control Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wendol A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the neurobiological substrates of impulse control disorders (ICDs). Pathological gambling (PG) is a main focus of the review in that most biological studies of the formal ICDs have examined this disorder. Methods The medical database MedLine from 1966 to present was searched to identify relevant articles that were subsequently reviewed to generate this manuscript. Results Preclinical studies suggest that differential brain monoamine neuromodulation is associated with impulsive decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. Clinical studies implicate multiple neurotransmitter systems (serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic, and opioidergic) in the pathophysiology of PG and other ICDs. Initial neuroimaging studies have implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum in the pathophysiology of PG and other ICDs. Genetic contributions to PG seem substantial and initial studies have implicated specific allelic polymorphisms, although genome-wide analyses have yet to be published. Conclusion Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neurobiology of ICDs, more research is needed to extend existing knowledge and translate these findings into clinical advances. PMID:18278382

  5. Neurobiologic basis of craving for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tamara; Santander, Jaime; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Ana María

    2014-03-01

    There is a relationship between emotional disorders, obesity, and craving for carbohydrates. This relationship complicates the success of treatments aimed at combatting obesity, which is considered to be the epidemic of the twenty-first century. We conducted a review of the neurobiologic basis for carbohydrate craving, with the hope that this understanding will enable the design of more efficient therapeutic strategies. We conducted a non-systematic literature search in PubMed using MeSH. Research on the basis of carbohydrate craving is varied, but may be grouped into five main areas: the serotonergic system, palatability and hedonic response, the motivational system, stress response systems, and gene-environment interaction. The models that integrate motivational systems with palatability and hedonic response studies are the ones that we believe can best explain both craving for carbohydrates and related addictive phenomena. Research has contributed to a greater understanding of the neurobiologic basis of carbohydrate craving. The latter, in turn, contributes to an understanding of the implications, challenges, and possible therapies that might be put in place to cope with this phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomimetic visual detection based on insect neurobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, David C.

    2001-11-01

    With a visual system that accounts for as much as 30% of the lifted mass, flying insects such as dragonflies and hoverflies invest more in vision than any other animal. Impressive visual performance is subserved by a surprisingly simple visual system. In a typical insect eye, between 2,000 and 30,000 pixels in the image are analyzed by fewer than 200,000 neurons in underlying neural circuits. The combination of sophisticated visual processing with an approachable level of complexity has made the insect visual system a leading model for biomimetic approaches to computer vision. Much neurobiological research has focused on neural circuits used for detection of moving patterns (e.g. optical flow during flight) and moving targets (e.g. prey). Research from several labs has led to great advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved, and has spawned neuromorphic hardware based on key processes identified in neurobiological experiments. Despite its attractions, the highly non-linear nature of several key stages in insect visual processing presents a challenge to understanding. I will describe examples of adaptive elements of neural circuits in the fly visual system which analyze the direction and velocity of wide-field optical flow patterns and the result of experiments that suggest that these non-linearities may contribute to robust responses to natural image motion.

  7. Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction.

  8. Apolipoprotein E: from lipid transport to neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Paul S.; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Ryan, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E has a storied history as a lipid transport protein. The integral association between cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein clearance from circulation are intimately related to apoE's function as a ligand for cell surface receptors of the low density lipoprotein receptor family. The receptor binding properties of apoE are strongly influenced by isoform specific amino acid differences as well as the lipidation state of the protein. As understanding of apoE as a structural component of circulating plasma lipoproteins has evolved, exciting developments in neurobiology have revitalized interest in apoE. The strong and enduring correlation between the apoE4 isoform and age of onset and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease has catapulted apoE to the forefront of neurobiology. Using genetic tools generated for study of apoE lipoprotein metabolism, transgenic “knock-in” and gene-disrupted mice are now favored models for study of its role in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Key structural knowledge of apoE and isoform specific differences is driving research activity designed to elucidate how a single amino acid change can manifest such profoundly significant pathological consequences. This review describes apoE through a lens of structure-based knowledge that leads to hypotheses that attempt to explain the functions of apoE and isoform specific effects relating to disease mechanism. PMID:20854843

  9. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  10. Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  11. A debate about the merits of debate in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Hartin, Peter; Birks, Melanie; Bodak, Marie; Woods, Cindy; Hitchins, Marnie

    2017-09-01

    In this 'Issues for Debate' paper, the issue is debate. Today's nurses must be able to advocate, lead, and grow 'big ideas', as well as knowing their way around a patient's body and mind. This paper reports, partly, on a research study into the use of debate to develop clinical reasoning and thinking skills in nursing students. The study was conducted with first and third-year nursing students enrolled at an Australian regional university. Students were asked to comment on the effectiveness of debate as an educational strategy. We combine the results of this research study with literature and discussion into the educational uses of debate to put the argument that using debate in nursing education can be an effective way to foster the type of creative, intelligent, thoughtful and forward-thinking nurses needed in the modern healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Neurobiological Basis for SLA and First Language Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bode, Stella

    The two-part paper examines the neurobiological processes of synapse overproduction, synapse elimination, and issues of language acquisition and attrition. The first part consists of diagrams and notes explaining some basic terms and concepts of neurobiology: cortex; white matter; neuron; synapse; synaptogenesis; and development and organization…

  13. Research Review: The Neurobiology and Genetics of Maltreatment and Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in…

  14. Chemical genetics: a small molecule approach to neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Koh, Brian; Crews, Craig M

    2002-11-14

    Chemical genetics, or the specific modulation of cellular systems by small molecules, has complemented classical genetic analysis throughout the history of neurobiology. We outline several of its contributions to the understanding of ion channel biology, heat and cold signal transduction, sleep and diurnal rhythm regulation, effects of immunophilin ligands, and cell surface oligosaccharides with respect to neurobiology.

  15. Research Review: The Neurobiology and Genetics of Maltreatment and Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in…

  16. Neurobiology Research Findings: How the Brain Works during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kweldju, Siusana

    2015-01-01

    In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…

  17. Factor VII deficiency in a mixed breed dog.

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, R; Scherer, J; Ross, M L; Gentry, P A

    1999-01-01

    Abnormal bleeding following routine orchectomy of a 5-month-old mixed breed was determined to be due to factor VII deficiency. Although pedigree information was unavailable, failure to respond to vitamin K therapy and the absence of a plasma coagulation inhibitor suggested that the factor VII deficiency was likely inherited rather than acquired. PMID:10416073

  18. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Vii to Part 85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false I Appendixes I-VII to Part 85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Appendixes I-VII to Part 85...

  19. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Vii to Part 85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false I Appendixes I-VII to Part 85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Appendixes I-VII to Part 85...

  20. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Vii to Part 85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false I Appendixes I-VII to Part 85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Appendixes I-VII to Part 85...

  1. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Vii to Part 85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false I Appendixes I-VII to Part 85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Appendixes I-VII to Part 85...

  2. 32 CFR 2003.7 - Support Staff (Article VII).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Support Staff (Article VII). 2003.7 Section 2003.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... (ISCAP) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.7 Support Staff (Article VII). The staff...

  3. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Vii to Part 85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-VII to Part 85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Appendixes I-VII to Part 85...

  4. 40 CFR Appendixes Vi-Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VI Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600 ...

  5. 40 CFR Appendixes Vi-Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false VI Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600 ...

  6. Act Three: Some Thoughts on the Thrust of Title VII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specter, Russell

    1977-01-01

    During the 10 years of existence of Title VII, the compliance agencies and courts have gradually developed procedures and standards of proof looking toward the eradication of bias and discrimination in employment. The course of Title VII to date is reviewed and some observations on future approaches are offered. (Editor/LBH)

  7. Title VII and Public Employers: Did Congress Exceed Its Powers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, John P.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of federal legislation aimed at discriminatory practices of state and local governments as mandated by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 is examined. Several Title VII violations are outlined; it is concluded that federal authority can be upheld under Title VII and the Fourteenth Amendment.…

  8. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  9. The euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Harris, N M

    2001-10-01

    Debates about the moral dilemmas of euthanasia date back to ancient times. Many of the historical arguments used for and against the practice remain valid today. Indeed, any form of discussion on the subject often provokes emotive responses, both from members of the medical profession and the general public. For this reason alone, the issue will continue to be debated at all levels of society. There are, however, other factors that ensure euthanasia will remain a subject of major controversy within medical, legal and governmental bodies. Firstly, the act of euthanasia itself is illegal, yet in its passive form occurs on a daily basis in many of our hospitals (1). Secondly, medical advances have made it possible to artificially prolong the life of an increasing number of patients far beyond what was possible only a few years ago. Furthermore, we must all contend with the reality that financial constraints are an important consideration in modern health care provision. Finally, there is an ethical difficulty in interpreting the concept of a patient's right, or autonomy, versus the rights and duty of a doctor. Before attempting to answer the questions posed by these issues, it is important to have some accurate definitions of both euthanasia and of the concept of morality. According to the House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics, the precise definition of euthanasia is "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering" (2). The term can be further divided into voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. The former is said to occur if a competent patient makes an informed request for a life terminating event and the latter can be used if a patient does not give informed and specific consent for such treatment. It is the occurrence of involuntary euthanasia which forms one of the main arguments against legalisation. This is discussed in greater detail below. Euthanasia is frequently separated into

  10. Neurobiology and the development of violence: common assumptions and controversies.

    PubMed

    Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2008-08-12

    This paper addresses four common assumptions and related controversies regarding neurobiological factors explaining violence: (i) scholars often assume stability of individual differences in neurobiological factors pertaining to violence, yet much change occurs in aggression/violence during the life course, (ii) individual differences in aggression/violence reflect one or more underlying mechanisms that are believed to have neurobiological origins, yet there is little agreement about which underlying mechanisms apply best, (iii) the development of aggression/violence to some degree can be explained by social, individual, economic and environmental factors, yet it is unclear to what extent neurobiological factors can explain the escalation to, and desistance from, violence over and above social, individual, economic and environmental factors, and (iv) violence waxes and wanes in society over time, yet the explanation of secular differences in violence by means of neurobiological and other factors is not clear. Longitudinal analyses from the Pittsburgh Youth Study are used to illustrate several of these issues.

  11. Reflections on the debriefing debate.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the debate on debriefing that has persisted for two decades and remains largely unresolved to this day. A brief history of Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) is given, these being the subject of the debate, followed by a summary of the development and current status of the debate. Discussion follows on why the opposing positions appear to be at a stalemate.

  12. Moving beyond the GM Debate

    PubMed Central

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-01-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture. PMID:24914954

  13. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    PubMed

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-06-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.

  14. Debaters as Storytellers: The Narrative Perspective in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Argues that in order to counter the current elitism of academic debate, exemplars must be developed which emphasize teaching students the skills required to communicate arguments to inspire citizen activism. Proposes a narrative perspective of debate and offers suggestions regarding how this perspective might be applied and practiced. (MM)

  15. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context…

  16. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  17. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…

  18. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context…

  19. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  20. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…

  1. Neurobiology of fear and specific phobias.

    PubMed

    Garcia, René

    2017-09-01

    Fear, which can be expressed innately or after conditioning, is triggered when a danger or a stimulus predicting immediate danger is perceived. Its role is to prepare the body to face this danger. However, dysfunction in fear processing can lead to psychiatric disorders in which fear outweighs the danger or possibility of harm. Although recognized as highly debilitating, pathological fear remains insufficiently treated, indicating the importance of research on fear processing. The neurobiological basis of normal and pathological fear reactions is reviewed in this article. Innate and learned fear mechanisms, particularly those involving the amygdala, are considered. These fear mechanisms are also distinguished in specific phobias, which can indeed be nonexperiential (implicating innate, learning-independent mechanisms) or experiential (implicating learning-dependent mechanisms). Poor habituation and poor extinction are presented as dysfunctional mechanisms contributing to persistence of nonexperiential and experiential phobias, respectively. © 2017 Garcia; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Neurobiology of addiction. An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that psychoactive substance use disorders, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and sexual addiction share an underlying biopsychological process is summarized. Definitions are offered for addiction and addictive process, the latter being the proposed designation for the underlying biopsychological process that addictive disorders are hypothesized to share. The addictive process is introduced as an interaction of impairments in three functional systems: motivation-reward, affect regulation, and behavioral inhibition. An integrative review of the literature that addresses the neurobiology of addiction is then presented, organized according to the three functional systems that constitute the addictive process. The review is directed toward identifying candidate neurochemical substrates for the impairments in motivation-reward, affect regulation, and behavioral inhibition that could contribute to an addictive process.

  3. Neurobiological Adaptations to Violence across Development

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Hilary K.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Shannon, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to violent environments across development involves a multitude of cascading effects spanning many levels of analysis from genes to behavior. In this review, we (a) examine the potentiating effects of violence on genetic vulnerabilities and the functioning of neurotransmitter systems in producing both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, (b) consider the impact of violence on the developing human stress and startle responses, and (c) brain development including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This review integrates literature on the developmental effects of violence on rodents, non-human primates, and humans. Many neurobiological changes that are adaptive for survival in violent contexts become maladaptive in other environments, conferring life-long risk for psychopathology. PMID:20102643

  4. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug.

  5. The neurobiology of learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R F

    1986-08-29

    Study of the neurobiology of learning and memory is in a most exciting phase. Behavioral studies in animals are characterizing the categories and properties of learning and memory; essential memory trace circuits in the brain are being defined and localized in mammalian models; work on human memory and the brain is identifying neuronal systems involved in memory; the neuronal, neurochemical, molecular, and biophysical substrates of memory are beginning to be understood in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems; and theoretical and mathematical analysis of basic associative learning and of neuronal networks in proceeding apace. Likely applications of this new understanding of the neural bases of learning and memory range from education to the treatment of learning disabilities to the design of new artificial intelligence systems.

  6. Neurobiology of Inflammation-Associated Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Gautron, Laurent; Layé, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients. PMID:20582290

  7. Towards a new neurobiology of language

    PubMed Central

    Poeppel, David; Emmorey, Karen; Hickok, Gregory; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical advances in language research and the availability of increasingly high-resolution experimental techniques in the cognitive neurosciences are profoundly changing how we investigate and conceive of the neural basis of speech and language processing. Recent work closely aligns language research with issues at the core of systems neuroscience, ranging from neurophysiological and neuroanatomic characterizations to questions about neural coding. Here we highlight, across different aspects of language processing (perception, production, sign language, meaning construction), new insights and approaches to the neurobiology of language, aiming to describe promising new areas of investigation in which the neurosciences intersect with linguistic research more closely than before. This paper summarizes in brief some of the issues that constitute the background for talks presented in a symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. It is not a comprehensive review of any of the issues that are discussed in the symposium. PMID:23055482

  8. Neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Charles L.; Airavaara, Mikko; Theberge, Florence; Fanous, Sanya; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested in 1986 that cue-induced drug craving in cocaine addicts progressively increases over the first several weeks of abstinence and remains high for extended periods. During the last decade, investigators have identified an analogous incubation phenomenon in rodents, in which time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug seeking are observed after withdrawal from intravenous cocaine self-administration. Such an incubation of drug craving is not specific to cocaine, as similar findings have been observed after self-administration of heroin, nicotine, methamphetamine, and alcohol in rats. In this review, we discuss recent results that have identified important brain regions involved in the incubation of drug craving, as well as evidence for the underlying cellular mechanisms. Understanding the neurobiology of the incubation of drug craving in rodents is likely to have significant implications for furthering our understanding of brain mechanisms and circuits that underlie drug craving in human addicts. PMID:21764143

  9. Sleep Neurobiology from a Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Many neurochemical systems interact to generate wakefulness and sleep. Wakefulness is promoted by neurons in the pons, midbrain, and posterior hypothalamus that produce acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, and orexin/hypocretin. Most of these ascending arousal systems diffusely activate the cortex and other forebrain targets. NREM sleep is mainly driven by neurons in the preoptic area that inhibit the ascending arousal systems, while REM sleep is regulated primarily by neurons in the pons, with additional influence arising in the hypothalamus. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating regions likely helps generate full wakefulness and sleep with rapid transitions between states. This up-to-date review of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness. Citation: España RA; Scammell TE. Sleep neurobiology from a clinical perspective. SLEEP 2011;34(7):845-858. PMID:21731134

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Genes to Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, A. Jeremy; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genome-wide technology, coupled with the availability of large cohorts, are finally yielding a steady stream of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes carrying mutations of large effect. These findings represent important molecular clues, but at the same time present notable challenges to traditional strategies for moving from genes to neurobiology. A remarkable degree of genetic heterogeneity, the biological pleiotropy of ASD genes, and the tremendous complexity of the human brain are prompting the development of new approaches to translating genetic discoveries into therapeutic targets. Recent developments in systems biology approaches that ‘contextualize’ these genetic findings along spatial, temporal, and cellular axes of human brain development are beginning to bridge the gap between high-throughput gene discovery and testable pathophysiological hypotheses. PMID:25464374

  11. Autism spectrum disorders: from genes to neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Willsey, A Jeremy; State, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Advances in genome-wide technology, coupled with the availability of large cohorts, are finally yielding a steady stream of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes carrying mutations of large effect. These findings represent important molecular clues, but at the same time present notable challenges to traditional strategies for moving from genes to neurobiology. A remarkable degree of genetic heterogeneity, the biological pleiotropy of ASD genes, and the tremendous complexity of the human brain are prompting the development of new strategies for translating genetic discoveries into therapeutic targets. Recent developments in systems biology approaches that 'contextualize' these genetic findings along spatial, temporal, and cellular axes of human brain development are beginning to bridge the gap between high-throughput gene discovery and testable pathophysiological hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurobiological Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Position and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Across individuals, risk for poor health varies inversely with socioeconomic position (SEP). The pathways by which SEP affects health have been viewed from many epidemiological perspectives. Central to these perspectives is the notion that socioeconomic health disparities arise from an interplay between nested, recursive, and cumulative environmental, social, familial, psychological, behavioral, and physiological processes that unfold over the life span. Epidemiological perspectives on socioeconomic health disparities, however, have not yet formally integrated emerging findings from neuropharmacological, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies demonstrating that indicators of SEP relate to patterns of brain neurotransmission, brain morphology, and brain functionality implicated in the etiology of chronic medical conditions and psychological disorders. Here, we survey these emerging findings and consider how future neurobiological studies in this area can enhance our understanding of the pathways by which different dimensions of SEP become embodied by the brain to influence health throughout life. PMID:20498294

  13. Contactins in the neurobiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Zuko, Amila; Kleijer, Kristel T E; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kas, Martien J H; van Daalen, Emma; van der Zwaag, Bert; Burbach, J Peter H

    2013-11-05

    Autism is a disease of brain plasticity. Inspiring work of Willem Hendrik Gispen on neuronal plasticity has stimulated us to investigate gene defects in autism and the consequences for brain development. The central process in the pathogenesis of autism is local dendritic mRNA translation which is dependent on axodendritic communication. Hence, most autism-related gene products (i) are part of the protein synthesis machinery itself, (ii) are components of the mTOR signal transduction pathway, or (iii) shape synaptic activity and plasticity. Accordingly, prototype drugs have been recognized that interfere with these pathways. The contactin (CNTN) family of Ig cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) harbours at least three members that have genetically been implicated in autism: CNTN4, CNTN5, and CNTN6. In this chapter we review the genetic and neurobiological data underpinning their role in normal and abnormal development of brain systems, and the consequences for behavior. Although data on each of these CNTNs are far from complete, we tentatively conclude that these three contactins play roles in brain development in a critical phase of establishing brain systems and their plasticity. They modulate neuronal activities, such as neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, survival, guidance of projections and terminal branching of axons in forming neural circuits. Current research on these CNTNs concentrate on the neurobiological mechanism of their developmental functions. A future task will be to establish if proposed pharmacological strategies to counteract ASD-related symptomes can also be applied to reversal of phenotypes caused by genetic defects in these CNTN genes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  15. Curriculum Debate and Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgstrom, Ole; Hellstenius, Mats

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the underlying themes and principles that inform curriculum debate and how they are articulated in current school policy discussions. This topic is approached with the help of a case study covering the debate on which subjects should be mandatory for students at the upper secondary school curriculum in Sweden. The focus…

  16. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  17. The Great Mini-Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Debates remain popular in English language courses, and this activity gives students a low-stress opportunity to develop their speaking debating skills. This lesson plan is appropriate for upper intermediate or advanced students. Goals of the activity are to present an oral argument using evidence and use functional language related to agreeing,…

  18. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  19. Back to Basics in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallmark, Michael

    High school debate style should emphasize persuasion, information, and logic above other skills. Recent trends, such as excessive speed of delivery and excessive amounts of evidence used in debate, have tended to inhibit the effective acquisition of those skills for students. Potential methods for moderating speed and evidence use are not allowing…

  20. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  1. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  2. Intercollegiate Debate: An Intrapersonal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwik, Theodore; Mehrley, R. Samuel

    1971-01-01

    The Thesis of the paper is that there is need to distinguish between debating as a means of training for public policy decision making and debatingas a means of training students in the cognitive processes necessary for effective decision making. The author views debating as fundamental training in interpersonal communication. (Author/MS)

  3. Debating in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Regular debating can be an effective way of improving the performance of ESL pupils and of assessing their language-learning propensities. It requires a lot of listening as well as speaking and generally seems to foster confidence in language use. The relationships set up in debating are pupil-pupil rather than pupil-teacher. (CFM)

  4. Pathogenesis of lumbar spine disease in mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lachlan J; Baldo, Guilherme; Wu, Susan; Liu, Yuli; Whyte, Michael P; Giugliani, Roberto; Elliott, Dawn M; Haskins, Mark E; Ponder, Katherine P

    2012-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase (GUSB) activity, which leads to accumulation of chondroitin, heparan and dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and multisystemic disease. MPS VII patients can develop kypho-scoliotic deformity and spinal cord compression due to disease of intervertebral disks, vertebral bodies, and associated tissues. We have previously demonstrated in MPS VII dogs that intervertebral disks degenerate, vertebral bodies have irregular surfaces, and vertebral body epiphyses have reduced calcification, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. We hypothesized that some of these manifestations could be due to upregulation of destructive proteases, possibly via the binding of GAGs to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), as has been proposed for other tissues in MPS models. In this study, the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disk of 6-month-old MPS VII dogs had cathepsin B and K activities that were 117- and 2-fold normal, respectively, which were associated with elevations in mRNA levels for these cathepsins as well as TLR4. The epiphyses of MPS VII dogs had a marked elevation in mRNA for the cartilage-associated gene collagen II, consistent with a developmental delay in the conversion of the cartilage to bone in this region. The spine obtained at autopsy from a young man with MPS VII exhibited similar increased cartilage in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the end plates, disorganization of the intervertebral disks, and irregular vertebral end plate morphology. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of destructive changes in the spine in MPS VII may involve upregulation of cathepsins. Inhibition of destructive proteases, such as cathepsins, might reduce spine disease in patients with MPS VII or related disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reading development and impairment: behavioral, social, and neurobiological factors.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2005-10-01

    What are the cognitive and neurobiological building blocks necessary for children to acquire literacy, a skill that is crucial for academic and life achievement? In this review we discuss the behavioral and neurobiological evidence concerning the bases of reading development and impairment. The means by which reading achievement may be influenced by the background and experiences that a child brings to the classroom are discussed. Finally, we review a series of experimental studies that have examined the cognitive and neurobiological response prior to and following reading intervention in struggling readers. The importance of appropriate control groups is stressed, as well as the ultimate goal of designing reading interventions that target individual needs.

  6. Comparison of ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 Results for the Expanded Criticality Validation Suite for MCNP and for Selected Additional Criticality Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosteller, R.

    2014-04-01

    Results obtained with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries have been compared for the 119 benchmarks in the expanded criticality validation suite for MCNP and for 23 additional benchmarks. ENDF/B-VII.1 was found to produce improvements relative to ENDF/B-VII.0 for benchmarks that contain significant amounts of tungsten, zirconium, cadmium, or beryllium, although the results for the benchmarks with beryllium suggest that further improvement still may be needed. In addition, a number of deficiencies previously identified for ENDF/B-VII.0 still remain in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  7. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P < 0.001) overlapped with areas that were sexually dimorphic in neurotypical controls, in both grey and white matter, suggesting neural ‘masculinization’. This was not seen in males with autism. How differences in

  8. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C L; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-09-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the 'extreme male brain' theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P < 0.001) overlapped with areas that were sexually dimorphic in neurotypical controls, in both grey and white matter, suggesting neural 'masculinization'. This was not seen in males with autism. How differences in neuroanatomy

  9. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.

  10. Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

  11. The neurobiology of alcohol craving and relapse.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongju; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    A major block to recovery from alcoholism is substantial alcohol craving and the chronic relapsing nature of the illness. This chapter reviews relevant structural and functional neuroimaging studies and discusses neural mechanisms underlying alcohol craving and relapse in the context of influential risk factors (i.e., alcohol, alcohol cue, and stress). Review of neuroimaging studies suggests that neuroadaptations in the cortico-striatal-limbic circuit encompassing the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and amygdala significantly contribute to overwhelming alcohol craving and early relapse after a period of abstinence. The cortico-striatal-limbic circuit plays an important role in the modulation of emotion, reward, and decision making. As functional and structural chronic alcohol-related neuroadaptations are consistently reported in this circuit, it is likely that sensitization of this circuit from continued alcohol abuse may contribute to high alcohol craving and early relapse via impairments in the prefrontal executive function related to emotion regulation and decision making. This vulnerable neurobiologic state may be manifested as compulsive craving and intense urge to resume alcohol drinking in the face of environmental risk factors, including alcohol, alcohol cue, or stressful live events. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Drug resistant epilepsy. Clinical and neurobiological concepts].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Jovel, Camilo A; Sobrino-Mejía, Fidel E

    2015-08-16

    Drug-resistant epilepsy, is a condition defined by the International League Against Epilepsy as persistent seizures despite having used at least two appropriate and adequate antiepileptic drug treatments. Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy are going to be resistant to antiepileptic drugs, with different patterns of clinical presentation, which are related to the biological basis of this disease (de novo resistance, relapsing-remitting and progressive). Drug resistant epilepsy, impacts negatively the quality of life and significantly increases the risk of premature death. From the neurobiological point of view, this medical condition is the result of the interaction of multiple variables related to the underlying disease, drug interactions and proper genetic aspects of each patient. Thanks to advances in pharmacogenetics and molecular biology research, currently some hypotheses may explain the cause of this condition and promote the study of new therapeutic options. Currently, overexpression of membrane transporters such as P-glycoprotein, appears to be one of the most important mechanisms in the development of drug resistant epilepsy. The objective of this review is to deepen the general aspects of this clinical condition, addressing the definition, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and the pathophysiological bases.

  13. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  14. Developmental psychopathology and neurobiology of aggression.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Jackie K; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify how neural mechanisms at the molecular level, specifically the serotonergic (5-HT) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system (HPA) in conjunction with early life stress may contribute to the emergence of aggression, self-directed and otherwise, in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic dysregulation of these biological systems, which function to regulate stress and emotion, may potentiate the development of impulsive aggression in borderline personality conditions. Our central premise in this paper is that brain development, stress regulation, and early pathonomic experience are interactive and cumulative in their mutual influence on the development of impulsive aggression in BPD. We review the parameters of impulsive aggression in BPD, followed by a discussion of the neurobiological and neuroendocrine correlates of impulsive aggression with and without BPD. We then focus on the developmental continuities in BPD with attention to brain maturation of 5-HT and HPA axis function during the life span and the influence of early adverse experiences on these systems. Finally, we comment on the data of the relative stability of aggression in BPD, adolescence as a developmental stage of potential vulnerability, and the course of aggressive behavior during the life span.

  15. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-01-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABAA, glycine and 5HT3 receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABAA receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858

  16. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-05-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABA(A), glycine and 5HT(3) receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development.

  17. An embodied view of octopus neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Hochner, Binyamin

    2012-10-23

    Octopuses have a unique flexible body and unusual morphology, but nevertheless they are undoubtedly a great evolutionary success. They compete successfully with vertebrates in their ecological niche using a rich behavioral repertoire more typical of an intelligent predator which includes extremely effective defensive behavior--fast escape swimming and an astonishing ability to adapt their shape and color to their environment. The most obvious characteristic feature of an octopus is its eight long and flexible arms, but these pose a great challenge for achieving the level of motor and sensory information processing necessary for their behaviors. First, coordinating motion is a formidable task because of the infinite degrees of freedom that have to be controlled; and second, it is hard to use body coordinates in this flexible animal to represent sensory information in a central control system. Here I will review experimental results suggesting that these difficulties, arising from the animal's morphology, have imposed the evolution of unique brain/body/behavior relationships best explained as intelligent behavior which emerges from the octopus's embodied organization. The term 'intelligent embodiment' comes from robotics and refers to an approach to designing autonomous robots in which the behavior emerges from the dynamic physical and sensory interactions of the agent's materials, morphology and environment. Consideration of the unusual neurobiology of the octopus in the light of its unique morphology suggests that similar embodied principles are instrumental for understanding the emergence of intelligent behavior in all biological systems.

  18. Neurobiology of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Sluka, Kathleen A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-12-03

    Fibromyalgia is the current term for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain for which no alternative cause can be identified. The underlying mechanisms, in both human and animal studies, for the continued pain in individuals with fibromyalgia will be explored in this review. There is a substantial amount of support for alterations of central nervous system nociceptive processing in people with fibromyalgia, and that psychological factors such as stress can enhance the pain experience. Emerging evidence has begun exploring other potential mechanisms including a peripheral nervous system component to the generation of pain and the role of systemic inflammation. We will explore the data and neurobiology related to the role of the CNS in nociceptive processing, followed by a short review of studies examining potential peripheral nervous system changes and cytokine involvement. We will not only explore the data from human subjects with fibromyalgia but will relate this to findings from animal models of fibromyalgia. We conclude that fibromyalgia and related disorders are heterogenous conditions with a complicated pathobiology with patients falling along a continuum with one end a purely peripherally driven painful condition and the other end of the continuum is when pain is purely centrally driven. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Etiopathogenesis and Neurobiology of Narcolepsy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Swarup; Sagili, Haritha

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic lifelong sleep disorder and it often leaves a debilitating effect on the quality of life of the sufferer. This disorder is characterized by a tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (brief loss of muscle tone following strong emotion), hypnogogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. There are two distinct subgroups of Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy with cataplexy and Narcolepsy without cataplexy. For over 100 years, clinicians have recognised narcolepsy, but only in the last few decades have scientists been able to shed light on the true cause and pathogenesis of narcolepsy. Recent studies have shown that a loss of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Hypocretin/Orexincauses Narcolepsy with cataplexy and that an autoimmune mechanism may be responsible for this loss. Our understanding of the neurophysiologic aspect of narcolepsy has also significantly improved. The basic neural mechanisms behind sleepiness and cataplexy, the two defining symptoms of narcolepsy have started to become clearer. In this review, we have provided a detailed account of the key aspects of etiopathogenesis and neurobiology of narcolepsy, along with a critical appraisal of the more recent and interesting causal associations.We have also looked at the contributions of neuroimaging to the etiopathogenesis of Narcolepsy. PMID:24701532

  20. Removing pathogenic memories: a neurobiology of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2005-10-01

    Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic plasticity. This article describes the neurobiological bases of pathogenic memory disruption to provide some insight into how psychotherapy works. At least two mechanisms of unwanted memory erasing appear to be implicated in the effects of psychotherapy: inhibition of memory consolidation/reconsolidation and extinction. Behavioral evidence demonstrated that these two ways to forget are profoundly distinct in nature, and it is increasingly clear that their cellular, synaptic, and molecular underpinnings are different. Accordingly, the blockade of consolidation/reconsolidation erases memories by reversing the plasticity associated with memory maintenance, whereas extinction is a totally new form of plasticity that, similar to the plasticity underlying the old memory, requires protein synthesis-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  1. Early Institutionalization: Neurobiological Consequences and Genetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation. PMID:21042937

  2. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states.

  3. Lens Biology is a Dimension of Neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Frederikse, Peter; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2017-02-04

    There is a second cell type in your body that expresses scores of the most intensively studied genes in neuroscience and exclusively shares critical interdependent modes of molecular regulation that include a network first described as responsible for the basic bifurcation of neuronal from non-neuronal gene expression in vertebrates. Neurons and lens cells are among the most ancient animal cell types, yet neurons have an exclusive status also attributed to roles underlying sensation, movement, and cognition. However, this status is challenged by cells in the lens of the eye. The extent and detail of internally consistent parallels with neuron biology now catalogued in their second native cell type in the lens provide a detailed model of interdependent neuron gene expression in lens development and non-neuronal role in vision. These comprehensive parallels identify the lens as a dimension of neurobiology and a fundamental new perspective on neurodevelopment and its disorders. Finally, this understanding identifies that hallmark neuronal gene expression and key modes of associated molecular regulation evolved in tandem in the lens.

  4. Placebo effects: clinical aspects and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Oken, Barry S

    2008-11-01

    Placebo effects are beneficial health outcomes not related to the relatively direct biological effects of an intervention and can be elicited by an agent that, by itself, is inert. Understanding these placebo effects will help to improve clinical trial design, especially for interventions such as surgery, CNS-active drugs and behavioural interventions which are often non-blinded. A literature review was performed to retrieve articles discussing placebo implications of clinical trials, the neurobiology of placebo effects and the implications of placebo effect for several disorders of neurological relevance. Recent research in placebo analgesia and other conditions has demonstrated that several neurotransmitter systems, such as opiate and dopamine, are involved with the placebo effect. Brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia have been activated following administration of placebo. A patient's expectancy of improvement may influence outcomes as much as some active interventions and this effect may be greater for novel interventions and for procedures. Maximizing this expectancy effect is important for clinicians to optimize the health of their patient. There have been many relatively acute placebo studies that are now being extended into clinically relevant models of placebo effect.

  5. What neurobiology cannot tell us about addiction.

    PubMed

    Kalant, Harold

    2010-05-01

    Molecular neurobiological studies have yielded enormous amounts of valuable information about neuronal response mechanisms and their adaptive changes. However, in relation to addiction this information is of limited value because almost every cell function appears to be involved. Thus it tells us only that neurons adapt to 'addictive drugs' as they do to all sorts of other functional disturbances. This information may be of limited help in the development of potential auxiliary agents for treatment of addiction. However, a reductionist approach which attempts to analyse addiction at ever finer levels of structure and function, is inherently incapable of explaining what causes these mechanisms to be brought into play in some cases and not in others, or by self-administration of a drug but not by passive exposure. There is abundant evidence that psychological, social, economic and specific situational factors play important roles in initiating addiction, in addition to genetic and other biological factors. Therefore, if we hope to be able to make predictions at any but a statistical level, or to develop effective means of prevention, it is necessary to devise appropriate integrative approaches to the study of addiction, rather than pursue an ever-finer reductive approach which leads steadily farther away from the complex interaction of drug, user, environment and specific situations that characterizes the problem in humans.

  6. Neurobiological linkage between stress and sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Wellman, Laurie L.

    2012-10-01

    Stress can have a significant negative impact on health and stress-induced alterations in sleep are implicated in both human sleep disorders and in psychiatric disorders in which sleep is affected. We have demonstrated that the amygdala, a region critical for regulating emotion, is a key modulator of sleep. Our current research is focused on understanding how the amygdala and stressful emotion affect sleep and on the role sleep plays in recovery from stress. We have implemented animal models to examine the how stress and stress-related memories impact sleep. Experiencing uncontrollable stress and reminders of uncontrollable stress can produce significant reductions in sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep. We are using these models to explore the neurobiology linking stress-related emotion and sleep. This research is relevant for sleep disorders such as insomnia and into mental disorders in which sleep is affected such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is typically characterized by a prominent sleep disturbance in the aftermath of exposure to a psychologically traumatic event.

  7. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-03-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms "unconsciously" is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis.

  8. The neurobiology of methamphetamine induced psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jennifer H.; Stein, Dan J.; Howells, Fleur M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse commonly leads to psychosis, with positive and cognitive symptoms that are similar to those of schizophrenia. Methamphetamine induced psychosis (MAP) can persist and diagnoses of MAP often change to a diagnosis of schizophrenia over time. Studies in schizophrenia have found much evidence of cortical GABAergic dysfunction. Methamphetamine psychosis is a well studied model for schizophrenia, however there is little research on the effects of methamphetamine on cortical GABAergic function in the model, and the neurobiology of MAP is unknown. This paper reviews the effects of methamphetamine on dopaminergic pathways, with focus on its ability to increase glutamate release in the cortex. Excess cortical glutamate would likely damage GABAergic interneurons, and evidence of this disturbance as a result of methamphetamine treatment will be discussed. We propose that cortical GABAergic interneurons are particularly vulnerable to glutamate overflow as a result of subcellular location of NMDA receptors on interneurons in the cortex. Damage to cortical GABAergic function would lead to dysregulation of cortical signals, resulting in psychosis, and further support MAP as a model for schizophrenia. PMID:25100979

  9. The neurobiology of methamphetamine induced psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jennifer H; Stein, Dan J; Howells, Fleur M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse commonly leads to psychosis, with positive and cognitive symptoms that are similar to those of schizophrenia. Methamphetamine induced psychosis (MAP) can persist and diagnoses of MAP often change to a diagnosis of schizophrenia over time. Studies in schizophrenia have found much evidence of cortical GABAergic dysfunction. Methamphetamine psychosis is a well studied model for schizophrenia, however there is little research on the effects of methamphetamine on cortical GABAergic function in the model, and the neurobiology of MAP is unknown. This paper reviews the effects of methamphetamine on dopaminergic pathways, with focus on its ability to increase glutamate release in the cortex. Excess cortical glutamate would likely damage GABAergic interneurons, and evidence of this disturbance as a result of methamphetamine treatment will be discussed. We propose that cortical GABAergic interneurons are particularly vulnerable to glutamate overflow as a result of subcellular location of NMDA receptors on interneurons in the cortex. Damage to cortical GABAergic function would lead to dysregulation of cortical signals, resulting in psychosis, and further support MAP as a model for schizophrenia.

  10. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment Summary: Title VII

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview of the 1990 amendments to Title VII of the Clean Air Act, which were enacted to curb acid rain, urban air pollution and toxic air emissions. The edits to this title deal with enforcement provisions.

  11. The Fokker "Trimotor F VII" commercial transport monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Directly developed from the single engined type F VII ten passenger monoplanes, The Fokker Trimotor closely follows the commercial aircraft that preceded it. It has three Wright Whirlwind air-cooled engines, rated at 200 HP each.

  12. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  13. Special Feature: Debate the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Lloyd H.; Russell, Earl B.

    1981-01-01

    This debate focuses on the location of federal-level administration of vocational agriculture and agribusiness: Should the program be administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or by the U.S. Department of Education? (CT)

  14. Exploring the compassion deficit debate.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Ion, Robin; Roxburgh, Michelle; Devitt, Patric Ffrench; Smith, Stephen D M

    2016-04-01

    Several recent high profile failures in the UK health care system have promoted strong debate on compassion and care in nursing. A number of papers articulating a range of positions within this debate have been published in this journal over the past two and a half years. These articulate a diverse range of theoretical perspectives and have been drawn together here in an attempt to bring some coherence to the debate and provide an overview of the key arguments and positions taken by those involved. In doing this we invite the reader to consider their own position in relation to the issues raised and to consider the impact of this for their own practice. Finally the paper offers some sense of how individual practitioners might use their understanding of the debates to ensure delivery of good nursing care.

  15. Compression Freezing Kinetics of Water to Ice VII

    DOE PAGES

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Galtier, E.; ...

    2017-07-11

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction (XRD) of compressed liquid water shows transformation to ice VII in 6 nsec, revealing crystallization rather than amorphous solidification during compression freezing. Application of classical nucleation theory indicates heterogeneous nucleation and one-dimensional (e.g., needlelike) growth. In conclusion, these first XRD data demonstrate rapid growth kinetics of ice VII with implications for fundamental physics of diffusion-mediated crystallization and thermodynamic modeling of collision or impact events on ice-rich planetary bodies.

  16. Compression Freezing Kinetics of Water to Ice VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Galtier, E.; Lee, H. J.; Granados, E.; Dolan, D. H.; Seagle, C. T.; Ao, T.; Ali, S.; Lazicki, A.; Swift, D.; Celliers, P.; Mao, W. L.

    2017-07-01

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction (XRD) of compressed liquid water shows transformation to ice VII in 6 nsec, revealing crystallization rather than amorphous solidification during compression freezing. Application of classical nucleation theory indicates heterogeneous nucleation and one-dimensional (e.g., needlelike) growth. These first XRD data demonstrate rapid growth kinetics of ice VII with implications for fundamental physics of diffusion-mediated crystallization and thermodynamic modeling of collision or impact events on ice-rich planetary bodies.

  17. Rhenium(VII) Catalysis of Prins Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tadpetch, Kwanruthai; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    The rhenium(VII) complex O3ReOSiPh3 are particularly effective catalyst for Prins cyclizations using aromatic and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The reaction conditions are mild and the highly substituted 4-hydroxy tetrahydropyran products are formed stereoselectively. Rhenium(VII) complexes appear to spontaneously form esters with alcohols and to directly activate electron rich alcohols for solvolysis. Re2O7 and perrhenic acid were equally effective in catalyzing these cyclizations. PMID:18816133

  18. Validation and Testing of ENDF/B-VII Decay Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, I. C.; Pigni, M. T.; Ilas, G.

    2014-06-01

    The nuclear decay library developed for the ORIGEN code was upgraded from ENDF/B-VI.8 to -VII.0 and released in the SCALE nuclear modeling and simulation code system in 2011. Experience with the ENDF/B-VII.0 library identified serious errors and performance issues in the evaluated decay sublibrary. Initially, errors were identified in the decay scheme for the 238U series, leading to large discrepancies in the gamma emission rate for uranium. Further testing of the fission product decay data revealed significant performance issues with ENDF/B-VII.0 relative to the previous release of ENDF/B-VI. To address the performance issues, the decay data library in SCALE was upgraded to ENDF/B-VII.1 and released as an update for users in 2013. This paper describes the practical impact of the ENDF/B-VII.0 decay data performance issues on common code applications, and the validation and testing performed on the updated ORIGEN libraries developed from the ENDF/B-VII.1 sublibrary.

  19. Quantum neurophysics: From non-living matter to quantum neurobiology and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Tarlacı, Sultan; Pregnolato, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The concepts of quantum brain, quantum mind and quantum consciousness have been increasingly gaining currency in recent years, both in scientific papers and in the popular press. In fact, the concept of the quantum brain is a general framework. Included in it are basically four main sub-headings. These are often incorrectly used interchangeably. The first of these and the one which started the quantum mind/consciousness debate was the place of consciousness in the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics. Debate on the problem of quantum measurement and about the place of the conscious observer has lasted almost a century. One solution to this problem is that the participation of a conscious observer in the experiment will radically change our understanding of the universe and our relationship with the outside world. The second topic is that of quantum biology. This topic has become a popular field of research, especially in the last decade. It concerns whether or not the rules of quantum physics operate in biological structures. It has been shown in the latest research on photosynthesis, the sense of smell and magnetic direction finding in animals that the laws of quantum physics may operate in warm-wet-noisy biological structures. The third sub-heading is quantum neurobiology. This topic has not yet gained wide acceptance and is still in its early stages. Its primary purpose is directed to understand whether the laws of quantum physics are effective in the biology of the nervous system or not. A further step in brain neurobiology, toward the understanding of consciousness formation, is the research of quantum laws effects upon neural network functions. The fourth and final topic is quantum psychopathology. This topic takes its basis and its support from quantum neurobiology. It comes from the idea that if quantum physics is involved in the normal working of the brain, diseased conditions of the brain such as depression, anxiety, dementia, schizophrenia and

  20. Neurobiology of food anticipatory circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2011-09-26

    Circadian rhythms in mammals can be entrained by daily schedules of light or food availability. A master light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is comprised of a population of cell autonomous, transcriptionally based circadian oscillators with defined retinal inputs, circadian clock genes and neural outputs. By contrast, the neurobiology of food-entrainable circadian rhythmicity remains poorly understood at the systems and cellular levels. Induction of food-anticipatory activity rhythms by daily feeding schedules does not require the SCN, but these rhythms do exhibit defining properties of circadian clock control. Clock gene rhythms expressed in other brain regions and in peripheral organs are preferentially reset by mealtime, but lesions of specific hypothalamic, corticolimbic and brainstem structures do not eliminate all food anticipatory rhythms, suggesting control by a distributed, decentralized system of oscillators, or the existence of a critical oscillator at an unknown location. The melanocortin system and dorsomedial hypothalamus may play modulatory roles setting the level of anticipatory activity. The metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin are not required to induce behavioral food anticipatory rhythms, but may also participate in gain setting. Clock gene mutations that disrupt light-entrainable rhythms generally do not eliminate food anticipatory rhythms, suggesting a novel timing mechanism. Recent evidence for non-transcriptional and network based circadian rhythmicity provides precedence, but any such mechanisms are likely to interact closely with known circadian clock genes, and some important double and triple clock gene knockouts remain to be phenotyped for food entrainment. Given the dominant role of food as an entraining stimulus for metabolic rhythms, the timing of daily food intake and the fidelity of food entrainment mechanisms are likely to have clinical relevance.

  1. Neurobiology of aggression and violence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2011-09-01

    There is much evidence that schizophrenia patients have an increased risk for aggression and violent behavior, including homicide. The neurobiological basis and correlates of this risk have not been much studied. While genome-wide association studies are lacking, a number of candidate genes have been investigated. By far, the most intensively studied is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on chromosome 22. COMT is involved in the metabolism of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Several studies suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism of this gene affects COMT activity. Methionine (Met)/Met homozygote schizophrenia patients show 4- to 5-fold lower COMT activity than valine (Val)/Val homozygotes, and some but not all studies have found an association with aggression and violence. Recently, a new functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene, Ala72Ser, was found to be associated with homicidal behavior in schizophrenia, but this finding warrants further replication. Studies published so far indicate that an association with the monoamine oxidase A, B, or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 genes is unlikely. Data for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene are conflicting and limited. Data from the limited number of neuroimaging studies performed to date are interesting. Frontal and temporal lobe abnormalities are found consistently in aggressive schizophrenia patients. Positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) data indicate deficits also in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found a negative association of violent behavior with frontal and right-sided inferior parietal activity. Neuroimaging studies may well help further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behavior.

  2. Neurobiology of dynamic psychotherapy: an integration possible?

    PubMed

    Mundo, Emanuela

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, Kandel's innovative experiments have demonstrated that brain structures and synaptic connections are dynamic. Synapses can be modified by a wide variety of environmental factors, including learning and memory processes. The hypothesis that dynamic psychotherapy process involves memory and learning processes has opened the possibility of a dialogue between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and related psychotherapy techniques. The primary aim of the present article is to critically review the more recent data on neurobiological effects of dynamic psychotherapy in psychiatric disorders. Relevant literature has been selected using the databases currently available online (i.e., PubMed). The literature search has been limited to the past 10 years and to genetic, molecular biology, and neuroimaging studies that have addressed the issue of changes induced by psychotherapy. Most of the genetic studies on mental disorders have demonstrated that psychiatric conditions result from a complex interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental effects. For none of the many psychiatric conditions investigated has a purely genetic background been found. Molecular biology studies have indicated that gene expression is influenced by several environmental factors, including early experiences, traumas, learning, and memory processes. Neuroimaging studies (using fMRI and PET) have found that not only cognitive but also dynamic psychotherapy has measurable effects on the brain. In addition, psychotherapy may modify brain function and metabolism in specific brain areas. Most of these studies have considered patients with major depressive disorders and compared the effects of psychotherapy with the effect of standard pharmacotherapy. In conclusion, recent results from neuroscience studies have suggested that dynamic psychotherapy has a significant impact on brain function and metabolism in specific brain areas. The possible applications and developments of this

  3. Laboratory of molecular neurobiology (1988-1994).

    PubMed

    Grayson, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    While Dr. Costa was the Director of FGIN he became interested in the regulation of genes encoding various neurotransmitter receptors. More specifically, there was increasing evidence supporting a role for tetanic stimulation of the NMDA-subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the development of long term potentiation and long term depression. Moreover, the protein products of the immediate early gene family, such as c-fos and c-jun, were known modulators of downstream signaling events that facilitated changes in neuronal transcriptomes in response to incoming afferent stimulation. The immediate early gene products were known transcriptional factors that activated gene expression in response to excitatory stimulation. In fact, the expression of c-fos/c-jun was often used to map neuronal circuits linked through a common initiation point such as occurs in focally-evoked seizures. Dr. Costa firmly believed that excitatory and inhibitory transmission was balanced in the central nervous system and that this might come about through changes in the expression of the genes encoding these neurotransmitter receptors. In other words, persistent stimulation of NMDA receptors would be expected to increase expression of the inhibitory GABAA receptors to accommodate the increased excitation. That this receptor crosstalk might occur through the products of the immediate early genes was testable and the focus of the Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory from 1988 to 1994. In a broader sense, stimulation of ionotropic NMDA-selective glutamate receptors has been associated with numerous downstream molecular and cellular processes. How these processes are linked to changes in gene expression has been the focus of studies in the neurosciences for many years.

  4. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  5. Neurobiology of Escalated Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion. PMID:17978016

  6. Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marck, Steven C.

    2006-12-01

    The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D 2O, H 2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257

  7. Clinical course of sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII)

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Adriana M; Lock-Hock, Ngu; Steiner, Robert D; Graham, Brett H; Szlago, Marina; Greenstein, Robert; Pineda, Mercedes; Gonzalez-Meneses, Antonio; Çoker, Mahmut; Bartholomew, Dennis; Sands, Mark S; Wang, Raymond; Giugliani, Roberto; Macaya, Alfons; Pastores, Gregory; Ketko, Anastasia K; Ezgü, Fatih; Tanaka, Akemi; Arash, Laila; Beck, Michael; Falk, Rena E; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Franco, José; White, Klane K; Mitchell, Grant A; Cimbalistiene, Loreta; Holtz, Max; Sly, William S

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is an ultra-rare disease characterised by the deficiency of β-glucuronidase (GUS). Patients’ phenotypes vary from severe forms with hydrops fetalis, skeletal dysplasia and mental retardation to milder forms with fewer manifestations and mild skeletal abnormalities. Accurate assessments on the frequency and clinical characteristics of the disease have been scarce. The aim of this study was to collect such data. Methods We have conducted a survey of physicians to document the medical history of patients with MPS VII. The survey included anonymous information on patient demographics, family history, mode of diagnosis, age of onset, signs and symptoms, severity, management, clinical features and natural progression of the disease. Results We collected information on 56 patients from 11 countries. Patients with MPS VII were classified based on their phenotype into three different groups: (1) neonatal non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) (n=10), (2) Infantile or adolescent form with history of hydrops fetalis (n=13) and (3) Infantile or adolescent form without known hydrops fetalis (n=33). Thirteen patients with MPS VII who had the infantile form with history of hydrops fetalis and survived childhood, had a wide range of clinical manifestations from mild to severe. Five patients underwent bone marrow transplantation and one patient underwent enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GUS. Conclusions MPS VII is a pan-ethnic inherited lysosomal storage disease with considerable phenotypical heterogeneity. Most patients have short stature, skeletal dysplasia, hepatosplenomegaly, hernias, cardiac involvement, pulmonary insufficiency and cognitive impairment. In these respects it resembles MPS I and MPS II. In MPS VII, however, one unique and distinguishing clinical feature is the unexpectedly high proportion of patients (41%) that had a history of NIHF. Presence of NIHF does not, by itself, predict the eventual severity

  8. Pathogenesis of mitral valve disease in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs.

    PubMed

    Bigg, Paul W; Baldo, Guilherme; Sleeper, Meg M; O'Donnell, Patricia A; Bai, Hanqing; Rokkam, Venkata R P; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Giugliani, Roberto; Casal, Margret L; Haskins, Mark E; Ponder, Katherine P

    2013-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to the deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB) and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes and multisystemic disease with cardiovascular manifestations. The goal here was to determine the pathogenesis of mitral valve (MV) disease in MPS VII dogs. Untreated MPS VII dogs had a marked reduction in the histochemical signal for structurally-intact collagen in the MV at 6 months of age, when mitral regurgitation had developed. Electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils were of normal diameter, but failed to align into large parallel arrays. mRNA analysis demonstrated a modest reduction in the expression of genes that encode collagen or collagen-associated proteins such as the proteoglycan decorin which helps collagen fibrils assemble, and a marked increase for genes that encode proteases such as cathepsins. Indeed, enzyme activity for cathepsin B (CtsB) was 19-fold normal. MPS VII dogs that received neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector had an improved signal for structurally-intact collagen, and reduced CtsB activity relative to that seen in untreated MPS VII dogs. We conclude that MR in untreated MPS VII dogs was likely due to abnormalities in MV collagen structure. This could be due to upregulation of enzymes that degrade collagen or collagen-associated proteins, to the accumulation of GAGs that compete with proteoglycans such as decorin for binding to collagen, or to other causes. Further delineation of the etiology of abnormal collagen structure may lead to treatments that improve biomechanical properties of the MV and other tissues. © 2013.

  9. Pathogenesis of Mitral Valve Disease in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bigg, Paul W.; Baldo, Guilherme; Sleeper, Meg M.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Bai, Hanqing; Rokkam, Venkata R.P.; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Giugliani, Roberto; Casal, Margret L.; Haskins, Mark E.; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is due to deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB) and results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes and multisystemic disease with cardiavascular manifestations. The goal here was to determine the pathogenesis of mitral valve (MV) disease in MPS VII dogs. Untreated MPS VII dogs had a marked reduction in the histochemical signal for structurally-intact collagen in the MV at 6 months of age, when mitral regurgitation had developed. Electron microscopy demonstrated that collagen fibrils were of normal diameter, but failed to align into large parallel arrays. mRNA analysis demonstrated a modest reduction in the expression of genes that encode collagen or collagen-associated proteins such as the proteoglycan decorin which helps collagen fibrils assemble, and a marked increase for genes that encode proteases such as cathepsins. Indeed, enzyme activity for cathepsin B (CtsB) was 19-fold normal. MPS VII dogs that received neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector had an improved signal for structurally-intact collagen, and reduced CtsB activity relative to that seen in untreated MPS VII dogs. We conclude that MR in untreated MPS VII dogs was likely due to abnormalities in MV collagen structure. This could be due to upregulation of enzymes that degrade collagen or collagen-associated proteins, to the accumulation of GAGs that compete with proteoglycans such as decorin for binding to collagen, or to other causes. Further delineation of the etiology of abnormal collagen structure may lead to treatments that improve biomechanical properties of the MV and other tissues. PMID:23856419

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Communicative Behavior in CEDA Lincoln-Douglas Debate and CEDA Team Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Harold L.; Skaggs, Edward C.

    Keeping debate communicative is a great and recurring concern. A study investigated whether debate format may influence debaters' communicative behavior, by comparing behavior in Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) Lincoln-Douglas debate (LD) and in CEDA Team debate. Videotapes of the two first affirmative speeches of each, at the…

  11. Consciousness operationalized, a debate realigned.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter; Veillet, Bénédicte

    2017-08-10

    This paper revisits the debate about cognitive phenomenology. It elaborates, defends, and improves on our earlier proposal for resolving that debate, according to which the test for irreducible phenomenology is the presence of explanatory gaps. After showing how proposals like ours have been misunderstood or misused by others, we deploy our operationalization to argue that the correct way to align the debate over cognitive phenomenology is not between sensory and (alleged) cognitive phenomenology, but rather between non-conceptual and (alleged) conceptual or propositional phenomenology. In doing so we defend three varieties of non-sensory (amodal)(1) non-conceptual phenomenology: valence, a sense of approximate number, and a sense of elapsed time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  13. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  14. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  15. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  16. Debating the Socialist Calculation Debate: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmont, Zenon X.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a classroom exercise that introduces the Socialist Calculation Debate (SCD) to undergraduate economics students. The SCD concerns an issue that remains one of the most consequential of the 20th century--the belief in the superiority of socialism and central planning over capitalism and the free market. The exercise presents…

  17. [Neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2011-01-01

    The results of several studies suggest that there is a critical timeframe during development in which experiences of maltreatment and sexual abuse may lead to permanent or long-lasting neurobiological changes that particularly affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. The aim of the present study was to provide an updated review on the main neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse. We selected articles published between January 1999 and January 2010 in English or Spanish that focused on the neurobiological consequences of child sexual abuse available through Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. We also examined the references in published articles on the consequences of sexual victimization in childhood. In this review we included 34 studies on neurobiological consequences, indicating different kinds of effects, namely: neuroendocrine, structural, functional and neuropsychological consequences, which affect a large number of victims. The existing body of work on the neurobiological consequences of maltreatment shows the need to consider maltreatment and child sexual abuse as health problems that affect different areas of victims' lives, which would in turn favor the development of intervention and treatment programs that take these multiple effects into account. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The neurobiology of alcohol consumption and alcoholism: an integrative history.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L

    2013-11-15

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  19. Lyme disease: neurology, neurobiology, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2014-05-01

    The Lyme disease controversy can be largely linked to the misconception that neurobehavioral effects of illness constitute evidence of nervous system infection. Appropriate differentiation between neuroborreliosis (nervous system Borrelia burgdorferi infection) and Lyme encephalopathy (altered nervous system function in individuals with systemic but not nervous system infection)-or encephalopathies of other etiologies-would lessen the controversy considerably, as the attribution of nonspecific symptoms to supposed ongoing central nervous system infection is a major factor perpetuating the debate. Epidemiologic considerations suggest that the entities referred to as "posttreatment Lyme disease" and "chronic Lyme disease" may not actually exist but rather reflect anchoring bias, linking common, nonspecific symptoms to an antecedent medical event. On the other hand, there are data suggesting possible mechanisms by which posttreatment Lyme disease could occur.

  20. Bleuler and the Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler’s monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler’s monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler assumed that schizophrenia has a neural basis, he remained agnostic on possible mechanisms and skeptical about the value of pathological diagnosis. He preferred psychological understanding over neural explanation. He gave hope by making schizophrenia dimensional and less predictive of course and outcome. To make progress now, we need to redefine schizophrenia at the level of the brain. PMID:21873614

  1. Bleuler and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Heckers, Stephan

    2011-11-01

    Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler's monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler's monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler assumed that schizophrenia has a neural basis, he remained agnostic on possible mechanisms and skeptical about the value of pathological diagnosis. He preferred psychological understanding over neural explanation. He gave hope by making schizophrenia dimensional and less predictive of course and outcome. To make progress now, we need to redefine schizophrenia at the level of the brain.

  2. Newly diagnosed congenital factor VII deficiency and utilization of recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven®)

    PubMed Central

    Bartosh, Nicole S; Tomlin, Tara; Cable, Christian; Halka, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents a newly diagnosed congenital factor VII deficiency treated with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). Congenital factor VII deficiency is a rare autosomal-recessive bleeding disorder that occurs in fewer than 1/500,000 persons. Its presentation can vary from epistaxis to hemarthroses and severe central nervous system bleeding, and correlates poorly with factor VII levels. Our patient had not had a significant hemostatic challenge prior to his presentation and therefore never had any symptomatology suggestive of this disease. He was treated with rFVIIa, and was able to undergo repair of his fractures without bleeding. Case report A 19-year-old African-American male presented to the emergency room after an altercation that resulted in significant trauma. He sustained bilateral mandibular angle fractures and orbital floor fractures, requiring urgent surgical correction. On initial evaluation, he was noted to have a prolonged prothrombin time of 40.1 seconds, with an International Normalized Ratio of 4.0, a normal activated partial thromboplastin time of 29.9 seconds, and a platelet count of 241. After receiving vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma, he was taken to the operating room for a temporary rigid maxillomandibular fixation. A 1:1 mixing study with normal plasma corrected the prothrombin time (decreasing from 40.7 to 14.7 seconds) and a factor VII assay revealed 5% of the normal factor VII level. The patient was diagnosed with congenital factor VII deficiency. Due to his coagulopathy and the extensive surgical correction needed, rFVIIa was administered and surgery was accomplished without hemorrhagic sequelae. Conclusion This case report and review describes a rare congenital disease, the history of rFVIIa use, and its mechanism. rFVIIA use in our patient provided a treatment option that allowed the necessary surgical correction, but further prospective studies on dose optimization would ensure adequate dosing with minimal risk of

  3. A review of the neurobiological effects of psychotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F

    2010-12-01

    Although randomized, controlled clinical trials have shown that different forms of psychotherapy may be efficacious for depression, psychotherapy has not been widely reported to have effects upon the neurobiological concomitants of depression in similar ways as medication. Neuroendocrinal changes that occur during depression (principally hypercortisolaemia) produce structural and functional alterations to the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala, plus the connectivity between these regions of the brain. This article reviews the evidence to date regarding the neurobiological effects of psychotherapy for depression and suggests a hypothetical pathway linking the nurturing effects of the therapist-patient "bond" and restoration of neuroendocrinal "balance." This pathway may provide a neurobiological causal link between psychotherapy and alleviation of depression in the same way as that which exists for pharmacological treatments, and argues for a model of depression that includes both biological and psychological effects of psychotherapy when considering treatment choice and application.

  4. PROGRESS TOWARDS A CELLULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF READING DISABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Lisa A; Gibson, Christopher J.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; LoTurco, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Reading Disability (RD) is a significant impairment in reading accuracy, speed and/or comprehension despite adequate intelligence and educational opportunity. RD affects 5–12% of readers, has a well-established genetic risk, and is of unknown neurobiological cause or causes. In this review we discuss recent findings that revealed neuroanatomic anomalies in RD, studies that identified 3 candidate genes (KIAA0319, DYX1C1, and DCDC2), and compelling evidence that potentially link the function of candidate genes to the neuroanatomic anomalies. A hypothesis has emerged in which impaired neuronal migration is a cellular neurobiological antecedent to RD. We critically evaluate the evidence for this hypothesis, highlight missing evidence, and outline future research efforts that will be required to develop a more complete cellular neurobiology of RD. PMID:19616627

  5. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structures, including the extended amygdala. These systems are hypothesized to be dysregulated by excessive drug intake and to contribute to allostatic changes in reinforcement mechanisms associated with addiction. Points of intersection between positive and negative motivational circuitry may further drive the compulsivity of drug addiction but also provide a rich neurobiological substrate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20563312

  6. The neurobiological Correlates of Childhood Adversity and Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Burgers, Darcy E.; Philip, Noah S.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper provides an overview of research on the neurobiological correlates of childhood adversity and a selective review of treatment implications. Method Findings from a broad array of human and animal studies of early adversity were reviewed. Results Topics reviewed include neuroendocrine, neurotrophic, neuroimaging, and cognitive effects of adversity, as well as genetic and epigenetic influences. Effects of early life stress on treatment outcome are considered, and development of treatments designed to address the neurobiological abnormalities is discussed. Conclusion Early adversity is associated with abnormalities of several neurobiological systems that are implicated in the development of psychopathology and other medical conditions. Early life stress negatively impacts treatment outcome and individuals may require treatments that are specific to this condition. PMID:23662634

  7. Neurobiological determinism: human freedom of choice and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Hardegger, Judith; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Moskvitin, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    Several authors have argued that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. This assumption not only questions the concept of free will and a person's responsibility for his or her own actions but also the principle of guilt in criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results are not sufficient to support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior. Moreover, the assumption of total neurobiological determination of human behavior and the impossibility of individual responsibility are characterized by both faulty empiricism and methodical misconceptions. The principle of relative determinism and the analysis of the offender's behavior at the time of the offense thus remain the central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility.

  8. Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a roundtable discussion carried out by scholars in the field of minority language broadcasting. Examines the context of minority language broadcasting, broadcasting and language policy and planning, and issues of language survival and success. (Author/VWL)

  9. NCLB Debate at the Sidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has been the subject of intense debate in school board meetings, state legislatures, and Washington policy circles. Everywhere, it seems, but the presidential campaign--the winner of which may have the most important voice in reshaping the federal role in K-12 education. In their education proposals, Democratic Senator…

  10. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  11. A debate on open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    This is a reproduction of Professor Stephen Hawking's part in a debate, which took place at the COSMO 98 Coference, in Monterey, California. Two other physicists, Andrei Linde and Alexander Villenkin, also took part. Professor Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, in England.

  12. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  13. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  14. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  15. NCLB Debate at the Sidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has been the subject of intense debate in school board meetings, state legislatures, and Washington policy circles. Everywhere, it seems, but the presidential campaign--the winner of which may have the most important voice in reshaping the federal role in K-12 education. In their education proposals, Democratic Senator…

  16. Using Debate in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasmari, Ali; Ahmed, Sayed Salahuddin

    2013-01-01

    The countries that use English as a foreign language need effective activities which propel students to practice skills of the language properly inside as well as outside classrooms. Debating is a practice that inspires learners to open their mouth, get into discussion, defend their own positions, place counter arguments and also conduct research…

  17. VII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Physics Engineering career, the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and its Departments organized the "VII International Congress of Physics Engineering". The Congress was held from 24 to 28 November 2014 in Mexico City, Mexico. This congress is the first of its type in Latin America, and because of its international character, it gathers experts on physics engineering from Mexico and all over the globe. Since 1999, this event has shown research, articles, projects, technological developments and vanguard scientists. These activities aim to spread, promote, and share the knowledge of Physics Engineering. The topics of the Congress were: • Renewable energies engineering • Materials technology • Nanotechnology • Medical physics • Educational physics engineering • Nuclear engineering • High precision instrumentation • Atmospheric physics • Optical engineering • Physics history • Acoustics This event integrates lectures on top trending topics with pre-congress workshops, which are given by recognized scientists with an outstanding academic record. The lectures and workshops allow the exchange of experiences, and create and strengthen research networks. The Congress also encourages professional mobility among all universities and research centres from all countries. CIIF2014 Organizing and Editorial Committee Dr. Ernesto Rodrigo Vázquez Cerón Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco ervc@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Luis Enrique Noreña Franco Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco lnf@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Alberto Rubio Ponce Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco arp@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Óscar Olvera Neria Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco oon@correo.azc.uam.mx Professor Jaime Granados Samaniego Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco jgs@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Roberto Tito Hern

  18. The Communication Paradigm in the Debate Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Dennis R.

    Over the last several years the increased speed of delivery in debate tournaments has made it difficult for judges to keep up with a debate during a round of competition. The responsibility for communication should be upon each debater to deliver his or her arguments, with intelligence, to the judge or critic. Debate is an oral communication…

  19. The Academic and Practical Values of Debating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.; Biggers, Thompson

    The educational benefits of debate suggest several reasons for funding debate programs on college campuses. First, debate training improves communication skills (analysis, delivery, and organization) and helps students in other communication situations. Second, debate promotes depth of educational experience by exposing students to important…

  20. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  1. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.)…

  2. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.)…

  3. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  4. The preparation and structure of salty ice VII under pressure.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stefan; Bove, Livia E; Strässle, Thierry; Hansen, Thomas C; Saitta, Antonino M

    2009-05-01

    It is widely accepted that ice, no matter what phase, is unable to incorporate large amounts of salt into its structure. This conclusion is based on the observation that on freezing of salt water, ice expels the salt almost entirely as brine. Here, we show that this behaviour is not an intrinsic physico-chemical property of ice phases. We demonstrate by neutron diffraction that substantial amounts of dissolved LiCl can be built homogeneously into the ice VII structure if it is produced by recrystallization of its glassy (amorphous) state under pressure. Such 'alloyed' ice VII has significantly different structural properties compared with pure ice VII, such as an 8% larger unit cell volume, 5 times larger displacement factors, an absence of a transition to an ordered ice VIII structure and plasticity. Our study suggests that there could be a whole new class of 'salty' high-pressure ice forms.

  5. [Incidence of factor VII and C3 in vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Skóra, Jan; Janczak, Dariusz; Korta, Krzysztof; Pupka, Artur; Ruciński, Artur; Szyber, Piotr; Pawłowski, Stanisław; Milnerowicz, Artur; Stepiński, Piotr

    2004-06-01

    In order to study pathogenesis of vascular prosthesis healing process the following experiment was designed. 16 dogs underwent implantation of unilateral straight aorto-femoral teflon (PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene) by-pass. After 6 months all dogs were killed, dissected and vascular prostheses with margin of adjacent aorta and femoral artery were collected for further study. Areas of proximal and distal anastomosis were examined immunohistochemically. Presence of coagulation factor VII, and C3 complement factor were studied. The obtained results were analyzed statistically by means of t-Student test. Factor VII as well C3 were found in areas of both proximal and distal anastomosis. Concentration of all two substances in proximal and distal anastomosis was compared. No statistically valid differences in factor VII concentration in proximal and distal anastomosis were found, whereas amounts of C3 factor as well as degree of extracellular matrix infiltration were markedly higher in distal anastomosis.

  6. Applying neurobiology to the treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hill, Laura; Peck, Stephanie Knatz; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe, biologically based brain disorder with significant medical complications. It is critical that new, effective treatments are developed to interrupt the persistent course of the illness due to the medical and psychological sequelae. Several psychosocial, behavioral and pharmacologic interventions have been investigated in adult anorexia nervosa; however, evidence shows that their impact is weak and treatment effects are generally small. This paper describes a new neurobiological anorexia nervosa model that shifts focus from solely external influences, such as social and family, to include internal influences that integrate genetic and neurobiological contributions, across the age span. The model serves as a theoretical structure for a new, five-day treatment, outlined in this paper, targeting anorexia nervosa temperament, which integrates neurobiological dimensions into evidence-based treatment interventions. The treatment is in two phases. Phase I is a five day, 40 hour treatment for anorexia nervosa adults. Phase II is the follow-up and is currently being developed. Preliminary qualitative acceptability data on 37 adults with anorexia nervosa and 60 supports (e.g., spouses, parents, aunts, friends, partners, children of anorexia nervosa adults) are promising from Phase I. Clients with anorexia nervosa and their supports report that learning neurobiological facts improved their understanding of the illness and helped equip them with better tools to manage anorexia nervosa traits and symptoms. In addition, nutritional knowledge changed significantly. This is the first neurobiologically based, five-day treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa and their supports. It is a new model that outlines underlying genetic and neurobiological contributions to anorexia nervosa that serves as a foundation to treat both traits and symptoms. Preliminary qualitative findings are promising, with both clients and supports reporting that the

  7. Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Walter

    2008-04-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders of unknown etiology that most commonly begin during adolescence in women. AN and BN have unique and puzzling symptoms, such as restricted eating or binge-purge behaviors, body image distortions, denial of emaciation, and resistance to treatment. These are often chronic and relapsing disorders, and AN has the highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder. The lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of this illness has hindered the development of effective interventions, particularly for AN. Individuals with AN and BN are consistently characterized by perfectionism, obsessive-compulsiveness, and dysphoric mood. Individuals with AN tend to have high constraint, constriction of affect and emotional expressiveness, ahendonia and asceticism, whereas individuals with BN tend to be more impulsive and sensation seeking. Such symptoms often begin in childhood, before the onset of an eating disorder, and persist after recovery, suggesting they are traits that create a vulnerability for developing an ED. There is growing acknowledgement that neurobiological vulnerabilities make a substantial contribution to the pathogenesis of AN and BN. Considerable evidence suggests that altered brain serotonin (5-HT) function contributes to dysregulation of appetite, mood, and impulse control in AN and BN. Brain imaging studies, using 5-HT specific ligands, show that disturbances of 5-HT function occur when people are ill, and persist after recovery from AN and BN. It is possible that a trait-related disturbance of 5-HT neuronal modulation predates the onset of AN and contributes to premorbid symptoms of anxiety, obsessionality, and inhibition. This dysphoric temperament may involve an inherent dysregulation of emotional and reward pathways which also mediate the hedonic aspects of feeding, thus making these individuals vulnerable to disturbed appetitive behaviors. Restricting food intake may become powerfully

  8. 29 CFR 1604.8 - Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII...

  9. 29 CFR 1604.8 - Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII...

  10. The importance of residues 195-206 of human blood clotting factor VII in the interaction of factor VII with tissue factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W.; Kazim, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that human and bovine factor VII exhibit 71% amino acid sequence identity. In the present study, competition binding experiments revealed that the interaction of human factor VII with cell-surface human tissue factor was not inhibited by 100-fold molar excess of bovine factor VII. This finding indicated that bovine and human factor VII are not structurally homologous in the region(s) where human factor VII interacts with human tissue factor. On this premise, the authors synthesized three peptides corresponding to regions of human factor VII that exhibited marked structural dissimilarity to bovine factor VII; these regions of dissimilarity included residues 195-206, 263-274, and 314-326. Peptide 195-206 inhibited the interaction of factor VII with cell-surface tissue factor and the activation of factor X by a complex of factor VIIa and tissue factor half-maximally at concentrations of 1-2 mM. A structurally rearranged form of peptide 195-206 containing an aspartimide residue inhibited these reactions half-maximally at concentrations of 250-300 {mu}M. In contrast, neither peptide 263-274 nor peptide 314-326, at 2 mM concentration, significantly affected either factor VIIa interaction with tissue factor or factor VIIa-mediated activation of factor X. The data provide presumptive evidence that residues 195-206 of human factor VII are involved in the interaction of human factor VII with the extracellular domain of human tissue factor apoprotein.

  11. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  12. Immunologic and tissue culture approaches to the neurobiology of aging.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J; Rovigatti, U

    1988-01-01

    The neurobiology of aging continues to attract scientists and techniques from the more fundamental disciplines, as witness the great strides now being made from molecular genetic approaches to Alzheimer's disease. The present report is a commentary on reviews of immune mechanisms and tissue culture methods applied to investigations of aging and age-related cognitive dysfunction.

  13. The Life Span Model of Suicide and Its Neurobiological Foundation

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Birgit; Roy, Bhaskar; Wang, Qingzhong; Birur, Badari; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    The very incomprehensibility of the suicidal act has been occupying the minds of researchers and health professionals for a long time. Several theories of suicide have been proposed since the beginning of the past century, and a myriad of neurobiological studies have been conducted over the past two decades in order to elucidate its pathophysiology. Both neurobiology and psychological theories tend to work in parallel lines that need behavioral and empirical data respectively, to confirm their hypotheses. In this review, we are proposing a “Life Span Model of Suicide” with an attempt to integrate the “Stress-Diathesis Model” and the “Interpersonal Model of Suicide” into a neurobiological narrative and support it by providing a thorough compilation of related genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression findings. This proposed model comprises three layers, forming the capability of suicide: genetic factors as the predisposing Diathesis on one side and Stress, characterized by epigenetic marks on the other side, and in between gene expression and gene function which are thought to be influenced by Diathesis and Stress components. The empirical evidence of this model is yet to be confirmed and further research, specifically epigenetic studies in particular, are needed to support the presence of a life-long, evolving capability of suicide and identify its neurobiological correlates. PMID:28261051

  14. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  16. The Life Span Model of Suicide and Its Neurobiological Foundation.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Birgit; Roy, Bhaskar; Wang, Qingzhong; Birur, Badari; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    The very incomprehensibility of the suicidal act has been occupying the minds of researchers and health professionals for a long time. Several theories of suicide have been proposed since the beginning of the past century, and a myriad of neurobiological studies have been conducted over the past two decades in order to elucidate its pathophysiology. Both neurobiology and psychological theories tend to work in parallel lines that need behavioral and empirical data respectively, to confirm their hypotheses. In this review, we are proposing a "Life Span Model of Suicide" with an attempt to integrate the "Stress-Diathesis Model" and the "Interpersonal Model of Suicide" into a neurobiological narrative and support it by providing a thorough compilation of related genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression findings. This proposed model comprises three layers, forming the capability of suicide: genetic factors as the predisposing Diathesis on one side and Stress, characterized by epigenetic marks on the other side, and in between gene expression and gene function which are thought to be influenced by Diathesis and Stress components. The empirical evidence of this model is yet to be confirmed and further research, specifically epigenetic studies in particular, are needed to support the presence of a life-long, evolving capability of suicide and identify its neurobiological correlates.

  17. Matching the Neurobiology of Learning to Teaching Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Nelle; Fleisher, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe principles of good teaching drawn from meta-analyses of research on teaching effectiveness. Recent developments in neurobiology are presented and aligned to provide biological support for these principles. To make it easier for college faculty to try out sample instructional strategies, the authors map principles of good…

  18. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Fauth-Bühler, M; Mann, K

    2017-01-01

    The number of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM-5. The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment. Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling (PG)-so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified.

  19. Neurobiological Underpinnings of Math and Reading Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…

  20. An Emerging Technology Framework for the Neurobiology of Appetite.

    PubMed

    Sternson, Scott M; Atasoy, Deniz; Betley, J Nicholas; Henry, Fredrick E; Xu, Shengjin

    2016-02-09

    Advances in neuro-technology for mapping, manipulating, and monitoring molecularly defined cell types are rapidly advancing insight into neural circuits that regulate appetite. Here, we review these important tools and their applications in circuits that control food seeking and consumption. Technical capabilities provided by these tools establish a rigorous experimental framework for research into the neurobiology of hunger.

  1. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  2. Depression management - from neurobiology to a shared care approach.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Darby, Laura; Furczyk, Karolina; Holland, Janathon; Khosravi-Nik, Mo; Vyas, Vishal; Zhang, Junyi

    2011-09-01

    The management of depression has recently been the focus of several articles, in particular regarding the efficacy of pharmacological and other treatments. In order for these to be effective as possible, correct diagnosis, consideration of the underlying neurobiology and an appropriate provision of healthcare services must be ensured.

  3. Sex Influences on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreano, Joseph M.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In essentially every domain of neuroscience, the generally implicit assumption that few, if any, meaningful differences exist between male and female brain function is being challenged. Here we address how this development is influencing studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory. While it has been commonly held that males show an…

  4. Neurobiological Underpinnings of Math and Reading Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…

  5. Matching the Neurobiology of Learning to Teaching Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Nelle; Fleisher, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe principles of good teaching drawn from meta-analyses of research on teaching effectiveness. Recent developments in neurobiology are presented and aligned to provide biological support for these principles. To make it easier for college faculty to try out sample instructional strategies, the authors map principles of good…

  6. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  7. Neurobiology of chronic mild stress: Parallels to major depression

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; Hellemans, Kim G.C.; Verma, Pamela; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The chronic mild (or unpredictable/variable) stress (CMS) model was developed as an animal model of depression more than 20 years ago. The foundation of this model was that following long-term exposure to a series of mild, but unpredictable stressors, animals would develop a state of impaired reward salience that was akin to the anhedonia observed in major depressive disorder. In the time since its inception, this model has also been used for a variety of studies examining neurobiological variables that are associated with depression, despite the fact that this model has never been critically examined to validate that the neurobiological changes induced by CMS are parallel to those documented in depressive disorder. The aim of the current review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of chronic mild stress on neurobiological variables, such as neurochemistry, neurochemical receptor expression and functionality, neurotrophin expression and cellular plasticity. These findings are then compared to those of clinical research examining common variables in populations with depressive disorders to determine if the changes observed following chronic mild stress are in fact consistent with those observed in major depression. We conclude that the chronic mild stress paradigm: (1) evokes an array of neurobiological changes that mirror those seen in depressive disorders and (2) may be a suitable tool to investigate novel systems that could be disturbed in depression, and thus aid in the development of novel targets for the treatment of depression. PMID:22776763

  8. The Evidence for a Neurobiological Model of Childhood Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Fairchild, Graeme; Snoek, Heddeke; Harold, Gordon T.

    2007-01-01

    Children with persistent antisocial and aggressive behavior are diagnosed as having disruptive behavior disorder. The authors review evidence that antisocial children, and especially those who persist with this behavior as they grow older, have a range of neurobiological characteristics. It is argued that serotonergic functioning and…

  9. "Et in Amygdala Ego"?: UG, (S)LA, and Neurobiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubank, Lynn; Gregg, Kevin R.

    1995-01-01

    John Schumann and colleagues have argued for a neurobiological perspective on language acquisition that denies a role for a specifically linguistic mental module of the sort proposed by, for example, N. Chomsky (1986). This report challenges this perspective by offering evidence that such a mental module must be involved in the acquisition of…

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Pt. 268, App. VII...

  11. [Neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of social phobia].

    PubMed

    Aouizerate, B; Martin-Guehl, C; Tignol, J

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is still not clearly understood. It was not established as an authentic psychiatric entity until the diagnostic nomenclature of the American Psychiatric Association DSM III in 1980. In recent years, increasing attention among researchers has contributed to provide important information about the genetic, familial and temperamental bases of social phobia and its neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroanatomical substrates, which remain to be further investigated. Up to date, there have been several findings about the possible influence of variables, including particularly genetic, socio-familial and early temperamental (eg behavioral inhibition) factors that represent risk for the later development of social phobia. Clinical neurobiological studies, based on the use of exogenous compounds such as lactate, CO2, caffeine, epinephrine, flumazenil or cholecystokinin/pentagastrin to reproduce naturally occurring phobic anxiety, have shown that patients with social phobia appear to exhibit an intermediate sensitivity between patients with panic disorder and control subjects. No difference in the rate of panic attacks in response to lactate, low concentrations of CO2 (5%), epinephrine or flumazenil was observed between patients with social phobia and normal healthy subjects, both being less reactive compared to patients with panic disorder. However, patients with social phobia had similar anxiety reactions to high concentrations of CO2 (35%), caffeine or cholecystokinin/pentagastrin than those seen in patients with panic disorder, both being more intensive than in controls. Several lines of evidence suggest specific neurotransmitter system alterations in social phobia, especially with regard to the serotoninergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Although no abnormality in platelet serotonin transporter density has been found, patients with social phobia appear to show an enhanced sensitivity of both post

  12. Teaching the Mantle Plumes Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether or not mantle plumes exist. This debate has highlighted a number of issues regarding how Earth science is currently practised, and how this feeds into approaches toward teaching students. The plume model is an hypothesis, not a proven fact. And yet many researchers assume a priori that plumes exist. This assumption feeds into teaching. That the plume model is unproven, and that many practising researchers are skeptical, may be at best only mentioned in passing to students, with most teachers assuming that plumes are proven to exist. There is typically little emphasis, in particular in undergraduate teaching, that the origin of melting anomalies is currently uncertain and that scientists do not know all the answers. Little encouragement is given to students to become involved in the debate and to consider the pros and cons for themselves. Typically teachers take the approach that “an answer” (or even “the answer”) must be taught to students. Such a pedagogic approach misses an excellent opportunity to allow students to participate in an important ongoing debate in Earth sciences. It also misses the opportunity to illustrate to students several critical aspects regarding correct application of the scientific method. The scientific method involves attempting to disprove hypotheses, not to prove them. A priori assumptions should be kept uppermost in mind and reconsidered at all stages. Multiple working hypotheses should be entertained. The predictions of a hypothesis should be tested, and unpredicted observations taken as weakening the original hypothesis. Hypotheses should not be endlessly adapted to fit unexpected observations. The difficulty with pedagogic treatment of the mantle plumes debate highlights a general uncertainty about how to teach issues in Earth science that are not yet resolved with certainty. It also represents a missed opportunity to let students experience how scientific theories evolve, warts

  13. Sulfamide derivatives with selective carbonic anhydrase VII inhibitory action.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Maria Luisa; Palestro, Pablo; Ceruso, Mariangela; Gonzalez Funes, Jose L; Talevi, Alan; Bruno Blanch, Luis; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gavernet, Luciana

    2016-02-15

    A set of N,N'-disubstituted sulfamides and sodium cyclamate have been tested for their inhibitory action against six isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) found in the brain, that is, CA I, CA II, CA VII, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV, some of which are involved in epileptogenesis. The biological data showed interesting results for CA VII inhibition, the isozyme thought to be a novel antiepileptic target. Strong CA VII inhibitors, with Ki values in the low nanomolar-subnanomolar range were identified. Some of these derivatives showed selectivity for inhibition of CA VII versus the ubiquitous isoform CA II, for which the Ki values were in the micromolar range. Molecular modeling approaches were employed to understand the binding interactions between these compounds and the two CA isoforms, since the mechanism of action of such disubstituted sulfamides was not yet investigated by means of X-ray crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photosynthetic pigments of oceanic Chlorophyta belonging to prasinophytes clade VII.

    PubMed

    Lopes Dos Santos, Adriana; Gourvil, Priscillia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Garrido, José Luis; Vaulot, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The ecological importance and diversity of pico/nanoplanktonic algae remains poorly studied in marine waters, in part because many are tiny and without distinctive morphological features. Amongst green algae, Mamiellophyceae such as Micromonas or Bathycoccus are dominant in coastal waters while prasinophytes clade VII, yet not formerly described, appear to be major players in open oceanic waters. The pigment composition of 14 strains representative of different subclades of clade VII was analyzed using a method that improves the separation of loroxanthin and neoxanthin. All the prasinophytes clade VII analyzed here showed a pigment composition similar to that previously reported for RCC287 corresponding to pigment group prasino-2A. However, we detected in addition astaxanthin for which it is the first report in prasinophytes. Among the strains analyzed, the pigment signature is qualitatively similar within subclades A and B. By contrast, RCC3402 from subclade C (Picocystis) lacks loroxanthin, astaxanthin, and antheraxanthin but contains alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, and monadoxanthin that are usually found in diatoms or cryptophytes. For subclades A and B, loroxanthin was lowest at highest light irradiance suggesting a light-harvesting role of this pigment in clade VII as in Tetraselmis.

  15. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region VII. This region serves the states of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation,…

  16. Atomic Data and Emission Line Intensities for CA VII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work we calculate energy levels, transition probabilities and electron-ion collisional excitation rates for the 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 2), 3s3p(sup 3) and 3s(sup 2)3p3d configurations of the silicon-like ion Ca VII. The total number of intermediate coupling levels considered is 27. Collision strengths are calculated at seven incident electron energies: 8, 10, 15, 20, 30,40 and 60 Ry, using the Distorted Wave approximation and a 5-configuration model. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of velocities and are used to calculate level populations and line emissivities under the assumption of statistical equilibrium. Line intensity ratios are calculated and compared with observed values measured from SERTS and SOHO/CDS spectra. The diagnostic potential of Ca VII is demonstrated, with particular emphasis on the possibility to measure the Ne/Ca relative abundance through simultaneous observations of Ca VII and N VI lines. Ca VII proves to be an excellent tool for the study of the FIP effect in the solar transition region.

  17. Title VII Program, Final Technical Report: 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Nancy B.; Yonan, Barbara

    This report documents the 1985-86 Title VII Program of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District. Major findings indicated the following: (1) three program components--staff training, tutoring, and curriculum development--were implemented as planned; (2) the staff training component included a series of English as a Second Language…

  18. Plant Seniority and Minority Employees: Title VII's Effect on Layoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Howard F.

    1975-01-01

    In presenting ways plant seniority provisions regarding layoffs should be modified to accomplish the policies of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (to end racial and sexual discrimination in employment practices), the author analyzes leading cases to demonstrate faulty interpretations currently used and suggests alternative remedies. (JT)

  19. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region VII. This region serves the states of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation,…

  20. Neurobiological correlates in forensic assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more standardisation, it might be possible to

  1. Neurobiological Correlates in Forensic Assessment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van der Gronde, Toon; Kempes, Maaike; van El, Carla; Rinne, Thomas; Pieters, Toine

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. Objective To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. Results This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. Conclusion Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between diverse fields, and more

  2. Cloning of the canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA, mutation identification in canine MPS VII, and retroviral vector-mediated correction of MPS VII cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Bouvet, A; DeSanto, C; Fyfe, J C; Xu, D; Wolfe, J H; Aguirre, G D; Patterson, D F; Haskins, M E; Henthorn, P S

    1998-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an inherited disease resulting from deficient activity of the lysosomal acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) and has been reported in humans, mice, cats, and dogs. To characterize canine MPS VII, we have isolated and sequenced the canine GUSB cDNA from normal and affected animals. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the GUSB cDNA derived from MPS VII dogs. This guanosine to adenine base change at nucleotide position 559 in the canine cDNA sequence causes an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 166. Introduction of the G to A substitution at position 559 in a mammalian expression vector containing the normal canine GUSB cDNA nearly eliminated the GUSB enzymatic activity, demonstrating that this mutation is the cause of canine MPS VII. A retroviral vector expressing the full-length canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA corrected the deficiency in MPS VII cells.

  3. Data Testing for ENDF/B-VII.1beta2

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Calculations have been performed for 390 critical assemblies from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments using the beta2 release of ENDF/B-VII.1. The results are compared to previous results for ENDF/B-VII. Cases that changed between the two versions are highlighted, and the results are discussed. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is working on a new release of the ENDF/B-VII library of evaluated nuclear data, and the 'beta2' set of files was recently made available by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). A set of about 850 input files for the MCNP Monte Carlo code to run critical assemblies from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments was available from our previous data testing work for ENDF/B-VII.0. We have now run 390 of those cases using data based on the beta2 files, and those results will be presented below. The ENDF files were downloaded from the NNDC to a Mac workstation. They were then processed using NJOY10 into ACE format files for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The processing was limited to materials needed for the data testing work at this point. The existing MCNP input decks were used. No checking was done to see if any of the benchmarks had been updated since the ENDF/B-VII testing was finished. Most runs used 50 million histories in order to get Monte Carlo statistical uncertainties down the 0.01% range.

  4. Therapeutic neonatal hepatic gene therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, Katherine Parker; Melniczek, John R.; Xu, Lingfei; Weil, Margaret A.; O'Malley, Thomas M.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Knox, Van W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Mazrier, Hamutal; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Sleeper, Meg; Maguire, Albert M.; Volk, Susan W.; Mango, Robert L.; Zweigle, Jean; Wolfe, John H.; Haskins, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) were injected intravenously at 2–3 days of age with a retroviral vector (RV) expressing canine β-glucuronidase (cGUSB). Five animals received RV alone, and two dogs received hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) before RV in an attempt to increase transduction efficiency. Transduced hepatocytes expanded clonally during normal liver growth and secreted enzyme with mannose 6-phosphate. Serum GUSB activity was stable for up to 14 months at normal levels for the RV-treated dogs, and for 17 months at 67-fold normal for the HGF/RV-treated dog. GUSB activity in other organs was 1.5–60% of normal at 6 months for two RV-treated dogs, which was likely because of uptake of enzyme from blood by the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The body weights of untreated MPS VII dogs are 50% of normal at 6 months. MPS VII dogs cannot walk or stand after 6 months, and progressively develop eye and heart disease. RV- and HGF/RV-treated MPS VII dogs achieved 87% and 84% of normal body weight, respectively. Treated animals could run at all times of evaluation for 6–17 months because of improvements in bone and joint abnormalities, and had little or no corneal clouding and no mitral valve thickening. Despite higher GUSB expression, the clinical improvements in the HGF/RV-treated dog were similar to those in the RV-treated animals. This is the first successful application of gene therapy in preventing the clinical manifestations of a lysosomal storage disease in a large animal. PMID:12232044

  5. Blood glucose may condition factor VII levels in diabetic and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Torella, R

    1988-12-01

    Increased factor VII levels have been reported in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. A direct correlation between fasting plasma glucose and factor VII level was found to exist in both diabetic and normal subjects. Induced-hyperglycaemia was able to increase factor VII levels in both diabetic patients and normal control subjects while, when euglycaemia was achieved in diabetic patients, factor VII values returned to normal range. This study shows that the level of factor VII may be directly conditioned by circulating blood glucose and, therefore, stresses the role of hyperglycaemia in conditioning coagulation abnormalities in diabetes mellitus.

  6. On Not Using Intrinsic Justification in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill; Leeman, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Questions the theoretical justification for the standard of intrinsic justification. Challenges the applicability of phenomenological constructs to academic debate, demonstrates that "essences" cannot be readily located in debate resolutions, and illustrates that proponents of intrinsic justification have not adequately operationalized…

  7. Aspects of psychodynamic neuropsychiatry III: magic spells, the placebo effect, and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study, the importance of supporting the positive transference is stressed-from both a psychological and neurobiological perspective. The article argues that the neurobiology of expectation underlies transference. This neurobiology has been investigated particularly over the past several decades in work concerning the placebo effect. By understanding the neurobiology of expectation, one gains a better understanding of the neurobiology of the transference. This enables clinical predictions-and decisions-that are informed not just by the teachings of psychology but also by the science of biology.

  8. The heated debate. [Global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

  9. Competitive bidding debate goes national

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1987-10-01

    Several states have either adopted or are considering proposal for competitive bidding among prospective cogenerators wishing to supply electric power to a utility. A survey of independent power producers found that an early issue to emerge was whether utilities, themselves, would have to compete for the right to expand. Another issue is access to transmission services. Arguments that this was not the intent of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act forget that diversifying energy sources was a major goal. Congress will continue hearings on the debate this fall on several issues.

  10. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  11. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  12. The Importance of High School Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important educational objectives of high school is to teach critical-thinking skills, and no class does this better than strategic debate. Professor Mike Allen, lead author in a definitive study on debate and critical thinking, lauded debate's promotion of critical-thinking skills. Additionally, researcher Joe Bellon discusses the…

  13. The Power of In-Class Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  14. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  15. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  16. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  17. Technological Imperatives: Using Computers in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticku, Ravinder; Phelps, Greg

    Intended for forensic educators and debate teams, this document details how one university debate team, at the University of Iowa, makes use of computer resources on campus to facilitate storage and retrieval of information useful to debaters. The introduction notes the problem of storing and retrieving the amount of information required by debate…

  18. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  19. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  20. [The debate over drug legalization].

    PubMed

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  1. 2 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 200 - States and Local Government and Indian Tribe Indirect Cost Proposals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Indirect Cost Proposals VII Appendix VII to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. VII Appendix VII to...

  2. The Neurobiology of Moral Behavior: Review and Neuropsychiatric Implications

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.

    2011-01-01

    Morality may be innate to the human brain. This review examines the neurobiological evidence from research involving functional magnetic resonance imaging of normal subjects, developmental sociopathy, acquired sociopathy from brain lesions, and frontotemporal dementia. These studies indicate a “neuromoral” network for responding to moral dilemmas centered in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and its connections, particularly on the right. The neurobiological evidence indicates the existence of automatic “prosocial” mechanisms for identification with others that are part of the moral brain. Patients with disorders involving this moral network have attenuated emotional reactions to the possibility of harming others and may perform sociopathic acts. The existence of this neuromoral system has major clinical implications for the management of patients with dysmoral behavior from brain disorders and for forensic neuropsychiatry. PMID:20173686

  3. [Neurobiología y psicoanálisis].

    PubMed

    Rosler, J Roberto

    2002-01-01

    There would be a conceptual bridge between Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences that would allow the translation of psychoanalytic concepts into neural mechanisms and vice-versa. Different Freudian postulates, such as that different types of anxiety would emerge from various cerebral interactions, the motivational regulatory functions of the impulse, the conscious emotion as the perception of something basically unconscious, the mechanism of repression in the traumatic memory, the existence of a system associated with the unconscious affective processes and regulated by the principle of pleasure - displeasure, the emotional representation as a basis of the more primitive cerebral structures, and the Oedipo complex, among others, are finding their biological ratification in different laboratory studies. This conceptual bridge would not only be a "Psychoanalysis-Neurobiological mechanisms" translator, but would also, through the integrated conceptualization of the psychoanalytical neurobiological aspects of emotion, generate relevant therapeutic models.

  4. The neurobiology of empathy in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Luis H; Snyder, Rebekah; Steele, Howard; Siever, Larry J

    2013-03-01

    We present a neurobiological model of empathic dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD) to guide future empirical research. Empathy is a necessary component of interpersonal functioning, involving two distinct, parallel neural networks. One form of empathic processing relies on shared representations (SR) of others' mental states, while the other is associated with explicit mental state attribution (MSA). SR processing is visceral and automatic, contributing to attunement, but also emotional contagion. MSA processing contributes to deliberate, perspectival forms of empathic understanding. Empathic dysfunction in BPD may involve hyper-reactivity of SR networks and impairment of MSA networks. Nevertheless, this empathic dysfunction is subtle, but contributes to interpersonal difficulties. Interaction between genetic factors and traumatic attachment stressors may contribute to development of BPD, with painful attachment insecurity and disorganization affecting SR and MSA network functioning. Future avenues for BPD research will include developmental assessment of attachment and neurobiological functioning under varying conditions.

  5. [Neurobiological and psychosocial causes of individual male violence].

    PubMed

    Bogerts, B; Möller-Leimkühler, A M

    2013-11-01

    Individual and collective acts of violence are mainly a male phenomenon caused by complex interactions of neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Amazingly this topic has not yet played a major role in the clinical psychiatric literature although the disastrous consequences are clearly visible everywhere and although aggression also belongs to the archaic human emotions, such as anxiety, depression and euphoria.The article gives an integrative overview on epidemiological, neurobiological, genetic, neuropathological, neurochemical/hormonal, developmental and psychosocial theories on aggression and violence, including sociocognitive models, hedonistic aspects of violence, effects of violence in the media and processes of childhood socialization.Better knowledge of the broad spectrum of these intensively interacting biological and psychosocial components resulting in violence not only improves our understanding of this calamitous psychosyndrome but can also lead to more effective preventive measures.

  6. Evolutionary themes in the neurobiology of social cognition.

    PubMed

    Weitekamp, Chelsea A; Hofmann, Hans A

    2014-10-01

    Remarkable examples of social cognition have been described across a diverse range of species, yet surprisingly little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of these behaviors. Recent studies suggest that the molecular pathways and neural networks that mediate social behavior have been relatively conserved across vertebrate evolution, suggesting that shared mechanisms may drive adaptive behavioral responses to social stimuli. Here, we review recent advances in the neurobiology of flexible and context-dependent social behaviors across vertebrate taxa, focusing on female mate choice, pair-bonding, and aggressive behavior. Furthermore, we highlight the outstanding opportunities for uncovering the mechanisms mediating cooperative behavior, an exemplar of social cognition. We suggest a framework for investigating context-dependent neural organization and the evoked neural response to social stimuli.

  7. Novel functions for the anaphase-promoting complex in neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Puram, Sidharth V; Bonni, Azad

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, diverse and unexpected neurobiological functions have been uncovered for the major cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Functions of the APC in the nervous system range from orchestrating neuronal morphogenesis and synapse development to the regulation of neuronal differentiation, survival, and metabolism. The APC acts together with the coactivating proteins Cdh1 and Cdc20 in neural cells to target specific substrates for ubiquitination and consequent degradation by the proteasome. As we continue to unravel APC functions and mechanisms in neurobiology, these studies should advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal connectivity, with important implications for the study of brain development and disease.

  8. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Neurobiological Features and an Updated Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Arienzo, Donatello; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2013-01-01

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) affects approximately 2% of the population and involves misperceived defects of appearance along with obsessive preoccupation and compulsive behaviors. There is evidence of neurobiological abnormalities associated with symptoms in BDD, although research to date is still limited. This review covers the latest neuropsychological, genetic, neurochemical, psychophysical, and neuroimaging studies and synthesizes these findings into an updated (yet still preliminary) neurobiological model of the pathophysiology of BDD. We propose a model in which visual perceptual abnormalities, along with frontostriatal and limbic system dysfunction, may combine to contribute to the symptoms of impaired insight and obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors expressed in BDD. Further research is necessary to gain a greater understanding of the etiological formation of BDD symptoms and their evolution over time. PMID:25419211

  9. Molecular Neurobiology and Promising New Treatment in Depression.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-03-15

    The limited effects of currently available antidepressants are becoming an urgent issue in depression research. It takes a long time to determine treatment effects, and the overall remission rate is low. Although we expect the development of non-monoamine antidepressants in the near future, efforts in this regard over the past several decades have not yet been compensated. Thus, researchers and clinicians should clarify the neurobiological mechanisms of integrated modulators that regulate changes in genes, cells, the brain, and behaviors associated with depression. In this study, we review molecular neurobiological theories and new treatments for depression. Beyond neuroanatomy and monoamine theory, we discuss cells and molecules, neural plasticity, neurotrophisms, endocrine mechanisms, immunological mechanisms, genetics, circadian rhythms, and metabolic regulation in depression. In addition, we introduce the possibility of new antidepressant drug development using protein translation signaling (mTOR) pathways.

  10. The neurobiology of moral behavior: review and neuropsychiatric implications.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mario F

    2009-11-01

    Morality may be innate to the human brain. This review examines the neurobiological evidence from research involving functional magnetic resonance imaging of normal subjects, developmental sociopathy, acquired sociopathy from brain lesions, and frontotemporal dementia. These studies indicate a "neuromoral" network for responding to moral dilemmas centered in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and its connections, particularly on the right. The neurobiological evidence indicates the existence of automatic "prosocial" mechanisms for identification with others that are part of the moral brain. Patients with disorders involving this moral network have attenuated emotional reactions to the possibility of harming others and may perform sociopathic acts. The existence of this neuromoral system has major clinical implications for the management of patients with dysmoral behavior from brain disorders and for forensic neuropsychiatry.

  11. [Pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. Neurobiological risk factors and possible endophenotypes].

    PubMed

    Pászthy, Bea; Törzsök-Sonnevend, Mária

    2014-01-26

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious, chronical state of illness which often starts in childhood or adolescence and has serious consequences on the quality of life. This review focuses on the heterogenity of the disease with emphasis on special diagnostic implications in case of childhood onset. Research findings of the last decade showed that genetic and neurobiological vulnerabilities are at least as potent risk factors as psychological, family constellations and sociocultural preferences. The heritability of eating disorders levels those of diseases predominantly influenced by biological factors. The authors give a summary of the most investigated neurobiologic and neurocognitive factors which could be the fundaments of a biological vulnerablilty. To date, no common risk factor could be identified, but some existing adversities can clearly be related to distinct subgroups with the disorder. The concept of endo- and subphenotypes leads to more specific and more efficient methods of therapy in other somatic and psychiatric diseases.

  12. Molecular Neurobiology and Promising New Treatment in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-01-01

    The limited effects of currently available antidepressants are becoming an urgent issue in depression research. It takes a long time to determine treatment effects, and the overall remission rate is low. Although we expect the development of non-monoamine antidepressants in the near future, efforts in this regard over the past several decades have not yet been compensated. Thus, researchers and clinicians should clarify the neurobiological mechanisms of integrated modulators that regulate changes in genes, cells, the brain, and behaviors associated with depression. In this study, we review molecular neurobiological theories and new treatments for depression. Beyond neuroanatomy and monoamine theory, we discuss cells and molecules, neural plasticity, neurotrophisms, endocrine mechanisms, immunological mechanisms, genetics, circadian rhythms, and metabolic regulation in depression. In addition, we introduce the possibility of new antidepressant drug development using protein translation signaling (mTOR) pathways. PMID:26999106

  13. Major depressive disorder: new clinical, neurobiological, and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, David J; Frank, Ellen; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    In this Seminar we discuss developments from the past 5 years in the diagnosis, neurobiology, and treatment of major depressive disorder. For diagnosis, psychiatric and medical comorbidity have been emphasised as important factors in improving the appropriate assessment and management of depression. Advances in neurobiology have also increased, and we aim to indicate genetic, molecular, and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for assessment and treatment selection of this disorder. Further studies of depression-specific psychotherapies, the continued application of antidepressants, the development of new treatment compounds, and the status of new somatic treatments are also discussed. We address two treatment-related issues: suicide risk with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and the safety of antidepressants in pregnancy. Although clear advances have been made, no fully satisfactory treatments for major depression are available. PMID:22189047

  14. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2012-12-06

    The acute and long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increased attention in recent years. In this Review, we discuss the neuropathology and neural mechanisms associated with TBI, drawing on findings from sports-induced TBI in athletes, in whom acute TBI damages axons and elicits both regenerative and degenerative tissue responses in the brain and in whom repeated concussions may initiate a long-term neurodegenerative process called dementia pugilistica or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We also consider how the neuropathology and neurobiology of CTE in many ways resembles other neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, particularly with respect to mismetabolism and aggregation of tau, β-amyloid, and TDP-43. Finally, we explore how translational research in animal models of acceleration/deceleration types of injury relevant for concussion together with clinical studies employing imaging and biochemical markers may further elucidate the neurobiology of TBI and CTE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How Electroconvulsive Therapy Works?: Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a time tested treatment modality for the management of various psychiatric disorders. There have been a lot of modifications in the techniques of delivering ECT over decades. Despite lots of criticisms encountered, ECT has still been used commonly in clinical practice due to its safety and efficacy. Research evidences found multiple neuro-biological mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of ECT. ECT brings about various neuro-physiological as well as neuro-chemical changes in the macro- and micro-environment of the brain. Diverse changes involving expression of genes, functional connectivity, neurochemicals, permeability of blood-brain-barrier, alteration in immune system has been suggested to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of ECT. This article reviews different neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. PMID:28783929

  16. Neuroscience of Exercise: Association Among Neurobiological Mechanisms and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience is an emergent research field that comprises many multidisciplinary investigations, searches for explanations about the relationship between the body and the brain. Here, we will give a little summary of this field showing the main current findings. We discuss the lack of consistent data about the relationship among exercise for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, sports performance and rehabilitation, and therefore, the difficult to describe cause-effect associations or to describe in detail the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations.

  17. Neurobiological Basis of Insight in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is defined as awareness into illness, symptoms, and need for treatment and has long been associated with cognition, other psychopathological symptoms, and several adverse clinical and functional outcomes. However, the biological basis of insight is not clearly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate and summarize advances in the study of the biological basis of insight in schizophrenia and to identify gaps in this knowledge. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases was conducted using search terms to identify articles relevant to the biology of insight in schizophrenia published in the last 6 years. Articles that focused on etiology of insight in schizophrenia and those that examined the neurobiology of insight in schizophrenia or psychoses were chosen for analysis. Articles on insight in conditions other than schizophrenia or psychoses and which did not investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of insight were excluded from the review. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Of the 26 articles, 3 focused on cellular abnormalities and 23 were neuroimaging studies. Preliminary data identify the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the temporal and parietal lobe (precuneus, inferior parietal lobule) and hippocampus as the neural correlates of insight. A growing body of literature attests to the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia. Current evidence supports the neurobiological basis of insight in schizophrenia and identifies specific neural correlates for insight types and its dimensions. Further studies that examine the precise biological mechanisms of insight are needed to apply this knowledge to effective clinical intervention development.

  18. Neurobiological effects of repeated radiofrequency exposures in male senescent rats.

    PubMed

    Bouji, Marc; Lecomte, Anthony; Gamez, Christelle; Blazy, Kelly; Villégier, Anne-Sophie

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones by aging people raises issues about the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on the aging central nervous system. Here, we tested if mobile phone RF-EMF exposures could exacerbate senescence-typical neurobiological deficits. Thus, aged (22-24 months) and young (4-6 months) adult male rats were subjected to head RF-EMF exposures (900 MHz, specific absorption rate (SAR) of 6 W/kg, 45 min/day for 1 month in restraint rockets). To assess senescence-typical neurobiological deficits, spatial memory, emotional memory, anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, interleukins (IL)-1β and 6, glial fibrillary acidic protein and corticosterone were measured. Aged rats presented deficits in spatial learning, exploration, anxiety-related behaviors, and increased hippocampal ILs and cortical IL-1β. Results showed that senescence-typical neurobiological deficits were not modified by RF-EMF exposures. RF-EMF-exposed rats (young and aged adults pooled) had decreased anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus maze. This study which is the first to assess RF-EMF exposures during late aging did not support the hypothesis of a specific cerebral vulnerability to RF-EMF during senescence. More investigations using longer RF-EMF exposures should be performed to conclude regarding the inoffensiveness of RF-EMF exposures.

  19. Psychoanalysis, a bridge between attachment research and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Mario

    2008-06-01

    Attachment theory and neurobiology are at the forefront of scientific research, particularly in the area of child psychiatry. Several authors have encountered a surprising isomorphism between findings in these areas and concepts central in psychoanalysis. The author postulates that attachment theory is an outcome of the history of the transformation of the old concept of libido now applied interpersonally. The author also postulates that the neurobiology of attachment mediates but does not substitute psychoanalysis for the final understanding of the human bond. Findings in both fields, attachment theory and psychobiology, often compellingly lead to psychoanalytic concepts; on the other hand, the neurobiology of the psyche does not make full sense without the wealth of research conducted by psychoanalysts during the 20th century. The concept of seduction in particular, in its broad sense, is akin to mirroring and attachment and a useful tool in this regard. Although some cling to the idea of the purity of psychoanalysis and see these kin areas as a threat to its integrity, the author believes that psychoanalysis, serving as a bridge between them, can only be enriched by their empirical and experimental outcomes. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (2008) 68, 148-155. doi:10.1057/ajp.2008.4.

  20. Neurobiologically-based treatments in Rett syndrome: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Walter E.; Stallworth, Jennifer L.; Everman, David B.; Skinner, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects females, typically resulting in a period of developmental regression in early childhood followed by stabilization and severe chronic cognitive, behavioral, and physical disability. No known treatment exists beyond symptomatic management, and while insights into the genetic cause, pathophysiology, neurobiology, and natural history of RTT have been gained, many challenges remain. Areas covered: Based on a comprehensive survey of the primary literature on RTT, this article describes and comments upon the general and unique features of the disorder, genetic and neurobiological bases of drug development, and the history of clinical trials in RTT, with an emphasis on drug trial design, outcome measures, and implementation. Expert opinion: Neurobiologically based drug trials are the ultimate goal in RTT, and due to the complexity and global nature of the disorder, drugs targeting both general mechanisms (e.g., growth factors) and specific systems (e.g., glutamate modulators) could be effective. Trial design should optimize data on safety and efficacy, but selection of outcome measures with adequate measurement properties, as well as innovative strategies, such as those enhancing synaptic plasticity and use of biomarkers, are essential for progress in RTT and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28163986

  1. Social learning in animals: sex differences and neurobiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Choleris, E; Kavaliers, M

    1999-12-01

    Social learning where an "individual's behavior is influenced by observation of, or interaction with, another animal or its products" has been extensively documented in a broad variety of species, including humans. Social learning occurs within the complex framework of an animal's social interactions that are markedly affected by factors such as dominance hierarchies, family bonds, age, and sex of the interacting individuals. Moreover, it is clear that social learning is influenced not only by important sexually dimorphic social constraints but also that it involves attention, motivational, and perceptual mechanisms, all of which exhibit substantial male-female differences. Although sex differences have been demonstrated in a wide range of cognitive and behavioral processes, investigations of male-female differences in social learning and its neurobiological substrates have been largely neglected. As such, sex differences in social learning and its neurobiological substrates merit increased attention. This review briefly considers various aspects of the study of social learning in mammals, and indicates where male-female differences have either been described, neglected and, or could have a potential impact. It also describes the results of neurobiological investigations of social learning and considers the relevance of these findings to other sexually dimorphic cognitive processes.

  2. Neurobiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a review.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custodio; Vidor, Liliane Pinto; de Souza, Andressa; Deitos, Alícia; Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is affordable and easy to operate compared to other neuromodulation techniques. Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability, while the cathodal stimulation decreases it. Although tDCS is a promising treatment approach for chronic pain as well as for neuropsychiatric diseases and other neurological disorders, several complex neurobiological mechanisms that are not well understood are involved in its effect. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the effects of tDCS. The initial search resulted in 171 articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we screened 32 full-text articles to extract findings about the neurobiology of tDCS effects including investigation of cortical excitability parameters. Overall, these findings show that tDCS involves a cascade of events at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, tDCS is associated with glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic activity modulation. Though these studies provide important advancements toward the understanding of mechanisms underlying tDCS effects, further studies are needed to integrate these mechanisms as to optimize clinical development of tDCS.

  3. Exercise and bipolar disorder: a review of neurobiological mediators.

    PubMed

    Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Kucyi, Aaron; Law, Candy W Y; McIntyre, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    Extant evidence indicates that individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are differentially affected by overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Excess weight is associated with a more complex illness presentation, non-recovery, and recurrence. Herein, we sought to review literature describing the effects of structured individualized physical exercise on disparate neurobiological substrates implicated in the pathophysiology of BD. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between 1966 and July 2008 with BD cross-referenced with the following search terms: exercise, neurobiology, pathophysiology, pathoetiology, brain, cognition, neuroplasticity, and neurodegeneration. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, the use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall manuscript quality. Contemporary models of disease pathophysiology in BD implicate disturbances in cellular resilience, plasticity, and survival in the central nervous system. Individualized exercise interventions are capable of alleviating the severity of affective and cognitive difficulties in heterogeneous samples. It is posited that exercise is a pleiotropic intervention that engages aberrant neurobiological systems implicated in metabolism, immuno-inflammatory function, and cellular respiration. Structured exercise regimens exert a salutary effect on interacting networks mediating metabolism, immuno-inflammatory function, and cellular respiration. In keeping this view, buttressed by controlled evidence describing robust anti-depressant effects with exercise (e.g., public health dose), a testable hypothesis is that structured exercise is capable of improving psychiatric and somatic health in BD.

  4. Neurobiologically-based treatments in Rett syndrome: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Walter E; Stallworth, Jennifer L; Everman, David B; Skinner, Steven A

    2016-10-02

    Introduction: Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects females, typically resulting in a period of developmental regression in early childhood followed by stabilization and severe chronic cognitive, behavioral, and physical disability. No known treatment exists beyond symptomatic management, and while insights into the genetic cause, pathophysiology, neurobiology, and natural history of RTT have been gained, many challenges remain. Areas covered: Based on a comprehensive survey of the primary literature on RTT, this article describes and comments upon the general and unique features of the disorder, genetic and neurobiological bases of drug development, and the history of clinical trials in RTT, with an emphasis on drug trial design, outcome measures, and implementation. Expert opinion: Neurobiologically based drug trials are the ultimate goal in RTT, and due to the complexity and global nature of the disorder, drugs targeting both general mechanisms (e.g., growth factors) and specific systems (e.g., glutamate modulators) could be effective. Trial design should optimize data on safety and efficacy, but selection of outcome measures with adequate measurement properties, as well as innovative strategies, such as those enhancing synaptic plasticity and use of biomarkers, are essential for progress in RTT and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. The neurobiology of addiction: a neuroadaptational view relevant for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Koob, George F

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of addiction relevant for the diagnosis of addiction. A heuristic framework of neuroadaptive changes within key brain neurocircuitry responsible for different stages of the addiction cycle is outlined and linked to human studies to provide important future translational links for diagnosis. Animal studies have revealed dysregulation of specific neurochemical mechanisms (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the brain reward systems and recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor) during the development of dependence that convey vulnerability to relapse. Animal studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in drug- and cue-induced relapse, respectively, and the brain stress systems in stress-induced relapse. Genetic studies suggest roles for the genes encoding the neurochemical elements involved in both the brain reward and stress systems in the vulnerability to addiction, and molecular studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that may mediate dependence-induced reward dysregulation. Human imaging studies reveal similar neurocircuits involved in acute intoxication, chronic drug dependence and vulnerability to relapse. Major neurobiological changes in substance abuse disorders common to human and animal studies relevant for diagnosis include a compromised reward system, overactivated brain stress systems and compromised orbitofrontal/prefrontal cortex function. No biological markers of substance abuse disorders currently exist, but there are many promising neurobiological features of substance abuse disorders that will eventually aid in the specific diagnoses of substance use, misuse and dependence.

  6. Gut memories: towards a cognitive neurobiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Paul J; Clarke, Gerard; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Groeger, John A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-01-01

    The brain and the gut are engaged in continual crosstalk along a number of pathways collectively termed the 'brain-gut axis'. Over recent years it has become increasingly clear that dysregulation of the axis at a number of levels can result in disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). With recent advances in neuroimaging technologies, insights into the neurobiology of IBS are beginning to emerge. However the cognitive neurobiology of IBS has remained relatively unexplored to date. In this review we summarise the available data on cognitive function in IBS. Moreover, we specifically address three key pathophysiological factors, namely; stress, immune activation and chronic pain, together with other factors involved in the manifestation of IBS, and explore how each of these components may impact centrally, what neurobiological mechanisms might be involved, and consider the implications for cognitive functioning in IBS. We conclude that each factor addressed could significantly impinge on central nervous system function, supporting the view that future research efforts must be directed towards a detailed assessment of cognitive function in IBS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol-related aggression-social and neurobiological factors.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Alcohol-related aggression and violence are a widespread cause of personal suffering with high socioeconomic costs. In 2011, nearly one in three violent acts in Germany was committed under the influence of alcohol (31.8%). The link between alcohol consumption and aggression is promoted by various interacting factors. In this review, based on a selective search for pertinent literature in PubMed, we analyze and summarize information from original articles, reviews, and book chapters about alcohol and aggression and discuss the neurobiological basis of aggressive behavior. Aggression is promoted both by the cognitive deficits arising in connection with acute or chronic alcohol use and by prior experience of violence in particular situations where alcohol was drunk. Only a minority of persons who drink alcohol become aggressive. On the other hand, alcohol abuse and dependence together constitute the second most commonly diagnosed cause of suicide (15-43%). Current research indicates that the individual tendency toward alcohol-induced aggression depends not just on neurobiological factors, but also on personal expectations of the effects of alcohol, on prior experience of violent conflicts, and on the environmental conditions of early childhood, especially social exclusion and discrimination. Gene-environment interactions affecting the serotonergic and other neurotransmitter systems play an important role. Potential (but not yet adequately validated) therapeutic approaches involve reinforcing cognitive processes or pharmacologically modulating serotonergic neurotransmission (and other target processes). Alcohol-related aggression has manifold social and neurobiological causes. Specific treatments must be tested in controlled trials.

  8. Controlling legs for locomotion-insights from robotics and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Thomas; Ewald, Alexander; von Twickel, Arndt; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-06-29

    Walking is the most common terrestrial form of locomotion in animals. Its great versatility and flexibility has led to many attempts at building walking machines with similar capabilities. The control of walking is an active research area both in neurobiology and robotics, with a large and growing body of work. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on the control of legged locomotion in animals and machines and attempts to give walking control researchers from biology and robotics an overview of the current knowledge in both fields. We try to summarize the knowledge on the neurobiological basis of walking control in animals, emphasizing common principles seen in different species. In a section on walking robots, we review common approaches to walking controller design with a slight emphasis on biped walking control. We show where parallels between robotic and neurobiological walking controllers exist and how robotics and biology may benefit from each other. Finally, we discuss where research in the two fields diverges and suggest ways to bridge these gaps.

  9. [The climate debate: the facts].

    PubMed

    van den Broeke, Michiel R

    2009-01-01

    The first report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) appeared almost 20 years ago. Environmental contamination has a negative effect on the environment in which we live. However, the public at large is confused about the ins and outs of climate change. Managers, politicians, various kinds of advisors, scientists, so-called experts, sceptics and journalists have all taken it upon themselves to lead the debate. Whose task is it to ensure a sound discussion? Surely it is the IPCC's task. However, most politicians and many journalists, and even many scientists, do not take the trouble to read the entire IPCC report or parts of it. As a consequence, much nonsense is published and broadcast. An effective procedure to deal with the climate problem starts with a fair discussion of the scientific evidence. My advice is: just read the free IPCC report: http://www.ipcc.ch/ and click on 'WG I The Physical Science Basis'.

  10. Levinas and the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Nuyen, A T

    2000-01-01

    The philosophers' tendency to characterize euthanasia in terms of either the right or the responsibility to die is, in some ways, problematic. Stepping outside of the analytic framework, the author draws out the implications of the ethics of Emmanuel Levinas for the euthanasia debate, tracing the ways Levinas' position differs not only from the philosophical consensus but also from the theological one. The article shows that, according to Levinas, there is no ethical case for suicide or assisted suicide. Death cannot be assumed or chosen--not only because suicide is a logically and metaphysically contradictory concept but also because in the choice of death ethical responsibility turns into irresponsibility. However, since Levinas holds that one must be responsible to the point of expiation, he can be said to approve certain actions that may have the consequence of hastening death.

  11. Fetal pain: an infantile debate.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, S W G

    2001-02-01

    The question of whether a fetus can experience pain is an immense challenge. The issue demands consideration of the physical and psychological basis of being and the relation between the two. At the center of this debate is the question of how it is that we are conscious, a question that has inspired the writing of some of our most brilliant contemporary philosophers and scientists, with one commentary suggesting surrender. In my earlier review I attempted to draw together the various strands of thinking that had attacked the question of fetal pain and relate them back to the bigger question of consciousness. In their vituperative response, Benatar and Benatar bite off my finger before looking to where I am pointing. I will examine each of their criticisms.

  12. PREFACE: VII Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcubierre Moya, Miguel; García Compeán, Héctor Hugo; Ureña López, Luis Arturo

    2007-07-01

    The present collection of papers was presented during the VII Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics, which was held in Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo, México, from 26 November to 2 December 2006. The Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics, sponsored by the Mexican Physical Society, started in 1994 with the purpose of discussing and exchanging current ideas in gravitational physics. Each school has been devoted to a particular subject, and on previous occasions these subjects have covered topics such as supergravity, branes, black holes, the early Universe, observational cosmology, and quantum gravity. At the dawn of the XXI Century, General Relativity has finally become a standard tool in our understanding of numerous astrophysical phenomena. At the same time, the new generation of large interferometric gravitational wave detectors that are just beginning operation holds the promise of finally allowing the detection of gravitational waves and opening a new window on the Universe. However, because of the complexity of the Einstein field equations, the modelling of realistic astrophysical systems and gravitational wave sources can only be done using numerical simulations. Because of this, we have dedicated our VII School to the topic of relativistic astrophysics and numerical relativity. As in all our previous Schools, international leaders in the field were invited to give courses and plenary lectures. The school was complemented with more specialized talks presented in parallel sessions, some of which are included in these proceedings. All the contributions in this volume have been refereed, and they represent a sample of the courses, invited talks and contributed talks presented during our VII School. Our deep gratitude goes to all those who contributed to these proceedings, and to making our VII Mexican School a great success. Miguel Alcubierre Moya, Héctor Hugo García Compeán and Luis Arturo Ureña López Editors

  13. C2, CN and dust in Comet Wilson (1987VII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, R.; Ahearn, M. F.; Birch, P. V.; Bowers, C.; Kempin, M.; Martin, R.

    1993-01-01

    Column density profiles in C2 and CN as well as in blue and red continuum (BC and RC) were constructed from two dimensional images of the coma of Comet Wilson (1987VII). The authors' analysis showed that the continuum profiles decrease with the nuclear distance rho as 1/rho. From the C2 and CN profiles the authors determined the parent and the daughter lifetimes as well as the production rates in terms of the vectorial model.

  14. Behavior of Np(VII, VI, V) in Silicate Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shilov, V P.; Fedoseev, A M.; Yusov, A B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2004-11-30

    Spectrophotometric methods were used to investigate the properties of neptunium(VII), (VI), and (V) in silicate solution. The transition of cationic neptunium(VII) to anionic species in non-complexing environments proceeds in the range of ?? 5.5 to 7.5. In the presence of carbonate, this transition occurs at ?? 10.0 to 11.5 and in silicate solutions at ?? 10.5-12.0. These findings show that cationic neptunium(VII) forms complexes with both carbonate and silicate and that the silicate complex is stronger than that of the carbonate. The competition of complex formation reactions for neptunium(VI) with carbonate and silicate and on the known complex stability constant of NpO2(CO3)34- allowed the NpO2SiO3 complex stability constant, log ? = 16.5, to be estimated. Determination of the formation constant of Np(V) complexes with SiO32- was not possible using similar methods.

  15. CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR ENDF/B-VII.

    SciTech Connect

    HERMAN, M.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2006-06-05

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on neutron cross section evaluations for ENDF/B-VII (April 2005-May 2006). The purpose of the contract was to ensure seamless integration of the LANL neutron cross section evaluations in the new ENDF/B-VII library. The following work was performed: (1) LANL evaluated data files submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII were checked and, when necessary, formal formatting errors were corrected. As a consequence, ENDF checking codes, run on all LANL files, do not report any errors that would rise concern. (2) LANL dosimetry evaluations for {sup 191}Ir and {sup 193}Ir were completed to match ENDF requirements for the general purpose library suitable for transport calculations. A set of covariances for both isotopes is included in the ENDF files. (3) Library of fission products was assembled and successfully tested with ENDF checking codes, processed with NJOY-99.125 and simple MCNP calculations. (4) KALMAN code has been integrated with the EMPIRE system to allow estimation of covariances based on the combination of measurements and model calculations. Covariances were produced for 155,157-Gd and also for 6 remaining isotopes of Gd.

  16. Water excitation MPRAGE MRI of VII and VIII cranial nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, A.W.; Licata, P.; Knopp, E.A.; Thomasson, D.M.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to compare magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo-water excitation (MPR-AGE-WE) with conventional spin echo (CSE) in the evaluation of the VII and VIII cranial nerves. One hundred three consecutive patients with symptoms referable to the VII/VIII nerves were studied with CSE T1 and MPRAGE-WE following intravenous gadolinium, contrast agent. Each right and left nerve pair was independently evaluated for the presence of an enhancing mass and for visualization of the nerves. On the CSE images, 26 definite and 2 possible lesions were identified, whereas 28 definite and 2 possible abnormalities were seen on the MPRAGE-WE. Four cases were better identified on the MPRAGE-WE and one better seen on the CSE. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0. 19). CSE demonstrated the nerves partially in 23 instances and completely in 6; MPRAGE-WE showed the nerves partially in 35 and completely in 73. This was highly significant (p < 0.001). With equivalent or slightly improved lesion detection and better visualization of the nerves, MPRAGE-WE may replace CSE in studying the VII/VIII nerves. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Altered lumbar spine structure, biochemistry and biomechanical properties in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lachlan J; Martin, John T; Szczesny, Spencer E; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a deficiency in β-glucuronidase activity, leading to systemic accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Along with other morbidities, MPS VII is associated with paediatric spinal deformity. The objective of this study was to examine potential associations between abnormal lumbar spine matrix structure and composition in MPS VII, and spine segment and tissue-level mechanical properties, using a naturally occurring canine model with a similar clinical phenotype to the human form of the disorder. Segments from juvenile MPS VII and unaffected dogs were allocated to: radiography, gross morphology, histology, biochemistry, and mechanical testing. MPS VII spines had radiolucent lesions in the vertebral body epiphyses. Histologically, this corresponded to a GAG-rich cartilaginous region in place of bone, and elevated GAG staining was seen in the annulus fibrosus. Biochemically, MPS VII samples had elevated GAG in the outer annulus fibrosus and epiphyses, low calcium in the epiphyses, and high water content in all regions except the nucleus pulposus. MPS VII spine segments had higher range of motion and lower stiffness than controls. Endplate indentation stiffness and failure loads were significantly lower in MPS VII samples, while annulus fibrosus tensile mechanical properties were normal. Vertebral body lesions in MPS VII spines suggest a failure to convert cartilage to bone during development. Low stiffness in these regions likely contributes to mechanical weakness in motion segments and is a potential factor in the progression of spinal deformity. PMID:19918911

  18. Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mark R.; Scott, Henry P.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modeling of planetary interiors requires that the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) properties of phases present within the body be well understood. The high-pressure polymorphs of H2O have been studied extensively due to the abundance of ice phases in icy moons and, likely, vast number of extra-solar planetary bodies, with only select studies evaluating impurity-laden ices. In this study, ice formed from a 1.6 mol percent KCl-bearing aqueous solution was studied up to 32.89 ± 0.19 GPa and 625 K, and the incorporation of K+ and Cl- ionic impurities into the ice VII structure was documented. The compression data at 295 K were fit with a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and yielded a bulk modulus (KT0), its pressure derivative (KT0 ‧), and zero pressure volume (V0) of 24.7 ± 0.9 GPa, 4.44 ± 0.09, and 39.2 ± 0.2 Å3, respectively. The impurity-laden ice was found to be 6-8% denser than ice VII formed from pure H2O. Thermal expansion coefficients were also determined for several isothermal compression curves at elevated temperatures, and a PVT equation of state was obtained. The melting curve of ice VII with incorporated K+ and Cl- was estimated by fitting experimental data up to 10.2 ± 0.4 GPa, where melting occurred at 625 K, to the Simon-Glatzel equation. The melting curve of this impurity-laden ice is systematically depressed relative to that of pure H2O by approximately 45 K and 80 K at 4 and 11 GPa, respectively. A portion of the K+ and Cl- contained within the ice VII structure was observed to exsolve with increasing temperature. This suggests that an internal differentiating process could concentrate a K-rich phase deep within H2O-rich planets, and we speculate that this could supply an additional source of heat through the radioactive decay of 40K. Our data illustrate ice VII can incorporate significant concentrations of K+ and Cl- and increasing the possibility of deep-sourced and solute-rich plumes in moderate to large sized H2O

  19. The population debate heats up.

    PubMed

    Malay, R L

    1994-01-01

    60% of the 65 million people in the Philippines have lived below the poverty line amid overall negative GNP growth for almost a decade. The population is growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. These conditions suggest the urgent need to reduce population growth and take measures to improve the performance of the economy. The big debate in the Philippines regarding population and development, however, is not over the redistribution of resources, but about the morality of managing population growth through the promotion of artificial means of contraception. Roman Catholicism predominates among religions in the Philippines. The Catholic Church in the Philippines, as elsewhere around the world, alleges that artificial contraceptives are abortifacient and that only natural methods should be promoted. Although Health Secretary Dr. Juan M. Flavier, a staunch supporter of family planning, points out that the church and state both abhor abortion, accept natural family planning, and would like to offer a better quality of life to the people, it is clear that the government does not agree with the Church's endorsement of only natural family planning methods. Surveys have found that most Filipinos agree with the government; they are in favor of family planning and feel that the Church should stay out of the debate. A people-centered approach to development and concern for the environment are called for to improve the Filipino quality of life. At the global level, the Vatican has allies among believers of Islam in its position against abortion and in favor of a traditional concept of the family. Despite wrangling at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) over a woman's right to abortion and other contentious issues, such as the objection among Southern states to the ICPD committee's exclusion of the right to family reunification, the ICPD was a success because it gave prime importance to the link between population and sustainable development. The ICPD

  20. Anticancer Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Scolopendrasin VII Derived from the Centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Kim, Mi-Ae; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Kang, Dongchul; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2015-08-01

    Previously, we performed de novo RNA sequencing of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using high-throughput sequencing technology and identified several antimicrobial peptide candidates. Among them, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, scolopendrasin VII, was selected based on its physicochemical properties, such as length, charge, and isoelectric point. Here, we assessed the anticancer activities of scolopendrasin VII against U937 and Jurkat leukemia cell lines. The results showed that scolopendrasin VII decreased the viability of the leukemia cells in MTS assays. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining revealed that scolopendrasin VII induced necrosis in the leukemia cells. Scolopendrasin VII-induced necrosis was mediated by specific interaction with phosphatidylserine, which is enriched in the membrane of cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicated that scolopendrasin VII induced necrotic cell death in leukemia cells, probably through interaction with phosphatidylserine. The results provide a useful anticancer peptide candidate and an efficient strategy for new anticancer peptide development.

  1. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    PubMed

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  2. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Alternative splicing isoforms of synaptotagmin VII in the mouse, rat and human.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Mitsunori; Ogata, Yukie; Saegusa, Chika; Kanno, Eiko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2002-07-01

    Synaptotagmin VII (Syt VII) has been proposed to regulate several different types of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, but its subcellular localization (lysosome or plasma membrane) and the number of alternative splicing isoforms of Syt VII (single or multiple forms) are matters of controversy. In the present study, we show by reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis that mouse Syt VII has one major isoform (Syt VIIalpha), the original Syt VII, and two minor isoforms (Syt VIIbeta and Syt VIIgamma), which contain unique insertions (of 44 and 116 amino acids respectively) in the spacer domain between the transmembrane and C2 domains of Syt VIIalpha. Similar results were obtained with respect to rat and human Syt VII mRNA expression. An antibody against the N-terminal domain of mouse Syt VII [anti-(Syt VII-N)], which specifically recognized recombinant Syt VII but not other Syt isoforms expressed in COS-7 cells, recognized two major, closely co-migrating bands (p58 and p60) and minor bands of approx. 65 kDa in mouse brain. Immunoaffinity purification of proteins that bind the anti-(Syt VII-N) antibody, and peptide sequence analysis revealed that: (i) the major p58 and p60 bands are identified as adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2; (ii) actin-binding protein is localized at the plasma membrane; and (iii) Syt VIIalpha (65 kDa) is the major Syt VII isoform, but with a much lower expression level than previously thought. It was also shown that FLAG-Syt VII-green-fluorescence-protein fusion protein stably expressed in PC12 cells is localized in the perinuclear region (co-localization with TGN38 protein, even after brefeldin A treatment) and in the tips of neurites (co-localization with Syt I), and not in the plasma membrane.

  4. Alternative splicing isoforms of synaptotagmin VII in the mouse, rat and human.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Mitsunori; Ogata, Yukie; Saegusa, Chika; Kanno, Eiko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    Synaptotagmin VII (Syt VII) has been proposed to regulate several different types of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, but its subcellular localization (lysosome or plasma membrane) and the number of alternative splicing isoforms of Syt VII (single or multiple forms) are matters of controversy. In the present study, we show by reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis that mouse Syt VII has one major isoform (Syt VIIalpha), the original Syt VII, and two minor isoforms (Syt VIIbeta and Syt VIIgamma), which contain unique insertions (of 44 and 116 amino acids respectively) in the spacer domain between the transmembrane and C2 domains of Syt VIIalpha. Similar results were obtained with respect to rat and human Syt VII mRNA expression. An antibody against the N-terminal domain of mouse Syt VII [anti-(Syt VII-N)], which specifically recognized recombinant Syt VII but not other Syt isoforms expressed in COS-7 cells, recognized two major, closely co-migrating bands (p58 and p60) and minor bands of approx. 65 kDa in mouse brain. Immunoaffinity purification of proteins that bind the anti-(Syt VII-N) antibody, and peptide sequence analysis revealed that: (i) the major p58 and p60 bands are identified as adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2; (ii) actin-binding protein is localized at the plasma membrane; and (iii) Syt VIIalpha (65 kDa) is the major Syt VII isoform, but with a much lower expression level than previously thought. It was also shown that FLAG-Syt VII-green-fluorescence-protein fusion protein stably expressed in PC12 cells is localized in the perinuclear region (co-localization with TGN38 protein, even after brefeldin A treatment) and in the tips of neurites (co-localization with Syt I), and not in the plasma membrane. PMID:12071850

  5. 29 CFR 1604.8 - Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. 1604.8... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The... based on the Equal Pay Act may be raised in a proceeding under title VII. (c) Where such a defense...

  6. Neurobiological dimensional models of personality: a review of the models of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2005-04-01

    Neurobiological dimensional models of personality aim to account for the structure of personality traits and disorders through links to neurotransmitter systems. Three such models are reviewed: those of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever. While these proposals have heuristic value, none of them has obtained strong empirical support. Our current understanding of neurobiology is insufficient to develop a model of personality on this basis. At this point, dimensions of personality should be derived from factor analysis rather than from neurobiological theories.

  7. Result of Rendezvous Docking Experiment of ETS.35zw .5zw .25mmVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Isao; Mokuno, Masaaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Kunugi, Makoto

    ETS VII is a test satellite to perform in-orbit demonstration of autonomous rendezvous docking (RVD) technology, which will be necessary for advanced space activities in the early 21st century. ETS VII performed three RVD experiment flights, and verified all technical items. ETS VII demonstrated first autonomous RVD between unmanned vehicles, and remote piloted rendezvous flight position accuracy at docking was about 1cm, and acceleration was less than 1.5mG (low impact docking). In the second RVD experiment flight, ETS VII detected attitude anomaly and executed disable abort for safety insurance. We present the results and evaluation of three RVD experiment flights in this paper.

  8. Palmitoylation-dependent association with CD63 targets the Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin VII to lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Andrew R.; Czibener, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Syt VII is a Ca2+ sensor that regulates lysosome exocytosis and plasma membrane repair. Because it lacks motifs that mediate lysosomal targeting, it is unclear how Syt VII traffics to these organelles. In this paper, we show that mutations or inhibitors that abolish palmitoylation disrupt Syt VII targeting to lysosomes, causing its retention in the Golgi complex. In macrophages, Syt VII is translocated simultaneously with the lysosomal tetraspanin CD63 from tubular lysosomes to nascent phagosomes in a Ca2+-dependent process that facilitates particle uptake. Mutations in Syt VII palmitoylation sites block trafficking of Syt VII, but not CD63, to lysosomes and phagosomes, whereas tyrosine replacement in the lysosomal targeting motif of CD63 causes both proteins to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Complexes of CD63 and Syt VII are detected only when Syt VII palmitoylation sites are intact. These findings identify palmitoylation-dependent association with the tetraspanin CD63 as the mechanism by which Syt VII is targeted to lysosomes. PMID:21041449

  9. Differential role of the Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin VII in macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Steven M.; Delamarre, Lélia; Mellman, Ira; Andrews, Norma W.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptotagmin VII (Syt VII) is a Ca2+ sensing molecule that regulates lysosomal exocytosis in several cell types. In macrophages (MØ), Syt VII is required for efficient uptake of large particle loads, by promoting the delivery of lysosomal membrane to phagocytic cups. Here we compare the phagocytic capacity of bone marrow-derived MØs and dendritic cells (DC), and show that the requirement for Syt VII correlates with the unique ability of MØs for continuous phagocytosis. In contrast to MØs, Syt VII+/+ and Syt VII−/− immature DCs show similar levels of initial phagocytosis, followed by a marked decrease in particle uptake. [Ca2+]i chelation and PI-3 kinase inhibition reduce particle uptake by MØs, but are markedly less inhibitory in DCs. Thus, immature DCs appear to lack the Syt VII, Ca2+ and PI-3 kinase-dependent forms of phagocytosis that are present in MØs. Interestingly, expression of Syt VII is up-regulated during LPS-induced DC maturation, a stimulus that also induces Syt VII translocation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. Syt VII−/− DCs show a delayed translocation of MHC class II to the cell surface during maturation, consistent with the possibility that Syt VII facilitates exocytosis and/or surface retention of molecules critical for antigen presentation. PMID:19157638

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy for murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII leads to improvements in behavior and auditory function.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, L H; Erway, L C; Vogler, C A; Sly, W S; Nicholes, A; Grubb, J; Holmberg, S W; Levy, B; Sands, M S

    1998-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII; Sly syndrome) is one of a group of lysosomal storage diseases that share many clinical features, including mental retardation and hearing loss. Lysosomal storage in neurons of the brain and the associated behavioral abnormalities characteristic of a murine model of MPS VII have not been shown to be corrected by either bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. However, intravenous injections of recombinant beta-glucuronidase initiated at birth reduce the pathological evidence of disease in MPS VII mice. In this study we present evidence that enzyme replacement initiated at birth improved the behavioral performance and reduced hearing loss in MPS VII mice. Enzyme-treated MPS VII mice performed similarly to normal mice and significantly better than mock- treated MPS VII mice in every phase of the Morris Water Maze test. In addition, the auditory function of treated MPS VII mice was dramatically improved, and was indistinguishable from normal mice. These data indicate that some of the learning, memory, and hearing deficits can be prevented in MPS VII mice if enzyme replacement therapy is initiated early in life. These data also provide functional correlates to the biochemical and histopathological improvements observed after enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:9525982

  11. Type VII Collagen Expression in the Human Vitreoretinal Interface, Corpora Amylacea and Inner Retinal Layers.

    PubMed

    Wullink, Bart; Pas, Hendri H; Van der Worp, Roelofje J; Kuijer, Roel; Los, Leonoor I

    2015-01-01

    Type VII collagen, as a major component of anchoring fibrils found at basement membrane zones, is crucial in anchoring epithelial tissue layers to their underlying stroma. Recently, type VII collagen was discovered in the inner human retina by means of immunohistochemistry, while proteomic investigations demonstrated type VII collagen at the vitreoretinal interface of chicken. Because of its potential anchoring function at the vitreoretinal interface, we further assessed the presence of type VII collagen at this site. We evaluated the vitreoretinal interface of human donor eyes by means of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and Western blotting. Firstly, type VII collagen was detected alongside vitreous fibers6 at the vitreoretinal interface. Because of its known anchoring function, it is likely that type VII collagen is involved in vitreoretinal attachment. Secondly, type VII collagen was found within cytoplasmic vesicles of inner retinal cells. These cells resided most frequently in the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. Thirdly, type VII collagen was found in astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, known as corpora amylacea. The intraretinal presence of type VII collagen was confirmed by Western blotting of homogenized retinal preparations. These data add to the understanding of vitreoretinal attachment, which is important for a better comprehension of common vitreoretinal attachment pathologies.

  12. The clinical neuroscience course: viewing mental health from neurobiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kelly G

    2005-01-01

    Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this "clinical neuroscience" to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette's syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students' awareness of their own coping strategies. Finally

  13. Neurobiological and clinical effects of the antidepressant tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; McEwen, Bruce S

    2008-01-01

    The precise neurobiological processes involved in depression are not clear, but it is recognized that numerous factors are involved, including changes in neurotransmitter systems and brain plasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to adapt functionally and structurally to stimuli. Impairment of neuroplasticity in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortex is hypothesized to be the mechanism by which cognitive function, learning, memory and emotions are altered in depression. The mechanisms underlying alterations in neuroplasticity are believed to relate to changes in neurotransmitters, hormones and growth factors. Structural changes in the hippocampus that have been proposed to be associated with depression include dendritic atrophy, reduced levels of cerebral metabolites, decreased adult neurogenesis (generation of new nerve cells) and reduced volume. Increased dendritic branching occurs in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Reduced neuronal size and glial cell density occur in the prefrontal cortex. Clinically, tianeptine is an antidepressant effective in reducing symptoms of depression in mild to moderate-to-severe major depression, including over the long term. Tianeptine is also effective in alleviating the symptoms of depression-associated anxiety. It is generally well tolerated, with little sedation or cognitive impairment. The efficacy profile of tianeptine could be explained by its neurobiological properties observed in animal models. Tianeptine prevents or reverses stress-associated structural and cellular changes in the brain and normalizes disrupted glutamatergic neurotransmission. In particular, in the hippocampus, it prevents stress-induced dendritic atrophy, improves neurogenesis, reduces apoptosis and normalizes metabolite levels and hippocampal volume. Tianeptine also has beneficial effects in the amygdala and cortex and can reverse the effects of stress on neuronal and synaptic functioning. The neurobiological properties of

  14. The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kelly G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies

  15. Neurobiology of bipolar disorder - lessons from migraine disorders.

    PubMed

    Holland, Janathon; Agius, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder is at present largely empirical, in the lack of a definitive understanding of the biological basis of the condition. Many theories have been proposed regarding the underlying neurobiology. These have included aetiologies relating to altered neurotrophic factor expression, mitochondrial endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction with related calcium changes, and loss of inhibitory interneurons. Here an attempt is made to integrate such current understanding, in part by considering the changes observed in migraine - a condition which has a number of similarities with bipolar disorder.

  16. Neuroeconomics: The neurobiology of value-based decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Antonio; Camerer, Colin; Montague, P. Read

    2015-01-01

    Neuroeconomics studies the neurobiological and computational basis of value-based decision-making. Its goal is to provide a biologically-based account of human behavior that can be applied in both the natural and the social sciences. In this review we propose a framework for thinking about decision-making that allows us to bring together recent findings in the field, highlight some of the most important outstanding problems, define a common lexicon that bridges the different disciplines that inform neuroeconomics, and point the way to future applications. PMID:18545266

  17. ["Acquired Psychopathy" and the Neurobiology of Emotion and Violence

    PubMed

    Müller, Jürgen L.; Schuierer, Gerhard; Marienhagen, Jörg; Putzhammer, Albert; Klein, Helmfried E.

    2003-05-01

    "Psychopathy" describes a type of personality disorder characterized by a dysregulation of emotion processing. Social behaviour, emotion regulation and competency are of particular relevance in forensic psychiatry. Structural-morphological and functional imaging studies prove that emotion regulation, aggressive-impulsive behaviour and learning from negative experiences are greatly influenced by frontal brain regions. These abilities are impaired in severe cases of dissocial personality disorders and in traumatic "pseudopsychopathy". We illustrate the importance functional neurobiological changes in patients personality disorders and "acquired psychopathy" by two case reports on patients who were admitted to a forensic-psychiatric facility for sexual crimes.

  18. ["Acquired psychopathy" and the neurobiology of emotion and violence].

    PubMed

    Müller, Jürgen L; Schuierer, Gerhard; Marienhagen, Jörg; Putzhammer, Albert; Klein, Helmfried E

    2003-05-01

    "Psychopathy" describes a type of personality disorder characterized by a dysregulation of emotion processing. Social behaviour, emotion regulation and competency are of particular relevance in forensic psychiatry. Structural-morphological and functional imaging studies prove that emotion regulation, aggressive-impulsive behaviour and learning from negative experiences are greatly influenced by frontal brain regions. These abilities are impaired in severe cases of dissocial personality disorders and in traumatic "pseudopsychopathy". We illustrate the importance functional neurobiological changes in patients personality disorders and "acquired psychopathy" by two case reports on patients who were admitted to a forensic-psychiatric facility for sexual crimes.

  19. Inhibition of Action, Thought, and Emotion: A Selective Neurobiological Review

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Daniel G.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2007-01-01

    The neural bases of inhibitory function are reviewed, covering data from paradigms assessing inhibition of motor responses (antisaccade, go/nogo, stop-signal), cognitive sets (e.g., Wisconsin Card Sort Test), and emotion (fear extinction). The frontal cortex supports performance on these paradigms, but the specific neural circuitry varies: response inhibition depends upon fronto-basal ganglia networks, inhibition of cognitive sets is supported by orbitofrontal cortex, and retention of fear extinction reflects ventromedial prefrontal cortexamygdala interactions. Inhibition is thus neurobiologically heterogeneous, although right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex may support a general inhibitory process. Dysfunctions in these circuits may contribute to psychopathological conditions marked by inhibitory deficits. PMID:19050749

  20. Neurobiology of Cognitive Aging: Insights from Imaging Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Mattay, Venkata S.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Sambataro, Fabio; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last several years, neuroscientists have been increasingly using neuroimaging techniques to unravel the neurobiology underlying cognitive aging, and in more recent years to explore the role of genes on the variability of the aging process. One of the primary goals of this research is to identify proteins involved in cognitive aging with the hope that this would facilitate the development of novel treatments to combat cognitive impairment. Further, it is likely with early identification of susceptible individuals, early intervention through life-style changes and other methods could increase an individual’s resilience to the effects of aging. PMID:18511173

  1. [Why do we need induced pluripotent stem cells in neurobiology?].

    PubMed

    Liszewska, Ewa; Jaworski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells made possible to study in vitro inaccessible human cells, such as different types of neurons. Almost immediate consequence of the emergence of this technology was the development of a number of cellular models of the nervous system diseases. They are used both to explore the cellular mechanisms of these diseases and for the development of new pharmacological strategies. Reprogrammed cells are also a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells for transplantation. This article presents the most important achievements in the use of cell reprogramming technology in neurobiology and at the same time points out the limitations of the methodology and the expected directions of its development.

  2. Placebo effects: from the neurobiological paradigm to translational implications.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2014-11-05

    Today we are witnessing a new science of placebo, a complex discipline that encompasses several experimental approaches and translational implications. Modern neurobiological tools have been used to answer important questions in placebo research, such as the top-down modulation of sensory and motor systems as well as the influence of cognition, emotions, and learning on symptoms, diseases, and responses to treatments. What we have learned is that there is not one single placebo effect, but many. This review highlights the translational implications of this new knowledge, ranging from clinical trial design to medical practice to social and ethical issues.

  3. The neurobiological effects of stress on adolescent decision making.

    PubMed

    Galván, A; Rahdar, A

    2013-09-26

    Relative to other developmental periods, adolescence is characterized by risky decision making, increased perceived stress and heightened reactivity to acute stress. It is also during this time that individuals undergo significant neurodevelopment in brain regions that process decision making and stress. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about stress during adolescence, how it impacts risky decision-making, and how acute stress may exert neurobiological effects on circuitry that subserves decision-making in the developing brain. We conclude by suggesting future research directions that may help the field gain traction on this important, but relatively understudied, question. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  5. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  6. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  7. The United States: A Persistent Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Scotter, Richard; Hartoonian, H. Michael; White, William E.; Davis, James E.

    2007-01-01

    American democratic society is sustained through debate among its citizens. Four sets of value tensions--(1) law versus ethics, (2) private wealth versus common wealth, (3) freedom versus equality, and (4) unity versus diversity--are central in allowing citizens to address matters of public interest through debate. These value pairs are the…

  8. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  9. The Debate Judge as Educator [and] Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Leslie; And Others

    The purpose of the three papers that make up this document is to explore and redefine the role of debate judges. The first paper, by Leslie Phillips, begins with the assertion that the debate judge is first and foremost an educator, notes that judging is one of the forces that shape and direct competitive forensics, and goes on to consider…

  10. A Stock Approach to Value Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.

    Existing theories of value debating (resolutions dealing with values rather than policy) may be more effectively applied and developed when viewed as stock issues paradigms for debating values in competitive situations. Issues are vital to an advocate's cause because they are essential to the meaning of a proposition and can also provide an…

  11. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  12. A Taxonomy of CEDA Debate Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Day, Donald L.

    To develop a taxonomy of Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) critics, a study associated professed judging philosophy and responses to survey questions with ballot behavior and elaborated judging profiles. Subjects were debate critics who judged rounds at CEDA tournaments in the Northeast during the Spring 1989 season. In all, 13 critics…

  13. Colleges Call Debate Contests out of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Competitive debate has traditionally served as a laboratory for the democratic process and an important training ground for future policy makers. In recent years, a growing number of teams have played the game out of traditional bounds. They have turned events into commentaries on debate itself, in performances that bear little resemblance to the…

  14. Using Debates to Teach Information Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham

    2011-01-01

    This experience report details the use of debates in a course on Information Ethics. Formal debates have been used in academia for centuries and create an environment in which students must think critically, communicate well and, above all, synthesize and evaluate the relevant classroom material. They also provide a break from the standard…

  15. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate...

  16. Industry Interests in the HDTV Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Suzanne Chambliss

    This analysis of the pattern of industrial interests in the current debate over high definition television systems argues that the debate involves more than just television; rather, it is an expression of a shift in the conceptualization of the nature of standards, one which conceives of standards as guidelines for the development of specific…

  17. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  18. Debating Our Way toward Stronger Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Teachers often find it challenging to incorporate higher order thinking skills in ways that both inspire student interest and allow for meaningful differentiation. Structured debate is an activity that can facilitate all of these goals. This article explains, in detail, how debates can be structured to promote a variety of critical thinking skills…

  19. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  20. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  1. Effect of pressure on infrared-spectra of ice VII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzapfel, W. B.; Seiler, B.; Nicol, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the infrared spectra of H20 and D20 ice VII was studied at room temperature and at pressures between 2 and 15 GPa with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a diamond anvil high pressure cell. Two librational modes, one bending mode, and various overtone bands are well resolved. The stretching modes, nu sub 1 and nu sub 3, are poorly resolved due to overlap with diamond window absorption. Differences between the spectra of H20 and D20 are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23671

  2. Pearson type VII distribution of errors of laser satellite observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhun', I. V.

    The distribution of the difference O-C between observed and calculated satellite distances obtained on execution of the short MERIT program is studied. It is shown that the distribution of these differences is described better by the curve of a Pearson type VII distribution than by the normal law. This can be explained by fluctuations in the accuracy of the observations due to instability of the metrological situation. It is shown that the parameter m of the Pearson distribution varies from 2.7 to ∞ (normal law).

  3. Implementation is crucial but must be neurobiologically grounded. Comment on “Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition” by W. Tecumseh Fitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.

    2014-09-01

    From the perspective of language, Fitch's [1] claim that theories of cognitive computation should not be separated from those of implementation surely deserves applauding. Recent developments in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Language, leading to the new field of the Neurobiology of Language [2-4], emphasise precisely this point: rather than attempting to simply map cognitive theories of language onto the brain, we should aspire to understand how the brain implements language. This perspective resonates with many of the points raised by Fitch in his review, such as the discussion of unhelpful dichotomies (e.g., Nature versus Nurture). Cognitive dichotomies and debates have repeatedly turned out to be of limited usefulness when it comes to understanding language in the brain. The famous modularity-versus-interactivity and dual route-versus-connectionist debates are cases in point: in spite of hundreds of experiments using neuroimaging (or other techniques), or the construction of myriad computer models, little progress has been made in their resolution. This suggests that dichotomies proposed at a purely cognitive (or computational) level without consideration of biological grounding appear to be "asking the wrong questions" about the neurobiology of language. In accordance with these developments, several recent proposals explicitly consider neurobiological constraints while seeking to explain language processing at a cognitive level (e.g. [5-7]).

  4. Political Debates and Their Application to the Teaching of Lincoln-Douglas Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.

    Designed for teachers of the Lincoln-Douglas style debate, this curriculum guide outlines an approach to teaching analysis in debate, and suggests practical activities employing contemporary political debates as an instructional device. The guide first presents a framework for values analysis, including such aspects as (1) identifying the nature…

  5. The American Debate Association: An Evaluation of Rules for Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Frank

    Many of the American Debate Association (ADA) rules merely codify conventions which are almost universally practiced in ADA tournaments. Among them are such standards as who is eligible to debate and judge, what shall be debated and for how long, and restrictions on ballot submissions. Other rules come under the general heading of "which…

  6. The Commission on Presidential Debates: A New Approach to Political Debates or Just a New Sponsor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.

    To grasp what happened to the institutionalization of presidential debates in 1988 it will be useful to ask what is the future of party sponsorship of presidential debates. Given that sponsorship has been an issue discussed after every debate since 1960, either from a legal perspective (i.e. who can sponsor and remain in compliance with Federal…

  7. The neurobiology of personality disorders: implications for psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Siever, Larry J; Weinstein, Lissa N

    2009-04-01

    As advances in neuroscience have furthered our understanding of the role of brain circuitry, genetics, stress, and neuromodulators in the regulation of normal behavior and in the pathogenesis of psychopathology, an increasing appreciation of the role of neurobiology in individual differences in personality and their pathology in personality disorders has emerged. Individual differences in the regulation and organization of cognitive processes, affective reactivity, impulse/action patterns, and anxiety may in the extreme provide susceptibilities to personality disorders such as borderline and schizotypal personality disorder. A low threshold for impulsive aggression, as observed in borderline and antisocial personality disorders, may be related to excessive amygdala reactivity, reduced prefrontal inhibition, and diminished serotonergic facilitation of prefrontal controls. Affective instability may be mediated by excessive limbic reactivity in gabaminergic/glutamatergic/cholinergic circuits, resulting in an increased sensitivity or reactivity to environmental emotional stimuli as in borderline personality disorder and other cluster B personality disorders. Disturbances in cognitive organization and information processing may contribute to the detachment, desynchrony with the environment, and cognitive/perceptional distortions of cluster A or schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders. A low threshold for anxiety may contribute to the avoidant, dependent, and compulsive behaviors observed in cluster C personality disorders. These alterations in critical regulatory domains will influence how representations of self and others are internalized. Aspects of neurobiological functioning themselves become cognized through the medium of figurative language into an ongoing narrative of the self, one that can be transformed through the analytic process, allowing for the modulation of genetic/biological thresholds.

  8. Artificial dirt: microfluidic substrates for nematode neurobiology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Lockery, S R; Lawton, K J; Doll, J C; Faumont, S; Coulthard, S M; Thiele, T R; Chronis, N; McCormick, K E; Goodman, M B; Pruitt, B L

    2008-06-01

    With a nervous system of only 302 neurons, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful experimental organism for neurobiology. However, the laboratory substrate commonly used in C. elegans research, a planar agarose surface, fails to reflect the complexity of this organism's natural environment, complicates stimulus delivery, and is incompatible with high-resolution optophysiology experiments. Here we present a new class of microfluidic devices for C. elegans neurobiology and behavior: agarose-free, micron-scale chambers and channels that allow the animals to crawl as they would on agarose. One such device mimics a moist soil matrix and facilitates rapid delivery of fluid-borne stimuli. A second device consists of sinusoidal channels that can be used to regulate the waveform and trajectory of crawling worms. Both devices are thin and transparent, rendering them compatible with high-resolution microscope objectives for neuronal imaging and optical recording. Together, the new devices are likely to accelerate studies of the neuronal basis of behavior in C. elegans.

  9. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  10. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers.

  11. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis. PMID:27597820

  12. Theodore H. Bullock: pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, G K H; Zupanc, M M

    2008-02-01

    Theodore H. Bullock (1905-2005) was a pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology and one of the founders of neuroethology. His work--distinguished by the tremendous number of different research themes and animal taxa studied--provided the basis for a comprehensive analysis of brain evolution. Among his major achievements are: one of the first physiological analyses of rhythmic central pattern generators; the first simultaneous recording from both the presynaptic and postsynaptic region of a chemical synapse; the demonstration of intercellular communication through graded potentials; and the discovery of two novel sensory organs formed by infrared receptors in pit vipers and electroreceptors in electric fish. He was also one of the first who applied computational tools to the analysis of complex neural signals and to perform a comparative analysis of cognitive events. His two-volume treatise "Structure and function in the nervous system of invertebrates" (with G. Adrian Horridge) remains the most comprehensive, authoritative review of this topic ever written. In addition to his research merits, his legacy is particularly based on his cosmopolitan way of thinking and acting, his large, worldwide school of students, and his committed advocacy for comparative and systems-oriented neurobiology.

  13. Neurobiological Phenotypes Associated with a Family History of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. Methods This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Results Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. Conclusions It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. PMID:26559000

  14. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    PubMed

    Debbané, Martin; Salaminios, George; Luyten, Patrick; Badoud, Deborah; Armando, Marco; Solida Tozzi, Alessandra; Fonagy, Peter; Brent, Benjamin K

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioral studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis.

  15. What can medical education learn from the neurobiology of learning?

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Michael J; Andrews, Linda; Armstrong, Elizabeth G; Aschenbrenner, Carol; Kass, Joseph S; Ogden, Paul; Schwartzstein, Richard; Viggiano, Thomas R

    2011-04-01

    The last several decades have seen a large increase in knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms that serve learning and memory. The insights gleaned from neurobiological and cognitive neuroscientific experimentation in humans and in animal models have identified many of the processes at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels that occur during learning and the formation, storage, and recall of memories. Moreover, with the advent of noninvasive technologies to monitor patterns of neural activity during various forms of human cognition, the efficacy of different strategies for effective teaching can be compared. Considerable insight has also been developed as to how to most effectively engage these processes to facilitate learning, retention, recall, and effective use and application of the learned information. However, this knowledge has not systematically found its way into the medical education process. Thus, there are considerable opportunities for the integration of current knowledge about the biology of learning with educational strategies and curricular design. By teaching medical students in ways that use this knowledge, there is an opportunity to make medical education easier and more effective. The authors present 10 key aspects of learning that they believe can be incorporated into effective teaching paradigms in multiple ways. They also present recommendations for applying the current knowledge of the neurobiology of learning throughout the medical education continuum.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we provide an evidence-based overview of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including diagnosis, prevalence, developmental expression of symptoms, persistence, the heterogeneity of functional outcome, impairment in afflicted adults, psychiatric comorbidity, pathophysiology, genetics, psychosocial and biologic risk factors, and neurobiology. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, highly prevalent neurobehavioral disorder, with genetic, environmental, and biologic etiologies, that persists into adolescence and adulthood in a sizable majority of afflicted children of both sexes. It is characterized by behavioral symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity across the life cycle and is associated with considerable morbidity and disability. Comorbidity is a distinct clinical feature of both childhood and adult ADHD. Although its etiology remains unclear, emerging evidence documents its strong neurobiologic and genetic underpinnings. Despite the high diagnostic reliability and the robust evidence of the validity of ADHD, there are many underlying issues that remain to be resolved. These include establishing developmentally appropriate diagnostic criteria at older ages, further elaborating the impact of gender on symptom expression, and examining risk and protective factors in relationship to prevention or amelioration of ADHD as well as related functional impairments.

  17. Neurobiology of Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Johansson, Kyrre; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is an important aspect of schizophrenia, where cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment for improving cognitive functioning. While neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been the target of much research, the neural substrate of cognitive remediation and recovery has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for neural changes after CRT for schizophrenia. The reviewed studies indicate that CRT affects several brain regions and circuits, including prefrontal, parietal, and limbic areas, both in terms of activity and structure. Changes in prefrontal areas are the most reported finding, fitting to previous evidence of dysfunction in this region. Two limitations of the current research are the few studies and the lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying neural and cognitive changes after treatment. Despite these limitations, the current evidence suggests that CRT is associated with both neurobiological and cognitive improvement. The evidence from these findings may shed light on both the neural substrate of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, and how better treatment can be developed and applied. PMID:25177300

  18. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype.

  19. Economic, neurobiological, and behavioral perspectives on building America's future workforce.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Eric I; Heckman, James J; Cameron, Judy L; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2006-07-05

    A growing proportion of the U.S. workforce will have been raised in disadvantaged environments that are associated with relatively high proportions of individuals with diminished cognitive and social skills. A cross-disciplinary examination of research in economics, developmental psychology, and neurobiology reveals a striking convergence on a set of common principles that account for the potent effects of early environment on the capacity for human skill development. Central to these principles are the findings that early experiences have a uniquely powerful influence on the development of cognitive and social skills and on brain architecture and neurochemistry, that both skill development and brain maturation are hierarchical processes in which higher level functions depend on, and build on, lower level functions, and that the capacity for change in the foundations of human skill development and neural circuitry is highest earlier in life and decreases over time. These findings lead to the conclusion that the most efficient strategy for strengthening the future workforce, both economically and neurobiologically, and improving its quality of life is to invest in the environments of disadvantaged children during the early childhood years.

  20. Neurobiological phenotypes associated with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype. PMID:26865997

  2. [Stress and depression: clinical, neurobiological and genetical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Claes, S J

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (mdd) can be elicited by various kinds of stress, such as negative life events, chronic stress and experiences of abuse early in life. These stressors interact with personality traits and with a genetic predisposition to depression, thereby bringing about mdd. Therefore, the neurobiology of depression cannot be separated from the neurobiology of stress system. A substantial number of publications have in fact demonstrated that mdd patients show abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis, which is a key element of the stress response. Such disturbances are exacerbated by chronic stress, early experiences of abuse and even prenatal exposure to stress. On the other hand, genetic variations can play a role in the hpa axis dysfunction and in vulnerability to depression. Evidence is emerging that certain genes are directly involved in the functioning of the hpa axis. Other genetic factors, not directly related to the hpa axis, are probably relevant as well, the best known example being the serotonin transporter gene.

  3. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  4. Characterization of a myosin VII MyTH/FERM domain.

    PubMed

    Moen, Rebecca J; Johnsrud, Daniel O; Thomas, David D; Titus, Margaret A

    2011-10-14

    A group of closely related myosins is characterized by the presence of at least one MyTH/FERM (myosin tail homology; band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain in their C-terminal tails. This domain interacts with a variety of binding partners, and mutations in either the MyTH4 or the FERM domain of myosin VII and myosin XV result in deafness, highlighting the functional importance of each domain. The N-terminal MyTH/FERM region of Dictyostelium myosin VII (M7) has been isolated as a first step toward gaining insight into the function of this domain and its interaction with binding partners. The M7 MyTH4/FERM domain (MF1) binds to both actin and microtubules in vitro, with dissociation constants of 13.7 and 1.7 μM, respectively. Gel filtration and UV spectroscopy reveal that MF1 exists as a monomer in solution and forms a well-folded, compact conformation with a high degree of secondary structure. These results indicate that MF1 forms an integrated structural domain that serves to couple actin filaments and microtubules in specific regions of the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Methods for Processing ENDF/B-VII with NJOY

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Kahler, A.C.

    2010-12-15

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is widely used to convert evaluations in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) format into forms useful for practical applications such as fission and fusion reactor analysis, stockpile stewardship calculations, criticality safety, radiation shielding, nuclear waste management, nuclear medicine procedures, and more. This paper provides a description of the system's capabilities, summary descriptions of the methods used, and information on how to use the code to process the modern evaluated nuclear data files from ENDF/B-VII. It begins with the generation of pointwise libraries, including reaction and resonance reconstruction, Doppler broadening, radiation heating and damage, thermal scattering data, unresolved resonance data, and gas production. It then reviews the production of libraries for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, multigroup neutron, photon, and particle cross sections and matrices, and photon interaction data. The generation of uncertainty information for ENDF data is discussed, including new capabilities for calculating covariances of resonance data, angular distributions, energy distributions, and radioactive nuclide production. NJOY's ability to prepare thermal scattering data evaluations for bound moderators (which was used during the preparation of the ENDF/B-VII library) is described. The strong plotting capabilities of NJOY are summarized. Many examples of black and white and color Postscript plots are included throughout the paper. The capabilities of NJOY to output multigroup data in several different formats to suit various applications is reviewed. Finally, a section is included that summarizes the history of the development of the NJOY system over the last 37 years.

  6. Performance appraisal: the legal implications of Title VII.

    PubMed

    Lubben, G L; Thompson, D E; Klasson, C R

    1980-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and specifically Title VII of the Act, the federal government has increasingly involved itself with personnel policies and practices of employers in both the public and the private sector. While Title VII was initially directed toward discriminatory employee selection practices, the development of case law in this area suggests that the courts are now interpreting the Act much more broadly. In light of this, human resources managers would be wise to reevaluate the adequacy of existing performance appraisal systems to make them defensible against charges of discriminatory employment practices. After examining significant cases brought before the courts involving performance appraisal systems, authors Gary L. Lubben, Duane E. Thompson, and Charles R. Klasson draw conclusions as to what would constitute a defensible appraisal system. Chief among these is to make the overall appraisal process as formal, standard, and objective as possible and to consider subjective supervisory ratings as only one component of the overall evaluation process.

  7. Characterization of a Myosin VII MyTH/FERM domain

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Rebecca J.; Johnsrud, Daniel O.; Thomas, David D.; Titus, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    A group of closely related myosins are characterized by the presence of at least one MyTH/FERM (myosin talin homology 4; band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain in their C-terminal tails. This domain interacts with a variety of binding partners, and mutations in either the MyTH4 or FERM domains of myosin VII and XV result in deafness, highlighting the functional importance of each domain. The N-terminal MyTH/FERM region of Dictyostelium myosin VII (M7) has been isolated as a first step toward gaining insight into the function of this domain and its interaction with binding partners. The M7 MyTH4/FERM domain (MF1) binds to both actin and microtubules in vitro, with dissociation constants of 13.7 and 1.7 μM, respectively. Gel filtration and UV spectroscopy reveal that MF1 exists as a monomer in solution and forms a well-folded, compact conformation with a high degree of secondary structure. These results indicate that MF1 forms an integrated structural domain that serves to couple actin filaments and microtubules in specific regions of the cytoskeleton. PMID:21875595

  8. Methods for Processing ENDF/B-VII with NJOY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, R. E.; Kahler, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is widely used to convert evaluations in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) format into forms useful for practical applications such as fission and fusion reactor analysis, stockpile stewardship calculations, criticality safety, radiation shielding, nuclear waste management, nuclear medicine procedures, and more. This paper provides a description of the system's capabilities, summary descriptions of the methods used, and information on how to use the code to process the modern evaluated nuclear data files from ENDF/B-VII. It begins with the generation of pointwise libraries, including reaction and resonance reconstruction, Doppler broadening, radiation heating and damage, thermal scattering data, unresolved resonance data, and gas production. It then reviews the production of libraries for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, multigroup neutron, photon, and particle cross sections and matrices, and photon interaction data. The generation of uncertainty information for ENDF data is discussed, including new capabilities for calculating covariances of resonance data, angular distributions, energy distributions, and radioactive nuclide production. NJOY's ability to prepare thermal scattering data evaluations for bound moderators (which was used during the preparation of the ENDF/B-VII library) is described. The strong plotting capabilities of NJOY are summarized. Many examples of black&white and color Postscript plots are included throughout the paper. The capabilities of NJOY to output multigroup data in several different formats to suit various applications is reviewed. Finally, a section is included that summarizes the history of the development of the NJOY system over the last 37 years.

  9. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Stereotypy: Integrating Operant and Neurobiological Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanovaz, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    The predominant models on the emergence and maintenance of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities are based on operant and neurobiological interpretations of the behavior. Although the proponents of the two models maintain largely independent lines of research, operant and neurobiological interpretations of stereotypy are not…

  10. Advances and Future Directions in the Study of Children's Neurobiological Responses to Trauma and Violence Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine; Cerbone, Arleen B.; Overstreet, Stacy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most exciting developments to emerge from the field in the past 20 years is the increasing attention to neurobiological responses to violence and trauma exposure. Although researchers have yet to identify a consensual pattern of neurobiological response to violence and trauma exposure, it does appear that some type of alteration in the…

  11. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Stereotypy: Integrating Operant and Neurobiological Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanovaz, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    The predominant models on the emergence and maintenance of stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities are based on operant and neurobiological interpretations of the behavior. Although the proponents of the two models maintain largely independent lines of research, operant and neurobiological interpretations of stereotypy are not…

  12. Managing Information Technology: Facing the Issues. Track VII: Applications and Technology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers making up Track VII of the 1989 conference of the Professional Association for the Management of Information Technology in Higher Education (known as CAUSE, an acronym of the association's former name) are presented in this document. The focus of Track VII is on applications and technology issues, and the papers include: "The…

  13. 76 FR 79065 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR Part 1602 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII..., revised as of July 1, 2011, in Part 1602, remove the words ``section 709(c) of title VII or section 107 of... section 207(a) of GINA'' wherever they appear in the following sections: Section Page No. Sec. 1602.11...

  14. Targeting bacterial virulence: the coming out of type VII secretion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Wilbert; Kuijl, Coen

    2014-10-08

    Type VII (ESX) secretion systems of pathogenic mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are crucial for intracellular survival, host cell lysis, and the subsequent cell-to-cell spread. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Rybniker et al. (2014) have used these characteristics to identify two classes of type VII secretion inhibitors.

  15. Title VII Funding and Physician Practice in Rural or Low-Income Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krist, Alex H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Callahan, David; Woolf, Steven H.; Marsland, David

    2005-01-01

    Whether Title VII funding enhances physician supply in underserved areas has not clearly been established. The purpose was to determine the relation between Title VII funding in medical school, residency, or both, and the number of family physicians practicing in rural or low-income communities. A retrospective cross sectional analysis was carried…

  16. Alexander v. Gardner-Denver: A Threat to Title VII Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    An examination of the decision on the rights of an employee, who has unsuccessfully pursued a race or sex discrimination claim through arbitration, to "relitigate" the claim under Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Conclusion: the decision endangers Title VII rights by granting too much weight to prior arbitration awards. (JT)

  17. Turning Back the Title VII Clock: The Resegregation of the American Work Force through Validity Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Barry L.; Patterson, Patrick O.

    1988-01-01

    Refers to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Supreme Court's disparate impact interpretation of Title VII in Griggs versus Duke Power Company. Contends that attacks on the Griggs decision are legally unsound and that claims made by advocates of validity generalization are scientifically unsupported. (Author/NB)

  18. 20 CFR Appendix Vii to Subpart C... - “Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âOld-Lawâ Contribution and Benefit Base VII... Appendix VII to Subpart C of Part 404—“Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base Explanation: We use these... appendix IV). This is the contribution and benefit base that would have been effective under the...

  19. 20 CFR Appendix Vii to Subpart C... - “Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âOld-Lawâ Contribution and Benefit Base VII... Appendix VII to Subpart C of Part 404—“Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base Explanation: We use these... appendix IV). This is the contribution and benefit base that would have been effective under the...

  20. 20 CFR Appendix Vii to Subpart C... - “Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âOld-Lawâ Contribution and Benefit Base VII... Appendix VII to Subpart C of Part 404—“Old-Law” Contribution and Benefit Base Explanation: We use these... appendix IV). This is the contribution and benefit base that would have been effective under the...