Science.gov

Sample records for decarboxylation

  1. Decarboxylative functionalization of cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Borah, Arun Jyoti; Yan, Guobing

    2015-08-14

    Decarboxylative functionalization of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids is an emerging area that has been developed significantly in recent years. This critical review focuses on the different decarboxylative functionalization reactions of cinnamic acids leading to the formation of various C-C and C-heteroatom bonds. Apart from metal carboxylates, decarboxylation in cinnamic acids has been achieved efficiently under metal-free conditions, particularly via the use of hypervalent iodine reagents. We believe this review will encourage organic chemists to develop vinylic decarboxylation in a more appealing way with an understanding of new mechanistic insight.

  2. Metal-catalyzed Decarboxylative Fluoroalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Yang, Ming-Hsiu; Altman, Ryan A

    2016-12-01

    Metal-catalyzed decarboxylative fluoroalkylation reactions enable the conversion of simple O-based substrates into biologically relevant fluorinated analogs. Herein, we present decarboxylative methods that facilitate the synthesis of trifluoromethyl- and difluoroketone-containing products. We highlight key mechanistic aspects that are critical for efficient catalysis, and that inspired our thinking while developing the reactions.

  3. Decarboxylative Fluorination Strategies for Accessing Medicinally-relevant Products

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yupu; Zhu, Lingui; Ambler, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorinated organic compounds have a long history in medicinal chemistry, and synthetic methods to access target fluorinated compounds are undergoing a revolution. One powerful strategy for the installation of fluorine-containing functional groups includes decarboxylative reactions. Benefits of decarboxylative approaches potentially include: 1) readily available substrates or reagents 2) mild reaction conditions; 3) simplified purification. This focus review highlights the applications of decarboxylation strategies for fluorination reactions to access compounds with biomedical potential. The manuscript highlights on two general strategies, fluorination by decarboxylative reagents and by decarboxylation of substrates. Where relevant, examples of medicinally useful compounds that can be accessed using these strategies are highlighted. PMID:24484421

  4. Enzymatic Enantioselective Decarboxylative Protonation of Heteroaryl Malonates

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Ross; Goodall, Mark; Thompson, Mark L; Leigh, James; Breuer, Michael; Baldenius, Kai; Micklefield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher enantioselectivity and more environmentally benign reaction conditions. In this report, AMDase and engineered variants have been used to produce a range of enantioenriched heteroaromatic α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, including pharmaceutical precursors, from readily accessible α-hydroxymalonates. The enzymatic method described here represents an improvement upon existing synthetic chemistry methods that have been used to produce similar compounds. The relationship between the structural features of these new substrates and the kinetics associated with their enzymatic decarboxylation is explored, which offers further insight into the mechanism of AMDase. PMID:25766433

  5. Parameters governing ruthenium sawhorse-based decarboxylation of oleic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruthenium-catalyzed decarboxylation of 9-cisoctadecenoic is a path to produce biobased olefins. Here, a mechanistic study of this reaction was undertaken utilizing a closed reaction system and a pressure reactor. The proposed mechanism of an isomerization followed by a decarboxylation reaction was c...

  6. Non-enzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doctor, V. M.; Oro, J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the mechanism of nonenzymic beta-decarboxylation of aspartic acid in the presence of metal ions and pyridoxal. The results suggest that aspartic acid is first converted to oxalacetic acid by transamination with pyridoxal which in turn is converted to pyridoxamine. This is followed by decarboxylation of oxalacetic acid to form pyruvic acid which transaminates with pyridoxamine to form alanine. The possible significance of these results to prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  7. Decarboxylation of bovine prothrombin fragment 1 and prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Tuhy, P M; Bloom, J W; Mann, K G

    1979-12-25

    Bovine prothrombin fragment 1 and prothrombin undergo decarboxylation of their gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues when the lyophilized proteins are heated in vacuo at 110 degrees C for several hours. The fully decarboxylated fragment 1 product has lost its barium-binding ability as well as the calcium-binding function which causes fluorescence quenching in the presence of 2 mM Ca2+. There is no sign of secondary structure alteration in solution upon analysis by fluorescence emission and circular dichroic spectroscopy. A family of partially decarboxylated fragment 1 species generated by heating for shorter periods shows that the initial decrease in calcium-binding ability occurs almost twice as rapidly as the loss of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. This is consistent with the idea that differential functions can be ascribed to the 10 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues in fragment 1, including both high- and low-affinity metal ion binding sites. Prothrombin itself also undergoes total decarboxylation without any apparent alteration in secondary structure. However, in this case the latent thrombin activity is progressively diminished during the heating process in terms of both clotting activity and hydrolysis of the amide substrate H-D-Phe-Pip-Arg-pNA. The present results indicate that in vitro decarboxylation of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in dried proteins is useful for analyzing the detailed calcium-binding proteins of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors.

  8. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Natalia; Hansson, Henri; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo), was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔH kJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m) was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. PMID:29403816

  9. Copper-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Trifluoromethylation of Propargyl Bromodifluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Peddi, Santosh; Altman, Ryan A

    2014-07-15

    The development of efficient methods for accessing fluorinated functional groups is desirable. Herein, we report a two-step method that utilizes catalytic Cu for the decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of propargyl bromodifluoroacetates. This protocol affords a mixture of propargyl trifluoromethanes and trifluoromethyl allenes.

  10. Biobased methacrylic acid via selective catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a bio-based route to methacrylic acid via selective decarboxylation of itaconic acid utilizing catalytic ruthenium carbonyl propionate in an aqueous solvent system. High selectivity (>90%) was achieved at low catalyst loading (0.1 mol %) with high substrate concentration (5.5 M) at low tem...

  11. Enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Kitahara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Iwasa, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Stereoselective halogenation is a highly useful organic transformation for multistep syntheses because the resulting chiral organohalides can serve as precursors for various medicinally relevant derivatives. Even though decarboxylative halogenation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is a useful and fundamental synthetic method for the preparation of a variety of organohalides, an enantioselective version of this reaction has not been reported. Here we report a highly enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids to obtain α-chloroketones under mild organocatalytic conditions. The present method is also applicable for the enantioselective synthesis of tertiary α-chloroketones. The conversions of the resulting α-chloroketones into α-aminoketones and α-thio-substituted ketones via SN2 reactions at the tertiary carbon centres are also demonstrated. These results constitute an efficient approach for the synthesis of chiral organohalides and are expected to enhance the availability of enantiomerically enriched chiral compounds with heteroatom-substituted chiral stereogenic centres. PMID:28580951

  12. Enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Kitahara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Iwasa, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    Stereoselective halogenation is a highly useful organic transformation for multistep syntheses because the resulting chiral organohalides can serve as precursors for various medicinally relevant derivatives. Even though decarboxylative halogenation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is a useful and fundamental synthetic method for the preparation of a variety of organohalides, an enantioselective version of this reaction has not been reported. Here we report a highly enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids to obtain α-chloroketones under mild organocatalytic conditions. The present method is also applicable for the enantioselective synthesis of tertiary α-chloroketones. The conversions of the resulting α-chloroketones into α-aminoketones and α-thio-substituted ketones via SN2 reactions at the tertiary carbon centres are also demonstrated. These results constitute an efficient approach for the synthesis of chiral organohalides and are expected to enhance the availability of enantiomerically enriched chiral compounds with heteroatom-substituted chiral stereogenic centres.

  13. Decarboxylation of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Kinetics and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotin-Brunel, Helene; Buijs, Wim; van Spronsen, Jaap; van Roosmalen, Maaike J. E.; Peters, Cor J.; Verpoorte, Rob; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2011-02-01

    Efficient tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9-THC) production from cannabis is important for its medical application and as basis for the development of production routes of other drugs from plants. This work presents one of the steps of Δ 9-THC production from cannabis plant material, the decarboxylation reaction, transforming the Δ 9-THC-acid naturally present in the plant into the psychoactive Δ 9-THC. Results of experiments showed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics, with an activation barrier of 85 kJ mol -1 and a pre-exponential factor of 3.7 × 10 8 s -1. Using molecular modeling, two options were identified for an acid catalyzed β-keto acid type mechanism for the decarboxylation of Δ 9-THC-acid. Each of these mechanisms might play a role, depending on the actual process conditions. Formic acid proved to be a good model for a catalyst of such a reaction. Also, the computational idea of catalysis by water to catalysis by an acid, put forward by Li and Brill, and Churchev and Belbruno was extended, and a new direct keto-enol route was found. A direct keto-enol mechanism catalyzed by formic acid seems to be the best explanation for the observed activation barrier and the pre-exponential factor of the decarboxylation of Δ 9-THC-acid. Evidence for this was found by performing an extraction experiment with Cannabis Flos. It revealed the presence of short chain carboxylic acids supporting this hypothesis. The presented approach is important for the development of a sustainable production of Δ 9-THC from the plant.

  14. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of allylic bromodifluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Altman, Ryan A

    2013-11-01

    The development of new synthetic fluorination reactions has important implications in medicinal, agricultural, and materials chemistries. Given the prevalence and accessibility of alcohols, methods to convert alcohols to trifluoromethanes are desirable. However, this transformation typically requires four-step processes, specialty chemicals, and/or stoichiometric metals to access the trifluoromethyl-containing product. A two-step copper-catalyzed decarboxylative protocol for converting allylic alcohols to trifluoromethanes is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies distinguish this reaction from previously reported Cu-mediated reactions.

  15. Quantum Chemical Modeling of Enzymatic Reactions: The Case of Decarboxylation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Yu, Jian-Guo; Himo, Fahmi

    2011-05-10

    We present a systematic study of the decarboxylation step of the enzyme aspartate decarboxylase with the purpose of assessing the quantum chemical cluster approach for modeling this important class of decarboxylase enzymes. Active site models ranging in size from 27 to 220 atoms are designed, and the barrier and reaction energy of this step are evaluated. To model the enzyme surrounding, homogeneous polarizable medium techniques are used with several dielectric constants. The main conclusion is that when the active site model reaches a certain size, the solvation effects from the surroundings saturate. Similar results have previously been obtained from systematic studies of other classes of enzymes, suggesting that they are of a quite general nature.

  16. Production of aviation fuel via catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation of fatty acids in microalgae oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiyue; Nie, Renfeng; Fu, Jie; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2013-10-01

    A series of fatty acids in microalgae oil, such as stearic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid, were selected as the raw materials to produce aviation fuel via hydrothermal decarboxylation over a multi-wall carbon nanotube supported Pt catalyst (Pt/MWCNTs). It was found that Pt/MWCNTs catalysts exhibited higher activity for the hydrothermal decarboxylation of stearic acid with a 97% selectivity toward heptadecane compared to Pt/C and Ru/C under the same conditions. And Pt/MWCNTs is also capable for the decarboxylation of different fatty acids in microalgae oil. The reaction conditions, such as Pt/MWCNTs loading amount, reaction temperature and time were optimized. The activation energy of stearic acid decarboxylation over Pt/MWCNTs was calculated (114 kJ/mol). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fixed-charge phosphine ligands to explore gas-phase coinage metal-mediated decarboxylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Vikse, Krista; Khairallah, George N; McIndoe, J Scott; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2013-05-14

    A combination of multistage mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to examine the decarboxylation reactions of a series of metal carboxylate complexes bearing a fixed-charge phosphine ligand, [(O3SC6H4)(C6H5)2PM(I)O2CR](-) (M = Cu, Ag, Au; R = Me, Et, benzyl, Ph). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of these complexes using an LTQ linear ion mass spectrometer results in three main classes of reactions being observed: (1) decarboxylation; (2) loss of the phosphine ligand; (3) loss of carboxylic acid. The gas-phase unimolecular chemistry of the resultant decarboxylated organometallic ions, [(O3SC6H4)(C6H5)2PM(I)R](-), were also explored using CID experiments, and fragment primarily via loss of the phosphine ligand. Energy-resolved CID experiments on [(O3SC6H4)(C6H5)2PM(I)O2CR](-) (M = Cu, Ag, Au; R = Me, Et, benzyl, Ph) using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer were performed to gain a more detailed understanding of the factors influencing coinage metal-catalyzed decarboxylation and DFT calculations on the major fragmentation pathways aided in interpretation of the experimental results. Key findings are that: (1) the energy required for loss of the phosphine ligand follows the order Ag < Cu < Au; (2) the ease of decarboxylation of the coordinated RCO2 groups follows the order of R: Ph < PhCH2 < Me < Et; (3) in general, copper is best at facilitating decarboxylation, followed by gold then silver. The one exception to this trend is when R = Ph and M = Au which has the highest overall propensity for decarboxylation. The influence of the phosphine ligand on decarboxylation is also considered in comparison with previous studies on metal carboxylates that do not contain a phosphine ligand.

  18. OXALOACETATE DECARBOXYLATION AND OXALOACETATE-CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE IN ACETOBACTER XYLINUM

    PubMed Central

    Benziman, Moshe; Heller, N.

    1964-01-01

    Benziman, Moshe (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel), and N. Heller. Oxaloacetate decarboxylation and oxaloacetate-carbon dioxide exchange in Acetobacter xylinum. J. Bacteriol. 88:1678–1687. 1964.—Extracts of Acetobacter xylinum, prepared by sonic treatment, were shown to catalyze the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate (OAA) to pyruvate and CO2, and the exchange of C14-carbon dioxide into the β-carboxyl of OAA. Fractionation of the extracts with ammonium sulfate resulted in a 10-fold increase of the specific activity of the enzyme system catalyzing the CO2 exchange and OAA decarboxylation reactions. The purified preparation catalyzed the exchange of pyruvate-3-C14 into OAA. Similar pH curves with a pH optimum of 5.6 were obtained for the CO2 exchange and OAA decarboxylation reactions. Both reactions require the presence of Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions. OAA decarboxylation was more strongly inhibited than the exchange of CO2 by dialysis or metal-chelating agents. Avidin did not inhibit either reaction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP), guanosine diphosphate (GDP), pyrophosphate, or inorganic phosphate did not promote OAA decarboxylation and the CO2-exchange reaction catalyzed by the purified preparation. The purified preparation failed to catalyze the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of GDP, ADP, or inorganic phosphate, and that of pyruvate in the presence of ATP or GTP, even when supplemented with an OAA-trapping system. A scheme for OAA decarboxylation which could account for the observed exchange reactions and for the failure to obtain net fixation of CO2 is proposed. The relation between the exchange reaction and the synthesis of cellulose from pyruvate by A. xylinum is discussed. PMID:14240957

  19. Kinetic mechanism and structural requirements of the amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Thalji, Nabil K; Crowe, William E; Waldrop, Grover L

    2009-01-02

    The kinetic and chemical mechanism of amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid at pH 8.0 has been reevaluated using a new and versatile assay. Amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid proceeds via the formation of an imine intermediate, followed by decarboxylation of the intermediate and hydrolysis to yield pyruvate. The decrease in oxaloacetic acid was coupled to NADH formation by malate dehydrogenase, which allowed the rates of both initial carbinolamine formation (as part of the imination step) and decarboxylation to be determined. By comparing the rates observed for a variety of amines and, in particular, diamines, the structural and electronic requirements for diamine-catalyzed decarboxylation at pH 8.0 were identified. At pH 8.0, monoamines were found to be very poor catalysts, whereas some diamines, most notably ethylenediamine, were excellent catalysts. The results indicate that the second amino group of diamines enhances the rate of imine formation by acting as a proton shuttle during the carbinolamine formation step, which enables diamines to overcome high levels of solvation that would otherwise inhibit carbinolamine, and thus imine, formation. The presence of the second amino group may also enhance the rate of the carbinolamine dehydration step. In contrast to the findings of previous reports, the second amino group participates in the reaction by enhancing the rate of decarboxylation via hydrogen-bonding to the imine nitrogen to either stabilize the negative charge that develops on the imine during decarboxylation or preferentially stabilize the reactive imine over the unreactive enamine tautomer. These results provide insight into the precise catalytic mechanism of several enzymes whose reactions are known to proceed via an imine intermediate.

  20. Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

  1. Evidence of Two Functionally Distinct Ornithine Decarboxylation Systems in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low-molecular-weight organic bases whose presence in food can result in health problems. The biosynthesis of biogenic amines in fermented foods mostly proceeds through amino acid decarboxylation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but not all systems leading to biogenic amine production by LAB have been thoroughly characterized. Here, putative ornithine decarboxylation pathways consisting of a putative ornithine decarboxylase and an amino acid transporter were identified in LAB by strain collection screening and database searches. The decarboxylases were produced in heterologous hosts and purified and characterized in vitro, whereas transporters were heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. Amino acid decarboxylation by whole cells of the original hosts was determined as well. We concluded that two distinct types of ornithine decarboxylation systems exist in LAB. One is composed of an ornithine decarboxylase coupled to an ornithine/putrescine transmembrane exchanger. Their combined activities results in the extracellular release of putrescine. This typical amino acid decarboxylation system is present in only a few LAB strains and may contribute to metabolic energy production and/or pH homeostasis. The second system is widespread among LAB. It is composed of a decarboxylase active on ornithine and l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and a transporter that mediates unidirectional transport of ornithine into the cytoplasm. Diamines that result from this second system are retained within the cytosol. PMID:22247134

  2. Catalytic Decarboxylation of Fatty Acids to Aviation Fuels over Nickel Supported on Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianghua; Shi, Juanjuan; Fu, Jie; Leidl, Jamie A.; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2016-01-01

    Decarboxylation of fatty acids over non-noble metal catalysts without added hydrogen was studied. Ni/C catalysts were prepared and exhibited excellent activity and maintenance for decarboxylation. Thereafter, the effects of nickel loading, catalyst loading, temperature, and carbon number on the decarboxylation of fatty acids were investigated. The results indicate that the products of cracking increased with high nickel loading or catalyst loading. Temperature significantly impacted the conversion of stearic acid but did not influence the selectivity. The fatty acids with large carbon numbers tend to be cracked in this reaction system. Stearic acid can be completely converted at 370 °C for 5 h, and the selectivity to heptadecane was around 80%. PMID:27292280

  3. A Double Decarboxylation in Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein Leads to High Contrast Photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Joshua D; Webb, Lauren J

    2017-07-06

    A photoactivatable variant of superfolder green fluorescent protein (GFP) was created by replacing the threonine at position 203 with aspartic acid. Photoactivation by exposure of this mutant to UV light resulted in conversion of the fluorophore from the neutral to the negatively charged form, accompanied by a ∼95-fold increase in fluorescence under 488 nm excitation. Mass spectrometry before and after exposure to UV light revealed a change in mass of 88 Da, attributed to the double decarboxylation of Glu 222 and Asp 203. Kinetics studies and nonlinear power-dependence of the initial rate of photoconversion indicated that the double decarboxylation occurred via a multiphoton absorption process at 254 nm. In addition to providing a photoactivatable GFP with robust folding properties, a detailed mechanistic understanding of this double decarboxylation in GFP will lead to a better understanding of charge transfer in fluorescent proteins.

  4. Brønsted acid-catalyzed decarboxylative redox amination: formation of N-alkylindoles from azomethine ylides by isomerization.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hui; Wang, Sichang; Yu, Peng; Lv, Huiqing; Xu, Runsheng; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2011-02-18

    A Brønsted acid-catalyzed decarboxylative redox amination involving aldehydes with 2-carboxyindoline for the synthesis of N-alkylindoles is described. The decarboxylative condensations of aldehydes with 2-carboxyindoline produce azomethine ylides in situ, which then transform into N-alkylindoles by isomerization. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Citrus Peel Additives for One-Pot Triazole Formation by Decarboxylation, Nucleophilic Substitution, and Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Desiree E.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment consists of three different reactions occurring in the same flask: a cycloaddition reaction, preceded by decarboxylation and nucleophilic substitution reactions. The decarboxylation and cycloaddition reactions occur using identical Cu(I) catalyst and conditions. Orange, lemon, and other citrus fruit…

  6. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Amino Acids via the Merger of Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhiwei; Cong, Huan; Li, Wei; Choi, Junwon; Fu, Gregory C; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-02-17

    An asymmetric decarboxylative Csp(3)-Csp(2) cross-coupling has been achieved via the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis. This mild, operationally simple protocol transforms a wide variety of naturally abundant α-amino acids and readily available aryl halides into valuable chiral benzylic amines in high enantiomeric excess, thereby producing motifs found in pharmacologically active agents.

  7. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Amino Acids via the Merger of Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhiwei; Cong, Huan; Li, Wei; Choi, Junwon; Fu, Gregory C.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    An asymmetric decarboxylative Csp3–Csp2 cross-coupling has been achieved via the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis. This mild, operationally simple protocol transforms a wide variety of naturally abundant α-amino acids and readily available aryl halides into valuable chiral benzylic amines in high enantiomeric excess, thereby producing motifs found in pharmacologically active agents. PMID:26849354

  8. Mechanism and stem-cell activity of 5-carboxycytosine decarboxylation determined by isotope tracing.

    PubMed

    Schiesser, Stefan; Hackner, Benjamin; Pfaffeneder, Toni; Müller, Markus; Hagemeier, Christian; Truss, Matthias; Carell, Thomas

    2012-06-25

    Eraserhead: Stem cells seem to erase epigenetic information by decarboxylation of the newly discovered epigenetic base 5-carboxycytosine (caC; see picture). This reaction is likely to involve a nucleophilic attack of the C5-C6 double bond. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Analysis and properties of the decarboxylation products of oleic acid by catalytic triruthenium dodecacarbonyl

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization-decarboxylation of fatty acids to give alkene mixtures was reported. When the substrate was oleic acid, the reaction yielded a mixture consisting of heptadecene isomers. In this work, we report the compositional analysis of the mixture obtained by triruthe...

  10. Synthesis of Trifluoromethylthiolated Alkenes and Ketones by Decarboxylative Functionalization of Cinnamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shen; Huang, Yangen; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2016-10-20

    A tunable decarboxylative trifluoromethylthiolation of cinnamic acids with AgSCF 3 was developed to afford trifluoromethylthiolated alkenes or ketones by using transition metal-mediated conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Using ruthenium sawhorse based decarboxylation to produce industrial materials from oleic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruthenium catalyzed isomerization and decarboxylation of 9-cis-octadecenoic acid are reported as part of the effort to produce valuable industrial materials from biobased sources. Initial studies have demonstrated the efficacy of ruthenium sawhorse materials and further mechanistic studies uncovered...

  12. Do dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates form Grignard-type reagents? A theoretical investigation on decarboxylative fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2018-03-27

    Dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH) 2 MgO 2 CR] were probed for decarboxylation on a theoretical level, by utilizing both Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and density functional theory (B3LYP-DFT) computations. This study is connected to the question of whether this recently introduced, astrobiologically relevant chemical class may form Grignard-type reagent molecules. To extract trends for a broad molecular mass range, different linear alkyl chain lengths between C 4 and C 11 were computed. The forward energy barrier for decarboxylation reactions increases linearly as a function of the ligand's chain length. Decarboxylation-type fragmentations of these organomagnesium compounds seem to be improbable in non-catalytic, low energetic environments. A high forward energy barrier (E MP2  > 55 kcal mol -1 ) towards a described transition state restricts the release of CO 2 . Nevertheless, we propose the release of CO 2 on a theoretical level, as been revealed via an intramolecular nucleophilic attack mechanism. Once the challenging transition state for decarboxylation is overcome, a stable Mg-C bond is formed. These mechanistic insights were gained by help of natural bond orbital analysis. The Cα atom (first carbon atom in the ligand chain attached to the carboxyl group) is thought to prefer binding towards the electrophilic magnesium coordination center, rather than towards the electrophilic CO 2 -carbon atom. Additionally, the putatively formed Grignard-type OH-bearing product molecules possess a more polarized Mg-C bond in comparison to RMgCl species. Therefore, carbanion formation from OH-bearing Grignard-type molecules is made feasible for triggering C-C bond formation reactions. Graphical abstract This study asks whether recently introduced, astrobiologically dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates form Grignard-type reagent molecules via decarboxylative fragmentation.

  13. Ruthenium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids: a green, zero-waste route to biobased nitriles.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurens; Verduyckt, Jasper; Stassen, Ivo; Lagrain, Bert; De Vos, Dirk E

    2015-04-18

    Oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids into nitriles was performed using molecular oxygen as terminal oxidant and a heterogeneous ruthenium hydroxide-based catalyst. A range of amino acids was oxidized in very good yield, using water as the solvent.

  14. Mild Aromatic Palladium-Catalyzed Protodecarboxylation: Kinetic Assessment of the Decarboxylative Palladation and the Protodepalladation Steps

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Joshua S.; Curto, John M.; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Mulrooney, Carol A.; Kozlowski, Marisa C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanism studies of a mild palladium catalyzed decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids are described. In particular, reaction orders and activation parameters for the two stages of the transformation were determined. These studies guided development of a catalytic system capable of turnover. Further evidence reinforces that the second stage, protonation of the aryl palladium intermediate, is the rate-determining step of the reaction. The first step, decarboxylative palladation is proposed to occur through an intramolecular electrophilic palladation pathway, which is supported by computational and mechansim studies. In contrast to the reverse reaction (C-H insertion), the data support an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism involving a stepwise intramolecular protonation sequence for the protodepalladation portion of the reaction. PMID:23590518

  15. Silica supported palladium nanoparticles for the decarboxylation of high-acid feedstocks: Design, deactivation and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Eric Wayne

    2011-12-01

    The major goals of this thesis were to (1) design and synthesize a supported catalyst with well-defined monodisperse palladium nanoparticles evenly distributed throughout an inorganic oxide substrate with tunable porosity characteristics, (2) demonstrate the catalytic activity of this material in the decarboxylation of long chain fatty acids and their derivatives to make diesel-length hydrocarbons, (3) elucidate the deactivation mechanism of supported palladium catalysts under decarboxylation conditions via post mortem catalyst characterization and develop a regeneration methodology thereupon, and (4) apply this catalytic system to a real low-value biofeedstock. Initial catalyst designs were based on the SBA-15 silica support, but in an effort to maximize loading and minimize mass transfer limitations, silica MCF was synthesized as catalyst support. Functionalization with various silane ligands yielded a surface that facilitated even distribution of palladium precursor salts throughout the catalyst particle, and, after reduction, monodisperse palladium nanoparticles approximately 2 nm in diameter. Complete characterization was performed on this Pd-MCF catalyst. The Pd-MCF catalyst showed high one-time activity in the decarboxylation of fatty acids to hydrocarbons in dodecane at 300°C. Hydrogen was found to be an unnecessary reactant in the absence of unsaturations, but was required in their presence---full hydrogenation of the double bonds occurs before any decarboxylation can take place. The Pd-MCF also exhibited good activity for alkyl esters and glycerol, providing a nice hypothetical description of a stepwise reaction pathway for catalytic decarboxylation of acids and their derivatives. As expected, the Pd-MCF catalyst experienced severe deactivation after only one use. Substantial effort was put into elucidating the nature of this deactivation via post mortem catalyst characterization. H2 chemisorption confirmed a loss of active surface area, but TEM and

  16. Merging photoredox and nickel catalysis: decarboxylative cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with vinyl halides.

    PubMed

    Noble, Adam; McCarver, Stefan J; MacMillan, David W C

    2015-01-21

    Decarboxylative cross-coupling of alkyl carboxylic acids with vinyl halides has been accomplished through the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis. This new methodology has been successfully applied to a variety of α-oxy and α-amino acids, as well as simple hydrocarbon-substituted acids. Diverse vinyl iodides and bromides give rise to vinylation products in high efficiency under mild, operationally simple reaction conditions.

  17. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of Carboxylic Acids with Vinyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Decarboxylative cross-coupling of alkyl carboxylic acids with vinyl halides has been accomplished through the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis. This new methodology has been successfully applied to a variety of α-oxy and α-amino acids, as well as simple hydrocarbon-substituted acids. Diverse vinyl iodides and bromides give rise to vinylation products in high efficiency under mild, operationally simple reaction conditions. PMID:25521443

  18. Decarboxylation of 6-nitrobenzisoxazole-3-carboxylate in mixed micelles of zwitterionic and positively charged surfactants.

    PubMed

    Maximiano, Flavio A; Chaimovich, Hernan; Cuccovia, Iolanda M

    2006-09-12

    The rate of decarboxylation of 6-nitrobenzisoxazole-3-carboxylate, NBOC, was determined in micelles of N-hexadecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide or chloride (CTAB or CTAC), N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonium-1-propanesulfonate (HPS), N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonium-1-propanesulfonate (DPS), N-dodecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), hexadecylphosphocholine (HPC), and their mixtures. Quantitative analysis of the effect on micelles on the velocity of NBOC decarboxylation allowed the estimation of the rate constants in the micellar pseudophase, k(m), for the pure surfactants and their mixtures. The extent of micellar catalysis for NBOC decarboxylation, expressed as the ratio k(m)/k(w), where k(w) is the rate constant in water, varied from 240 for HPS to 62 for HPC. With HPS or DPS, k(m) decreased linearly with CTAB(C) mole fraction, suggesting ideal mixing. With HPC, k(m) increased to a maximum at a CTAB(C) mole fraction of ca. 0.5 and then decreased at higher CTAB(C). Addition of CTAB(C) to HPC, where the negative charge of the surfactant is close to the hydrophobic core, produces tight ion pairs at the interface and, consequently, decreases interfacial water contents. Interfacial dehydration at the surface in equimolar HPC/CTAB(C) mixtures, and interfacial solubilization site of the substrate, can explain the observed catalytic synergy, since the rate of NBOC decarboxylation increases markedly with the decrease in hydrogen bonding to the carboxylate group.

  19. Decarboxylative aldol reactions of allyl beta-keto esters via heterobimetallic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; Westbrook, John A; Schaus, Scott E

    2004-09-22

    Mild and selective heterobimetallic-catalyzed decarboxylative aldol reactions involving allyl beta-keto esters have been developed. The reaction is promoted by Pd(0)- and Yb(III)-DIOP complexes at room temperature and involves the in situ formation of a ketone enolate from allyl beta-keto esters followed by addition of the enolate to aldehydes. The reaction is a new example of heterobimetallic catalysis in which the optimized reaction conditions require the addition of both metals.

  20. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Coupling of Acrylic Acids with Unsaturated Oxime Esters: Carboxylic Acids Serve as Traceless Activators

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acids undergo Rh(III)-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling with α,β-unsaturated O-pivaloyl oximes to provide substituted pyridines in good yield. The carboxylic acid, which is removed by decarboxylation, serves as a traceless activating group, giving 5-substituted pyridines with very high levels of regioselectivity. Mechanistic studies rule out a picolinic acid intermediate, and an isolable rhodium complex sheds further light on the reaction mechanism. PMID:24512241

  1. Mechanism of Decarboxylation of Pyruvic Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Lopalco, Antonio; Dalwadi, Gautam; Niu, Sida; Schowen, Richard L.; Douglas, Justin; Stella, Valentino J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to probe the rate and mechanism of rapid decarboxylation of pyruvic acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to acetic acid and carbon dioxide over the pH range 2 – 9 at 25°C, utilizing UV spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H, 13C-NMR). Changes in UV absorbance at 220 nm were used to determine the kinetics since the reaction was too fast to follow by HPLC or NMR in much of the pH range. The rate constants for the reaction were determined in the presence of molar excess of H2O2 resulting in pseudo first order kinetics. No buffer catalysis was observed. The calculated second order rate constants for the reaction followed a sigmoidal shape with pH independent regions below pH 3 and above pH 7 but increased between pH 4 and 6. Between pH 4 and 9, the results were in agreement with a change from rate determining nucleophilic attack of the deprotonated peroxide species, HOO−, on the α-carbonyl group followed by rapid decarboxylation at pH values below 6 to rate-determining decarboxylation above pH 7. The addition of H2O2 to ethyl pyruvate was also characterized. PMID:26422524

  2. Bifunctional isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase: a missing link in the evolution of beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2005-05-27

    Beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenases comprise 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. They share a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and occupy equivalent positions in the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for leucine, glutamate, and lysine, respectively. Therefore, not only the enzymes but also the whole pathways should have evolved from a common ancestral pathway. In Pyrococcus horikoshii, only one pathway of the three has been identified in the genomic sequence, and PH1722 is the sole beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase gene. The organism does not require leucine, glutamate, or lysine for growth; the single pathway might play multiple (i.e., ancestral) roles in amino acid biosynthesis. The PH1722 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the substrate specificity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated. It exhibited activities on isocitrate and homoisocitrate at near equal efficiency, but not on 3-isopropylmalate. PH1722 is thus a novel, bifunctional beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase, which likely plays a dual role in glutamate and lysine biosynthesis in vivo.

  3. A thiamin-utilizing ribozyme decarboxylates a pyruvate-like substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernak, Paul; Sen, Dipankar

    2013-11-01

    Vitamins are hypothesized to be relics of an RNA world, and were probably participants in RNA-mediated primordial metabolism. If catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, could harness vitamin cofactors to aid their function in a manner similar to protein enzymes, it would enable them to catalyse a much larger set of chemical reactions. The cofactor thiamin diphosphate, a derivative of vitamin B1 (thiamin), is used by enzymes to catalyse difficult metabolic reactions, including decarboxylation of stable α-keto acids such as pyruvate. Here, we report a ribozyme that uses free thiamin to decarboxylate a pyruvate-based suicide substrate (LnkPB). Thiamin conjugated to biotin was used to isolate catalytic individuals from a pool of random-sequence RNAs attached to LnkPB. Analysis of a stable guanosine adduct obtained via digestion of an RNA sequence (clone dc4) showed the expected decarboxylation product. The discovery of a prototypic thiamin-utilizing ribozyme has implications for the role of RNA in orchestrating early metabolic cycles.

  4. Aromatic aldehyde-catalyzed gas-phase decarboxylation of amino acid anion via imine intermediate: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    It is generally appreciated that carbonyl compound can promote the decarboxylation of the amino acid. In this paper, we have performed the experimental and theoretical investigation into the gas-phase decarboxylation of the amino acid anion catalyzed by the aromatic aldehyde via the imine intermediate on the basis of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technique and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The results show that the aromatic aldehyde can achieve a remarkable catalytic effect. Moreover, the catalytic mechanism varies according to the type of amino acid: (i) The decarboxylation of α-amino acid anion is determined by the direct dissociation of the Csbnd C bond adjacent to the carboxylate, for the resulting carbanion can be well stabilized by the conjugation between α-carbon, Cdbnd N bond and benzene ring. (ii) The decarboxylation of non-α-amino acid anion proceeds via a SN2-like transition state, in which the dissociation of the Csbnd C bond adjacent to the carboxylate and attacking of the resulting carbanion to the Cdbnd N bond or benzene ring take place at the same time. Specifically, for β-alanine, the resulting carbanion preferentially attacks the benzene ring leading to the benzene anion, because attacking the Cdbnd N bond in the decarboxylation can produce the unstable three or four-membered ring anion. For the other non-α-amino acid anion, the Cdbnd N bond preferentially participates in the decarboxylation, which leads to the pediocratic nitrogen anion.

  5. Decarboxylative alkenylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Jacob T.; Merchant, Rohan R.; McClymont, Kyle S.; Knouse, Kyle W.; Qin, Tian; Malins, Lara R.; Vokits, Benjamin; Shaw, Scott A.; Bao, Deng-Hui; Wei, Fu-Liang; Zhou, Ting; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2017-04-01

    Olefin chemistry, through pericyclic reactions, polymerizations, oxidations, or reductions, has an essential role in the manipulation of organic matter. Despite its importance, olefin synthesis still relies largely on chemistry introduced more than three decades ago, with metathesis being the most recent addition. Here we describe a simple method of accessing olefins with any substitution pattern or geometry from one of the most ubiquitous and variegated building blocks of chemistry: alkyl carboxylic acids. The activating principles used in amide-bond synthesis can therefore be used, with nickel- or iron-based catalysis, to extract carbon dioxide from a carboxylic acid and economically replace it with an organozinc-derived olefin on a molar scale. We prepare more than 60 olefins across a range of substrate classes, and the ability to simplify retrosynthetic analysis is exemplified with the preparation of 16 different natural products across 10 different families.

  6. NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves. Kinetic properties of different oligomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, A A; Andreo, C S

    1990-09-24

    NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves was inhibited by increasing the ionic strength in the assay medium. The inhibitory effect was higher at pH 7.0 than 8.0, with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 89 mM and 160 mM respectively, for inhibition by NaCl. Gel-filtration experiments indicated that the enzyme dissociated into dimers and monomers when exposed to high ionic strength (0.3 M NaCl). By using the enzyme-dilution approach in the absence and presence of 0.3 M NaCl, the kinetic properties of each oligomeric species of the protein was determined at pH 7.0 and 8.0. Tetrameric, dimeric and monomeric structures were shown to be active but with different V and Km values. The catalytic efficiency of the oligomers was tetramer greater than dimer greater than monomer, and each quaternary structure exhibited higher activity at pH 8.0 than 7.0. Dissociation constants for the equilibria between the different oligomeric forms of the enzyme were determined. It was established that Kd values were affected by pH and Mg2+ levels in the medium. Results suggest that the distinct catalytic properties of the different oligomeric forms of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and changes in their equilibrium could be the molecular basis for an efficient physiological regulation of the decarboxylation step of C4 metabolism.

  7. An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with less than 14% identity. The C. guilliermondii phenolic acid decarboxylase converted the main substrates ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to the respective corresponding products. Surprisingly, the ultrafiltrate (Mr 10,000-cut-off) of the cell-free extract of C. guilliermondii remarkably activated the ferulic acid decarboxylation by the purified enzyme, whereas it was almost without effect on the p-coumaric acid decarboxylation. Gel-filtration chromatography of the ultrafiltrate suggested that an endogenous amino thiol-like compound with a molecular weight greater than Mr 1,400 was responsible for the activation. PMID:22217315

  8. Pig liver pyruvate carboxylase. The reaction pathway for the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Graham B.; Tipton, Keith F.

    1974-01-01

    1. The reaction pathway for the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, catalysed by pig liver pyruvate carboxylase, was studied in the presence of saturating concentrations of K+ and acetyl-CoA. 2. Free Mg2+ binds to the enzyme in an equilibrium fashion and remains bound during all further catalytic cycles. MgADP− and Pi bind randomly, at equilibrium, followed by the binding of oxaloacetate. Pyruvate is released before the ordered steay-state release of HCO3− and MgATP2−. 3. These results are entirely consistent with studies on the carboxylation of pyruvate presented in the preceding paper (Warren & Tipton, 1974b) and together they allow a quantitative description of the reaction mechanism of pig liver pyruvate carboxylase. 4. In the absence of other substrates of the back reaction pig liver pyruvate carboxylase will decarboxylate oxaloacetate in a manner that is not inhibited by avidin. 5. Reciprocal plots involving oxaloacetate are non-linear curves, which suggest a negatively co-operative interaction between this substrate and the enzyme. PMID:4447613

  9. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: The Direct Synthesis of Ketones via the Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Oxo Acids**

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lingling; Lipshultz, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-oxo acids has been achieved via synergistic visible light-mediated photoredox and nickel catalyses. This method offers rapid entry to aryl and alkyl ketone architectures from simple α-oxo acid precursors via an acyl radical intermediate. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the oxo acid and arene coupling partners. This mild decarboxylative arylation can also be utilized to efficiently access medicinal agents, as demonstrated by the rapid synthesis of fenofibrate. PMID:26014029

  10. Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass to Drug Pharmacophore

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-amino acids has been achieved via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. This method offers rapid entry to prevalent benzylic amine architectures from an abundant biomass, specifically α-amino acid precursors. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the amino acid and arene components. PMID:24712922

  11. Decarboxylation of fatty acids with triruthenium dodecacarbonyl: Influence of the compound structure and analysis of the product mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, the decarboxylation of oleic acid (9(Z)-octadecenoic acid) catalyzed by triruthenium dodecacarbonyl, Ru3(CO)12, to give a mixture of heptadecenes with concomitant formation of other hydrocarbons, heptadecane and C17 alkylbenzenes, was reported. The product mixture, consisting of about 77% ...

  12. Regioselective Cu(I)-catalyzed tandem A3-coupling/decarboxylative coupling to 3-amino-1,4-enynes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huangdi; Ermolat'ev, Denis S; Song, Gonghua; Van der Eycken, Erik V

    2012-04-06

    An efficient and novel copper-mediated protocol for the synthesis of 3-amino-1,4-enynes from glyoxylic acid, an amine, and an alkyne was developed. This new reaction involving two sequential C-C bond formations is air and moisture tolerant and proceeds via a tandem A(3)-coupling and a selective decarboxylative coupling.

  13. A Guided Inquiry Experiment for the Measurement of Activation Energies in the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory: Decarboxylation of Pyrrole-2-Carboxylate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Kelly M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Mettee, Howard D.; Smiley, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data…

  14. Investigating the Mechanism of Heteroaromatic Decarboxylation Using Solvent Kinetic Isotope Effects and Eyring Transition-State Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundle, Scott O. C.; Opinska, Liliana Guevara; Kluger, Ronald; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    An upper-level mechanistic organic experiment is outlined where undergraduates measure kinetic rate constants for decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid by the initial-rates method. UV spectroscopy is used to monitor reactant disappearance in both hydrochloric acid and deuterium chloride at different temperatures. Individual data are pooled…

  15. Efficient synthesis of hydroxystyrenes via biocatalytic decarboxylation/deacetylation of substituted cinnamic acids by newly isolated Pantoea agglomerans strains.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Upendra K; Sharma, Nandini; Salwan, Richa; Kumar, Rakesh; Kasana, Ramesh C; Sinha, Arun K

    2012-02-01

    Decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids is a predominantly followed pathway for obtaining hydroxystyrenes-one of the most extensively explored bioactive compounds in the food and flavor industry (e.g. FEMA GRAS approved 4-vinylguaiacol). For this, mild and green strategies providing good yields with high product selectivity are needed. Two newly isolated bacterial strains, i.e. Pantoea agglomerans KJLPB4 and P. agglomerans KJPB2, are reported for mild and effective decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids into corresponding hydroxystyrenes. Key operational parameters for the process, such as incubation temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and effect of co-solvent, were optimized using ferulic acid as a model substrate. With strain KJLPB4, 1.51 g L⁻¹ 4-vinyl guaiacol (98% yield) was selectively obtained from 2 g L⁻¹ ferulic acid at 28 °C after 48 h incubation. However, KJPB2 provided vanillic acid in 85% yield after 72 h following the oxidative decarboxylation pathway. In addition, KJLPB4 was effectively exploited for the deacetylation of acetylated α-phenylcinnamic acids, providing corresponding compounds in 65-95% yields. Two newly isolated microbial strains are reported for the mild and selective decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids into hydroxystyrenes. Preparative-scale synthesis of vinyl guaiacol and utilization of renewable feedstock (ferulic acid extracted from maize bran) have been demonstrated to enhance the practical utility of the process. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Decarboxylation of furfural on Pd(111): Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wenhua; Dang, Hongli; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu

    2013-03-01

    Furfural conversion over metal catalysts plays an important role in the studies of biomass-derived feedstocks. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the decarboxylation process of furfural on the palladium surface at finite temperatures. We observed and analyzed the atomic-scale dynamics of furfural on the Pd(111) surface and the fluctuations of the bondlengths between the atoms in furfural. We found that the dominant bonding structure is the parallel structure in which the furfural plane, while slightly distorted, is parallel to the Pd surface. Analysis of the bondlength fluctuations indicates that the C-H bond is the aldehyde group of a furfural molecule is likely to be broken first, while the C =O bond has a tendency to be isolated as CO. Our results show that the reaction of decarbonylation dominates, consistent with the experimental measurements. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSEDE's and NERSC's supercomputers.

  17. Nano-catalysts for upgrading bio-oil: Catalytic decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Tran, Nga T. T.; Naqvi, Salman Raza; Nishiyama, Norikazu

    2017-09-01

    Bio-oil is a mixture of oxygenated chemicals produced by fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose, and has attracted much attention recently because the raw material is renewable. Primarily, bio-oil can be used as a replacement of heavy oil. But it is not highly recommended due to bio-oil's inferior properties: high acidity and short shelf life. Upgrading of bio-oil is therefore one of the important technologies nowadays, and is categorized into the two: (A) decrarboxylation/decarbonylation by solid acid catalysts and (B) hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) by metallic catalysts. In our research group, decarboxylation of bio-oil by zeolites and HDO of guaiacol (a model compound of bio-oil) have been investigated. In this paper, recent developments of these upgrading reactions in our research group will be introduced.

  18. Formation of Azaspiracids-3, -4, -6, and -9 via decarboxylation of carboxyazaspiracid metabolites from shellfish.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Kilcoyne, Jane; Miles, Christopher O; Hess, Philipp

    2009-01-14

    The azaspiracid (AZA) class of phycotoxins has been responsible for extended closures of shellfisheries in various locations around Europe, where levels of AZA1-3 are regulated in shellfish. Since their discovery in 1995, AZAs have been the focus of much research, resulting in the discovery of numerous analogues. During studies of procedures for processing of AZA-contaminated mussels ( Mytilus edulis ), an unusual phenomenon was observed involving AZA3. In uncooked tissues, AZA3 levels would increase significantly when heated for short periods of time in the absence of water loss. A similar increase in AZA3 concentrations occurred during storage of shellfish tissue reference materials for several months at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C. Concentrations of AZA1 and AZA2 did not change during these experiments. Several possible explanations were investigated, including an AZA3-specific matrix effect upon heating of tissues, release of AZA3 from the matrix, and formation of AZA3 from a precursor. Preliminary experiments indicated that toxin conversion was responsible, and more detailed studies focused on this possibility. LC-MS analysis of heating trials, deuterium labeling experiments, and kinetic studies demonstrated that a carboxylated AZA analogue, AZA17, undergoes rapid decarboxylation when heated to produce AZA3. Heat-induced decarboxylation of AZA19, AZA21, and AZA23 to form AZA6, AZA4, and AZA9, respectively, was also demonstrated. This finding is of great significance in terms of procedures used in the processing of shellfish for regulatory analysis, and it exemplifies the role that chemical analysis can play in understanding the contribution of metabolic processes to the toxin profiles observed in shellfish samples.

  19. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Wanas, Amira S.; van Antwerp, John; Parcher, Jon F.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Decarboxylation is an important step for efficient production of the major active components in cannabis, for example, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabigerol (CBG). These cannabinoids do not occur in significant concentrations in cannabis but can be formed by decarboxylation of their corresponding acids, the predominant cannabinoids in the plant. Study of the kinetics of decarboxylation is of importance for phytocannabinoid isolation and dosage formulation for medical use. Efficient analytical methods are essential for simultaneous detection of both neutral and acidic cannabinoids. Methods: C. sativa extracts were used for the studies. Decarboxylation conditions were examined at 80°C, 95°C, 110°C, 130°C, and 145°C for different times up to 60 min in a vacuum oven. An ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography/photodiode array-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/PDA-MS) method was used for the analysis of acidic and neutral cannabinoids before and after decarboxylation. Results: Decarboxylation at different temperatures displayed an exponential relationship between concentration and time indicating a first-order or pseudo-first-order reaction. The rate constants for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) were twice those of the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). Decarboxylation of THCA-A was forthright with no side reactions or by-products. Decarboxylation of CBDA and CBGA was not as straightforward due to the unexplained loss of reactants or products. Conclusion: The reported UHPSFC/PDA-MS method provided consistent and sensitive analysis of phytocannabinoids and their decarboxylation products and degradants. The rate of change of acidic cannabinoid concentrations over time allowed for determination of rate constants. Variations of rate constants with temperature yielded values for reaction energy. PMID:28861498

  20. Selective C-O Hydrogenolysis and Decarboxylation of Biomass-Derived Heterocyclic Compounds over Heterogeneous Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Mei

    The catalytic deoxygenation of biomass-derived compounds through selective C-O hydrogenolysis, catalytic transfer hydrogenation and lactonization, and decarboxylation to value-added chemicals over heterogeneous catalysts was examined under liquid phase reaction conditions. The reactions studied involve the conversion or production of heterocyclic compounds, specifically, cyclic ethers, lactones, and 2-pyrones. A bimetallic RhRe/C catalyst was found to be selective for the hydrogenolysis of secondary C-O bonds for a broad range cyclic ethers and polyols. Results from experimentally-observed reactivity trends, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, fructose dehydration reaction studies, and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the hypothesis of a bifunctional catalyst which facilitates acid-catalyzed ring-opening and dehydration coupled with metal-catalyzed hydrogenation. C-O hydrogenolysis and fructose dehydration activities were observed to decrease with an increase in reduction temperature and a decrease in the number of surface metallic Re atoms measured by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. No C-O hydrogenolysis activity was detected over RhRe/C under water-free conditions. The activation of water molecules by Re atoms on the surface of metallic Rh is suggested to result in the formation of Bronsted acidity over RhRe/C. The catalytic transfer hydrogenation and lactonization of levulinic acid and its esters to gamma-valerolactone was accomplished through the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction over metal oxide catalysts using secondary alcohols as the hydrogen donor. ZrO2 was a highly active material for CTH under batch and continuous flow reaction conditions; the initial activity of the catalyst was repeatedly regenerable by calcination in air, with no observable loss in catalytic activity. Lastly, the 2-pyrone, triacetic acid lactone, is shown to be a promising biorenewable platform chemical from which a wide range

  1. Structures of rat cytosolic PEPCK: insight into the mechanism of phosphorylation and decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah M; Holyoak, Todd

    2007-09-04

    The structures of the rat cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) reported in the PEPCK-Mn2+, -Mn2+-oxaloacetic acid (OAA), -Mn2+-OAA-Mn2+-guanosine-5'-diphosphate (GDP), and -Mn2+-Mn2+-guanosine-5'-tri-phosphate (GTP) complexes provide insight into the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and decarboxylation mediated by this enzyme. OAA is observed to bind in a number of different orientations coordinating directly to the active site metal. The Mn2+-OAA and Mn2+-OAA-Mn2+GDP structures illustrate inner-sphere coordination of OAA to the manganese ion through the displacement of two of the three water molecules coordinated to the metal in the holo-enzyme by the C3 and C4 carbonyl oxygens. In the PEPCK-Mn2+-OAA complex, an alternate bound conformation of OAA is present. In this conformation, in addition to the previous interactions, the C1 carboxylate is directly coordinated to the active site Mn2+, displacing all of the waters coordinated to the metal in the holo-enzyme. In the PEPCK-Mn2+-GTP structure, the same water molecule displaced by the C1 carboxylate of OAA is displaced by one of the gamma-phosphate oxygens of the triphosphate nucleotide. The structures are consistent with a mechanism of direct in-line phosphoryl transfer, supported by the observed stereochemistry of the reaction. In the catalytically competent binding mode, the C1 carboxylate of OAA is sandwiched between R87 and R405 in an environment that would serve to facilitate decarboxylation. In the reverse reaction, these two arginines would form the CO2 binding site. Comparison of the Mn2+-OAA-Mn2+GDP and Mn2+-Mn2+GTP structures illustrates a marked difference in the bound conformations of the nucleotide substrates in which the GTP nucleotide is bound in a high-energy state resulting from the eclipsing of all three of the phosphoryl groups along the triphosphate chain. This contrasts a previously determined structure of PEPCK in complex with a triphosphate nucleotide analogue in

  2. Improved Acid Stress Survival of Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Histidine Decarboxylation Pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524*

    PubMed Central

    Trip, Hein; Mulder, Niels L.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2012-01-01

    Degradative amino acid decarboxylation pathways in bacteria generate secondary metabolic energy and provide resistance against acid stress. The histidine decarboxylation pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524 was functionally expressed in the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, and the benefits of the newly acquired pathway for the host were analyzed. During growth in M17 medium in the pH range of 5–6.5, a small positive effect was observed on the biomass yield in batch culture, whereas no growth rate enhancement was evident. In contrast, a strong benefit for the engineered L. lactis strain was observed in acid stress survival. In the presence of histidine, the pathway enabled cells to survive at pH values as low as 3 for at least 2 h, conditions under which the host cells were rapidly dying. The flux through the histidine decarboxylation pathway in cells grown at physiological pH was under strict control of the electrochemical proton gradient (pmf) across the membrane. Ionophores that dissipated the membrane potential (ΔΨ) and/or the pH gradient (ΔpH) strongly increased the flux, whereas the presence of glucose almost completely inhibited the flux. Control of the pmf over the flux was exerted by both ΔΨ and ΔpH and was distributed over the transporter HdcP and the decarboxylase HdcA. The control allowed for a synergistic effect between the histidine decarboxylation and glycolytic pathways in acid stress survival. In a narrow pH range around 2.5 the synergism resulted in a 10-fold higher survival rate. PMID:22351775

  3. Formation of Ketenimines via the Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative π-Allylic Rearrangement of N-Alloc Ynamides.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Juliana R; Cook, Matthew J

    2017-11-03

    A new approach for the formation of ketenimines via a decarboxylative allylic rearrangement pathway that does not require strong stabilizing or protecting groups has been developed. The products can be readily hydrolyzed into their corresponding secondary amides or reacted with sulfur ylides to perform an additional [2,3]-Wittig process. Mechanistic studies suggest an outer-sphere process in which reductive alkylation is rate-limiting.

  4. Copper-catalyzed aerobic decarboxylative sulfonylation of cinnamic acids with sodium sulfinates: stereospecific synthesis of (E)-alkenyl sulfones.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qing; Xu, Bin; Jia, Jing; Zhao, An; Zhao, Yu-Rou; Li, Ying-Ying; He, Na-Na; Guo, Can-Cheng

    2014-08-15

    A copper-catalyzed aerobic decarboxylative sulfonylation of alkenyl carboxylic acids with sodium sulfinates is developed. This study offers a new and expedient strategy for stereoselective synthesis of (E)-alkenyl sulfones that are widely present in biologically active natural products and therapeutic agents. Moreover, the transformation is proposed to proceed via a radical process and exhibits a broad substrate scope and good functional group tolerance.

  5. Generation of a proton motive force by histidine decarboxylation and electrogenic histidine/histamine antiport in Lactobacillus buchneri.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, D; Bosscher, J S; ten Brink, B; Driessen, A J; Konings, W N

    1993-05-01

    Lactobacillus buchneri ST2A vigorously decarboxylates histidine to the biogenic amine histamine, which is excreted into the medium. Cells grown in the presence of histidine generate both a transmembrane pH gradient, inside alkaline, and an electrical potential (delta psi), inside negative, upon addition of histidine. Studies of the mechanism of histidine uptake and histamine excretion in membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes devoid of cytosolic histidine decarboxylase activity demonstrate that histidine uptake, histamine efflux, and histidine/histamine exchange are electrogenic processes. Histidine/histamine exchange is much faster than the unidirectional fluxes of these substrates, is inhibited by an inside-negative delta psi and is stimulated by an inside positive delta psi. These data suggest that the generation of metabolic energy from histidine decarboxylation results from an electrogenic histidine/histamine exchange and indirect proton extrusion due to the combined action of the decarboxylase and carrier-mediated exchange. The abundance of amino acid decarboxylation reactions among bacteria suggests that this mechanism of metabolic energy generation and/or pH regulation is widespread.

  6. Photo-driven redox-neutral decarboxylative carbon-hydrogen trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with trifluoroacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin; Li, Zhi; Kan, Jian; Huang, Shijun; Su, Weiping; Li, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    Catalytic oxidative C–H bond functionalization reactions that proceed without requiring stoichiometric amounts of external oxidants or pre-functionalized oxidizing reagents could maximize the atom- and step-economy in chemical syntheses. However, such a transformation remains elusive. Here, we report that a photo-driven catalytic process enables decarboxylative C–H trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with trifluoroacetic acid as a trifluoromethyl source in good yields in the presence of an external oxidant in far lower than stoichiometric amounts (for example, 0.2 equivalents of Na2S2O8) using Rh-modified TiO2 nanoparticles as a photocatalyst, in which H2 release is an important driving force for the reaction. Our findings not only provide an approach to accessing valuable decarboxylative C–H trifluoromethylations via activation of abundant but inert trifluoroacetic acid towards oxidative decarboxylation and trifluoromethyl radical formation, but also demonstrate that a photo-driven catalytic process is a promising way to achieve external oxidant-free C–H functionalization reactions. PMID:28165474

  7. Photo-driven redox-neutral decarboxylative carbon-hydrogen trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with trifluoroacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin; Li, Zhi; Kan, Jian; Huang, Shijun; Su, Weiping; Li, Yadong

    2017-02-06

    Catalytic oxidative C-H bond functionalization reactions that proceed without requiring stoichiometric amounts of external oxidants or pre-functionalized oxidizing reagents could maximize the atom- and step-economy in chemical syntheses. However, such a transformation remains elusive. Here, we report that a photo-driven catalytic process enables decarboxylative C-H trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with trifluoroacetic acid as a trifluoromethyl source in good yields in the presence of an external oxidant in far lower than stoichiometric amounts (for example, 0.2 equivalents of Na 2 S 2 O 8 ) using Rh-modified TiO 2 nanoparticles as a photocatalyst, in which H 2 release is an important driving force for the reaction. Our findings not only provide an approach to accessing valuable decarboxylative C-H trifluoromethylations via activation of abundant but inert trifluoroacetic acid towards oxidative decarboxylation and trifluoromethyl radical formation, but also demonstrate that a photo-driven catalytic process is a promising way to achieve external oxidant-free C-H functionalization reactions.

  8. Photo-driven redox-neutral decarboxylative carbon-hydrogen trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with trifluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin; Li, Zhi; Kan, Jian; Huang, Shijun; Su, Weiping; Li, Yadong

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic oxidative C-H bond functionalization reactions that proceed without requiring stoichiometric amounts of external oxidants or pre-functionalized oxidizing reagents could maximize the atom- and step-economy in chemical syntheses. However, such a transformation remains elusive. Here, we report that a photo-driven catalytic process enables decarboxylative C-H trifluoromethylation of (hetero)arenes with trifluoroacetic acid as a trifluoromethyl source in good yields in the presence of an external oxidant in far lower than stoichiometric amounts (for example, 0.2 equivalents of Na2S2O8) using Rh-modified TiO2 nanoparticles as a photocatalyst, in which H2 release is an important driving force for the reaction. Our findings not only provide an approach to accessing valuable decarboxylative C-H trifluoromethylations via activation of abundant but inert trifluoroacetic acid towards oxidative decarboxylation and trifluoromethyl radical formation, but also demonstrate that a photo-driven catalytic process is a promising way to achieve external oxidant-free C-H functionalization reactions.

  9. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  10. Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

    PubMed

    Citti, Cinzia; Pacchetti, Barbara; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Forni, Flavio; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2018-02-05

    Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil. Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein. This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils. Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic effect of different reactor materials under subcritical water conditions: decarboxylation of cysteic acid into taurine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of reactor materials on the catalytic effect for a particular reaction, the decomposition of cysteic acid from Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors under subcritical water conditions was examined. Experiments were carried out in three batch reactors made of Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-22 and SUS 316 over temperatures of 200 to 300 °C. The highest amount of eluted metals was found for SUS 316. The results demonstrated that reactor materials contribute to the resulting product. Under the tested conditions, cysteic acid decomposes readily with SUS 316. However, the Ni-based materials (Inconel 625 and Hastelloy C-22) show better resistance to metal elution. It was found that among the materials used in this work, SUS 316 gave the highest reaction rate constant of 0.1934 s‑1. The same results were obtained at temperatures of 260 and 300 °C. Investigation of the Arrhenius activation energy revealed that the highest activation energy was for Hastelloy C-22 (109 kJ/mol), followed by Inconel 625 (90 kJ/mol) and SUS 316 (70 kJ/mol). The decomposition rate of cysteic acid was found to follow the results for the trend of the eluted metals. Therefore, it can be concluded that the decomposition of cysteic acid was catalyzed by the elution of heavy metals from the surface of the reactor. The highest amount of taurine from the decarboxylation of cysteic acid was obtained from SUS 316.

  12. Binding, hydration, and decarboxylation of the reaction intermediate glutaconyl-coenzyme A by human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Westover, J B; Goodman, S I; Frerman, F E

    2001-11-20

    Glutaconyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is the presumed enzyme-bound intermediate in the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA that is catalyzed by glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. We demonstrated glutaconyl-CoA bound to glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase after anaerobic reduction of the dehydrogenase with glutaryl-CoA. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase also has intrinsic enoyl-CoA hydratase activity, a property of other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. The enzyme rapidly hydrates glutaconyl-CoA at pH 7.6 with a k(cat) of 2.7 s(-1). The k(cat) in the overall oxidation-decarboxylation reaction at pH 7.6 is about 9 s(-1). The binding of glutaconyl-CoA was quantitatively assessed from the K(m) in the hydratase reaction, 3 microM, and the K(i), 1.0 microM, as a competitive inhibitor of the dehydrogenase. These values compare with K(m) and K(i) of 4.0 and 12.9 microM, respectively, for crotonyl-CoA. Glu370 is the general base catalyst in the dehydrogenase that abstracts an alpha-proton of the substrate to initiate the catalytic pathway. The mutant dehydrogenase, Glu370Gln, is inactive in the dehydrogenation and the hydratase reactions. However, this mutant dehydrogenase decarboxylates glutaconyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA without oxidation-reduction reactions of the dehydrogenase flavin. Addition of glutaconyl-CoA to this mutant dehydrogenase results in a rapid, transient increase in long-wavelength absorbance (lambda(max) approximately 725 nm), and crotonyl-CoA is found as the sole product. We propose that this 725 nm-absorbing species is the delocalized crotonyl-CoA anion that follows decarboxylation and that the decay is the result of slow protonation of the anion in the absence of the general acid catalyst, Glu370(H(+)). In the absence of detectable oxidation-reduction, the data indicate that oxidation-reduction of the dehydrogenase flavin is not essential for decarboxylation of glutaconyl-CoA.

  13. Stable-isotope GC-MS/MS determination of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Evans, Christopher E.; Denton, Travis T.; Mitschke, Anja; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Pinto, John T.; Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; Cooper, Arthur J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer [AECK-DD; systematic name: 1,2–3,4–5,6–7,8-octahydro-1,8a-diaza-4,6-dithiafluoren-9(8aH)-one] is a previously described metabolite of cysteamine that has been reported to be present in mammalian brain, urine, plasma, cells in culture and vegetables, and to possess potent anti-oxidative properties. Here, we describe a stable-isotope GC-MS/MS method for specific and sensitive determination of AECK-DD in biological samples. 13C2-AECK-DD was synthesized and used as the internal standard. Derivatization was carried out by N-pentafluorobenzylation with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. Quantification was performed by selected-reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 328 to m/z 268 for AECK-DD and m/z 330 to m/z 270 for 13C2-AECK-DD in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode. The procedure was systematically validated for human plasma and urine samples. AECK-DD was not detectable in human plasma above ~ 4 nM, but was present in urine samples of healthy humans at a maximal concentration of 46 nM. AECK-DD was detectable in rat brain at very low levels of about 8 pmol/g wet weight. Higher levels of AECK-DD were detected in mouse brain (~1 nmol/g wet weight). Among nine dietary vegetables evaluated, only shallots were found to contain trace amounts of AECK-DD (~ 6.8 pmol/g fresh tissue). PMID:22858756

  14. Synthetic regulators of the 2-oxoglutarate oxidative decarboxylation alleviate the glutamate excitotoxicity in cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Kabysheva, Maria S; Storozhevykh, Tatiana P; Pinelis, Vsevolod G; Bunik, Victoria I

    2009-05-01

    Impairment of the 2-oxoglutarate oxidative decarboxylation by the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) is associated with the glutamate accumulation, ROS production and neuropathologies. We hypothesized that correct function of OGDHC under metabolic stress is essential to overcome the glutamate excitotoxic action on neurons. We show that synthetic phosphono analogs of 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl phosphonate and its phosphono ethyl ester, improve the catalysis by brain OGDHC through inhibiting the side reaction of irreversible inactivation of its first component, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Under the substrate and cofactor saturation, the component and complex undergo the inactivation during catalysis with the apparent rate constant 0.2 min(-1). The inactivation rate is reduced by 90% and 60% in the presence of 50 microM succinyl phosphonate and its phosphono ethyl ester, correspondingly. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons exposed to excitotoxic glutamate, the phosphonates (100 microM) protect from the irreversible impairment of mitochondrial function and delayed calcium deregulation. The deregulation amplitude is decreased by succinyl phosphonate and its phosphono ethyl ester by 50% and 30%, correspondingly. Thus, succinyl phosphonate is more potent than its phosphono ethyl ester in protecting both the isolated brain OGDHC from inactivation and cultured neurons from the glutamate-induced calcium deregulation. The correlation of the relative efficiency of the phosphonates in vitro and in situ indicates that their cellular effects are due to targeting OGDHC, which is in accord with independent studies. We conclude that the compounds preserving the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity are of neuroprotective value upon metabolic disbalance induced by glutamate excess.

  15. Decarboxylation of malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) by 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases in plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    1997-01-01

    In order to identify regulatory steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, the influence of intermediate 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier proteins) (3-oxoacyl-ACPs) and end-product acyl-ACPs of the fatty acid synthase reaction on the condensation reaction was investigated in vitro, using total fatty acid synthase preparations and purified 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthases (KASs; EC 2.3.1.41) from Cuphea lanceolata seeds. KAS I and II in the fatty acid synthase preparations were assayed for the elongation of octanoyl- and hexadecanoyl-ACP respectively, and the accumulation of the corresponding condensation product 3-oxoacyl-ACP was studied by modulating the content of the reducing equivalentS NADH and NADPH. Complete omission of reducing equivalents resulted with either KAS in the abnormal synthesis of acetyl-ACP from malonyl-ACP by a decarboxylation reaction. Supplementation with NADPH or NADH, separately or in combination with recombinant 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), led to a decrease in the amount of acetyl-ACP and a simultaneous increase in elongation products. This demonstrates that the accumulation of 3-oxoacyl-ACP inhibits the condensation reaction on the one hand, and induces the decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP on the other. By carrying out similar experiments with purified enzymes, this decarboxylation was attributed to the action of KAS. Our data point to a regulatory mechanism for the degradation of malonyl-ACP in plants which is activated by the accumulation of the fatty acid synthase intermediate 3-oxoacyl-ACP. PMID:9020860

  16. Decarboxylation of malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) by 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases in plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Winter, E; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    1997-01-15

    In order to identify regulatory steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, the influence of intermediate 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier proteins) (3-oxoacyl-ACPs) and end-product acyl-ACPs of the fatty acid synthase reaction on the condensation reaction was investigated in vitro, using total fatty acid synthase preparations and purified 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthases (KASs; EC 2.3.1.41) from Cuphea lanceolata seeds. KAS I and II in the fatty acid synthase preparations were assayed for the elongation of octanoyl- and hexadecanoyl-ACP respectively, and the accumulation of the corresponding condensation product 3-oxoacyl-ACP was studied by modulating the content of the reducing equivalentS NADH and NADPH. Complete omission of reducing equivalents resulted with either KAS in the abnormal synthesis of acetyl-ACP from malonyl-ACP by a decarboxylation reaction. Supplementation with NADPH or NADH, separately or in combination with recombinant 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), led to a decrease in the amount of acetyl-ACP and a simultaneous increase in elongation products. This demonstrates that the accumulation of 3-oxoacyl-ACP inhibits the condensation reaction on the one hand, and induces the decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP on the other. By carrying out similar experiments with purified enzymes, this decarboxylation was attributed to the action of KAS. Our data point to a regulatory mechanism for the degradation of malonyl-ACP in plants which is activated by the accumulation of the fatty acid synthase intermediate 3-oxoacyl-ACP.

  17. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be themore » physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.« less

  18. Domino-Fluorination-Protodefluorination Enables Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of α-Oxocarboxylic Acids with Styrene via Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Muliang; Xi, Junwei; Ruzi, Rehanguli; Li, Nan; Wu, Zhongkai; Li, Weipeng; Zhu, Chengjian

    2017-09-15

    Domino-fluorination-protodefluorination decarboxylative cross-coupling of α-keto acids with styrene has been developed via photoredox catalysis. The critical part of this strategy is the formation of the carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond by the capture of a carbon-centered radical intermediate, which will overcome side reactions during the styrene radical functionalization process. Experimental studies have provided evidence indicating a domino-fluorination-protodefluorination pathway with α-keto acid initiating the photoredox cycle. The present catalytic protocol also affords a novel approach for the construction of α,β-unsaturated ketones under mild conditions.

  19. Unravelling the reduction pathway as alternative metabolic route to hydroxycinnamate decarboxylation in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Laura; Reverón, Inés; López de Felipe, Félix; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2018-05-18

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in plant-food fermentations where hydroxycinnamic acids are abundant. L. plantarum efficiently decarboxylates these compounds, and also reduces them, yielding substituted phenylpropionic acids. Although the reduction step is known to be induced by a hydroxycinnamic acid, the enzymatic machinery responsible for this reduction pathway has not been yet identified and characterized. A previous study on the transcriptomic response of L. plantarum to p -coumaric acid revealed a marked induction of two contiguous genes lp_1424 and lp_1425, encoding putative reductases. In this work, disruption of these genes abolished the hydroxycinnamate reductase activity of L. plantarum, supporting their involvement in such chemical activity. Functional in vitro studies reveal that Lp_1425 (HcrB) exhibits hydroxycinnamate reductase activity but was unstable in solution. In contrast, Lp_1424 (HcrA) was inactive but showed high stability. When the hcrAB genes were co-overexpressed, formation of an active heterodimer (HcrAB) was observed. Since L. plantarum reductase activity was only observed on hydroxycinnamic acids ( o -coumaric, m -coumaric, p -coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acids), the presence of a hydroxyl group substituent on the benzene ring appears to be required for activity. In addition, hydroxycinnamate reductase activity was not widely present among lactic acid bacteria, and it was associated to the presence of hcrAB genes. This study revealed that L. plantarum hydroxycinnamate reductase is a heterodimeric NADH-dependent coumarate reductase acting on a carbon-carbon double bond. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus plantarum is a bacterial species frequently found in the fermentation of vegetables where hydroxycinnamic acids are present. The bacterial metabolism on these compounds during fermentation plays a fundamental role on the biological activity of hydroxycinnamates. L. plantarum strains

  20. PhI(OAc)2-mediated one-pot oxidative decarboxylation and aromatization of tetrahydro-β-carbolines: synthesis of norharmane, harmane, eudistomin U and eudistomin I.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Tangella, Yellaiah; Manasa, Kesari Lakshmi; Sathish, Manda; Srinivasulu, Vunnam; Chetna, Jadala; Alarifi, Abdullah

    2015-08-28

    Iodobenzene diacetate was employed as a mild and efficient reagent for one-pot oxidative decarboxylation of tetrahydro-β-carboline acids and dehydrogenation of tetrahydro-β-carbolines to access the corresponding aromatic β-carbolines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first synthesis of β-carbolines via a one-pot oxidative decarboxylation at ambient temperature. The utility of this protocol has been demonstrated in the synthesis of β-carboline alkaloids norharmane (2o), harmane (2p), eudistomin U (9) and eudistomin I (12).

  1. Silver-catalyzed double-decarboxylative cross-coupling of α-keto acids with cinnamic acids in water: a strategy for the preparation of chalcones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Daoshan; Wei, Wei; Yuan, Li; Nie, Fafa; Tian, Laijin; Wang, Hua

    2015-03-20

    A silver-catalyzed double-decarboxylative protocol has been proposed for the construction of chalcone derivatives via cascade coupling of substituted α-keto acids with cinnamic acids under the mild aqueous conditions. The developed method for constructing C-C bonds via double-decarboxylative reactions is efficient, practical, and environmentally benign by using the readily available starting materials. It should provide a promising synthesis candidate for the formation of diverse and useful chalcone derivatives in the fields of synthetic and pharmaceutical chemistry.

  2. Transition-metal-free visible-light photoredox catalysis at room-temperature for decarboxylative fluorination of aliphatic carboxylic acids by organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinxin; Meng, Chunna; Yuan, Xiaoqian; Jia, Xiaotong; Qian, Xuhong; Ye, Jinxing

    2015-07-28

    We report herein an efficient, general and green method for decarboxylative fluorination of aliphatic carboxylic acids. By using a transition-metal-free, organocatalytic photoredox system, the reaction of various aliphatic carboxylic acids with the Selectfluor reagent afforded the corresponding alkyl fluorides in satisfactory yields under visible light irradiation at room temperature.

  3. Catalysis by Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase: Effect of 5-Fluoro and 4′-Substituents on the Decarboxylation of Two-Part Substrates†

    PubMed Central

    Goryanova, Bogdana; Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The syntheses of two novel truncated analogs of the natural substrate orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) for orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) with enhanced reactivity towards decarboxylation are reported: 1-(β-D-erythrofuranosyl)-5-fluoroorotic acid (FEO) and 5′-deoxy-5-fluoroorotidine (5′-dFO). A comparison of the second-order rate constants for the OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylations of FEO (10 M−1 s−1) and 1-(β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO, 0.026 M−1 s−1) shows that the vinyl carbanion-like transition state is stabilized by 3.5 kcal/mol by interactions with the 5-F substituent of FEO. The OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylations of FEO and EO are both activated by exogenous phosphite dianion (HPO32−), but the 5-F substituent results in only a 0.8 kcal stabilization of the transition state for the phosphite-activated reaction of FEO. This provides strong evidence that the phosphite-activated OMPDC-catalyzed reaction of FEO is not limited by the chemical step of decarboxylation of the enzyme-bound substrate. Evidence is presented that there is a change in rate-limiting step from the chemical step of decarboxylation for the phosphite-activated reaction of EO, to closure of the phosphate gripper loop and an enzyme conformational change at the ternary E·FEO·HPO32− complex for the reaction of FEO. The 4′-CH3 and 4′-CH2OH groups of 5′-dFO and orotidine, respectively, result in identical destabilizations of the transition state for the unactivated decarboxylation of 2.9 kcal/mol. By contrast, the 4′-CH3 group of 5′-dFO and the 4′-CH2OH group of orotidine result in very different 4.7 and 8.3 kcal/mol destabilizations of the transition state for the phosphite-activated decarboxylation. Here, the destabilizing effect of the 4′-CH3 substituent at 5′-dFO is masked by the rate-limiting conformational change that depresses the third-order rate constant for the phosphite-activated reaction of the parent substrate FEO. PMID

  4. Catalysis by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase: effect of 5-fluoro and 4'-substituents on the decarboxylation of two-part substrates.

    PubMed

    Goryanova, Bogdana; Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2013-01-22

    The syntheses of two novel truncated analogs of the natural substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) for orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) with enhanced reactivity toward decarboxylation are reported: 1-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)-5-fluoroorotic acid (FEO) and 5'-deoxy-5-fluoroorotidine (5'-dFO). A comparison of the second-order rate constants for the OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylations of FEO (10 M⁻¹ s⁻¹) and 1-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO, 0.026 M⁻¹ s⁻¹) shows that the vinyl carbanion-like transition state is stabilized by 3.5 kcal/mol by interactions with the 5-F substituent of FEO. The OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylations of FEO and EO are both activated by exogenous phosphite dianion (HPO₃²⁻), but the 5-F substituent results in only a 0.8 kcal stabilization of the transition state for the phosphite-activated reaction of FEO. This provides strong evidence that the phosphite-activated OMPDC-catalyzed reaction of FEO is not limited by the chemical step of decarboxylation of the enzyme-bound substrate. Evidence is presented that there is a change in the rate-limiting step from the chemical step of decarboxylation for the phosphite-activated reaction of EO, to closure of the phosphate gripper loop and an enzyme conformational change at the ternary E•FEO•HPO₃²⁻ complex for the reaction of FEO. The 4'-CH₃ and 4'-CH₂OH groups of 5'-dFO and orotidine, respectively, result in identical destabilizations of the transition state for the unactivated decarboxylation of 2.9 kcal/mol. By contrast, the 4'-CH₃ group of 5'-dFO and the 4'-CH₂OH group of orotidine result in very different 4.7 and 8.3 kcal/mol destabilizations of the transition state for the phosphite-activated decarboxylation. Here, the destabilizing effect of the 4'-CH₃ substituent at 5'-dFO is masked by the rate-limiting conformational change that depresses the third-order rate constant for the phosphite-activated reaction of the parent substrate FEO.

  5. Late-Stage Functionalization of Arylacetic Acids by Photoredox-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Carbon-Heteroatom Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Yota; Ito, Eri; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Murakami, Kei; Itami, Kenichiro

    2018-05-02

    The rapid transformation of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals enables access to unexplored chemical space and thus has accelerated the discovery of novel bioactive molecules. Because arylacetic acids are regarded as key structures in bioactive compounds, new transformations of these structures could contribute to drug/agrochemical discovery and chemical biology. This work reports carbon-nitrogen and carbon-oxygen bond formation through the photoredox-catalyzed decarboxylation of arylacetic acids. The reaction shows good functional group compatibility without pre-activation of the nitrogen- or oxygen-based coupling partners. Under similar reaction conditions, carbon-chlorine bond formation was also feasible. This efficient derivatization of arylacetic acids makes it possible to synthesize pharmaceutical analogues and bioconjugates of pharmaceuticals and natural products. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyruvate Decarboxylase Catalyzes Decarboxylation of Branched-Chain 2-Oxo Acids but Is Not Essential for Fusel Alcohol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    ter Schure, Eelko G.; Flikweert, Marcel T.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.; Verrips, C. Theo

    1998-01-01

    The fusel alcohols 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-propanol are important flavor compounds in yeast-derived food products and beverages. The formation of these compounds from branched-chain amino acids is generally assumed to occur via the Ehrlich pathway, which involves the concerted action of a branched-chain transaminase, a decarboxylase, and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Partially purified preparations of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) have been reported to catalyze the decarboxylation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids formed upon transamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Indeed, in a coupled enzymatic assay with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, cell extracts of a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain exhibited significant decarboxylation rates with these branched-chain 2-oxo acids. Decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids was not detectable in cell extracts of an isogenic strain in which all three PDC genes had been disrupted. Experiments with cell extracts from S. cerevisiae mutants expressing a single PDC gene demonstrated that both PDC1- and PDC5-encoded isoenzymes can decarboxylate branched-chain 2-oxo acids. To investigate whether pyruvate decarboxylase is essential for fusel alcohol production by whole cells, wild-type S. cerevisiae and an isogenic pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain were grown on ethanol with a mixture of leucine, isoleucine, and valine as the nitrogen source. Surprisingly, the three corresponding fusel alcohols were produced in both strains. This result proves that decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids via pyruvate decarboxylase is not an essential step in fusel alcohol production. PMID:9546164

  8. Decarboxylation of Carbon Compounds as a Potential Source for CO2 and CO Observed by SAM at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bower, H.; Archer, P. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Martian carbon was detected in the Sheepbed mudtsone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard Curiosity, the rover of the Mars Science Laboratory missio]. The carbon was detected as CO2 thermally evolved from drilled and sieved rock powder that was delivered to SAM as a <150-micron-particle- size fraction. Most of the CO2 observed in the Cumberland (CB) drill hole evolved between 150deg and 350deg C. In the John Klein (JK) drill hole, the CO2 evolved up to 500deg C. Hypotheses for the source of the the CO2 include the breakdown of carbonate minerals reacting with HCl released from oxychlorine compounds, combustion of organic matter by O2 thermally evolved from the same oxychlorine minerals, and the decarboxylation of organic molecules indigenous to the martian rock sample. Here we explore the potential for the decarboxylation hypothesis.

  9. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Decarboxylation of α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids: Facile Access to Stereoselective Difluoromethylated Styrenes in Batch and Flow

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The development of synthetic methodologies which provide access to both stereoisomers of α,β-disubstituted olefins is a challenging undertaking. Herein, we describe the development of an operationally simple and stereoselective synthesis of difluoromethylated styrenes via a visible-light photocatalytic decarboxylation strategy using fac-Ir(ppy)3 as the photocatalyst. Meta- and para-substituted cinnamic acids provide the expected E-isomer. In contrast, ortho-substituted cinnamic acids yield selectively the less stable Z-product, whereas the E-isomer can be obtained via continuous-flow processing through accurate control of the reaction time. Furthermore, our protocol is amenable to the decarboxylative difluoromethylation of aryl propiolic acids. PMID:29109904

  10. ECUT: Energy Conversion and utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Generation of chemical intermediates by catalytic oxidative decarboxylation of dilute organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A rhodium-based catalyst was prepared and preliminary experiments were completed where the catalyst appeared to decarboxylate dilute acids at concentrations of 1 to 10 vol%. Electron spin resonance spectroscoy was used to characterize the catalyst as a first step leading toward modeling and optimization of rhodium catalysts. Also, a hybrid chemical/biological process for the production of hydrocarbons has been assessed. These types of catalysts could greatly increase energy efficiency of this process.

  11. The Differences between NAD-ME and NADP-ME Subtypes of C4 Photosynthesis: More than Decarboxylating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiaolan; Dixon, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C 4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C 3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities, and drought. The C 4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C 4 mechanisms to concentrate CO 2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase). C 4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The multiple polygenetic origins of these subtypes raise questions about the association of C 4 variation between biochemical subtypes and diverse lineages. This review addresses the differences in evolutionary scenario, leaf anatomy, and especially C 4 metabolic flow, C 4 transporters, and cell-specific function deduced from recently reported cell-specific transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic analyses of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes. Current omic analysis has revealed the extent to which component abundances differ between the two biochemical subtypes, leading to a better understanding of C 4 photosynthetic mechanisms in NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes.

  12. The Differences between NAD-ME and NADP-ME Subtypes of C4 Photosynthesis: More than Decarboxylating Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiaolan; Dixon, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities, and drought. The C4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C4 mechanisms to concentrate CO2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase). C4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The multiple polygenetic origins of these subtypes raise questions about the association of C4 variation between biochemical subtypes and diverse lineages. This review addresses the differences in evolutionary scenario, leaf anatomy, and especially C4 metabolic flow, C4 transporters, and cell-specific function deduced from recently reported cell-specific transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic analyses of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes. Current omic analysis has revealed the extent to which component abundances differ between the two biochemical subtypes, leading to a better understanding of C4 photosynthetic mechanisms in NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes. PMID:27790235

  13. Stable isotope gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Evans, Christopher E; Denton, Travis T; Mitschke, Anja; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Pinto, John T; Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2012-11-01

    Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (AECK-DD; systematic name: 1,2-3,4-5,6-7,8-octahydro-1,8a-diaza-4,6-dithiafluoren-9(8aH)-one) is a previously described metabolite of cysteamine that has been reported to be present in mammalian brain, urine, plasma, and cells in culture and vegetables and to possess potent antioxidative properties. Here, we describe a stable isotope gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method for specific and sensitive determination of AECK-DD in biological samples. (13)C(2)-labeled AECK-DD was synthesized and used as the internal standard. Derivatization was carried out by N-pentafluorobenzylation with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. Quantification was performed by selected reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 328 to 268 for AECK-DD and m/z 330 to 270 for [(13)C(2)]AECK-DD in the electron capture negative ion chemical ionization mode. The procedure was systematically validated for human plasma and urine samples. AECK-DD was not detectable in human plasma above approximately 4nM but was present in urine samples of healthy humans at a maximal concentration of 46nM. AECK-DD was detectable in rat brain at very low levels of approximately 8pmol/g wet weight. Higher levels of AECK-DD were detected in mouse brain (∼1nmol/g wet weight). Among nine dietary vegetables evaluated, only shallots were found to contain trace amounts of AECK-DD (∼6.8pmol/g fresh tissue). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolism and disposition of oral dabrafenib in cancer patients: proposed participation of aryl nitrogen in carbon-carbon bond cleavage via decarboxylation following enzymatic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bershas, David A; Ouellet, Daniele; Mamaril-Fishman, Donna B; Nebot, Noelia; Carson, Stanley W; Blackman, Samuel C; Morrison, Royce A; Adams, Jerry L; Jurusik, Kristen E; Knecht, Dana M; Gorycki, Peter D; Richards-Peterson, Lauren E

    2013-12-01

    A phase I study was conducted to assess the metabolism and excretion of [(14)C]dabrafenib (GSK2118436; N-{3-[5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzene sulfonamide, methanesulfonate salt), a BRAF inhibitor, in four patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive tumors after a single oral dose of 95 mg (80 µCi). Assessments included the following: 1) plasma concentrations of dabrafenib and metabolites using validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry methods, 2) plasma and blood radioactivity, 3) urinary and fecal radioactivity, and 4) metabolite profiling. Results showed the mean total recovery of radioactivity was 93.8%, with the majority recovered in feces (71.1% of administered dose). Urinary excretion accounted for 22.7% of the dose, with no detection of parent drug in urine. Dabrafenib is metabolized primarily via oxidation of the t-butyl group to form hydroxy-dabrafenib. Hydroxy-dabrafenib undergoes further oxidation to carboxy-dabrafenib, which subsequently converts to desmethyl-dabrafenib via a pH-dependent decarboxylation. The half-lives for carboxy- and desmethyl-dabrafenib were longer than for parent and hydroxy-dabrafenib (18-20 vs. 5-6 hours). Based on area under the plasma concentration-time curve, dabrafenib, hydroxy-, carboxy-, and desmethyl-dabrafenib accounted for 11%, 8%, 54%, and 3% of the plasma radioactivity, respectively. These results demonstrate that the major route of elimination of dabrafenib is via oxidative metabolism (48% of the dose) and biliary excretion. Based on our understanding of the decarboxylation of carboxy-dabrafenib, a low pH-driven, nonenzymatic mechanism involving participation of the aryl nitrogen is proposed to allow prediction of metabolic oxidation and decarboxylation of drugs containing an aryl nitrogen positioned α to an alkyl (ethyl or t-butyl) side chain.

  15. Decarboxylative Hydroalkylation of Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Till, Nicholas A; Smith, Russell T; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-05-02

    The merger of open- and closed-shell elementary organometallic steps has enabled the selective intermolecular addition of nucleophilic radicals to unactivated alkynes. A range of carboxylic acids can be subjected to a CO 2 extrusion, nickel capture, migratory insertion sequence with terminal and internal alkynes to generate stereodefined functionalized olefins. This platform has been further extended, via hydrogen atom transfer, to the direct vinylation of unactivated C-H bonds. Preliminary studies indicate that a Ni-alkyl migratory insertion is operative.

  16. In situ hydrogenation and decarboxylation of oleic acid into heptadecane over a Cu–Ni alloy catalyst using methanol as a hydrogen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zihao; Yang, Qiwei; Chen, Hao

    In this paper, supported Cu–Ni bimetallic catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for the in situ hydrogenation and decarboxylation of oleic acid using methanol as a hydrogen donor. The supported Cu–Ni alloy exhibited a significant improvement in both activity and selectivity towards the production of heptadecane in comparison with monometallic Cu and Ni based catalysts. The formation of the Cu–Ni alloy is demonstrated by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HADDF-STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-mapping), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). A partially oxidized Cu in the Cu–Ni alloy is revealed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformmore » spectroscopy (DRIFTS) following CO adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The temperature programmed desorption of ethylene and propane (ethylene/propane-TPD) suggested that the formation of the Cu–Ni alloy inhibited the cracking of C–C bonds compared to Ni, and remarkably increased the selectivity to heptadecane. The temperature programmed desorption of acetic acid (acetic acid-TPD) indicated that the bimetallic Cu–Ni alloy and Ni catalysts had a stronger adsorption of acetic acid than that of the Cu catalyst. Finally, the formation of the Cu–Ni alloy and a partially oxidized Cu facilitates the decarboxylation reaction and inhibits the cracking reaction of C–C bonds, leading to enhanced catalytic activity and selectivity.« less

  17. In situ hydrogenation and decarboxylation of oleic acid into heptadecane over a Cu–Ni alloy catalyst using methanol as a hydrogen carrier

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zihao; Yang, Qiwei; Chen, Hao; ...

    2017-10-13

    In this paper, supported Cu–Ni bimetallic catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for the in situ hydrogenation and decarboxylation of oleic acid using methanol as a hydrogen donor. The supported Cu–Ni alloy exhibited a significant improvement in both activity and selectivity towards the production of heptadecane in comparison with monometallic Cu and Ni based catalysts. The formation of the Cu–Ni alloy is demonstrated by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HADDF-STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-mapping), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). A partially oxidized Cu in the Cu–Ni alloy is revealed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformmore » spectroscopy (DRIFTS) following CO adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The temperature programmed desorption of ethylene and propane (ethylene/propane-TPD) suggested that the formation of the Cu–Ni alloy inhibited the cracking of C–C bonds compared to Ni, and remarkably increased the selectivity to heptadecane. The temperature programmed desorption of acetic acid (acetic acid-TPD) indicated that the bimetallic Cu–Ni alloy and Ni catalysts had a stronger adsorption of acetic acid than that of the Cu catalyst. Finally, the formation of the Cu–Ni alloy and a partially oxidized Cu facilitates the decarboxylation reaction and inhibits the cracking reaction of C–C bonds, leading to enhanced catalytic activity and selectivity.« less

  18. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraher, Jack McCaslin

    leads to the dissociation of H2O2 from Cr(III), while in the H+-independent reaction, CraqOOH2+ is transformed to Cr(V). Both scavengers rapidly remove Cr(V) and simplify both the kinetics and products by impeding formation of Cr(IV, V, VI). Syntheses, Reactivity, and Thermodynamic Considerations LRhR2+. Macrocyclic rhodium(II) complexes LRh(H 2O)2+ (L = L1= cyclam and L2 = meso-Me6-cyclam) react with alkyl hydroperoxides R(CH3)2COOH to generate the corresponding rhodium(III) alkyls LRh(H2O)R2+ (R = CH3, C2 H5, PhCH2). Methyl and benzyl complexes can also be prepared by bimolecular group transfer from alkyl cobaloximes (dmgX) 2(H2O)CoR (where R = CH3, CH2Ph and dmgX is either dimethylglyoxime or a BF2-capped derivative of dmg) to LRh(H2O)2+. When R = C2H5, C3H7 or C4H9, the mechanism changes from group transfer to hydrogen atom abstraction from the coordinated alkyl and produces LRh(H2O)H2+ and an a-olefin. The new LRh(H2O)R2+ complexes were characterized by solution NMR and by crystal structure analysis. They exhibit great stability in aqueous solution at room temperature, but undergo efficient Rh-C bond cleavage upon photolysis. 'Green' Model for Decarboxylation of Biomass Derived Acids via Photolysis of in situ formed Metal-Carboxylate Complexes. Photolysis of aqueous solutions containing propionic acid and Fe 3+ aq in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. Photolysis in the presence of O2 yields catalytic amounts of hydrocarbon products. When halide ions are present during photolysis; nearly quantitative yields of ethyl halides are produced via extraction of a halide atom from FeX2+ by ethyl radical. The rate constants for ethyl radical reactions with FeCl2+ (k = 4.0 (+/- 0.5) x 106 M-1s-1) and with FeBr 2+ (k = 3.0 (+/- 0.5) x 107 M-1s -1) were determined via competition reactions. Irradiation of solutions containing aqueous Cu2+ salts and linear carboxylic acids yield alpha

  19. A QM/MM Metadynamics Study of the Direct Decarboxylation Mechanism for Orotidine-5'-monophosphate Decarboxylase using Two Different QM Regions: Acceleration too Small to Explain Rate of Enzyme Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Courtney; Kuo, I-Feng W.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Laino, Teodoro; Houk, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of study, the mechanism by which orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine monophosphate remains unresolved. A computational investigation of the direct decarboxylation mechanism has been performed using mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. The study was performed with the program CP2K that integrates classical dynamics and ab initio dynamics based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach. Two different QM regions were explored. The free energy barriers for decarboxylation of orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) in solution and in the enzyme (using the larger QM region) were determined with the metadynamics method to be 40 kcal/mol and 33 kcal/mol, respectively. The calculated change in activation free energy (ΔΔG±) on going from solution to the enzyme is therefore −7 kcal/mol, far less than the experimental change of −23 kcal/mol (for kcat/kuncat Radzicka, A.; Wolfenden, R., Science. 1995, 267, 90–92). These results do not support the direct decarboxylation mechanism that has been proposed for the enzyme. However, in the context of QM/MM calculations, it was found that the size of the QM region has a dramatic effect on the calculated reaction barrier. PMID:17927240

  20. Exploring the Steric and Electronic Factors Governing the Regio- and Enantioselectivity of the Pd-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Generation and Allylation of 2-Azaallyl Anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuaifei; Qian, Xiaoyan; Chang, Yuanyu; Sun, Jiayue; Xing, Xiujing; Ballard, Wendy F; Chruma, Jason J

    2018-04-06

    The impact of the steric and electronic factors in both the para-substituted benzaldimine and 2,2-diarylglycine components on the regioselectivity and enantioselectivity of the palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation of allyl 2,2-diarylglycinate aryl imines was explored. These studies revealed that using 2,2-di(2-methoxyphenyl)glycine as the amino acid linchpin allowed for the exclusive synthesis of the desired homoallylic benzophenone imine regioisomers, independent of the nature of the imine moiety, in typically high yields. The resulting enantiomeric ratios, however, are slightly decreased in comparison to the transformations involving the corresponding allyl 2,2-diphenylglycinate imines, but this is more than balanced out by the increases in yield and regioselectivity. Overall, these studies suggest a general strategy for the highly regioselective functionalization of 2-azaallyl anions.

  1. Photodetachment of Zwitterions: Probing Intramolecular Coulomb Repulsion and Attraction in the Gas Phase Using Mono- Decarboxylated Pyridinium Dicarboxylates. Implications on the Mechanism of Orotidine 5' -Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue B.; Dacres, J E.; Yang, Xin

    2003-11-11

    Negative ion photoelectron spectra resulting from the decarboxylation of nine zwitterionic pyridinium dicarboxylates (D(x,y)) are reported. Structural assignments are made on the basis of analogy to the spectra of related species, labeling experiments with C-13- or H-2-containing substrates, independent syntheses, and comparison to density functional theory and ab initio (B3LYP and CCSD(T), respectively) results. In some cases, an acid-catalyzed isomerization of the D(xy)-CO2 ions was found to take place. Adiabatic detachment energies of the resulting zwitterionic ions were measured and are well reproduced by theory. The relative stabilities of the D(x,Y)- CO2 decarboxylation products are largely determined by their intramolecularmore » electrostatic interactions, which are directly probed by the photoelectron spectra and were analyzed in terms of the resulting Coulombic forces. Expulsion of carbon dioxide from the D(x,y) ions was also used as an electrostatic model to probe the mechanism of the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) to uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP). It was found that the loss of CO2 from these zwitterions; and from oxygen-protonated OMP is retarded by the presence of an additional anionic group. This suggests that the formation of a zwitterion intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed transformation of OMP to UMP may have less of an energetic impact than commonly thought and could be a''red herring''. If so, the electrostatic stress mechanism proposed by Larsen et al. and Pai, Guo, and co-workers maybe followed.« less

  2. A QM/MM Metadynamics Study of the Direct Decarboxylation Mechanism for Orotidine-5'-monophosphate Decarboxylase using Two Different QM Regions: Acceleration too Small to Explain Rate of Enzyme Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Courtney; Kuo, I-F W.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    Despite decades of study, the mechanism of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) remains unresolved. A computational investigation of the direct decarboxylation mechanism has been performed using mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. The study was performed with the program CP2K that integrates classical dynamics and ab initio dynamics based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach. Two different QM regions were explored. It was found that the size of the QM region has a dramatic effect on the calculated reaction barrier. The free energy barriers for decarboxylation of orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) in solution and in the enzyme were determined with the metadynamics method to bemore » 40 kcal/mol and 33 kcal/mol, respectively. The calculated change in activation free energy (ΔΔG±) on going from solution to the enzyme is therefore -7 kcal/mol, far less than the experimental change of -23 kcal/mol (for kcat/kuncat Radzicka, A.; Wolfenden, R., Science. 1995, 267, 90-92). These results do not support the direct decarboxylation mechanism in the enzyme. Funding was provided by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Computer resources were provided by Livermore Computing.« less

  3. Process simulation and techno economic analysis of renewable diesel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil - A case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Kin Wai; Yusup, Suzana; Gurdeep Singh, Haswin Kaur; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Lam, Hon Loong

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the economic feasibility of hydroprocessed diesel fuel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil in Malaysia. A comprehensive techno-economic assessment is developed using Aspen HYSYS V8.0 software for process modelling and economic cost estimates. The profitability profile and minimum fuels selling price of this synthetic fuels production using rubber seed oil as biomass feedstock are assessed under a set of assumptions for what can be plausibly be achieved in 10-years framework. In this study, renewable diesel processing facility is modelled to be capable of processing 65,000 L of inedible oil per day and producing a total of 20 million litre of renewable diesel product per annual with assumed annual operational days of 347. With the forecasted renewable diesel retail price of 3.64 RM per kg, the pioneering renewable diesel project investment offers an assuring return of investment of 12.1% and net return as high as 1.35 million RM. Sensitivity analysis conducted showed that renewable diesel production cost is most sensitive to rubber seed oil price and hydrogen gas price, reflecting on the relative importance of feedstock prices in the overall profitability profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosynthesis of firefly luciferin in adult lantern: decarboxylation of L-cysteine is a key step for benzothiazole ring formation in firefly luciferin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kanie, Shusei; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence in fireflies and click beetles is produced by a luciferase-luciferin reaction. The luminescence property and protein structure of firefly luciferase have been investigated, and its cDNA has been used for various assay systems. The chemical structure of firefly luciferin was identified as the D-form in 1963 and studies on the biosynthesis of firefly luciferin began early in the 1970's. Incorporation experiments using (14)C-labeled compounds were performed, and cysteine and benzoquinone/hydroquinone were proposed to be biosynthetic component for firefly luciferin. However, there have been no clear conclusions regarding the biosynthetic components of firefly luciferin over 30 years. Incorporation studies were performed by injecting stable isotope-labeled compounds, including L-[U-(13)C3]-cysteine, L-[1-(13)C]-cysteine, L-[3-(13)C]-cysteine, 1,4-[D6]-hydroquinone, and p-[2,3,5,6-D]-benzoquinone, into the adult lantern of the living Japanese firefly Luciola lateralis. After extracting firefly luciferin from the lantern, the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled compounds into firefly luciferin was identified by LC/ESI-TOF-MS. The positions of the stable isotope atoms in firefly luciferin were determined by the mass fragmentation of firefly luciferin. We demonstrated for the first time that D- and L-firefly luciferins are biosynthesized in the lantern of the adult firefly from two L-cysteine molecules with p-benzoquinone/1,4-hydroquinone, accompanied by the decarboxylation of L-cysteine.

  5. Crystal Structures of Apo and Liganded 4-Oxalocrotonate Decarboxylase Uncover a Structural Basis for the Metal-Assisted Decarboxylation of a Vinylogous β-Keto Acid.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Samuel L; Coitinho, Juliana B; Costa, Débora M A; Araújo, Simara S; Whitman, Christian P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-05-10

    The enzymes in the catechol meta-fission pathway have been studied for more than 50 years in several species of bacteria capable of degrading a number of aromatic compounds. In a related pathway, naphthalene, a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is fully degraded to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida G7. In this organism, the 83 kb NAH7 plasmid carries several genes involved in this biotransformation process. One enzyme in this route, NahK, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase (4-OD), converts 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate to 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate using Mg(2+) as a cofactor. Efforts to study how 4-OD catalyzes this decarboxylation have been hampered because 4-OD is present in a complex with vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH), which is the next enzyme in the same pathway. For the first time, a monomeric, stable, and active 4-OD has been expressed and purified in the absence of VPH. Crystal structures for NahK in the apo form and bonded with five substrate analogues were obtained using two distinct crystallization conditions. Analysis of the crystal structures implicates a lid domain in substrate binding and suggests roles for specific residues in a proposed reaction mechanism. In addition, we assign a possible function for the NahK N-terminal domain, which differs from most of the other members of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase superfamily. Although the structural basis for metal-dependent β-keto acid decarboxylases has been reported, this is the first structural report for that of a vinylogous β-keto acid decarboxylase and the first crystal structure of a 4-OD.

  6. Transgenic Perturbation of the Decarboxylation Phase of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Alters Physiology and Metabolism But Has Only a Small Effect on Growth

    DOE PAGES

    Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Knerova, Jana; ...

    2014-11-05

    Here, mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme (ME) and/or cytosolic/plastidic NADP-ME combined with the cytosolic/plastidic pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) catalyze two key steps during light-period malate decarboxylation that underpin secondary CO 2 fixation in some Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. We report the generation and phenotypic characterization of transgenic RNA interference lines of the obligate CAM species Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi with reduced activities of NAD-ME or PPDK. Transgenic line rNAD-ME1 had 8%, and rPPDK1 had 5% of the wild-type level of activity, and showed dramatic changes in the light/dark cycle of CAM CO 2 fixation. In well-watered conditions, these lines fixed all of theirmore » CO 2 in the light; they thus performed C 3 photosynthesis. The alternative malate decarboxylase, NADP-ME, did not appear to compensate for the reduction in NAD-ME, suggesting that NAD-ME was the key decarboxylase for CAM. The activity of other CAM enzymes was reduced as a consequence of knocking out either NAD-ME or PPDK activity, particularly phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and PPDK in rNAD-ME1. Furthermore, the circadian clock-controlled phosphorylation of PPC in the dark was reduced in both lines, especially in rNAD-ME1. This had the consequence that circadian rhythms of PPC phosphorylation, PPC kinase transcript levels and activity, and the classic circadian rhythm of CAM CO 2 fixation were lost, or dampened toward arrhythmia, under constant light and temperature conditions. Surprisingly, oscillations in the transcript abundance of core circadian clock genes also became arrhythmic in the rNAD-ME1 line, suggesting that perturbing CAM in K. fedtschenkoi feeds back to perturb the central circadian clock.« less

  7. Transgenic Perturbation of the Decarboxylation Phase of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Alters Physiology and Metabolism But Has Only a Small Effect on Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Knerova, Jana

    Here, mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme (ME) and/or cytosolic/plastidic NADP-ME combined with the cytosolic/plastidic pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) catalyze two key steps during light-period malate decarboxylation that underpin secondary CO 2 fixation in some Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. We report the generation and phenotypic characterization of transgenic RNA interference lines of the obligate CAM species Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi with reduced activities of NAD-ME or PPDK. Transgenic line rNAD-ME1 had 8%, and rPPDK1 had 5% of the wild-type level of activity, and showed dramatic changes in the light/dark cycle of CAM CO 2 fixation. In well-watered conditions, these lines fixed all of theirmore » CO 2 in the light; they thus performed C 3 photosynthesis. The alternative malate decarboxylase, NADP-ME, did not appear to compensate for the reduction in NAD-ME, suggesting that NAD-ME was the key decarboxylase for CAM. The activity of other CAM enzymes was reduced as a consequence of knocking out either NAD-ME or PPDK activity, particularly phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and PPDK in rNAD-ME1. Furthermore, the circadian clock-controlled phosphorylation of PPC in the dark was reduced in both lines, especially in rNAD-ME1. This had the consequence that circadian rhythms of PPC phosphorylation, PPC kinase transcript levels and activity, and the classic circadian rhythm of CAM CO 2 fixation were lost, or dampened toward arrhythmia, under constant light and temperature conditions. Surprisingly, oscillations in the transcript abundance of core circadian clock genes also became arrhythmic in the rNAD-ME1 line, suggesting that perturbing CAM in K. fedtschenkoi feeds back to perturb the central circadian clock.« less

  8. Forming trifluoromethylmetallates: competition between decarboxylation and C-F bond activation of group 11 trifluoroacetate complexes, [CF3CO2ML]-.

    PubMed

    Rijs, Nicole J; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2012-03-28

    A combination of gas-phase 3D quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to examine the mechanism of thermal decomposition of fluorinated coinage metal carboxylates. The precursor anions, [CF(3)CO(2)MO(2)CCF(3)](-) (M = Cu, Ag and Au), were introduced into the gas-phase via electrospray ionization. Multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) experiments were conducted utilizing collision-induced dissociation, yielding a series of trifluoromethylated organometallic species and fluorides via the loss of CO(2), CF(2) or "CF(2)CO(2)". Carboxylate ligand loss was insignificant or absent in all cases. DFT calculations were carried out on a range of potentially competing fragmentation pathways for [CF(3)CO(2)MO(2)CCF(3)](-), [CF(3)CO(2)MCF(3)](-) and [CF(3)CO(2)MF](-). These shed light on possible products and mechanisms for loss of "CF(2)CO(2)", namely, concerted or step-wise loss of CO(2) and CF(2) and a CF(2)CO(2) lactone pathway. The lactone pathway was found to be higher in energy in all cases. In addition, the possibility of forming [CF(3)MCF(3)](-) and [CF(3)MF](-), via decarboxylation is discussed. For the first time the novel fluoride complexes [FMF](-), M = Cu, Ag and Au have been experimentally observed. Finally, the decomposition reactions of [CF(3)CO(2)ML](-) (where L = CF(3) and CF(3)CO(2)) and [CH(3)CO(2)ML](-) (where L = CH(3) and CH(3)CO(2)) are compared.

  9. Selective adsorption in two porous triazolate–oxalate-bridged antiferromagnetic metal-azolate frameworks obtained via in situ decarboxylation of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Juan-Juan; Xu, Xia; Jiang, Ning

    2015-03-15

    Solvothermal reactions of metal salts, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid (H{sub 2}atzc) and ammonium oxalate in different temperature produced two metal azolate frameworks, namely, [Cu{sub 3}(atzc){sub 2}(atz)(ox)]·1.5H{sub 2}O (1) and [Co{sub 5}(atz){sub 4}(ox){sub 3}(HCOO){sub 2}]·DMF (2) (H{sub 2}atzc=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid, Hatz=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, and ox=oxalate), in which the atzc precusor was in situ decarboxylated. Structural determination reveals that 1 contains [Cu{sub 3}(atzc){sub 2}(atz)]{sup 2−} layers of mixed μ{sub 4}-atzc and μ{sub 3}-atz ligands, which are pillared by ox{sup 2−} groups to form a 3D porous framework. Compound 2 contains 2D layers with basic spindle-shaped decanuclear units, which extended by ox{sup 2−} and formates to form 3Dmore » porous framework. Gas adsorption investigation revealed that two kinds of frameworks exhibited selective CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} sorption. Moreover, activated 2 shows H{sub 2} storage capacity. Additionally, magnetic properties of both the compounds have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal reactions of metal salts, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylate and oxalate produced two metal azolate frameworks, which could store gas molecules, especially H{sub 2} due to small pores. in situ decarboxylation of precursor was observed. - Highlights: • Two MAFs were synthesized via in situ decarboxylation of H{sub 2}atzc. • Both activated frameworks exhibited selective CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} sorption. • Activated 2 could adsorb H{sub 2}, which makes it promising candidates for gas storage.« less

  10. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed themore » lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.« less

  11. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Phenoxy Substrates with Diazo Compounds via C-H Activation: A Case of Decarboxylative Pyrimidine/Pyridine Migratory Cyclization Rather than Removal of Pyrimidine/Pyridine Directing Group.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Manjula; Allu, Srinivasarao; Swamy, K C Kumara

    2017-03-03

    An efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed ortho-alkylation of phenoxy substrates with diazo compounds has been achieved for the first time using pyrimidine or pyridine as the directing group. Furthermore, bis-alkylation has also been achieved using para-substituted phenoxypyrimidine and 3 mol equiv of the diazo ester. The ortho-alkylated derivatives of phenoxy products possessing the ester functionality undergo decarboxylative pyrimidine/pyridine migratory cyclization (rather than deprotection of pyrimidine/pyridine group) using 20% NaOEt in EtOH affording a novel class of 3-(pyrimidin-2(1H)-ylidene)benzofuran-2(3H)-ones and 6-methyl-3-(pyridin-2(1H)-ylidene)benzofuran-2(3H)-one. The ortho-alkylated phenoxypyridine possessing ester functionality also undergoes decarboxylative pyridine migratory cyclization using MeOTf/NaOMe in toluene providing 6-methyl-3-(1-methylpyridin-2(1H)-ylidene)benzofuran-2(3H)-one.

  12. A thiamin-bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit induces large scale disorder-to-order transformations in the enzyme and reveals novel structural features in the covalently bound adduct.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Palaniappa; Sax, Martin; Brunskill, Andrew; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Nemeria, Natalia; Zhang, Sheng; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2006-06-02

    The crystal structure of the E1 component from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) has been determined with phosphonolactylthiamin diphosphate (PLThDP) in its active site. PLThDP serves as a structural and electrostatic analogue of the natural intermediate alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP), in which the carboxylate from the natural substrate pyruvate is replaced by a phosphonate group. This represents the first example of an experimentally determined, three-dimensional structure of a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme containing a covalently bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue and should serve as a model for the corresponding intermediates in other ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. Regarding the PDHc-specific reaction, the presence of PLThDP induces large scale conformational changes in the enzyme. In conjunction with the E1-PLThDP and E1-ThDP structures, analysis of a H407A E1-PLThDP variant structure shows that an interaction between His-407 and PLThDP is essential for stabilization of two loop regions in the active site that are otherwise disordered in the absence of intermediate analogue. This ordering completes formation of the active site and creates a new ordered surface likely involved in interactions with the lipoyl domains of E2s within the PDHc complex. The tetrahedral intermediate analogue is tightly held in the active site through direct hydrogen bonds to residues His-407, Tyr-599, and His-640 and reveals a new, enzyme-induced, strain-related feature that appears to aid in the decarboxylation process. This feature is almost certainly present in all ThDP-dependent decarboxylases; thus its inclusion in our understanding of general thiamin catalysis is important.

  13. Access to benzo-fused nine-membered heterocyclic alkenes with a trifluoromethyl carbinol moiety via a double decarboxylative formal ring-expansion process under palladium catalysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CCDC 1575063, 1575065, 1575062, 1589030. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc05447e

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pulakesh; Gondo, Satoshi; Nagender, Punna; Uno, Hiroto; Tokunaga, Etsuko

    2018-01-01

    Direct access to pharmaceutically attractive benzo-fused nine-membered heterocyclic alkenes 3 with a trifluoromethyl carbinol moiety was achieved via a palladium-catalyzed double-decarboxylative formal ring-expansion process from six-membered trifluoromethyl benzo[d][1,3]oxazinones 1 to nine-membered trifluoromethyl benzo[c][1,5]oxazonines 3 in the presence of vinylethylene carbonates 2. Generation of a Pd-π-allyl zwitterionic intermediate was proposed in the catalytic cycle. The trifluoromethyl group in the benzoxazinanones 1 plays an important role throughout the transformation. Diastereoselective chemical transformations of products 3 were also demonstrated. PMID:29732106

  14. Decarboxylative Trifluoromethylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kautzky, Jacob A; Wang, Tao; Evans, Ryan W; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-05-14

    Herein we disclose an efficient method for the conversion of carboxylic acids to trifluoromethyl groups via the combination of photoredox and copper catalysis. This transformation tolerates a wide range of functionality including heterocycles, olefins, alcohols, and strained ring systems. To demonstrate the broad potential of this new methodology for late-stage functionalization, we successfully converted a diverse array of carboxylic acid-bearing natural products and medicinal agents to the corresponding trifluoromethyl analogues.

  15. Room temperature decarboxylative cyanation of carboxylic acids using photoredox catalysis and cyanobenziodoxolones: a divergent mechanism compared to alkynylation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04907a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Le Vaillant, Franck; Wodrich, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    The one-step conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding nitriles has been accomplished via the merger of visible light mediated photoredox and cyanobenziodoxolones (CBX) reagents. The reaction proceeded in high yields with natural and non-natural α-amino and α-oxy acids, affording a broad scope of nitriles with excellent tolerance of the substituents in the α position. The direct cyanation of dipeptides and drug precursors was also achieved. The mechanism of the decarboxylative cyanation was investigated both computationally and experimentally and compared with the previously developed alkynylation reaction. Alkynylation was found to favor direct radical addition, whereas further oxidation by CBX to a carbocation and cyanide addition appeared more favorable for cyanation. A concerted mechanism is proposed for the reaction of radicals with EBX reagents, in contrast to the usually assumed addition elimination process. PMID:28451301

  16. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Sandrine; Petronijevic, Filip R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    The direct conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alkyl fluorides has been achieved via visible light-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide variety of carboxylic acids. Photon-induced oxidation of carboxylates leads to the formation of carboxyl radicals, which upon rapid CO2-extrusion and F• transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired fluoroalkanes with high efficiency. Experimental evidence indicates that an oxidative quenching pathway is operable in this broadly applicable fluorination protocol. PMID:25881929

  17. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ventre, Sandrine; Petronijevic, Filip R; MacMillan, David W C

    2015-05-06

    The direct conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alkyl fluorides has been achieved via visible light-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide variety of carboxylic acids. Photon-induced oxidation of carboxylates leads to the formation of carboxyl radicals, which upon rapid CO2-extrusion and F(•) transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired fluoroalkanes with high efficiency. Experimental evidence indicates that an oxidative quenching pathway is operable in this broadly applicable fluorination protocol.

  18. Improvement of ruthenium based decarboxylation of carboxylic acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The removal of oxygen atoms from biobased carboxylic acids is an attractive route to provide the drop in replacement feedstocks that industry needs to continue to provide high performance products. Through the use of ruthenium catalysis, an efficient method where this process can be accomplished on ...

  19. Turning biobased materials into polymer precursors through catalytic decarboxylation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased carboxylic acids have the potential to become the needed feedstock for the production of biobased polymers. By removal of the oxygen atoms, the same monomer feedstocks that polymer producers already use, and are familiar with, can be developed which will allow practitioners to continue the ...

  20. Decarboxylation of cinnamic acids using a ruthenium sawhorse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ruthenium sawhorse has proven effective in the conversion of trans-cinnamic acid, and substituted trans-cinnamic acids, giving an effective source of biobased styrene and styrene analogues. The reaction is especially versatile, as it achieves product without utilising co-reagents. However, the o...

  1. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Mohr, Justin T.; Sherden, Nathaniel H.; Marinescu, Smaranda C.; Harned, Andrew M.; Tani, Kousuke; Seto, Masaki; Ma, Sandy; Novák, Zoltán; Krout, Michael R.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Roizen, Jennifer L.; Enquist, John A.; White, David E.; Levine, Samantha R.; Petrova, Krastina V.; Iwashita, Akihiko; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursors: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center. PMID:22083969

  2. Bio-based methacrylic acid via catalytic decarboxylation of itaconic and citric acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methacrylic acid is an important commodity monomer for the plastics industry that is produced industrially from acetone, hydrogen cyanide and concentrated sulfuric acid via the acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) process. Disadvantages to the ACH process include nonrenewable starting materials, stoichiometric...

  3. Decarboxylative alkylation for site-selective bioconjugation of native proteins via oxidation potentials.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Steven; Liu, Chun; Kölmel, Dominik K; Qiao, Jennifer X; Zhang, Yong; Poss, Michael A; Ewing, William R; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-02-01

    The advent of antibody-drug conjugates as pharmaceuticals has fuelled a need for reliable methods of site-selective protein modification that furnish homogeneous adducts. Although bioorthogonal methods that use engineered amino acids often provide an elegant solution to the question of selective functionalization, achieving homogeneity using native amino acids remains a challenge. Here, we explore visible-light-mediated single-electron transfer as a mechanism towards enabling site- and chemoselective bioconjugation. Specifically, we demonstrate the use of photoredox catalysis as a platform to selectivity wherein the discrepancy in oxidation potentials between internal versus C-terminal carboxylates can be exploited towards obtaining C-terminal functionalization exclusively. This oxidation potential-gated technology is amenable to endogenous peptides and has been successfully demonstrated on the protein insulin. As a fundamentally new approach to bioconjugation this methodology provides a blueprint toward the development of photoredox catalysis as a generic platform to target other redox-active side chains for native conjugation.

  4. Decarboxylative alkylation for site-selective bioconjugation of native proteins via oxidation potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Steven; Liu, Chun; Kölmel, Dominik K.; Qiao, Jennifer X.; Zhang, Yong; Poss, Michael A.; Ewing, William R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2018-02-01

    The advent of antibody-drug conjugates as pharmaceuticals has fuelled a need for reliable methods of site-selective protein modification that furnish homogeneous adducts. Although bioorthogonal methods that use engineered amino acids often provide an elegant solution to the question of selective functionalization, achieving homogeneity using native amino acids remains a challenge. Here, we explore visible-light-mediated single-electron transfer as a mechanism towards enabling site- and chemoselective bioconjugation. Specifically, we demonstrate the use of photoredox catalysis as a platform to selectivity wherein the discrepancy in oxidation potentials between internal versus C-terminal carboxylates can be exploited towards obtaining C-terminal functionalization exclusively. This oxidation potential-gated technology is amenable to endogenous peptides and has been successfully demonstrated on the protein insulin. As a fundamentally new approach to bioconjugation this methodology provides a blueprint toward the development of photoredox catalysis as a generic platform to target other redox-active side chains for native conjugation.

  5. cis-β-Bromostyrene derivatives from cinnamic acids via a tandem substitutive bromination-decarboxylation sequence.

    PubMed

    Tang, Khanh G; Kent, Greggory T; Erden, Ihsan; Wu, Weiming

    2017-10-04

    cis -β-Bromostyrene derivatives were synthesized stereospecifically from cinnamic acids through β-lactone intermediates. The synthetic sequence did not require the purification of the β-lactone intermediates although they were found to be stable and readily purified in most cases.

  6. Spontaneous, Metal-Catalyzed, and Enzyme-Catalyzed Decarboxylation of Oxalosuccinic Acid.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    acid, 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine was added. This yielded a hydrazone which, after two recrystallizations, melted at 2200C. A sample of the a...accurately determined to be 24,500 at a wavelength of 352 nm (46). 34 2,4- Dinitrophenylhydrazine . Obtained from the Eastman Kodak Chemicals Division...reaction with 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine (57). The reaction mixture was sampled hourly during the daytime for a period of three days. The concentration of a

  7. Linked cycles of oxidative decarboxylation of glyoxylate as protometabolic analogs of the citric acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Springsteen, Greg; Yerabolu, Jayasudhan Reddy; Nelson, Julia; Rhea, Chandler Joel; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan

    2018-01-08

    The development of metabolic approaches towards understanding the origins of life, which have focused mainly on the citric acid (TCA) cycle, have languished-primarily due to a lack of experimentally demonstrable and sustainable cycle(s) of reactions. We show here the existence of a protometabolic analog of the TCA involving two linked cycles, which convert glyoxylate into CO 2 and produce aspartic acid in the presence of ammonia. The reactions proceed from either pyruvate, oxaloacetate or malonate in the presence of glyoxylate as the carbon source and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under neutral aqueous conditions and at mild temperatures. The reaction pathway demonstrates turnover under controlled conditions. These results indicate that simpler versions of metabolic cycles could have emerged under potential prebiotic conditions, laying the foundation for the appearance of more sophisticated metabolic pathways once control by (polymeric) catalysts became available.

  8. Heat-induced formation of mepiquat by decarboxylation of pipecolic acid and its betaine derivative. Part 1: Model system studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-07-15

    This study describes, for the first time, the role of pipecolic acid betaine and pipecolic acid, naturally present in some foods, in the formation of the plant growth regulator N,N-dimethylpiperidinium (mepiquat) under dry thermal conditions. The formation of mepiquat and intermediate compounds was investigated in model systems using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Mepiquat is released with a yield of up to 0.66mol% after thermal treatment (>150°C) of pipecolic acid betaine. Similar conversion rates are attained with the congener piperidine-2-carboxylic acid (dl-pipecolic acid), albeit in the presence of alkylating agents, such as choline, glycine betaine or trigonelline, that are fairly widespread in food crops. These new pathways to mepiquat indicate that the occurrence of low levels of this thermally induced compound is probably more widespread in processed foods than initially suspected (see Part 2 of this study on the occurrence of mepiquat in selected foodstuffs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal-Free-Visible Light C-H Alkylation of Heteroaromatics via Hypervalent Iodine-Promoted Decarboxylation.

    PubMed

    Genovino, Julien; Lian, Yajing; Zhang, Yuan; Hope, Taylor O; Juneau, Antoine; Gagné, Yohann; Ingle, Gajendra; Frenette, Mathieu

    2018-05-16

    A metal-free photoredox C-H alkylation of heteroaromatics from readily available carboxylic acids using an organic photocatalyst and hypervalent iodine reagents under blue LED light is reported. The developed methodology tolerates a broad range of functional groups and can be applied to the late-stage functionalization of drugs and drug-like molecules. The reaction mechanism was investigated with control experiments and photophysical experiments as well as DFT calculations.

  10. Tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids to olefins via ruthenium metal-as-ligand catalysts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new facile Ru-catalyzed route to bio-olefins3 from unsaturated fatty acids via readily accessible metal-as-ligand type catalyst precursors, [Ru(CO)2RCO2]n and Ru3(CO)12, will be described. The catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds i...

  11. Structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase with alpha-ketoglutarate at 2.7-A resolution: conformational changes induced by decarboxylation of isocitrate.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, B L; Koshland, D E

    1993-09-14

    The structure of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) complex with bound alpha-ketoglutarate, Ca2+, and NADPH was solved at 2.7-A resolution. The alpha-ketoglutarate binds in the active site at the same position and orientation as isocitrate, with a difference between the two bound molecules of about 0.8 A. The Ca2+ metal is coordinated by alpha-ketoglutarate, three conserved aspartate residues, and a pair of water molecules. The largest motion in the active site relative to the isocitrate enzyme complex is observed for tyrosine 160, which originally forms a hydrogen bond to the labile carboxyl group of isocitrate and moves to form a new hydrogen bond to Asp 307 in the complex with alpha-ketoglutarate. This triggers a number of significant movements among several short loops and adjoining secondary structural elements in the enzyme, most of which participate in dimer stabilization and formation of the active-site cleft. These rearrangements are similar to the ligand-binding-induced movements observed in globins and insulin and serve as a model for an enzymatic mechanism which involves local shifts of secondary structural elements during turnover, rather than large-scale domain closures or loop transitions induced by substrate binding such as those observed in hexokinase or triosephosphate isomerase.

  12. Heat-induced formation of mepiquat by decarboxylation of pipecolic acid and its betaine derivative. Part 2: Natural formation in cooked vegetables and selected food products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpiperidinium) is a plant growth regulator registered for use as its chloride salt in many countries on cereals and other crops. Recent model system studies have shown that natural chemicals present in crop plants, such as pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, may furnish mepiquat through different chemical pathways, when subjected to temperatures in the range of 200°C. In this study, we cooked raw vegetables that did not contain mepiquat to a palatable state using different traditional cooking methods, and detected mepiquat in 9 out of 11 oven-cooked vegetables, reaching up to 189μg/kg dry wt in oven-cooked broccoli. Commercial oven potato fries generated mepiquat during cooking, typically in the range of 20-60μg/kg. Only traces of mepiquat (<5μg/kg) were found in commercial potato crisps. This work demonstrates that mepiquat occurs at μg/kg levels in a variety of cooked vegetables, including potatoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous and selective decarboxylation of L-serine and deamination of L-phenylalanine in an amino acid mixture--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Witte-van Dijk, Susan C M; Sanders, Johan P M

    2016-01-25

    Amino acids (AAs) obtained from the hydrolysis of biomass-derived proteins are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry. They can be prepared from the byproduct of biofuel production and agricultural wastes. They are rich in functionalities needed in petrochemicals, providing the opportunity to save energy, reagents, and process steps. However, their separation is required before they can be applied for further applications. Electrodialysis (ED) is a promising separation method, but its efficiency needs to be improved when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. Thus, specific conversions are required to form product with different charges. Here we studied the enzymatic conversions which can be used as a means to aid the ED separation of neutral AAs. A model mixture containing L-serine, L-phenylalanine and L-methionine was used. The reactions of L-serine decarboxylase and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were employed to specifically convert serine and phenylalanine into ethanolamine and trans-cinnamic acid. At the isoelectric point of methionine (pH 5.74), the charge of ethanolamine and trans-cinnamic acid are +1 and -1, therefore facilitating potential separation into three different streams by electrodialysis. Here the enzyme kinetics, specificity, inhibition and the operational stabilities were studied, showing that both enzymes can be applied simultaneously to aid the ED separation of neutral AAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decomposition of Benzoic Acid and Adipic Acid on Platinized TiO2 Powder. The Photo-Kolbe Decarboxylative Route to the Breakdown of the Benzene Ring and to the Production to Butane.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-29

    adsorbed oxygen on powders. 23. Jaeger, C.D.; Bard, A.J. J. Ph s. Chem. 1979, 83, 3746. 24. Izumi, I; Dunn, W. W.; Wilbourn , K. 0.; Fan, F-R. F.; Bard, A... Joseph Singer, Code 302-1 Electrochimica Corporation NASA-Lewis Attention: Technical Library 21000 BrookDark Road 2485 Charleston Poad Cleveland, Ohio

  15. Oxidative versus Non-oxidative Decarboxylation of Amino Acids: Conditions for the Preferential Formation of Either Strecker Aldehydes or Amines in Amino Acid/Lipid-Derived Reactive Carbonyl Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; León, M Mercedes; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2015-09-16

    Comparative formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde as a consequence of phenylalanine degradation by carbonyl compounds was studied in an attempt to understand if the amine/aldehyde ratio can be changed as a function of reaction conditions. The assayed carbonyl compounds were selected because of the presence in the chain of both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups and included alkenals, alkadienals, epoxyalkenals, oxoalkenals, and hydroxyalkenals as well as lipid hydroperoxides. The obtained results showed that the 2-phenylethylamine/phenylacetaldehyde ratio depended upon both the carbonyls and the reaction conditions. Thus, it can be increased using electron-donating groups in the chain of the carbonyl compound, small amounts of carbonyl compound, low oxygen content, increasing the pH, or increasing the temperature at pH 6. Opposed conditions (use of electron-withdrawing groups in the chain of the carbonyl compound, large amounts of carbonyl compound, high oxygen contents, low pH values, and increasing temperatures at low pH values) would decrease the 2-phenylethylamine/phenylacetaldehyde ratio, and the formation of aldehydes over amines in amino acid degradations would be favored.

  16. How Living Things Obtain Energy: A Simpler Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igelsrud, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines five basic reactions which describe the biochemical pathways for living things obtaining energy. Shows the reactions that occur in respiration after glycolysis, the dehydrogenation reaction, decarboxylation, and two kinds of make-ready reactions which prepare molecules for further dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. Diagrams are…

  17. Mutation and Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains That Do Not Produce Carbon Dioxide from Malate †

    PubMed Central

    Daeschel, M. A.; McFeeters, R. F.; Fleming, H. P.; Klaenhammer, T. R.; Sanozky, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    A differential medium was developed to distinguish between malate-decarboxylating (MDC+) and -non-decarboxylating (MDC−) strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. MDC− strains produced a visible acid reaction in the medium, whereas MDC+ strains did not. Use of the medium allowed for rapid screening and isolation of mutagenized cells that had lost the ability to produce CO2 from malate. PMID:16346479

  18. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Chemical Processes project report, FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R. E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Planned research efforts and reorganization of the Project as the Biocatalysis Research Activity are described, including the following topics: electrocatalysts, fluid extraction, ammonia synthesis, biocatalysis, membrane fouling, energy and economic analysis, decarboxylation, microscopic reaction models, plasmid monitoring, and reaction kinetics.

  19. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  20. Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Trifluoroethylarenes from Benzylic Bromodifluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Zhu, Lingui; Altman, Ryan A

    2015-08-21

    Trifluoroethylarenes are found in a variety of biologically active molecules, and strategies for accessing this substructure are important for developing therapeutic candidates and biological probes. Trifluoroethylarenes can be directly accessed via nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of benzylic electrophiles; however, current catalytic methods do not effectively transform electron-deficient substrates and heterocycles. To address this gap, we report a Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of benzylic bromodifluoroacetates. To account for the tolerance of sensitive functional groups, we propose an inner-sphere mechanism of decarboxylation.

  1. STUDIES ON MAMMALIAN AND HUMAN PYRUVATE AND ALPHA-KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENATION COMPLEXES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Enzyme systems that catalyze a coenzyme A- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and alpha - ketoglutarate ...The pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was strongly inhibited by EDTA at low concentration, but the pig heart alpha - ketoglutarate ...On the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha -keto acids in pig heart complexes, Ca(2+) was strongly stimulatory to the same or more extent than Mg(2

  2. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. [Veillonella alcalescens and Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-01-30

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives of this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development, (2) evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation, (3) selection of best performing culture (known cultures vs. new isolates), and (4) coal decarboxylation using activated carbon as blanks. The project began on September 12, 1990.

  3. Separation of chlorinated diastereomers of decarboxy-betacyanins in myeloperoxidase catalyzed chlorinated Beta vulgaris L. extract.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Starzak, Karolina; Szneler, Edward; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew

    2016-11-15

    A comparative chromatographic evaluation of chlorinated decarboxylated betanins and betanidins generated under activity of hypochlorous acid exerted upon these highly antioxidative potent decarboxylated pigments derived from natural sources was performed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Comparison of the chromatographic profiles of the chlorinated pigments revealed two different directions of retention changes in relation to the corresponding substrates. Chlorination of all betacyanins that are decarboxylated at carbon C-17 results in an increase of their retention times. In contrast, all other pigments (the non-decarboxylated betacyanins as well as 2-decarboxy- and 15-decarboxy-derivatives) exhibit lower retention after chlorination. During further chromatographic experiments based upon chemical transformation of the related pigments (decarboxylation and deglucosylation), the compounds' structures were confirmed. The elaborated method for determination of chlorinated pigments enabled analysis of a chlorinated red beet root extract that was submitted to the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system acting under inflammation-like conditions (pH 5). This indicates a promising possibility for measurement of these chlorinated pigments as indicators of specific inflammatory states wherein betacyanins and decarboxylated betacyanins act as hypochlorite scavengers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotope effect studies of the pyruvate-dependent histidine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus 30a

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, L.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-08-09

    The decarboxylation of histidine by the pyruvate-dependent histidine decarboxylase of Lactobacillus 30 a shows a carbon isotope effect k/sup 12//k/sup 13/ = 1.0334 +/- 0.0005 and a nitrogen isotope effect k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9799 +/- 0.0006 at pH 4.8, 37/sup 0/C. The carbon isotope effect is slightly increased by deuteriation of the substrate and slightly decreased in D/sub 2/O. The observed nitrogen isotope effect indicates that the imine nitrogen in the substrate-Schiff base intermediate complex is ordinarily protonated, and the pH dependence of the carbon isotope effect indicates that both protonated and unprotonated forms of this intermediate are capablemore » of undergoing decarboxylation. As with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme, Schiff base formation and decarboxylation are jointly rate-limiting, with the intermediate histidine-pyruvate Schiff base showing a decarboxylation/Schiff base hydrolysis ratio of 0.5-1.0 at pH 4.8. The decarboxylation transition state is more reactant-like for the pyruvate-dependent enzyme than for the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme. These studies find no particular energetic or catalytic advantage to the use of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate over covalently bound pyruvate in catalysis of the decarboxylation of histidine.« less

  5. Rate and Equilibrium Constants for an Enzyme Conformational Change during Catalysis by Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Goryanova, Bogdana; Goldman, Lawrence M; Ming, Shonoi; Amyes, Tina L; Gerlt, John A; Richard, John P

    2015-07-28

    The caged complex between orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP) undergoes decarboxylation ∼300 times faster than the caged complex between ScOMPDC and the physiological substrate, orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP). Consequently, the enzyme conformational changes required to lock FOMP at a protein cage and release product 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) are kinetically significant steps. The caged form of ScOMPDC is stabilized by interactions between the side chains from Gln215, Tyr217, and Arg235 and the substrate phosphodianion. The control of these interactions over the barrier to the binding of FOMP and the release of FUMP was probed by determining the effect of all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on kcat/Km and kcat for turnover of FOMP by wild-type ScOMPDC; its values are limited by the rates of substrate binding and product release, respectively. The Q215A and Y217F mutations each result in an increase in kcat and a decrease in kcat/Km, due to a weakening of the protein-phosphodianion interactions that favor fast product release and slow substrate binding. The Q215A/R235A mutation causes a large decrease in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, which are limited by the rate of the decarboxylation step, but much smaller decreases in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FOMP, which are limited by the rate of enzyme conformational changes. By contrast, the Y217A mutation results in large decreases in kcat/Km for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of both OMP and FOMP, because of the comparable effects of this mutation on rate-determining decarboxylation of enzyme-bound OMP and on the rate-determining enzyme conformational change for decarboxylation of FOMP. We propose that kcat = 8.2 s(-1) for decarboxylation of FOMP by the Y217A mutant is equal to the rate constant for cage formation from the

  6. Product Deuterium Isotope Effects for Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase: Effect of Changing Substrate and Enzyme Structure on the Partitioning of the Vinyl Carbanion Reaction Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L.; Wood, Bryant M.; Chan, Kui; Gerlt, John A.

    2010-01-01

    A product deuterium isotope effect (PIE) of 1.0 was determined as the ratio of the yields of [6-1H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) and [6-2H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) from the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) from S. cerevisiae, M. thermautotrophicus and E. coli. This unitary PIE eliminates a proposed mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation in which proton transfer from Lys-93 to C-6 of OMP provides electrophilic push to the loss of CO2 in a concerted reaction. We propose that the complete lack of selectivity for the reaction of solvent H and D, that is implied by the value of PIE = 1.0, is enforced by restricted C-N bond rotation of the -CH2-NL3+ group of the side-chain of Lys-93. A smaller PIE of 0.93 was determined as the ratio of the product yields for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (5-FOMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD. The following mutations of important active site residues of OMPDC from S. cerevisiae have no effect on the PIE on OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP or decarboxylation of 5-FOMP: R235A, Y217A, Q215A, S124A and S154A/Q215A. PMID:20441167

  7. Product deuterium isotope effects for orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase: effect of changing substrate and enzyme structure on the partitioning of the vinyl carbanion reaction intermediate.

    PubMed

    Toth, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L; Wood, Bryant M; Chan, Kui; Gerlt, John A; Richard, John P

    2010-05-26

    A product deuterium isotope effect (PIE) of 1.0 was determined as the ratio of the yields of [6-(1)H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) and [6-(2)H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) from the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, and Escherichia coli. This unitary PIE eliminates a proposed mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation in which proton transfer from Lys-93 to C-6 of OMP provides electrophilic push to the loss of CO(2) in a concerted reaction. We propose that the complete lack of selectivity for the reaction of solvent H and D, which is implied by the value of PIE = 1.0, is enforced by restricted C-N bond rotation of the -CH(2)-NL(3)(+) group of the side chain of Lys-93. A smaller PIE of 0.93 was determined as the ratio of the product yields for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (5-FOMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD. Mutations on the following important active-site residues of OMPDC from S. cerevisiae have no effect on the PIE on OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP or decarboxylation of 5-FOMP: R235A, Y217A, Q215A, S124A, and S154A/Q215A.

  8. Quantum chemical investigation of the primary thermal pyrolysis reactions of the sodium carboxylate group in a brown coal model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Baisheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Kefeng; Kang, Lixun

    2014-12-01

    The primary pyrolysis mechanisms of the sodium carboxylate group in sodium benzoate-used as a model compound of brown coal-were studied by performing quantum chemical computations using B3LYP and the CBS method. Various possible reaction pathways involving reactions such as unimolecular and bimolecular decarboxylation and decarbonylation, crosslinking, and radical attack in the brown coal matrix were explored. Without the participation of reactive radicals, unimolecular decarboxylation to release CO2 was calculated to be the most energetically favorable primary reaction pathway at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) level of theory, and was also found to be more energetically favorable than decarboxylation of an carboxylic acid group. When CBS-QBS results were included, crosslinking between the sodium carboxylate group and the carboxylic acid and the decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group (catalyzed by the phenolic hydroxyl group) were found to be possible; this pathway competes with unimolecular decarboxylation of the sodium carboxylate group. Provided that H and CH3 radicals are present in the brown coal matrix and can access the sodium carboxylate group, accelerated pyrolysis of the sodium carboxylate group becomes feasible, leading to the release of an Na atom or an NaCO2 radical at the B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) or CBS-QB3 level of theory, respectively.

  9. Deoxygenation of Palmitic and Lauric Acids over Pt/ZIF-67 Membrane/Zeolite 5A Bead Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqiu; Carreon, Moises A

    2017-09-20

    The deoxygenation of palmitic and lauric acids over 0.5 wt % Pt/ZIF-67 membrane/zeolite 5A bead catalysts is demonstrated. Almost complete conversion (% deoxygenation of ≥95%) of these two fatty acids was observed over both fresh and recycled catalyst after a 2 h reaction time. The catalysts displayed high selectivity to pentadecane and undecane via decarboxylation reaction pathway even at low 0.5 wt % Pt loading. Selectivity to pentadecane and undecane as high as ∼92% and ∼94% was observed under CO 2 atmosphere when palmitic and lauric acids were used respectively as reactants. Depending on the reaction gas atmosphere, two distinctive reaction pathways were observed: decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. Specifically, it was found that decarboxylation reaction pathway was more favorable in the presence of helium and CO 2 , while hydrodeoxygenation pathway strongly competed against the decarboxylation pathway when hydrogen was employed during the deoxygenation reactions. Esters were identified as the key reaction intermediates leading to decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation pathways.

  10. On the Mechanism and Rate of Spontaneous Decomposition of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous decarboxylation of amino acids is among the slowest known reactions; it is much less facile than the cleavage of amide bonds in polypeptides. Establishment of the kinetics and mechanisms for this fundamental reaction is important for gauging the proficiency of enzymes. In the present study, multiple mechanisms for glycine decomposition in water are explored using QM/MM Monte Carlo simulations and free energy perturbation theory. Simple CO2 detachment emerges as the preferred pathway for decarboxylation; it is followed by water-assisted proton transfer to yield the products, CO2 and methylamine. The computed free energy of activation of 45 kcal/mol, and the resulting rate-constant of 1 × 10−21 s−1, can be compared with an extrapolated experimental rate constant of ~2 × 10−17 s−1 at 25 °C. The half-life for the reaction is more than 1 billion years. Furthermore, examination of deamination finds simple NH3-detachment yielding α-lactone to be the favored route, though it is less facile than decarboxylation by kcal/mol. Ab initio and DFT calculations with the CPCM hydration model were also carried out for the reactions; the computed free energies of activation for glycine decarboxylation agree with the QM/MM result, while deamination is predicted to be more favorable. QM/MM calculations were also performed for decarboxylation of alanine; the computed barrier is 2 kcal/mol higher than for glycine in qualitative accord with experiment. PMID:21995727

  11. Formation of styrene dependent on fermentation management during wheat beer production.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katrin J; Stübner, René; Methner, Frank-Jürgen

    2012-10-15

    Styrene is formed by the thermal decarboxylation of cinnamic acid during wort boiling or by enzymatic decarboxylation during fermentation. The enzymatic reactions proceed in parallel to the decarboxylation of ferulic- and p-cumaric acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol by the same decarboxylase enzyme. However, the formation of styrene occurs much faster and all available cinnamic acid in wort was converted completely within a few hours. Moreover, the comparison of various manufacturing parameters shows that a higher fermentation temperature of 25 °C compared to 16 °C and an open fermentation management lead to a rapid decrease of styrene. This allows minimising the content of styrene in beer while maintaining the typical wheat beer flavours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fragment Couplings via CO2 Extrusion-Recombination: Expansion of a Classic Bond-Forming Strategy via Metallaphotoredox.

    PubMed

    Le, Chi Chip; MacMillan, David W C

    2015-09-23

    In this study we demonstrate that molecular fragments, which can be readily coupled via a simple, in situ RO-C═OR bond-forming reaction, can subsequently undergo metal insertion-decarboxylation-recombination to generate Csp(2)-Csp(3) bonds when subjected to metallaphotoredox catalysis. In this embodiment the conversion of a wide variety of mixed anhydrides (formed in situ from carboxylic acids and acyl chlorides) to fragment-coupled ketones is accomplished in good to high yield. A three-step synthesis of the medicinal agent edivoxetine is also described using this new decarboxylation-recombination protocol.

  13. Cations in component reactions of `malic' enzyme catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. S.; Tsai, Y. H.; Samad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The `malic' enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) has been purified (300-fold) from wheat germ and its abilities to catalyse the decarboxylation and the hydrogenation of oxaloacetic acid and oxaloacetate esters was studied. The free 1-carboxyl group is essential for the interaction of oxaloacetates and substituted oxaloacetates with the enzyme via cations. The free 4-carboxyl group is required for the decarboxylation but is not indispensable for the hydrogenation. At high concentrations, cations inhibit the enzymic hydrogenation of oxaloacetic acid but not that of 4-ethyl oxaloacetate. A plausible inhibitory mechanism is proposed. PMID:4399519

  14. Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atomsmore » of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.« less

  15. Decarboxylase inhibition and blood pressure reduction by alpha-methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-DL-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    OATES, J A; GILLESPIE, L; UDENFRIEND, S; SJOERDSMA, A

    1960-06-24

    alpha-Methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-DLphenylalanine has been found to be an effective inhibitor of aromatic amino acid decarboxylation in man. This was shown by decreased formation of serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine from the precursor amino acids. Reduction of amine biosynthesis is associated with lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive patients and a transient sedative effect.

  16. Scintigraphic depiction of an insulinoma by I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Barillari, B.

    1989-12-01

    Scintigraphy with I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was effective in depicting a pancreatic insulinoma in a patient suffering from intermittent hypoglycemia. This observation widens the range of neuroendocrine tumors that take up to I-131 MIBG and supports the concept that many tumors of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation system may be imaged in this way.

  17. Does formate reduce alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, Q.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The reported reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia by formate is much slower than described (Morowitz et al., 1995). The formate reduction if any is small under these conditions. Glutamate is produced from a reduction by a second molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate involving an oxidative decarboxylation.

  18. Metal-Chelate Polymers: Structural/Property Relationships as a Function of the Metal Ion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    and Stein;17 yield, 39%. This compound was simultaneously decarboxylated and dehydrogenated with palladium on 7 charcoal in 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene...Minnesota 55455 Dr. Theodore E. Madey Dr. Keith H. Johnson Surface Chemistry Section Department of Metallurgy and Department of Commerce Materials

  19. First evidence of a membrane-bound, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine producing, tyrosine decarboxylase in Enterococcus faecalis: a two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica; Pessione, Alessandro; Lamberti, Cristina; Coïsson, Daniel Jean; Riedel, Kathrin; Mazzoli, Roberto; Bonetta, Silvia; Eberl, Leo; Giunta, Carlo

    2009-05-01

    The soluble and membrane proteome of a tyramine producing Enterococcus faecalis, isolated from an Italian goat cheese, was investigated. A detailed analysis revealed that this strain also produces small amounts of beta-phenylethylamine. Kinetics of tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine accumulation, evaluated in tyrosine plus phenylalanine-enriched cultures (stimulated condition), suggest that the same enzyme, the tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), catalyzes both tyrosine and phenylalanine decarboxylation: tyrosine was recognized as the first substrate and completely converted into tyramine (100% yield) while phenylalanine was decarboxylated to beta-phenylethylamine (10% yield) only when tyrosine was completely depleted. The presence of an aspecific aromatic amino acid decarboxylase is a common feature in eukaryotes, but in bacteria only indirect evidences of a phenylalanine decarboxylating TDC have been presented so far. Comparative proteomic investigations, performed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, on bacteria grown in conditions stimulating tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine biosynthesis and in control conditions revealed 49 differentially expressed proteins. Except for aromatic amino acid biosynthetic enzymes, no significant down-regulation of the central metabolic pathways was observed in stimulated conditions, suggesting that tyrosine decarboxylation does not compete with the other energy-supplying routes. The most interesting finding is a membrane-bound TDC highly over-expressed during amine production. This is the first evidence of a true membrane-bound TDC, longly suspected in bacteria on the basis of the gene sequence.

  20. An adaptation to life in acid through a novel mevalonate pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Vinokur, Jeffrey M.; Cummins, Matthew C.; Korman, Tyler P.; ...

    2016-12-22

    Here, extreme acidophiles are capable of growth at pH values near zero. Sustaining life in acidic environments requires extensive adaptations of membranes, proton pumps, and DNA repair mechanisms. Here we describe an adaptation of a core biochemical pathway, the mevalonate pathway, in extreme acidophiles. Two previously known mevalonate pathways involve ATP dependent decarboxylation of either mevalonate 5-phosphate or mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate, in which a single enzyme carries out two essential steps: (1) phosphorylation of the mevalonate moiety at the 3-OH position and (2) subsequent decarboxylation. We now demonstrate that in extreme acidophiles, decarboxylation is carried out by two separate steps: previouslymore » identified enzymes generate mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate and a new decarboxylase we describe here, mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate decarboxylase, produces isopentenyl phosphate. Why use two enzymes in acidophiles when one enzyme provides both functionalities in all other organisms examined to date? We find that at low pH, the dual function enzyme, mevalonate 5-phosphate decarboxylase is unable to carry out the first phosphorylation step, yet retains its ability to perform decarboxylation. We therefore propose that extreme acidophiles had to replace the dual-purpose enzyme with two specialized enzymes to efficiently produce isoprenoids in extremely acidic environments.« less

  1. An adaptation to life in acid through a novel mevalonate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, Jeffrey M.; Cummins, Matthew C.; Korman, Tyler P.

    Here, extreme acidophiles are capable of growth at pH values near zero. Sustaining life in acidic environments requires extensive adaptations of membranes, proton pumps, and DNA repair mechanisms. Here we describe an adaptation of a core biochemical pathway, the mevalonate pathway, in extreme acidophiles. Two previously known mevalonate pathways involve ATP dependent decarboxylation of either mevalonate 5-phosphate or mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate, in which a single enzyme carries out two essential steps: (1) phosphorylation of the mevalonate moiety at the 3-OH position and (2) subsequent decarboxylation. We now demonstrate that in extreme acidophiles, decarboxylation is carried out by two separate steps: previouslymore » identified enzymes generate mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate and a new decarboxylase we describe here, mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate decarboxylase, produces isopentenyl phosphate. Why use two enzymes in acidophiles when one enzyme provides both functionalities in all other organisms examined to date? We find that at low pH, the dual function enzyme, mevalonate 5-phosphate decarboxylase is unable to carry out the first phosphorylation step, yet retains its ability to perform decarboxylation. We therefore propose that extreme acidophiles had to replace the dual-purpose enzyme with two specialized enzymes to efficiently produce isoprenoids in extremely acidic environments.« less

  2. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorptionmore » experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.« less

  3. Acrylamide formation in food: a mechanistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Yaylayan, Varoujan A; Stadler, Richard H

    2005-01-01

    Earliest reports on the origin of acrylamide in food have confirmed asparagine as the main amino acid responsible for its formation. Available evidence suggests that sugars and other carbonyl compounds play a specific role in the decarboxylation process of asparagine, a necessary step in the generation of acrylamide. It has been proposed that Schiff base intermediate formed between asparagine and the sugar provides a low energy alternative to the decarboxylation from the intact Amadori product through generation and decomposition of oxazolidin-5-one intermediate, leading to the formation of a relatively stable azomethine ylide. Literature data indicate the propensity of such protonated ylides to undergo irreversible 1,2-prototropic shift and produce, in this case, decarboxylated Schiff bases which can easily rearrange into corresponding Amadori products. Decarboxylated Amadori products can either undergo the well known beta-elimination process initiated by the sugar moiety to produce 3-aminopropanamide and 1-deoxyglucosone or undergo 1,2-elimination initiated by the amino acid moiety to directly generate acrylamide. On the other hand, the Schiff intermediate can either hydrolyze and release 3-aminopropanamide or similarly undergo amino acid initiated 1,2-elimination to directly form acrylamide. Other thermolytic pathways to acrylamide--considered marginal at this stage--via the Strecker aldehyde, acrolein, and acrylic acid, are also addressed. Despite significant progress in the understanding of the mechanistic aspects of acrylamide formation, concrete evidence for the role of the different proposed intermediates in foods is still lacking.

  4. A Multistep Synthesis Featuring Classic Carbonyl Chemistry for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, David B.; Abbe, Tyler G.; Goess, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 5-isopropyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione is carried out from three commodity chemicals. The sequence involves an aldol condensation, Dieckmann-type annulation, ester hydrolysis, and decarboxylation. No purification is required until after the final step, at which point gravity column chromatography provides the desired product in…

  5. Structures of the N47A and E109Q mutant proteins of pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, Erika V.; McCloskey, Diane E.; Kinsland, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The crystal structures of two arginine decarboxylase mutant proteins provide insights into the mechanisms of pyruvoyl-group formation and the decarboxylation reaction. Pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase (PvlArgDC) catalyzes the first step of the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway in plants and some archaebacteria. The pyruvoyl group of PvlArgDC is generated by an internal autoserinolysis reaction at an absolutely conserved serine residue in the proenzyme, resulting in two polypeptide chains. Based on the native structure of PvlArgDC from Methanococcus jannaschii, the conserved residues Asn47 and Glu109 were proposed to be involved in the decarboxylation and autoprocessing reactions. N47A and E109Q mutant proteins were prepared and themore » three-dimensional structure of each protein was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The N47A and E109Q mutant proteins showed reduced decarboxylation activity compared with the wild-type PvlArgDC. These residues may also be important for the autoprocessing reaction, which utilizes a mechanism similar to that of the decarboxylation reaction.« less

  6. Behavior of ellagitannins, gallic acid, and ellagic acid under alkaline conditions

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W.E. Hillis

    1971-01-01

    Examination of the rates of hydrolysis of different ellagitannins under conditions comparable with cold soda and alkaline-groundwood pulping processes showed that some ellagitannins are notably resistant to hydrolysis. The rate of hydrolysis was dependent upon the pH and tempemture of the solution and particularly upon the structure of the compound. Decarboxylation of...

  7. THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF HYDROXYBENZOIC ACIDS IN HIGHER PLANTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    some species. Ortho hydroxybenzoic acids were shown to arise from phenylalanine and cinnamic acid ....Radioactive para-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and syringic acids were shown to be synthesized in a variety of plants from the corresponding...hydroxycinnamic acids labelled in the beta-position. Decarboxylation of the hydroxybenzoic acids indicated that nearly all the activity was contained in the

  8. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  9. An Unconventional Redox Cross Claisen Condensation-Aromatization of 4-Hydroxyprolines with Ketones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mi; Sun, Rengwei; Li, Hao; Yu, Xinhong; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-18

    Reaction of α-amino acids, particularly prolines and their derivatives with carbonyl compounds via decarboxylative redox process, is a viable strategy for synthesis of structurally diverse nitrogen centered heterocyclics. In these processes, the decarboxylation is the essential driving force for the processes. The realization of the redox process without decarboxylation may offer an opportunity to explore new reactions. Herein, we report the discovery of an unprecedented redox Claisen-type condensation aromatization cascade reaction of 4-substituted 4-hydroxyproline and its esters with unreactive ketones. We found that the use of propionic acid as a catalyst and a co-solvent can change the reaction course. The commonly observed redox decarboxylation and aldol condensation reactions are significantly minimized. Moreover, unreactive ketones can effectively participate in the Claisen condensation reaction. The new reactivity enables a redox cyclization via an unconventional Claisen-type condensation reaction of in situ formed enamine intermediates from ketone precursors with 4-substituted 4-hydroxyproline and its esters as electrophilic acylation partners. Under the reaction conditions, the cascade process proceeds highly regio- and stereoselectively to afford highly synthetically and biologically valued cis-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-ones with a broad substrate scope in efficient 'one-pot' operation, whereas such structures generally require multiple steps.

  10. Curvulamine, a new antibacterial alkaloid incorporating two undescribed units from a Curvularia species.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen Bo; Lu, Yan Hua; Zhang, Ai Hua; Zhang, Gao Fei; Mei, Ya Ning; Jiang, Nan; Lei, Xinxiang; Song, Yong Chun; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2014-10-17

    The white croaker (Argyrosomus argentatus) derived Curvularia sp. IFB-Z10 produces curvulamine as a skeletally unprecedented alkaloid incorporating two undescribed extender units. Curvulamine is more selectively antibacterial than tinidazole and biosynthetically unique in the new extenders formed through a decarboxylative condensation between an oligoketide motif and alanine.

  11. The role of biotin and oxamate in the carboxyl transferase reaction of pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Lietzan, Adam D.; Lin, Yi; St. Maurice, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in central metabolism. During catalysis, carboxybiotin is translocated to the carboxyltransferase domain where the carboxyl group is transferred to the acceptor substrate, pyruvate. Many studies on the carboxyltransferase domain of PC have demonstrated an enhanced oxaloacetate decarboxylation activity in the presence of oxamate and it has been shown that oxamate accepts a carboxyl group from carboxybiotin during oxaloacetate decarboxylation. The X-ray crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase domain from Rhizobium etli PC reveals that oxamate is positioned in the active site in an identical manner to the substrate, pyruvate, and kinetic data are consistent with the oxamate-stimulated decarboxylation of oxaloacetate proceeding through a simple ping-pong bi bi mechanism in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain. Additionally, analysis of truncated PC enzymes indicates that the BCCP domain devoid of biotin does not contribute directly to the enzymatic reaction and conclusively demonstrates a biotin-independent oxaloacetate decarboxylation activity in PC. These findings advance the description of catalysis in PC and can be extended to the study of related biotin-dependent enzymes. PMID:25157442

  12. Reduction of α-oxo carboxyylic acids by pigeon liver `malic' enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chung L.; Hsu, Robert Y.

    1973-01-01

    1. Pigeon liver `malic' enzyme [l-malate–NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating); EC 1.1.1.40] was shown to catalyse the reductase reaction: [Formula: see text] l-Malate was identified as the reaction product, and was formed in stoicheiometric amount. 2. In addition to oxaloacetate and pyruvate, a number of other α-oxo carboxylic acids were also reduced. PMID:4764261

  13. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. PMID:26784441

  14. Production of Skatole and para-Cresol by a Rumen Lactobacillus sp. †

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Melvin T.; Carlson, James R.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the substrate specificity of several ruminal strains of a Lactobacillus sp. which previously was shown to produce skatole (3-methylindole) by the decarboxylation of indoleacetic acid. A total of 13 compounds were tested for decarboxylase activity. The Lactobacillus strains produced p-cresol (4-methylphenol) by the decarboxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, but did not produce either o-cresol or m-cresol from the corresponding hydroxyphenylacetic acid isomers. These strains also decarboxylated 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid to 5-hydroxyskatole and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to methylcatechol. Skatole and p-cresol were produced in a 0.5:1 ratio, when indoleacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid were combined in equimolar concentrations. Competition studies with indoleacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid suggested that two different decarboxylating enzymes are involved in the production of skatole and p-cresol by these strains. This is the first demonstration of both skatole production and p-cresol production by a single bacterium. PMID:16345702

  15. Process for conversion of levulinic acid to ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.

    A method for generating desired platform chemicals from feedstocks such as cellulosic biomass feedstocks containing levulinic acid by decarboxylating a feed stock comprising levulinic acid to generate ketones. This is done by passing a feed stock comprising levulinic acid in a gas phase over a non-precious metal catalyst on a neutral support.

  16. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Grissom, C.B.; Cleland, W.W.

    The catalytic mechanism of porcine heart NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase has been investigated by use of the variation of deuterium and /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effects with pH. The observed /sup 13/C isotope effect on VK for isocitrate increases from 1.0038 at neutral pH to a limiting value of 1.040 at low pH. The limiting /sup 13/C isotope effect with deuteriated isocitrate at low pH is 1.016. This decrease in /sup 13/(VK/sub Ic/) upon deuteriation indicates a stepwise mechanism for the oxidation and decarboxylation of isocitrate. This predicts a deuterium isotope effect on VK of 2.9, but /sup D/(VK) at lowmore » pH only increases to a maximum of 1.08. The pK seen in the /sup 13/(VK/sub Ic/) pH profile for isocitrate if 4.5. This pK is displaced 1.2 pH units from the true pK of the acidbase functionality of 5.7 seen in the pK/sub i/ profile for oxalylglycine. From this displacement, catalysis is estimated to be 16 times faster than substrate dissociation. By use of the pH-dependent partitioning ratio of the reaction intermediate oxalosuccinate between decarboxylation to 2-ketoglutarate and reduction to isocitrate, the forward commitment to catalysis for decarboxylation was determined to be 7.3 at pH 5.4 and 3.2 at pH 5.0. This gives in intrinsic /sup 13/C isotope effect for decarboxylation of 1.050. The product of oxidative decarboxylation of 3-hydroxyisocitrate by NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase is 2-hydroxy-3-ketoglutarate. This results from enzymatic protonation of the cis-enediol intermediate at C/sub 2/ rather than C/sub 3/ (as seen with isocitrate and 3-fluoroisocitrate). 2-Hydroxy-3-ketoglutarate further decarboxylates in solution to 2-hydroxy-3-ketobutyrate, which further decarboxylates to acetol. This makes 3-hydroxyisocitrate unsuitable for /sup 13/C isotope effect studies.« less

  18. Detailed reaction mechanism of macrophomate synthase. Extraordinary enzyme catalyzing five-step transformation from 2-pyrones to benzoates.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Mie, T; Ichihara, A; Oikawa, H; Honma, M

    2000-12-08

    Macrophomate synthase from the fungus Macrophoma commelinae IFO 9570 is a Mg(II)-dependent dimeric enzyme that catalyzes an extraordinary, complex five-step chemical transformation from 2-pyrone and oxalacetate to benzoate involving decarboxylation, C-C bond formation, and dehydration. The catalytic mechanism of the whole pathway was investigated in three separate chemical steps. In the first decarboxylation step, the enzyme loses oxalacetate decarboxylation activity upon incubation with EDTA. Activity is fully restored by addition of Mg(II) and is not restored with other divalent metal cations. The dissociation constant of 0.93 x 10(-)(7) for Mg(II) and atomic absorption analysis established a 1:1 stoichiometric complex. Inhibition of pyruvate formation with 2-pyrone revealed that the actual product in the first step is a pyruvate enolate, which undergoes C-C bond formation in the presence of 2-pyrone. Incubation of substrate analogs provided aberrant adducts that were produced via C-C bond formation and rearrangement. This strongly indicates that the second step is two C-C bond formations, affording a bicyclic intermediate. Based on the stereospecificity, involvement of a Diels-Alder reaction at the second step is proposed. Incubation of the stereospecifically deuterium-labeled malate with 2-pyrones in the presence of malate dehydrogenase provided information for the stereochemical course of the reaction catalyzed by macrophomate synthase, indicating that the first decarboxylation provides pyruvate (Z)-[3-(2)H]enolate and that dehydration at the final step occurs with anti-elimination accompanied by concomitant decarboxylation. Examination of kinetic parameters in the individual steps suggests that the third step is the rate-determining step of the overall transformation.

  19. Disentangling the Origin of the Kok Effect Using Position Specific Glucose Labeling in Sunflower Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, P. P.; Bender, M. L.; Saenz, N.

    2015-12-01

    In plants, leaf mitochondrial respiratory CO2 release is inhibited by light. Bessel Kok first demonstrated this inhibition in 1948. Based on curves of CO2 assimilation vs irradiance, it is understood that respiration is maximal in the dark. It then frequently decreases linearly with irradiance until reaching some value around the compensation point, beyond which it is constant. CO2 released by mitochondrial respiration is the result of decarboxylation through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the tricarboxylic acid pathway (TCAP) and the oxydative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). The overall activity of these three reactions is reduced by light. However, their individual contributions to the Kok effect are unknown. We measured the rate of decarboxylation of glucose, position-specifically labeled with 13C, to evaluate the participation of PDH, TCAP and OPPP in the Kok effect of sunflower. Leaves were fed with labeled glucose through their transpiration stream. The δ13C of the CO2 released by the leaf was then measured as a function of irradiance. The results showed that the inhibition of the decarboxylation of carbon positions 3 and 4 in glucose is at the origin of the Kok effect. These are the positions of carbon atoms decarboxylated by PDH. In addition, the rate of decarboxylation of position 1 was not different in the light and in the dark. Thus OPPP plays no role in the Kok effect in sunflower leaves. This work improves our current understanding of leaf mitochondrial respiratory metabolism in the light. Invoking the Kok effect in plant physiology models should improve our ability to simulate carbon fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. SciTech Connect

    Grissom, C.B.; Cleland, W.W.

    The role of the metal ion in the oxidative decarboxylation of malate by chicken liver NADP malic enzyme and details of the reaction mechanism have been investigated by /sup 13/C isotope effects. With saturating NADP and the indicated metal ion at a total concentration 10-fold higher than its K/sub m/, the following primary /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effects at C/sub 4/ of malate (/sup 13/(VK/sub mal/)) were observed at pH 8.0: Mg/sup 2 +/, 1.0336; Mn/sup 2 +/, 1.0365; Cd/sup 2 +/, 1.0366; Zn/sup 2 +/, 1.0337; Co/sup 2 +/, 1.0283; Ni/sup 2 +/, 1.025. Knowing the partitioning of themore » intermediate oxalacetate between decarboxylation to pyuvate and reduction to malate allows calculation of the intrinsic carbon isotope effect for decarboxylation to pyuvate and reduction to malate allows calculation of the intrinsic carbon isotope effect for decarboxylation. For Mg/sup 2 +/ as activator, this was 1.049 with NADP and 1.046 with 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate, although the intrinsic primary deuterium isotope effects on dehydrogenation were 5.6 and 4.2, and the partition ratios of the oxalacetate intermediate for decarboxylation as opposed to hydride transfer were 0.11 and 3.96. It was not possible to calculate reasonable intrinsic carbon isotope effects with the other metal ions by use of the partitioning ratio of oxalacetate because of decarboxylation by another mechanism. The variation of /sup 13/(VK/sub mal/) with pH was used to dissect the total forward and external components. When the authors attempted to use the variation of /sup 13/(VK/sub mal/) with solution viscosity to determine the internal and external commitments, incorrect values were obtained because of a specific effect of the viscosogen in decreasing the K/sub m/ for malate, so that VK/sub mal/ actually increased with viscosity instead of decreasing, as theory predicts.« less

  1. Two-dimensional isobutyl acetate production pathways to improve carbon yield

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yohei; Desai, Shuchi H.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    For an economically competitive biological process, achieving high carbon yield of a target chemical is crucial. In biochemical production, pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are primary building blocks. When sugar is used as the sole biosynthetic substrate, acetyl-CoA is commonly generated by pyruvate decarboxylation. However, pyruvate decarboxylation during acetyl-CoA formation limits the theoretical maximum carbon yield (TMCY) by releasing carbon, and in some cases also leads to redox imbalance. To avoid these problems, we describe here the construction of a metabolic pathway that simultaneously utilizes glucose and acetate. Acetate is utilized to produce acetyl-CoA without carbon loss or redox imbalance. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for isobutyl acetate (IBA) production, wherein IBA production with glucose and acetate achieves a higher carbon yield than with either sole carbon source. These results highlight the potential for this multiple carbon source approach to improve the TMCY and balance redox in biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26108471

  2. Kinetic determinations of accurate relative oxidation potentials of amines with reactive radical cations.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian R; Wosinska, Zofia M; Farid, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Accurate oxidation potentials for organic compounds are critical for the evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of their radical cations. Except when using a specialized apparatus, electrochemical oxidation of molecules with reactive radical cations is usually an irreversible process, providing peak potentials, E(p), rather than thermodynamically meaningful oxidation potentials, E(ox). In a previous study on amines with radical cations that underwent rapid decarboxylation, we estimated E(ox) by correcting the E(p) from cyclic voltammetry with rate constants for decarboxylation obtained using laser flash photolysis. Here we use redox equilibration experiments to determine accurate relative oxidation potentials for the same amines. We also describe an extension of these experiments to show how relative oxidation potentials can be obtained in the absence of equilibrium, from a complete kinetic analysis of the reversible redox kinetics. The results provide support for the previous cyclic voltammetry/laser flash photolysis method for determining oxidation potentials.

  3. Multiple Mechanisms for the Thermal Decomposition of Metallaisoxazolin-5-ones from Computational Investigations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen-Chen; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Houk, K N; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo

    2017-08-18

    The thermal decompositions of metallaisoxazolin-5-ones containing Ir, Rh, or Co are investigated using density functional theory. The experimentally observed decarboxylations of these molecules are found to proceed through retro-(3+2)-cycloaddition reactions, generating the experimentally reported η 2 side-bonded nitrile complexes. These intermediates can isomerize in situ to yield a η 1 nitrile complex. A competitive alternative pathway is also found where the decarboxylation happens concertedly with an aryl migration process, producing a η 1 isonitrile complex. Despite their comparable stability, these η 1 bonded species were not detected experimentally. The experimentally detected η 2 side bound species are likely involved in the subsequent C-H activation reactions with hydrocarbon solvents reported for some of these metallaisoxazolin-5-ones.

  4. Phosphoketolase pathway engineering for carbon-efficient biocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Henard, Calvin Andrew; Freed, Emily Frances; Guarnieri, Michael Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in metabolic engineering have facilitated the development of microbial biocatalysts capable of producing an array of bio-products, ranging from fuels to drug molecules. These bio-products are commonly generated through an acetyl-CoA intermediate, which serves as a key precursor in the biological conversion of carbon substrates. Moreover, conventional biocatalytic upgrading strategies proceeding through this route are limited by low carbon efficiencies, in large part due to carbon losses associated with pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA. Bypass of pyruvate decarboxylation offers a means to dramatically enhance carbon yields and, in turn, bioprocess economics. Here, we discuss recent advances and prospects formore » employing the phosphoketolase pathway for direct biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA from carbon substrates, and phosphoketolase-based metabolic engineering strategies for carbon efficient biocatalysis.« less

  5. Malic enzyme: Tritium isotope effects with alternative dinucleotide substrates and divalent metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Karsten, W.E.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum catalyzes the divalent metal ion dependent oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to yield pyruvate, carbon dioxide and NADH. Multiple isotope effect studies suggest a stepwise chemical mechanism with hydride transfer from L-malate to NAD occurring first to form oxalacetate, followed by decarboxylation. Utilizing L-malate-2-T, tritium V/K isotope effects have been determined for the hydride transfer step using a variety of alternative dinucleotide substrates and divalent metal ions. Combination of these data with deuterium isotope effects data and previously determined [sup 13]C isotope effects has allowed the calculation of intrinsic isotope effects for the malic enzymemore » catalyzed reaction. The identity of both the dinucleotide substrate and divalent metal ion has an effect of the size of the intrinsic isotope effect for hydride transfer.« less

  6. STUDIES ON MAMMALIAN AND HUMAN PYRUVATE AND ALPHA-KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENATION COMPLEXES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    bound lipoic acid and 17 moles of bound FAD. Alpha -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex contains approximately 10 moles of protein-bound lipoic acid , 9...typical metal activators of oxidative decarboxylation reaction of alpha -keto acid . These activating effects were in good agreement with the results of...A coenzyme A- and NAD-linked pyruvate and alpha -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes have been isolated from pig heart muscle as multienzyme units

  7. A Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Study on the Degradation Pathways of Glycine on Mars in the Presence of Perchlorates and Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góbi, Sándor; Förstel, Marko; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2017-02-01

    The absence of abundant organics on the Martian surface is a much discussed observation. So far, no explanation is completely satisfactory. In this study we aim for a deeper understanding of the degradation processes of organics in the presence of perchlorates that can take place on the Martian surface. Our primary goal is to study the radiation-induced decomposition process of glycine (H2NCH2COOH) in the absence and presence of an oxidizer relevant to the Martian surface—perchlorate anions ({{{ClO}}4}-). Glycine and various samples of glycine-1-13C (+H3NC{{{{H}}}2}13COO-)-magnesium perchlorate hexahydrate (Mg(ClO4)2 · 6H2O) were exposed to energetic electrons mimicking secondary electrons originating from the interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the Martian regolith. Using isotope-labeled and deuterated pure glycine samples such as glycine-1-13C, glycine-d5 (+D3NCD2COO-), glycine-N,N,N-d3 (+D3NCH2COO-), and glycine-2,2-d2 (+H3NCD2COO-), we can conclude that decarboxylation (carbon dioxide loss) of the glycine molecule is exclusively the first decay step during irradiation regardless of whether perchlorate anions are present or not. In pure glycine samples, the decarboxylation co-product methylamine (CH3NH2) and its radiolytic decay product ammonia could both be detected explicitly for the first time. In the presence of perchlorates, (partial) oxidation of the glycine decarboxylation product CH3NH2 may occur. Because the decarboxylation is an equilibrium reaction and the CH3NH2 is effectively removed from the system by this oxidation, glycine cannot be recycled. Therefore the depletion of the CH3NH2 facilitates the process, resulting in an overall 10-fold increase in the formation rate of carbon dioxide and its elevated concentrations in the perchlorate-containing irradiated samples.

  8. 2-Aryl-2-nitroacetates as Central Precursors to Aryl Nitromethanes, α-Ketoesters, and α-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Nitroarylacetates are useful small molecular building blocks that act as precursors to α-ketoesters and aryl nitromethanes as well as α-amino acids. Methods were developed that produce each of these compound types in good yields. Two different conditions for decarboxylation are discussed for substrates with neutral and electron-poor aryl groups versus electron-rich aryl groups. For formation of the α-ketoesters, new mild conditions for the Nef disproportionation were identified. PMID:23245626

  9. A practical and improved synthesis of (3S,5S)-3-[(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)methyl]- 5-[(methanesulfonyloxy)methyl]-2- pyrrolidinone.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nathan K; Dong, Yong; Kapadia, Suresh R; Song, Jinhua J

    2002-11-29

    A practical and improved synthesis of (3S,5S)-3-[(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)methyl]-5-[(methanesulfonyloxy)methyl]-2-pyrrolidinone (1) is described. The key transformations involve a highly efficient reaction sequence consisting of ethoxycarbonylation, alkylation, hydrolysis, and decarboxylation to produce compound 10. The process described herein is practical, robust, and cost-effective, and it has been successfully implemented in a pilot plant to produce a multikilogram quantity of mesylate 1.

  10. Biosynthesis of putrescine in the prostate gland of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, A. E.; Williams-Ashman, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    In the rat ventral prostate gland the biosynthesis of putrescine, a precursor of spermidine and spermine, is shown to occur by the direct decarboxylation of l-ornithine. Some properties of a soluble pyridoxal phosphate-dependent l-ornithine decarboxylase are described. The findings are discussed in relation to other enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines by the prostate gland. PMID:5667265

  11. Catabolism of α-Ketoglutarate by a sucA Mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum: Evidence for an Alternative Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Green, Laura S.; Li, Youzhong; Emerich, David W.; Bergersen, Fraser J.; Day, David A.

    2000-01-01

    A complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is generally considered necessary for energy production from the dicarboxylic acid substrates malate, succinate, and fumarate. However, a Bradyrhizobium japonicum sucA mutant that is missing α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is able to grow on malate as its sole source of carbon. This mutant also fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with soybean, where dicarboxylic acids are its principal carbon substrate. Using a flow chamber system to make direct measurements of oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, we confirmed that bacteroids formed by the sucA mutant displayed wild-type rates of respiration and nitrogen fixation. Despite the absence of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, whole cells of the mutant were able to decarboxylate α-[U-14C]ketoglutarate and [U-14C]glutamate at rates similar to those of wild-type B. japonicum, indicating that there was an alternative route for α-ketoglutarate catabolism. Because cell extracts from B. japonicum decarboxylated [U-14C]glutamate very slowly, the γ-aminobutyrate shunt is unlikely to be the pathway responsible for α-ketoglutarate catabolism in the mutant. In contrast, cell extracts from both the wild type and mutant showed a coenzyme A (CoA)-independent α-ketoglutarate decarboxylation activity. This activity was independent of pyridine nucleotides and was stimulated by thiamine PPi. Thin-layer chromatography showed that the product of α-ketoglutarate decarboxylation was succinic semialdehyde. The CoA-independent α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase, along with succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, may form an alternative pathway for α-ketoglutarate catabolism, and this pathway may enhance TCA cycle function during symbiotic nitrogen fixation. PMID:10781553

  12. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  13. Storable Arylpalladium(II) Reagents for Alkene Labeling in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca L.; Yu, Robert T.; Myers, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    We show that arylpalladium(II) reagents linked to biotin and indocyanine dye residues can be prepared by decarboxylative palladation of appropriately substituted electron-rich benzoic acid derivatives. When prepared under the conditions described, these organometallic intermediates are tolerant of air and water, can be stored for several months in solution in dimethylsulfoxide, and permit biotin- and indocyanine dye-labeling of functionally complex olefinic substrates in water by Heck-type coupling reactions. PMID:21888420

  14. Agmatine enhances caloric intake and dietary carbohydrate preference in satiated rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A; Prasad, C

    1996-10-01

    Agmatine is a decarboxylated metabolite of arginine endogenous to the brain. In vitro, agmatine inhibits binding of clonidine to alpha 2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors. We have shown that acute administration of agmatine increases caloric intake and dietary carbohydrate preference in satiated rats. In contrast, agmatine does not modulate caloric intake in hungry rats. Furthermore, repeated administration of high doses of agmatine does not decrease its ability to stimulate appetite.

  15. Aminative umpolung of aldehydes to α-amino anion equivalents for Pd-catalyzed allylation: an efficient synthesis of homoallylic amines.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Jing; Hu, Yifan; Xu, Juan; Gong, Xing; Xu, Dongfang; Zhao, Baoguo; Li, Hexing

    2014-02-07

    An attractive strategy for generation of α-amino anions from aldehydes with applications in synthesis of homoallylic amines is described. Aromatic aldehydes can be converted to α-amino anion equivalents via amination with 2,2-diphenylglycine and subsequent decarboxylation. The in situ generated α-imino anions are highly reactive for Pd-catalyzed allylation, forming the corresponding homoallylic amines in high yields with excellent regioselectivity.

  16. Direct Production of Propene from the Thermolysis of Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). An Experimental and DFT Investigation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jared M; Pilath, Heidi M; Mittal, Ashutosh; Michener, William E; Robichaud, David J; Johnson, David K

    2016-01-28

    We demonstrate a synthetic route toward the production of propene directly from poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), the most common of a wide range of high-molecular-mass microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Propene, a major commercial hydrocarbon, was obtained from the depolymerization of PHB and subsequent decarboxylation of the crotonic acid monomer in good yields (up to 75 mol %). The energetics of PHB depolymerization and the gas-phase decarboxylation of crotonic acid were also studied using density functional theory (DFT). The average activation energy for the cleavage of the R'C(O)O-R linkage is calculated to be 163.9 ± 7.0 kJ mol(-1). Intramolecular, autoacceleration effects regarding the depolymerization of PHB, as suggested in some literature accounts, arising from the formation of crotonyl and carboxyl functional groups in the products could not be confirmed by the results of DFT and microkinetic modeling. DFT results, however, suggest that intermolecular catalysis involving terminal carboxyl groups may accelerate PHB depolymerization. Activation energies for this process were estimated to be about 20 kJ mol(-1) lower than that for the noncatalyzed ester cleavage, 144.3 ± 6.4 kJ mol(-1). DFT calculations predict the decarboxylation of crotonic acid to follow second-order kinetics with an activation energy of 147.5 ± 6.3 kJ mol(-1), consistent with that measured experimentally, 146.9 kJ mol(-1). Microkinetic modeling of the PHB to propene overall reaction predicts decarboxylation of crotonic acid to be the rate-limiting step, consistent with experimental observations. The results also indicate that improvements made to enhance the isomerization of crotonic acid to vinylacetic acid will improve the direct conversion of PHB to propene.

  17. Corrosion Inhibitors for Metals in Naval Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-15

    chlorides (PCCOCl) were treated with an amino acid containing a long aliphatic chain (either li-aminoundecanoic acid or 6- aminocaproic acid ) to give the long...phthalocyanines as corrosion inhibiting coatings - poyeriz by decarboxylation of chloroiron (Il1) tetracarboxcyphthalocyanine and reacting the acid chloride...by converting the tetracarboxy- phthalocyanines to the corresponding acid chloride and reacting the acid chloride with amino acids containing 6 or 12

  18. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Third quarterly technical progress report No. 44, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    Research under way in this project centers upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. As documented in the previous quarterly report (Task 3.1), there was little advantage for presoaking Black Thunder coal or Martin Lake lignite in a hydrogen-donor solvent, such as tetralin, at temperatures up to 600{degrees}F prior to liquefaction at higher temperatures. The amount of decarboxylation that occurred during the presoaking of Black Thunder coal or Martin Lake lignite in tetralin in the temperature range of 400 to 600{degrees}F was also relatively small. Further experimentation was undertaken inmore » a continuous flow unit with Black Thunder coal, where the primary goal was to determine the extent of decarboxylation and changes in the structure of the unconverted coal samples. The preliminary results indicated little conversion of the feed coal to THF solubles at 600{degrees}F, although the conversion did increase with increasing temperature up to 24% at 700{degrees}F. The level of decarboxylation was also low at the above reaction temperatures. Thus, presoaking in a coal-derived solvent or even tetralin does not seem to be an effective means to achieve decarboxylation. A suitable sample of Illinois No. 6 coal was received and tested for liquefaction. The batch liquefaction showed that this sample had good reactivity. The continuous liquefaction test was done in a two-stage unit with AMOCAT{trademark}-1C catalyst in both reactors. A significant amount of resid was produced throughout this three-week run. As the catalyst aged, the distillate production decreased and its product quality got worse. The feedstock liquefaction studies for the three feedstocks (Black Thunder subbituminous coal, Martin Lake lignite, and Illinois No. 6 coal) have been completed, and their results will be compared in a subsequent quarterly report.« less

  19. Differential plating medium for quantitative detection of histamine-producing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Niven, C F; Jeffrey, M B; Corlett, D A

    1981-01-01

    A histidine-containing agar medium has been devised for quantitative detection of histamine-producing bacteria that are alleged to be associated with scombroid fish poisoning outbreaks. The responsible bacteria produce a marked pH change in the agar, with attendant color change of pH indicator adjacent to the colonies, thus facilitating their recognition. Proteus morganii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two most common histidine-decarboxylating species isolated from scombroid fish and mahi mahi. PMID:7013698

  20. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation of Benzoylacetonitriles and Tandem Cyclization with Diazo Compounds to Substituted Benzo[ de]chromenes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Feifei; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhou, Chaofan; Li, Yazhou; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Hong

    2018-04-06

    Rh (III)-catalyzed C-H activation of benzoylacetonitriles in coupling with diazo compounds was developed to synthesize diversified substituted benzo[ de]chromenes via a formal (4 + 2) cycloaddition with a diazo compound and subsequent tandem (4 + 2) cycloaddition with another diazo compound. Intriguingly, synthesis of substituted benzo[ de]chromenes and their decarboxylation products could be realized by controlling the reaction conditions. These reactions have a broad range of substrates, moderate to good yields, and high regioselectivity.

  1. The Thermal Decomposition of Some Organic Lead Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-11-01

    either of salicylic anhydride or of its pyrolysis fragments which are reported to be a mixture of carbon dioxide , phenol and phenyl salicylate. Other...7) have studied the decomposition of the mono-salicylate in vacuo at 400°C. and have found that one molecule of carbon dioxide is evolved per...of lead nitrate and nitrosalicylic acid, though seme of the latter is decarboxylated with evolution of carbon dioxide . These points are considered

  2. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines. PMID:23405290

  3. Kinetics of liquid-solid reactions in naphthenic acid conversion and Kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling

    Two liquid-solid reactions, in which the morphology of the solid changes as the reactions proceeds, were examined. One is the NA conversion in oil by decarboxylation on metal oxides and carbonates, and the other is the Kraft pulping in which lignin removal by delignification reaction. In the study of the NA conversion, CaO was chosen as the catalyst for the kinetic study from the tested catalysts based on NA conversion. Two reaction mixtures, carrier oil plus commercial naphthenic acids and heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) from Athabasca bitumen, were applied in the kinetic study. The influence of TAN, temperature, and catalyst loading on the NA conversion and decarboxylation were studied systematically. The results showed that the removal rate of TAN and the decarboxylation of NA were both independent of the concentration of NA over the range studied, and significantly dependent on reaction temperature. The data from analyzing the spent catalyst demonstrated that calcium naphthenate was an intermediate of the decarboxylation reaction of NA, and the decomposition of calcium naphthenate was a rate-determining step. In the study on the delignification of the Kraft pulping, a new mechanism was proposed for the heterogeneous delignification reaction during the Kraft pulping process. In particular, the chemical reaction mechanism took into account the heterogeneous nature of Kraft pulping. Lignin reacted in parallel with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The mechanism consists of three key kinetic steps: (1) adsorption of hydroxide and hydrosulfide ions on lignin; (2) surface reaction on the solid surface to produce degraded lignin products; and (3) desorption of degradation products from the solid surface. The most important step for the delignification process is the surface reaction, rather than the reactions occurring in the liquid phase. A kinetic model has, thus, been developed based on the proposed mechanism. The derived kinetic model showed that the mechanism

  4. Kinetics and Quantitative Structure—Activity Relationship Study on the Degradation Reaction from Perfluorooctanoic Acid to Trifluoroacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chen; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Zhang, Xue; Niu, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been carried out to calculate rate constants of the main elementary reactions using the multichannel Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory and canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling correction over a temperature range of 200~500 K. The Arrhenius equations of rate constants of elementary reactions are fitted. The decarboxylation is role step in the degradation mechanism of PFOA. For the perfluorinated carboxylic acids from perfluorooctanoic acid to trifluoroacetic acid, the quantitative structure–activity relationship of the decarboxylation was analyzed with the genetic function approximation method and the structure–activity model was constructed. The main parameters governing rate constants of the decarboxylation reaction from the eight-carbon chain to the two-carbon chain were obtained. As the structure–activity model shows, the bond length and energy of C1–C2 (RC1–C2 and EC1–C2) are positively correlated to rate constants, while the volume (V), the energy difference between EHOMO and ELUMO (ΔE), and the net atomic charges on atom C2 (QC2) are negatively correlated. PMID:25196516

  5. Design of inhibitors of orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase using bioisosteric replacement and determination of inhibition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M; Tang, Sishi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Pai, Emil F; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2006-08-10

    Inhibitors of orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) have applications in RNA viral, parasitic, and other infectious diseases. ODCase catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine monophosphate (OMP), producing uridine monophosphate (UMP). Novel inhibitors 6-amino-UMP and 6-cyano-UMP were designed on the basis of the substructure volumes in the substrate OMP and in an inhibitor of ODCase, barbituric acid monophosphate, BMP. A new enzyme assay method using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was developed to investigate the inhibition kinetics of ODCase. The reaction rates were measured by monitoring the heat generated during the decarboxylation reaction of orotidine monophosphate. Kinetic parameters (k(cat) = 21 s(-1) and KM = 5 microM) and the molar enthalpy (DeltaH(app) = 5 kcal/mol) were determined for the decarboxylation of the substrate by ODCase. Competitive inhibition of the enzyme was observed and the inhibition constants (Ki) were determined to be 12.4 microM and 29 microM for 6-aza-UMP and 6-cyano-UMP, respectively. 6-Amino-UMP was found to be among the potent inhibitors of ODCase, having an inhibition constant of 840 nM. We reveal here the first inhibitors of ODCase designed by the principles of bioisosterism and a novel method of using isothermal calorimetry for enzyme inhibition studies.

  6. Involvement of the ornithine decarboxylase gene in acid stress response in probiotic Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A B; Oliveira, M N V de; Freitas, F S; Paiva, A D; Alfenas-Zerbini, P; Silva, D F da; Queiroz, M V de; Borges, A C; Moraes, C A de

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid decarboxylation is important for the maintenance of intracellular pH under acid stress. This study aims to carry out phylogenetic and expression analysis by real-time PCR of two genes that encode proteins involved in ornithine decarboxylation in Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 exposed to acid stress. Sequencing and phylogeny analysis of genes encoding ornithine decarboxylase and amino acid permease in L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 showed their high sequence identity (99%) and grouping with those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842. Exposure of L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 cells in MRS pH 3.5 for 30 and 60 min caused a significant increase in expression of the gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase (up to 8.1 times higher when compared to the control treatment). Increased expression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene demonstrates its involvement in acid stress response in L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20, evidencing that the protein encoded by that gene could be involved in intracellular pH regulation. The results obtained show ornithine decarboxylation as a possible mechanism of adaptation to an acidic environmental condition, a desirable and necessary characteristic for probiotic cultures and certainly important to the survival and persistence of the L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  7. In-vitro evaluation of limitations and possibilities for the future use of intracorporeal gas exchangers placed in the upper lobe position.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Erin; Höffler, Klaus; Kuehn, Christian; Slaughter, Mark; Haverich, Axel; Wiegmann, Bettina

    2018-03-01

    The lack of donor organs has led to the development of alternative "destination therapies", such as a bio-artificial lung (BA) for end-stage lung disease. Ultimately aiming at a fully implantable BA, general capabilities and limitations of different oxygenators were tested based on the model of BA positioning at the right upper lobe. Three different-sized oxygenators (neonatal, paediatric, and adult) were tested in a mock circulation loop regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation capacities for three respiratory pathologies. Blood flows were imitated by a roller pump, and respiration was imitated by a mechanical ventilator with different FiO 2 applications. Pressure drops across the oxygenators and the integrity of the gas-exchange hollow fibers were analyzed. The neonatal oxygenator proved to be insufficient regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation. Despite elevated pCO 2 levels, the paediatric and adult oxygenators delivered comparable sufficient oxygen levels, but sufficient decarboxylation across the oxygenators was ensured only at flow rates of 0.5 L min. Only the adult oxygenator indicated no significant pressure drops. For all tested conditions, gas-exchange hollow fibers remained intact. This is the first study showing the general feasibility of delivering sufficient levels of gas exchange to an intracorporeal BA via patient's breathing, without damaging gas-exchange hollow fiber membranes.

  8. Enzyme Architecture: Erection of Active Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase by Substrate-Induced Conformational Changes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Archie C; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2017-11-15

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotate (FO) with k cat /K m = 1.4 × 10 -7 M -1 s -1 . Combining this and related kinetic parameters shows that the 31 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for decarboxylation of OMP provided by OMPDC represents the sum of 11.8 and 10.6 kcal/mol stabilization by the substrate phosphodianion and the ribosyl ring, respectively, and an 8.6 kcal/mol stabilization from the orotate ring. The transition state for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FO is stabilized by 5.2, 7.2, and 9.0 kcal/mol, respectively, by 1.0 M phosphite dianion, d-glycerol 3-phosphate and d-erythritol 4-phosphate. The stabilization is due to the utilization of binding interactions of the substrate fragments to drive an enzyme conformational change, which locks the orotate ring of the whole substrate, or the substrate pieces in a caged complex. We propose that enzyme-activation is a possible, and perhaps probable, consequence of any substrate-induced enzyme conformational change.

  9. Remediation of Cu metal-induced accelerated Fenton reaction by potato peels bio-sorbent.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Rafia; Moin, Sumeira; Saleem, Ailyan

    2016-12-01

    This article has allied exposure to Ecological Particulate Matter (EPM) and its remediation using potato peel surface (PPC) bio-sorbent on two important edible crops Spinacia oleracea and Luffa acutangula. Fenton reaction acceleration was one of the major stress oxidation reactions as a consequence of iron and copper toxicity, which involve in the formation of hydroxyl radical (OH) through EPM. Results showed that the oxidative stress encouraged by Cu in both species that recruits the degradation of photosynthetic pigments, initiating decline in growth, reduced leaf area and degrade proteins. The plants were cultivated in natural environmental condition in three pots with three replicates like (a) control, (b) Cu treated and (c) treated water. Oxidative stress initiated by metal activity in Cu accumulated plant (b) were controlled, through bio-sorption of metal from contaminated water using PPC; arranged at laboratory scale. The acceleration of Fenton reaction was verified in terms of OH radical generation. These radicals were tested in aqueous extract of leaves of three types of plants via benzoic acid. The benzoic acid acts as a scavenger of OH radical due to which the decarboxylation of benzoic acid cured. Observation on (b) showed more rapid decarboxylation as compared to other plants which showed that Cu activity was much higher in (b) as compared to (a) and (c). The rapid decarboxylation of benzoic acid and lower chlorophyll contents in (b) suggest that Fenton reaction system was much enhanced by Cu-O and Fe-O chemistry that was successfully controlled by PPC which results in restoring the metabolic pathway and nullifying oxidative stress in (c).

  10. Reaction mechanism of recombinant 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III from Cuphea wrightii embryo, a fatty acid synthase type II condensing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Abbadi, A; Brummel, M; Schütt, B S; Slabaugh, M B; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    2000-01-01

    A unique feature of fatty acid synthase (FAS) type II of higher plants and bacteria is 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein (ACP)] synthase III (KAS III), which catalyses the committing condensing reaction. Working with KAS IIIs from Cuphea seeds we obtained kinetic evidence that KAS III catalysis follows a Ping-Pong mechanism and that these enzymes have substrate-binding sites for acetyl-CoA and malonyl-ACP. It was the aim of the present study to identify these binding sites and to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of recombinant Cuphea wrightii KAS III, which we expressed in Escherichia coli. We engineered mutants, which allowed us to dissect the condensing reaction into three stages, i.e. formation of acyl-enzyme, decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP, and final Claisen condensation. Incubation of recombinant enzyme with [1-(14)C]acetyl-CoA-labelled Cys(111), and the replacement of this residue by Ala and Ser resulted in loss of overall condensing activity. The Cys(111)Ser mutant, however, still was able to bind acetyl-CoA and to catalyse subsequent binding and decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP to acetyl-ACP. We replaced His(261) with Ala and Arg and found that the former lost activity, whereas the latter retained overall condensing activity, which indicated a general-base action of His(261). Double mutants Cys(111)Ser/His(261)Ala and Cys(111)Ser/His(261)Arg were not able to catalyse overall condensation, but the double mutant containing Arg induced decarboxylation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-ACP, a reaction indicating the role of His(261) in general-acid catalysis. Finally, alanine scanning revealed the involvement of Arg(150) and Arg(306) in KAS III catalysis. The results offer for the first time a detailed mechanism for a condensing reaction catalysed by a FAS type II condensing enzyme.

  11. Reaction mechanism of recombinant 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III from Cuphea wrightii embryo, a fatty acid synthase type II condensing enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Abbadi, A; Brummel, M; Schütt, B S; Slabaugh, M B; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    2000-01-01

    A unique feature of fatty acid synthase (FAS) type II of higher plants and bacteria is 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein (ACP)] synthase III (KAS III), which catalyses the committing condensing reaction. Working with KAS IIIs from Cuphea seeds we obtained kinetic evidence that KAS III catalysis follows a Ping-Pong mechanism and that these enzymes have substrate-binding sites for acetyl-CoA and malonyl-ACP. It was the aim of the present study to identify these binding sites and to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of recombinant Cuphea wrightii KAS III, which we expressed in Escherichia coli. We engineered mutants, which allowed us to dissect the condensing reaction into three stages, i.e. formation of acyl-enzyme, decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP, and final Claisen condensation. Incubation of recombinant enzyme with [1-(14)C]acetyl-CoA-labelled Cys(111), and the replacement of this residue by Ala and Ser resulted in loss of overall condensing activity. The Cys(111)Ser mutant, however, still was able to bind acetyl-CoA and to catalyse subsequent binding and decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP to acetyl-ACP. We replaced His(261) with Ala and Arg and found that the former lost activity, whereas the latter retained overall condensing activity, which indicated a general-base action of His(261). Double mutants Cys(111)Ser/His(261)Ala and Cys(111)Ser/His(261)Arg were not able to catalyse overall condensation, but the double mutant containing Arg induced decarboxylation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-ACP, a reaction indicating the role of His(261) in general-acid catalysis. Finally, alanine scanning revealed the involvement of Arg(150) and Arg(306) in KAS III catalysis. The results offer for the first time a detailed mechanism for a condensing reaction catalysed by a FAS type II condensing enzyme. PMID:10600651

  12. Bioenergetics in the pathogenesis, progression and treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Tanner, H A

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to review perturbations in bioenergetics that are redundant denominators in the diversity of factors mediating the pathogenesis and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension and arrhythmias. This paper likewise assesses the pharmacodynamics of widely prescribed drugs that enhance cellular respiration, maintain positive inotropic, chronotropic, dromotropic cardiac effects, sustain myocardial biosynthesis, reverse the morbidity of heart disease, and assure low levels of toxicity commensurate with the agent's biocompatability. Conversely, it is essential to delineate the modality of xenobiotic drugs that inhibit energy transformations, enhance the pathogenesis of CHD, worsen survival in CHF, provoke arrhythmogenic effects, and induce serious side-effects. Documented evidence, derived from biochemical, physiological and pharmacological data sources, consistently links inhibited mitochondrial decarboxylation to aberrations in cholesterol metabolism, biosynthesis, and calcium balance. Underutilized citrates evolved from inhibited decarboxylation are degraded to acetyl CoA. The acetate is the source of steroid synthesis; its carbon atoms form the molecular basis for all endogenous cholesterol. Myocardial anoxia, a consequence of the atheromatous plaque, inhibits ATP production, impairs biosynthesis, induces negative cardiac inotropic and chronotropic effects, and enhances the pathogenesis of CHF. Inhibited decarboxylation is likewise a factor in the mobilization of in situ cardiac Ca2+, resulting in arrhythmias provoked by the cation's deficiency. The restoration of calcium homeostasis decreases peripheral vasotension, reducing hypertension. Parameters drawn from endocrinopathies and the new physiological dimension of microgravity are developed to illustrate the detrimental effect of inhibited bioenergetics on cardiac pathomorphism and cardiovascular dysfunction. In conclusion, anabolic agents

  13. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid is a potent PPARγ agonist with neuroprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Xavier; Del Río, Carmen; Casano, Salvatore; Palomares, Belén; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Navarrete, Carmen; Sánchez-Carnerero, Carolina; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, Maria Luz; Meyer, Stefan; Morello, Gaetano; Appendino, Giovanni; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Phytocannabinoids are produced in Cannabis sativa L. in acidic form and are decarboxylated upon heating, processing and storage. While the biological effects of decarboxylated cannabinoids such as Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol have been extensively investigated, the bioactivity of Δ 9 -tetahydrocannabinol acid (Δ 9 -THCA) is largely unknown, despite its occurrence in different Cannabis preparations. Here we have assessed possible neuroprotective actions of Δ 9 -THCA through modulation of PPARγ pathways. The effects of six phytocannabinoids on PPARγ binding and transcriptional activity were investigated. The effect of Δ 9 -THCA on mitochondrial biogenesis and PPARγ coactivator 1-α expression was investigated in Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. The neuroprotective effect was analysed in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells expressing a mutated form of the huntingtin protein and in N2a cells infected with an adenovirus carrying human huntingtin containing 94 polyQ repeats (mHtt-q94). The in vivo neuroprotective activity of Δ 9 -THCA was investigated in mice intoxicated with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA). Cannabinoid acids bind and activate PPARγ with higher potency than their decarboxylated products. Δ 9 -THCA increased mitochondrial mass in neuroblastoma N2a cells and prevented cytotoxicity induced by serum deprivation in STHdh Q111/Q111 cells and by mutHtt-q94 in N2a cells. Δ 9 -THCA, through a PPARγ-dependent pathway, was neuroprotective in mice treated with 3-NPA, improving motor deficits and preventing striatal degeneration. In addition, Δ 9 -THCA attenuated microgliosis, astrogliosis and up-regulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3-NPA. Δ 9 -THCA shows potent neuroprotective activity, which is worth considering for the treatment of Huntington's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Properties of Intermediates in the Catalytic Cycle of Oxalate Oxidoreductase and Its Suicide Inactivation by Pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Oxalate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (OOR) is an unusual member of the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (OFOR) family in that it catalyzes the coenzyme A (CoA)-independent conversion of oxalate into 2 equivalents of carbon dioxide. This reaction is surprising because binding of CoA to the acyl-TPP intermediate of other OFORs results in formation of a CoA ester, and in the case of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), CoA binding generates the central metabolic intermediate acetyl-CoA and promotes a 105-fold acceleration of the rate of electron transfer. Here we describe kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational results to show that CoA has no effect on catalysis by OOR and describe the chemical rationale for why this cofactor is unnecessary in this enzymatic transformation. Our results demonstrate that, like PFOR, OOR binds pyruvate and catalyzes decarboxylation to form the same hydroxyethylidine–TPP (HE–TPP) intermediate and one-electron transfer to generate the HE–TPP radical. However, in OOR, this intermediate remains stranded at the active site as a covalent inhibitor. These and other results indicate that, like other OFOR family members, OOR generates an oxalate-derived adduct with TPP (oxalyl-TPP) that undergoes decarboxylation and one-electron transfer to form a radical intermediate remaining bound to TPP (dihydroxymethylidene–TPP). However, unlike in PFOR, where CoA binding drives formation of the product, in OOR, proton transfer and a conformational change in the “switch loop” alter the redox potential of the radical intermediate sufficiently to promote the transfer of an electron into the iron–sulfur cluster network, leading directly to a second decarboxylation and completing the catalytic cycle. PMID:28514140

  15. Structure and mechanism of human UDP-xylose synthase: evidence for a promoting role of sugar ring distortion in a three-step catalytic conversion of UDP-glucuronic acid.

    PubMed

    Eixelsberger, Thomas; Sykora, Sabine; Egger, Sigrid; Brunsteiner, Michael; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo; Brecker, Lothar; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2012-09-07

    UDP-xylose synthase (UXS) catalyzes decarboxylation of UDP-D-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose. In mammals, UDP-xylose serves to initiate glycosaminoglycan synthesis on the protein core of extracellular matrix proteoglycans. Lack of UXS activity leads to a defective extracellular matrix, resulting in strong interference with cell signaling pathways. We present comprehensive structural and mechanistic characterization of the human form of UXS. The 1.26-Å crystal structure of the enzyme bound with NAD(+) and UDP reveals a homodimeric short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), belonging to the NDP-sugar epimerases/dehydratases subclass. We show that enzymatic reaction proceeds in three chemical steps via UDP-4-keto-D-glucuronic acid and UDP-4-keto-pentose intermediates. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the D-glucuronyl ring accommodated by UXS features a marked (4)C(1) chair to B(O,3) boat distortion that facilitates catalysis in two different ways. It promotes oxidation at C(4) (step 1) by aligning the enzymatic base Tyr(147) with the reactive substrate hydroxyl and it brings the carboxylate group at C(5) into an almost fully axial position, ideal for decarboxylation of UDP-4-keto-D-glucuronic acid in the second chemical step. The protonated side chain of Tyr(147) stabilizes the enolate of decarboxylated C(4) keto species ((2)H(1) half-chair) that is then protonated from the Si face at C(5), involving water coordinated by Glu(120). Arg(277), which is positioned by a salt-link interaction with Glu(120), closes up the catalytic site and prevents release of the UDP-4-keto-pentose and NADH intermediates. Hydrogenation of the C(4) keto group by NADH, assisted by Tyr(147) as catalytic proton donor, yields UDP-xylose adopting the relaxed (4)C(1) chair conformation (step 3).

  16. Potential risks from UV/H2O2 oxidation and UV photocatalysis: A review of toxic, assimilable, and sensory-unpleasant transformation products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Huang, Nan; Xu, Zi-Bin; Lee, Min-Yong; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2018-05-15

    UV based advanced oxidation processes (UV-AOPs) that efficiently eliminate organic pollutants during water treatment have been the subject of numerous investigations. Most organic pollutants are not completely mineralized during UV-AOPs but are partially oxidized into transformation products (TPs), thereby adding complexity to the treated water and posing risks to humans, ecological systems, and the environment. While the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of pollutants have been widely documented, there is little information about the risks associated with TPs. In this review, we have collated recent knowledge about the harmful TPs that are generated in UV/H 2 O 2 and UV photocatalysis, two UV-AOPs that have been studied extensively. Toxic and assimilable TPs were ubiquitously observed in more than 80% of UV-AOPs of organic pollutants, of which the toxicity and assimilability levels changed with variations in the reaction conditions, such as the UV fluence and oxidant dosage. Previous studies and modeling assessments showed that toxic and assimilable TPs may be generated during hydroxylation, dealkylation, decarboxylation, and deamination. Among various reactions, TPs generated from dealkylation and decarboxylation were generally less and more toxic than the parent pollutants, respectively; TPs generated from decarboxylation and deamination were generally less and more assimilable than the parent pollutants, respectively. There is also potential concern about the sensory-unpleasant TPs generated by oxidations and subsequent metabolism of microorganisms. In this overview, we stress the need to include both the concentrations of organic pollutants and the evaluations of the risks from TPs for the quality assessments of the water treated by UV-AOPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Topology of AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, determined by site-directed fluorescence labeling.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Fujiki, Takashi; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Umeyama, Hideaki; Ye, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Nakajima, Tasuku; Uchida, Takafumi; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-10-01

    The gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate (Asp) with release of L-alanine (Ala) and CO(2). The decarboxylation reaction consists of two steps: electrogenic exchange of Asp for Ala catalyzed by an aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) and intracellular decarboxylation of the transported Asp catalyzed by an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD). AspT belongs to the newly classified aspartate:alanine exchanger family (transporter classification no. 2.A.81) of transporters. In this study, we were interested in the relationship between the structure and function of AspT and thus analyzed the topology by means of the substituted-cysteine accessibility method using the impermeant, fluorescent, thiol-specific probe Oregon Green 488 maleimide (OGM) and the impermeant, nonfluorescent, thiol-specific probe [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate bromide. We generated 23 single-cysteine variants from a six-histidine-tagged cysteineless AspT template. A cysteine position was assigned an external location if the corresponding single-cysteine variant reacted with OGM added to intact cells, and a position was assigned an internal location if OGM labeling required cell lysis. The topology analyses revealed that AspT has a unique topology; the protein has 10 transmembrane helices (TMs), a large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop (about 180 amino acids) between TM5 and TM6, N and C termini that face the periplasm, and a positively charged residue (arginine 76) within TM3. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure constructed by means of the full automatic modeling system indicates that the large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop of AspT possesses a TrkA_C domain and a TrkA_C-like domain and that the three-dimensional structures of these domains are similar to each other even though their amino acid sequences show low similarity.

  18. Topology of AspT, the Aspartate:Alanine Antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, Determined by Site-Directed Fluorescence Labeling▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nanatani, Kei; Fujiki, Takashi; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Umeyama, Hideaki; Ye, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Nakajima, Tasuku; Uchida, Takafumi; Maloney, Peter C.; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-01-01

    The gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-aspartate (Asp) with release of l-alanine (Ala) and CO2. The decarboxylation reaction consists of two steps: electrogenic exchange of Asp for Ala catalyzed by an aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) and intracellular decarboxylation of the transported Asp catalyzed by an l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase (AspD). AspT belongs to the newly classified aspartate:alanine exchanger family (transporter classification no. 2.A.81) of transporters. In this study, we were interested in the relationship between the structure and function of AspT and thus analyzed the topology by means of the substituted-cysteine accessibility method using the impermeant, fluorescent, thiol-specific probe Oregon Green 488 maleimide (OGM) and the impermeant, nonfluorescent, thiol-specific probe [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate bromide. We generated 23 single-cysteine variants from a six-histidine-tagged cysteineless AspT template. A cysteine position was assigned an external location if the corresponding single-cysteine variant reacted with OGM added to intact cells, and a position was assigned an internal location if OGM labeling required cell lysis. The topology analyses revealed that AspT has a unique topology; the protein has 10 transmembrane helices (TMs), a large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop (about 180 amino acids) between TM5 and TM6, N and C termini that face the periplasm, and a positively charged residue (arginine 76) within TM3. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure constructed by means of the full automatic modeling system indicates that the large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop of AspT possesses a TrkA_C domain and a TrkA_C-like domain and that the three-dimensional structures of these domains are similar to each other even though their amino acid sequences show low similarity. PMID:17660287

  19. Characterization of alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism in rat tissues: effects of dietary protein and fasting.

    PubMed

    Steele, R D; Weber, H; Patterson, J I

    1984-04-01

    The oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketobutyrate was studied in rat tissue preparations. Decarboxylation was confined to the mitochondrial fraction and required coenzyme A, NAD, TPP and FAD for optimal activity in solubilized preparations. The pH optimum for this reaction in liver was 7.8, somewhat higher than that reported for other alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases. An apparent Km of 0.63 mM for alpha-ketobutyrate was determined for the rat liver system. Competition by other alpha-keto acids at 10 mM concentrations inhibited enzyme activity up to 75%. Tissue distribution of alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase activity relative to liver activity was (in percent): liver, 100; heart, 127; brain, 63; kidney, 57; skeletal muscle, 38; and small intestine, 7. Total liver alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase was decreased by 40% after a 24-hour fast. Similar results were found for kidney and heart activity. alpha-Aminobutyrate-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in liver or kidney was not affected by fasting; however, it was induced in liver by 50% after feeding a 40% casein diet for 10 days compared to rats fed a 20% casein diet. Increasing the dietary casein content from 6 through 40% of the diet resulted in about a fivefold increase in liver alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase activity. The substantial extrahepatic capacity for alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism makes it unlikely that a loss of liver function results in an inability to metabolize alpha-ketobutyrate. Whether alpha-ketobutyrate is decarboxylated by a specific enzyme or by an already characterized complex such as pyruvate dehydrogenase or the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase remains to be established.

  20. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    PubMed

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate

  1. Role of aspartate 400, arginine 262, and arginine 401 in the catalytic mechanism of human coproporphyrinogen oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Jason R.; Stacey, Julie A.; Morgenthaler, Justin B.; Friesen, Jon A.; Lash, Timothy D.; Jones, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    Coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) is the sixth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing two sequential oxidative decarboxylations of propionate moieties on coproporphyrinogen-III forming protoporphyrinogen-IX through a monovinyl intermediate, harderoporphyrinogen. Site-directed mutagenesis studies were carried out on three invariant amino acids, aspartate 400, arginine 262, and arginine 401, to determine residue contribution to substrate binding and/or catalysis by human recombinant CPO. Kinetic analyses were performed on mutant enzymes incubated with three substrates, coproporphyrinogen-III, harderoporphyrinogen, or mesoporphyrinogen-VI, in order to determine catalytic ability to perform the first and/or second oxidative decarboxylation. When Asp400 was mutated to alanine no divinyl product was detected, but the production of a small amount of monovinyl product suggested the Km value for coproporphyrinogen-III did not change significantly compared to the wild-type enzyme. Upon mutation of Arg262 to alanine, CPO was again a poor catalyst for the production of a divinyl product, with a catalytic efficiency <0.01% compared to wild-type, including a 15-fold higher Km for coproporphyrinogen-III. The efficiency of divinyl product formation for mutant enzyme Arg401Ala was ∼3% compared to wild-type CPO, with a threefold increase in the Km value for coproporphyrinogen-III. These data suggest Asp400, Arg262, and Arg401 are active site amino acids critical for substrate binding and/or catalysis. Possible roles for arginine 262 and 401 include coordination of carboxylate groups of coproporphyrinogen-III, while aspartate 400 may initiate deprotonation of substrate, resulting in an oxidative decarboxylation. PMID:17242372

  2. Role of aspartate 400, arginine 262, and arginine 401 in the catalytic mechanism of human coproporphyrinogen oxidase.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jason R; Stacey, Julie A; Morgenthaler, Justin B; Friesen, Jon A; Lash, Timothy D; Jones, Marjorie A

    2007-03-01

    Coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) is the sixth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing two sequential oxidative decarboxylations of propionate moieties on coproporphyrinogen-III forming protoporphyrinogen-IX through a monovinyl intermediate, harderoporphyrinogen. Site-directed mutagenesis studies were carried out on three invariant amino acids, aspartate 400, arginine 262, and arginine 401, to determine residue contribution to substrate binding and/or catalysis by human recombinant CPO. Kinetic analyses were performed on mutant enzymes incubated with three substrates, coproporphyrinogen-III, harderoporphyrinogen, or mesoporphyrinogen-VI, in order to determine catalytic ability to perform the first and/or second oxidative decarboxylation. When Asp400 was mutated to alanine no divinyl product was detected, but the production of a small amount of monovinyl product suggested the K(m) value for coproporphyrinogen-III did not change significantly compared to the wild-type enzyme. Upon mutation of Arg262 to alanine, CPO was again a poor catalyst for the production of a divinyl product, with a catalytic efficiency <0.01% compared to wild-type, including a 15-fold higher K(m) for coproporphyrinogen-III. The efficiency of divinyl product formation for mutant enzyme Arg401Ala was approximately 3% compared to wild-type CPO, with a threefold increase in the K(m) value for coproporphyrinogen-III. These data suggest Asp400, Arg262, and Arg401 are active site amino acids critical for substrate binding and/or catalysis. Possible roles for arginine 262 and 401 include coordination of carboxylate groups of coproporphyrinogen-III, while aspartate 400 may initiate deprotonation of substrate, resulting in an oxidative decarboxylation.

  3. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991, report No. 40

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    Research under way in this project centers upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. Further experimentation was undertaken in a continuous flow unit with Black Thunder coal, where the primary goal was to determine the extent of decarboxylation and changes in the structure of the unconverted coal samples. The preliminary results indicated little conversion of the feed coal to THF solubles at 600{degrees}F, although the conversion did increase with increasing temperature up to 24% at 700{degrees}F. The level of decarboxylation was also low at the above reaction temperatures. Thus, presoakingmore » in a coal-derived solvent or even tetralin does not seem to be an effective means to achieve decarboxylation. Feedstock liquefaction studies were done with Martin Lake lignite in a two-stage continuous flow unit. Conversion to THF solubles was 82-87%. The Martin Lake lignite product was very light and no resid was produced. Sulfur levels in the product were low, although nitrogen levels were relatively high, requiring further processing by hydrotreating. An air-oxidized sample of Martin Lake lignite produced high oxygen containing resid at the expense of distillate, which clearly indicates that air oxidation of lignite is detrimental. The spent catalyst from the first stage was severely deactivated and generally, the spent catalysts from both stages were in worse condition than those from a previous run with Black Thunder coal. The completed testing results of Sandia`s NiMo/hydrous titanate oxide (NiMo/HTO) preparations are reported.« less

  4. A theoretical investigation of substituent effects on the stability and reactivity of N-heterocyclic olefin carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Wen, Jun; Li, Weiyi

    2015-08-21

    A theoretical study of substituent effects on the stability and reactivity of novel synthesized N-heterocyclic olefin (NHO) carboxylates has been performed using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) minimum and nucleophilicity index analyses. These calculations demonstrate that the nucleophilicity of free NHO is stronger than that of the NHO-CO2 adduct and, hence, the thermally unstable NHO-CO2 adduct should be a more efficient organocatalyst for nucleophile-mediated reactions. The stability of the NHO-CO2 adduct, as well as the reactivity of free NHO, is strongly dependent on the electronic and steric effects of the C- and N-substituents on the imidazole ring. This dependency is reflected by the measured MESP minimum for the carboxylate moiety, the NHO-CO2 adduct (Vmin1), and the terminal carbon atom of free NHO (Vmin2). C-Substituents exert only electronic effects while N-substituents exert both electronic and steric effects. In general, the electron-withdrawing groups on the C- and N-positions favor decarboxylation while weakening the reactivity of NHO. These positions favor decarboxylation due to the simultaneous decrease of the electronic density on the carboxyl moiety of the NHO-CO2 and the terminal carbon atom of olefins. Additionally, the balance between the stability of the NHO-CO2 and the reactivity of free NHO can be tuned by the combined effects of the C- and N-substituents. The introduction of weak electron-withdrawing groups at the C-position and aromatic substituents or similar ring-strained entities at the N-position favors decarboxylation of the NHO-CO2 adduct and ensures the free NHO as a strong nucleophile.

  5. L-dihydroxyphenylserine (Droxidopa): a new therapy for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: the US experience.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Horacio

    2008-03-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension results from failure to release norepinephrine, the neurotransmitter of sympathetic postganglionic neurons, appropriately upon standing. In double blind, cross over, placebo controlled trials, administration of droxidopa, a synthetic amino acid that is decarboxylated to norepinephrine by the enzyme L: -aromatic amino acid decarboxylase increases standing blood pressure, ameliorates symptoms of orthostatic hypotension and improves standing ability in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension due to degenerative autonomic disorders. The pressor effect results from conversion of droxidopa to norepinephrine outside the central nervous system both in neural and non-neural tissue. This mechanism of action makes droxidopa effective in patients with central and peripheral autonomic disorders.

  6. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  7. [Anaesthesia in patients with maple syrup urine disease. Case report and perioperative anaesthetic management].

    PubMed

    Haberstich, P; Kindler, C H; Schürch, M

    2010-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is a rare autosomal-recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficit of oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids. First symptoms appear in the neonatal period. Without treatment the disease is characterized by rapid progression of neurological symptoms. During stressful situations, such as infection or surgery, patients may experience severe ketoacidosis, rapid neurological deterioration and hypoglycemia. The perioperative management of a 26-year-old man with maple syrup urine disease is described, a review of the disease is given and anaesthesia-related implications are discussed.

  8. Facial Regioselective Synthesis of Novel Bioactive Spiropyrrolidine/Pyrrolizine-Oxindole Derivatives via a Three Components Reaction as Potential Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Hassaneen, Huwaida M E; Eid, Elshimaa M; Eid, Hamid A; Farghaly, Thoraya A; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser

    2017-02-26

    This article presents the synthesis of new derivatives of spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone- pyrrolidines 6a - j and spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone-pyrrolizines 8a - j, through a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethineylides generated from isatin, sarcosine, and l-proline, through a decarboxylative route with dipolarophile 4a - j . All of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against most of the test organisms. The tested compounds displayed excellent activity against all of the tested microorganisms.

  9. Biosynthesis of Rishirilide B.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Philipp; Wunsch-Palasis, Julia; Bechthold, Andreas; Paululat, Thomas

    2018-03-07

    Rishirilide B was isolated from Streptomyces rishiriensis and Streptomyces bottropensis on the basis of its inhibitory activity towards alpha-2-macroglobulin. The biosynthesis of rishirilide B was investigated by feeding experiments with different 13 C labelled precursors using the heterologous host Streptomyces albus J1074::cos4 containing a cosmid encoding of the gene cluster responsible for rishirilide B production. NMR spectroscopic analysis of labelled compounds demonstrate that the tricyclic backbone of rishirilide B is a polyketide synthesized from nine acetate units. One of the acetate units is decarboxylated to give a methyl group. The origin of the starter unit was determined to be isobutyrate.

  10. [Progress and prospect of bio-jet fuels industry in domestic and overseas].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Kai; Fu, Jie; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Huixia

    2016-10-25

    We reviewed the progress of the bio-jet fuels industry in recent years and systematically analyzed the technical routes that have been approved or in the pipeline for approval by ASTM D7566. In addition, we highlighted a novel pathway to produce drop-in fuel by near-critical hydrolysis of waste cooking oils or algal oils followed by catalytic decarboxylation. Also, we introduced the source of oils and fats feedstock and the domestic bio-jet fuel industry status during the 12th Five-Year-Plan period. Based on our own research, we discussed the prospect of the bio-jet fuel industry and future research needs.

  11. Effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the respiration of excised lamellibranch gill.

    PubMed

    MOORE, K E; MILTON, A S; GOSSELIN, R E

    1961-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine, but not acetylcholine or catecholamines, stimulated the endogenous respiration of the excised gills of Modiolus demissus and mytilus edulis. Respiratory stimulation by 5-hydroxytryptophan is presumed to have occurred only after it had been decarboxylated to 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2-Bromolysergic acid diethylamide inhibited the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine, while lysergic acid diethylamide mimicked it. The glycogen that was degraded during incubation of the gill cannot account for all of the oxygen that was consumed, indicating that some other substrate within the gill was also oxidized. That the metabolic actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine may be related to its cilio-acceleratory activity is discussed.

  12. Geochemical roots of autotrophic carbon fixation: hydrothermal experiments in the system citric acid, H 2O-(±FeS)-(±NiS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G. D.; Boctor, N. Z.; Hazen, R. M.; Brandes, J. A.; Morowitz, Harold J.; Yoder, H. S.

    2001-10-01

    Recent theories have proposed that life arose from primitive hydrothermal environments employing chemical reactions analogous to the reductive citrate cycle (RCC) as the primary pathway for carbon fixation. This chemistry is presumed to have developed as a natural consequence of the intrinsic geochemistry of the young, prebiotic, Earth. There has been no experimental evidence, however, demonstrating that there exists a natural pathway into such a cycle. Toward this end, the results of hydrothermal experiments involving citric acid are used as a method of deducing such a pathway. Homocatalytic reactions observed in the citric acid-H2O experiments encompass many of the reactions found in modern metabolic systems, i.e., hydration-dehydration, retro-Aldol, decarboxylation, hydrogenation, and isomerization reactions. Three principal decomposition pathways operate to degrade citric acid under thermal and aquathermal conditions. It is concluded that the acid catalyzed βγ decarboxylation pathway, leading ultimately to propene and CO2, may provide the most promise for reaction network reversal under natural hydrothermal conditions. Increased pressure is shown to accelerate the principal decarboxylation reactions under strictly hydrothermal conditions. The effect of forcing the pH via the addition of NaOH reveals that the βγ decarboxylation pathway operates even up to intermediate pH levels. The potential for network reversal (the conversion of propene and CO2 up to a tricarboxylic acid) is demonstrated via the Koch (hydrocarboxylation) reaction promoted heterocatalytically with NiS in the presence of a source of CO. Specifically, an olefin (1-nonene) is converted to a monocarboxylic acid; methacrylic acid is converted to the dicarboxylic acid, methylsuccinic acid; and the dicarboxylic acid, itaconic acid, is converted into the tricarboxylic acid, hydroaconitic acid. A number of interesting sulfur-containing products are also formed that may provide for additional

  13. Copper-catalyzed direct synthesis of diaryl 1,2-diketones from aryl iodides and propiolic acids.

    PubMed

    Min, Hongkeun; Palani, Thiruvengadam; Park, Kyungho; Hwang, Jinil; Lee, Sunwoo

    2014-07-03

    Benzil derivatives such as diaryl 1,2-diketones are synthesized via the direct decarboxylative coupling reaction of aryl propiolic acids and their oxidation. The optimized conditions are that the reaction of aryl propiolic acids and aryl iodides is conducted at 140 °C for 6 h in the presence of 10 mol % CuI/Cu(OTf)2 and Cs2CO3, after which HI (aq) is added and further reacted. The method shows good functional group tolerance toward ester, aldehyde, cyano, and nitro groups. In addition, symmetrical diaryl 1,2-diketones are obtained from aryl iodides and propiolic acid in the presence of palladium and copper catalysts.

  14. [Scombroid syndrome with severe and prolonged cardiovascular involvement].

    PubMed

    Tursi, A; Modeo, M E; Cascella, A M; Cuccorese, G; Spinazzola, A M; Miglietta, A

    2001-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a form of ichthyosarcotoxism caused by eating spoiled fish, mainly of the scombroid family. Inappropriate storage of these fish can lead to the decarboxylation of histidine in the flesh to histamine by enterobacteria. The symptoms of histamine poisoning mimic those of an IgE-mediated food allergy, as well as flushing, headache, diarrhea and palpitations. However, in some cases, the scombroid poisoning can be characterized by very serious symptoms, as well as cardiovascular compromission. We describe two cases of scombroid poisoning with severe hypotension requiring continuous intravenous dopamine with resolution of symptoms only several hours later.

  15. Flushing syndrome due to mahimahi (scombroid fish) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kim, R

    1979-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning, one of the most common adverse reactions to fish, is also probably one of the most common causes of a flushing syndrome. The reaction usually involves fishes of the Scombridae family but, in Hawaii, the reaction is most often due to mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Onset of the reaction is usually abrupt and commonly associated with a prominent flush resembling a sunburn. Headache, tachye to a toxin with histamine-like properties, which is formed because improper refrigeration enables endogenous bacteria to decarboxylate histidine normally present in dark-meat fishes. Symptoms are usually promptly relieved by parenteral antihistamine therapy.

  16. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  17. A Unique (3+2) Annulation Reaction between Meldrum's Acid and Nitrones: Mechanistic Insight by ESI-IMS-MS and DFT Studies.

    PubMed

    Lespes, Nicolas; Pair, Etienne; Maganga, Clisy; Bretier, Marie; Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent; Levacher, Vincent; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Afonso, Carlos; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Brière, Jean-François

    2018-03-15

    The fragile intermediates of the domino process leading to an isoxazolidin-5-one, triggered by unique reactivity between Meldrum's acid and an N-benzyl nitrone in the presence of a Brønsted base, were determined thanks to the softness and accuracy of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS). The combined DFT study shed light on the overall organocatalytic sequence that starts with a stepwise (3+2) annulation reaction that is followed by a decarboxylative protonation sequence encompassing a stereoselective pathway issue. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Measurement of sulfur-containing compounds involved in the metabolism and transport of cysteamine and cystamine. Regional differences in cerebral metabolism☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, John T.; Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; McLaren, Gordon D.; Denton, Travis T.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Jeitner, Thomas M.; Cooper, Arthur J.L.

    2009-01-01

    An HPLC method with coulometric detection is presented for the quantitation of cysteamine, cystamine, thialysine, glutathione, glutathione disulfide and an oxidized metabolite of thialysine [S-(2-aminoethyl)-l-cysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (AECK-DD)]. The advantage of coulometric detection is that derivatization is unnecessary if the analyte is redox sensitive. The method was used to quantitate several sulfur-containing compounds in plasma and brain following gavage feeding of cysteamine to rats. Cysteamine, cystamine, thialysine and AECK-DD were detected in the brains of these animals. Interestingly, cysteamine treatment resulted in greatly elevated levels of cerebral methionine, despite the fact that cysteamine is not a precursor of methionine. PMID:19523884

  19. Identification and in vitro cytotoxicity of ochratoxin A degradation products formed during coffee roasting.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Benedikt; Königs, Maika; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-07-23

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A is degraded by up to 90% during coffee roasting. In order to investigate this degradation, model heating experiments with ochratoxin A were carried out, and the reaction products were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Two ochratoxin A degradation products were identified, and their structure and absolute configuration were determined. As degradation reactions, the isomerization to 14-(R)-ochratoxin A and the decarboxylation to 14-decarboxy-ochratoxin A were identified. Subsequently, an analytical method for the determination of these compounds in roasted coffee was developed. Quantification was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS and the use of stable isotope dilution analysis. By using this method for the analysis of 15 coffee samples from the German market, it could be shown that, during coffee roasting, the ochratoxin A diastereomer 14-(R)-ochratoxin A was formed in amounts of up to 25.6% relative to ochratoxin A. The decarboxylation product was formed only in traces. For toxicity evaluations, first preliminary cell culture assays were performed with the two new substances. Both degradation products exhibited higher IC50 values and caused apoptotic effects with higher concentrations than ochratoxin A in cultured human kidney epithelial cells. Thus, these cell culture data suggest that the degradation products are less cytotoxic than ochratoxin A.

  20. Tyramine and phenylethylamine biosynthesis by food bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marcobal, Angela; De las Rivas, Blanca; Landete, José María; Tabera, Laura; Muñoz, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Tyramine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of tyramine, a biogenic amine. Any foods containing free tyrosine are subject to tyramine formation if poor sanitation and low quality foods are used or if the food is subject to temperature abuse or extended storage time. Tyramine is generated by decarboxylation of the tyrosine through tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) enzymes derived from the bacteria present in the food. Bacterial TDC have been only unequivocally identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in lactic acid bacteria. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent TDC encoding genes (tyrDC) appeared flanked by a similar genetic organization in several species of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting a common origin by a single mobile genetic element. Bacterial TDC are also able to decarboxylate phenylalanine to produce phenylethylamine (PEA), another biogenic amine. The molecular knowledge of the genes involved in tyramine production has led to the development of molecular methods for the detection of bacteria able to produce tyramine and PEA. These rapid and simple methods could be used for the analysis of the ability to form tyramine by bacteria in order to evaluate the potential risk of tyramine biosynthesis in food products.

  1. Acrylamide formation in different foods and potential strategies for reduction.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Richard H

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress made to date on acrylamide research pertaining to analytical methods, mechanisms of formation, and mitigation research in the major food categories. Initial difficulties with the establishment of reliable analytical methods have today in most cases been overcome, but challenges still remain in terms of the needs to develop simple and rapid test methods. Several researchers have identified that the main pathway of formation of acrylamide in foods is linked to the Maillard reaction and in particular the amino acid asparagine. Decarboxylation of the resulting Schiff base is a key step, and the reaction product may either furnish acrylamide directly or via 3-aminopropionamide. An alternative proposal is that the corresponding decarboxylated Amadori compound may release acrylamide by a beta-elimination reaction. Many experimental trials have been conducted in different foods, and a number of possible measures identified to relatively lower the amounts of acrylamide in food. The validity of laboratory trials must, however, be assessed under actual food processing conditions. Some progress in relatively lowering acrylamide in certain food categories has been achieved, but can at this stage be considered marginal. However, any options that are chosen to reduce acrylamide must be technologically feasible and also not negatively impact the quality and safety of the final product.

  2. Behavior of fluorinated analogs of L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine and L-threo-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine as substrates for Dopa decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Borri Voltattorni, Carla; Bertoldi, Mariarita; Bianconi, Silvia; Deng, Wei-ping; Wong, Kelli; Kim, InHo; Herbert, Brian; Kirk, Kenneth L

    2002-07-05

    We have determined the kinetic parameters for Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) of three ring-fluorinated analogs of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa). The rank order of catalytic efficiency of decarboxylation (k(cat)/K(m)) is Dopa>6-F-Dopa>2-F-Dopa>5-F-Dopa. This rank is consistent with previous in vivo and in vitro studies which indicate that, of the fluorinated analogs, 6-F-Dopa has pharmacokinetics that are most suited for positron emission tomographic (PET) evaluation of dopamine function. The effectiveness of PET as a diagnostic tool, the convenient half-life of (18)F (110 min) and the favorable pharmacokinetics of 6-[(18)F]FDOPA have combined to make this an extremely valuable reagent to study dopaminergic activity. The reactions of the related fluorinated DOPS analogs show that, while 6-F-threo-3,4-(dihydroxyphenyl)serine (DOPS) is decarboxylated at approximately the same rate as the non-fluorinated substrate, 2-F-threo-DOPS is not converted into the corresponding amine. In both cases a Pictet-Spengler condensation with the pyridoxal 5(')-phosphate (PLP) cofactor occurs to produce tetrahydroisoquinolines. Condensation of fluorinated catecholamines and catechol amino acids with endogenous aldehydes will be investigated as an approach to study possible mechanisms of L-Dopa-linked neurotoxicity. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  3. Prokaryotic Heme Biosynthesis: Multiple Pathways to a Common Essential Product

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Tamara A.; Gerdes, Svetlana; Jahn, Dieter; O'Brian, Mark R.; Warren, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The advent of heme during evolution allowed organisms possessing this compound to safely and efficiently carry out a variety of chemical reactions that otherwise were difficult or impossible. While it was long assumed that a single heme biosynthetic pathway existed in nature, over the past decade, it has become clear that there are three distinct pathways among prokaryotes, although all three pathways utilize a common initial core of three enzymes to produce the intermediate uroporphyrinogen III. The most ancient pathway and the only one found in the Archaea converts siroheme to protoheme via an oxygen-independent four-enzyme-step process. Bacteria utilize the initial core pathway but then add one additional common step to produce coproporphyrinogen III. Following this step, Gram-positive organisms oxidize coproporphyrinogen III to coproporphyrin III, insert iron to make coproheme, and finally decarboxylate coproheme to protoheme, whereas Gram-negative bacteria first decarboxylate coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX and then oxidize this to protoporphyrin IX prior to metal insertion to make protoheme. In order to adapt to oxygen-deficient conditions, two steps in the bacterial pathways have multiple forms to accommodate oxidative reactions in an anaerobic environment. The regulation of these pathways reflects the diversity of bacterial metabolism. This diversity, along with the late recognition that three pathways exist, has significantly slowed advances in this field such that no single organism's heme synthesis pathway regulation is currently completely characterized. PMID:28123057

  4. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community

    DOE PAGES

    Zargar, K.; Saville, R.; Phelan, R. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Anaerobic bacterial biosynthesis of toluene from phenylacetate was reported more than two decades ago, but the biochemistry underlying this novel metabolism has never been elucidated. Here we report results of in vitro characterization studies of a novel phenylacetate decarboxylase from an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (CsdBC). However, the toluene synthase under study appears to be able to catalyze both phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation. Observations suggesting that phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation inmore » complex cell-free extracts were catalyzed by the same enzyme include the following: (i) the specific activity for both substrates was comparable in cell-free extracts, (ii) the two activities displayed identical behavior during chromatographic separation of cell-free extract s, (iii) both activities were irreversibly inactivated upon exposure to O 2, and (iv) both activities were similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding and ultimately harnessing it for making bio-based toluene.« less

  5. New highlights on degradation process of verdigris from easel paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Carlotta; Zarkout, Karim; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Mirambet, François; Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Pagès-Camagna, Sandrine; Reguer, Solenn; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Le Du, Yann; Griesmar, Pascal; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Menu, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Verdigris is a green copper organometallic pigment, widely used in paintings during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. With ageing, chromatic modifications like browning or darkening can be observed on those green painted layers. An original but crucial approach has been developed based on the characterization of a reference neutral verdigris pigment—anhydrous copper acetate—and model samples, made of verdigris and linseed oil. Samples have undergone artificial ageing (temperature, light) to reproduce the color change effect. They were analysed before and after accelerated ageing tests by a complementary set of classical techniques: colorimetry, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and UV-visible absorption. Our experiments revealed that the incorporation of the verdigris pigment in linseed oil induces a transformation of the copper acetate bimetallic structure, with the formation of monomeric species. These monomers, however, are not directly responsible for the darkening. The chromatic alteration seems instead linked to the transient formation of Cu(I) in the copper complexes of the pigment/oil system. This formation could be initiated by ambient light absorption through ligand-to-metal charge transfer, which favors the decarboxylation of the copper complexes leading to the reduction of Cu(II) into Cu(I). Moreover, dioxygen can react with partially decarboxylated dimers to form peroxy-Cu dimer complexes that can be responsible for the darkening.

  6. Driving Protein Conformational Changes with Light: Photoinduced Structural Rearrangement in a Heterobimetallic Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Pearson T; Griese, Julia J; Branca, Rui M; Miller, Effie K; Smith, Zachary R; Eirich, Jürgen; Högbom, Martin; Shafaat, Hannah S

    2018-01-31

    The heterobimetallic R2lox protein binds both manganese and iron ions in a site-selective fashion and activates oxygen, ultimately performing C-H bond oxidation to generate a tyrosine-valine cross-link near the active site. In this work, we demonstrate that, following assembly, R2lox undergoes photoinduced changes to the active site geometry and metal coordination motif. Through spectroscopic, structural, and mass spectrometric characterization, the photoconverted species is found to consist of a tyrosinate-bound iron center following light-induced decarboxylation of a coordinating glutamate residue and cleavage of the tyrosine-valine cross-link. This process occurs with high quantum efficiencies (Φ = 3%) using violet and near-ultraviolet light, suggesting that the photodecarboxylation is initiated via ligand-to-metal charge transfer excitation. Site-directed mutagenesis and structural analysis suggest that the cross-linked tyrosine-162 is the coordinating residue. One primary product is observed following irradiation, indicating potential use of this class of proteins, which contains a putative substrate channel, for controlled photoinduced decarboxylation processes, with relevance for in vivo functionality of R2lox as well as application in environmental remediation.

  7. SciTech Connect

    Lemonidou, Angeliki A.; Vagia, Ekaterini C.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    Reforming of acetic acid was investigated on Rh supported on CeO2-ZrO2 modified with 3 wt % La. The active catalyst converted acetic acid to H-2-rich gas and hardly formed coke. The low rate of coke formation is concluded to be related to the presence of redox-active oxygen limiting the concentration of coke precursors. Temperature-programmed O-18(2)) isotope exchange measurements showed that the La2O3 and Rh enhanced the mobility of lattice oxygen compared with that of the parent CeO2-ZrO2. Ketonization and decarboxylation of acetic acid are the dominating reactions over the latter up to 600 degrees C, whereas above 600 degrees C,more » steam reforming and water gas shift also contribute. Over 0.5 wt % Rh on La2O3/CeO2-ZrO2, reforming and water gas shift reactions dominate, even below 300 degrees C, producing mostly H-2 and CO2. Using isotope labeling, it is shown that acetic acid adsorbs dissociatively on Rh, forming acetates, which sequentially decarboxylate and form surface methyl groups. The latter are in turn converted to CO, CO2, and H-2.« less

  8. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Zargar, K.; Saville, R.; Phelan, R. M.

    Anaerobic bacterial biosynthesis of toluene from phenylacetate was reported more than two decades ago, but the biochemistry underlying this novel metabolism has never been elucidated. Here we report results of in vitro characterization studies of a novel phenylacetate decarboxylase from an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (CsdBC). However, the toluene synthase under study appears to be able to catalyze both phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation. Observations suggesting that phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation inmore » complex cell-free extracts were catalyzed by the same enzyme include the following: (i) the specific activity for both substrates was comparable in cell-free extracts, (ii) the two activities displayed identical behavior during chromatographic separation of cell-free extract s, (iii) both activities were irreversibly inactivated upon exposure to O 2, and (iv) both activities were similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding and ultimately harnessing it for making bio-based toluene.« less

  9. Can You Pass the Acid Test? Critical Review and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) is the acidic precursor of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound found in Cannabis sativa . THCA-A is biosynthesized and accumulated in glandular trichomes present on flowers and leaves, where it serves protective functions and can represent up to 90% of the total THC contained in the plant. THCA-A slowly decarboxylates to form THC during storage and fermentation and can further degrade to cannabinol. Decarboxylation also occurs rapidly during baking of edibles, smoking, or vaporizing, the most common ways in which the general population consumes Cannabis. Contrary to THC, THCA-A does not elicit psychoactive effects in humans and, perhaps for this reason, its pharmacological value is often neglected. In fact, many studies use the term "THCA" to refer indistinctly to several acid derivatives of THC. Despite this perception, many in vitro studies seem to indicate that THCA-A interacts with a number of molecular targets and displays a robust pharmacological profile that includes potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and antineoplastic properties. Moreover, the few in vivo studies performed with THCA-A indicate that this compound exerts pharmacological actions in rodents, likely by engaging type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Although these findings may seem counterintuitive due to the lack of cannabinoid-related psychoactivity, a careful perusal of the available literature yields a plausible explanation to this conundrum and points toward novel therapeutic perspectives for raw, unheated Cannabis preparations in humans.

  10. Fractionation of carbon (13C/12C) isotopes in glycine decarboxylase reaction.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, A A; Bykova, N V; Igamberdiev, A U

    1996-05-20

    Fractionation of carbon isotopes (13C/12C) by glycine decarboxylase (GDC) was investigated in mitochondrial preparations isolated from photosynthetic tissues of different plants (Pisum, Medicago, Triticum, Hordeum, Spinacia, Brassica, Wolffia). 20 mM glycine was supplied to mitochondria, and the CO2 formed was absorbed and analyzed for isotopic content. CO2 evolved by mitochondria of Pisum was enriched up to 8% in 12C compared to the carboxylic atom of glycine. CO2 evolved by mitochondria of the other plants investigated was enriched by 5-16% in 13C. Carbon isotope effects were sensitive to reaction conditions (pH and the presence of GDC cofactors). Theoretical treatment of the reaction mechanism enabled us to conclude that the value and even the sign of the carbon isotope effect in glycine decarboxylation depend on the contribution of the enzyme-substrate binding step and of the decarboxylation step itself to the overall reaction rate. Therefore, the fractionation of carbon isotopes in GDC reaction was revealed which provides essential isotopic effects in plants in addition to the well-known effect of carbon isotope fractionation by the central photosynthetic enzyme, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase.

  11. [Effect of salt stress on respiration metabolism in higher plants].

    PubMed

    Mittova, V O; Igamberdiev, A U

    2000-01-01

    We studied the activity of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, catalase, and peroxidase as well as the rate of 14CO2 release after introduction of labeled substrates for glycolysis and citrate acid cycle within 24 h after salt stress (1% NaCl) in 10-14 days old germinants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) as well as thallus of small duckweed (Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Hork ex Wimmer). Oscillations in the enzymes activity with 4-6 h period have been revealed under stress conditions. Activity of glycolysis decreased in wheat and maize and increased in duckweed under the influence of stress stimulus. Six hours after NaCl action decarboxylation of exogenous citrate and succinate was enhanced in all three plants while the rate of exogenous malate decarboxylation was decreased. We conclude that adaptation of higher plans to salinization is accompanied by rearrangements in oxidative metabolism reflected by oscillations in activity of the enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism.

  12. Lys314 is a nucleophile in non-classical reactions of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Daniel; Diederichsen, Ulf; Rudolph, Markus Georg

    2009-07-06

    Orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPD) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) to uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) in an extremely proficient manner. The reaction does not require any cofactors and proceeds by an unknown mechanism. In addition to decarboxylation, OMPD is able to catalyze other reactions. We show that several C6-substituted UMP derivatives undergo hydrolysis or substitution reactions that depend on a lysine residue (Lys314) in the OMPD active site. 6-Cyano-UMP is converted to UMP, and UMP derivatives with good leaving groups inhibit OMPD by a suicide mechanism in which Lys314 covalently binds to the substrate. These non-classical reactivities of human OMPD were characterized by cocrystallization and freeze-trapping experiments with wild-type OMPD and two active-site mutants by using substrate and inhibitor nucleotides. The structures show that the C6-substituents are not coplanar with the pyrimidine ring. The extent of this substrate distortion is a function of the substituent geometry. Structure-based mechanisms for the reaction of 6-substituted UMP derivatives are extracted in accordance with results from mutagenesis, mass spectrometry, and OMPD enzyme activity. The Lys314-based mechanisms explain the chemodiversity of OMPD, and offer a strategy to design mechanism-based inhibitors that could be used for antineoplastic purposes for example.

  13. ESTIMATION OF FAT ABSORPTION BY MONITORING OF EXPIRED RADIOACTIVE CARBON DIOXIDE AFTER FEEDING A RADIOACTIVE FAT

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, A.D.; Cozzetto, F.J.; Bennett, L.R.

    1962-03-01

    A rapid, quantitative method based upon the oxidative decarboxylation of an easily, absorbable, short-chain fatty acid is described. The method for diagnosis of steatorrhea is based upon oral administration of radioactive glyceryl trioctanoate (RATO) and study of its oxidative decarboxylation as determined by monitoring expired C/sup 14/O/sub 2/. Results on 20 controls and 21 patients with steatorrhea of various types clearly separated 15 of the controls from all of the patients with steatorrhea, and 14 of 21 patients with steatorrhea fell below the lowest value encountered in 20 control subjects. The test was performed in the fasting patient, who wasmore » given a gelatin capsule containing 2 to 3 C of RATO in a corn oil base, and after 10 min C/sup 14/O/ sub 2/ in the expired air was measured. By calibration against standard sources the C/sup 14/O/sub 2/ is expressed in microcuries of activity. The average delay time is 26 min with a range of 8 to 54 min. The method thus provides a simple indication that gastric emptying has begun. (TCO)« less

  14. Direct Production of Propene from the Thermolysis of Poly(..beta..-hydroxybutyrate)

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi M.; Johnson, David K.

    To transform biomass components into hydrocarbon fuels it is clear that there are two main transformations that need to occur, i.e., deoxygenation and carbon chain extension. The potential routes for decreasing the oxygen content of biomass intermediates include dehydration, hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation. One route that is examined here is the conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) to alkenes that would be intermediates to hydrocarbon fuels.Thermal breakdown of PHA proceeds via an intermediate carboxylic acid, which can then be decarboxylated to an alkene. Oligomerization of alkenes by well-known commercial technologies would permit production of a range of hydrocarbon fuels from a carbohydrate derivedmore » intermediate. Moreover, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be produced in Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) and Alcaligenes eutrophus on a variety of carbon sources including glucose, fructose and glycerol with PHB accumulation reaching 75 percent of dry cell mass. We conducted thermal conversion of PHB and pure crotonic acid (CA), the intermediate carboxylic acid produced by thermal depolymerization of PHB, in a flow-through reactor. The results of initial experiments on the thermal conversion of CA showed that up to 75 mole percent yields of propene could be achieved by optimizing the residence time and temperature of the reactor. Further experiments are being investigated to optimize the reactor parameters and enhance propene yields via thermal conversion of PHB.« less

  15. Amixicile, a novel strategy for targeting oral anaerobic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hutcherson, Justin A; Sinclair, Kathryn M; Belvin, Benjamin R; Gui, Qin; Hoffman, Paul S; Lewis, Janina P

    2017-09-05

    The oral microflora is composed of both health-promoting as well as disease-initiating bacteria. Many of the disease-initiating bacteria are anaerobic and include organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. Here we investigated a novel therapeutic, amixicile, that targets pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major metabolic enzyme involved in energy generation through oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. PFOR is present in these anaerobic pathogenic bacteria and thus we hypothesized that amixicile would effectively inhibit their growth. In general, PFOR is present in all obligate anaerobic bacteria, while oral commensal aerobes, including aerotolerant ones, such as Streptococcus gordonii, use pyruvate dehydrogenase to decarboxylate pyruvate. Accordingly, we observed that growth of the PFOR-containing anaerobic periodontal pathogens, grown in both monospecies as well as multispecies broth cultures was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner while that of S. gordonii was unaffected. Furthermore, we also show that amixicile is effective against these pathogens grown as monospecies and multispecies biofilms. Finally, amixicile is the first selective therapeutic agent active against bacteria internalized by host cells. Together, the results show that amixicile is an effective inhibitor of oral anaerobic bacteria and as such, is a good candidate for treatment of periodontal diseases.

  16. Influence of Solvent on Liquid Phase Hydrodeoxygenation of Furfural-Acetone Condensation Adduct using Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2 Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfa, S. M.; Mahfud, A.; Nabilah, S.; Rahman, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    Influence of water and acidic protic solvent on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the furfural-acetone adduct (FAA) over Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2 (NiAZ) catalysts were investigated. The HDO of FAA was carried out in a batch reactor at 150°C for 8 hours. The NiAZ catalysts were home-made catalysts which were prepared by wet impregnation method with 10 and 20% nickel loading. The HDO reaction of FAA using 10NiAZ in water at 150°C gave alkane and oxygenated hydrocarbons at 31.41% with selectivity over tridecane (C13) in 6.67%. On the other hand, a reaction using acetic acid:water (1:19 v/v) in similar reaction condition gave only oxygenated compounds and hydrocracking product (C8-C10). The formation of tridecane (C13) was proposed by hydrogenation of C=O and C=C followed by decarboxylation without hydrocracking process. The presence of water facilitated decarboxylation mechanism by stabilized dehydrogenated derivatives of FAA.

  17. Adsorption of Streptococcus faecalis on diatomite carriers for use in biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A; Bay, P; Legge, R L; Moo-Young, M

    1990-01-01

    Adsorption of cells on particulate carriers is potentially one of the most cost-effective immobilization techniques available. Diatomite carriers, such as Celite, have desirable physical properties, are inexpensive, and are suitable for both mycelial and bacterial systems. This work investigated the use of diatomite carriers as a biocatalyst support in a packed-bed reactor where L-tyrosine was enzymatically decarboxylated using adsorbed, non-growing cells of Streptococcus faecalis. Composition of microbial adsorption on different Celite types, with mean pore sizes ranging from 0.55 to 22 microns, showed there was no significant difference in biomass loading capacity under the conditions used. Using Celite 560, biomass loadings in a packed-bed reactor varied from 10 to 30 g dm-3 of reactor volume, which compares favourably with other adsorption methods. When used to decarboxylate L-tyrosine, the reactor was found to have a half-life of 15-20 h. A combination of enzyme activity loss and slow leakage of biomass from the packed-bed reactor was responsible for the decline in conversion. Treatment of the S. faecalis cells with glutaraldehyde significantly reduced the enzyme activity loss and extended the reactor half-life to 65 h, but had little effect on the rate of cell leakage from the reactor. Further work on reduction of cell leakage rate seems necessary for evaluation of the system's practicality.

  18. Selectivity Control in the Tandem Aromatization of Bio‐Based Furanics Catalyzed by Solid Acids and Palladium

    PubMed Central

    Genuino, Homer C.; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; van der Waal, Jan C.; van Haveren, Jacco; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bio‐based furanics can be aromatized efficiently by sequential Diels–Alder (DA) addition and hydrogenation steps followed by tandem catalytic aromatization. With a combination of zeolite H‐Y and Pd/C, the hydrogenated DA adduct of 2‐methylfuran and maleic anhydride can thus be aromatized in the liquid phase and, to a certain extent, decarboxylated to give high yields of the aromatic products 3‐methylphthalic anhydride and o‐ and m‐toluic acid. Here, it is shown that a variation in the acidity and textural properties of the solid acid as well as bifunctionality offers a handle on selectivity toward aromatic products. The zeolite component was found to dominate selectivity. Indeed, a linear correlation is found between 3‐methylphthalic anhydride yield and the product of (strong acid/total acidity) and mesopore volume of H‐Y, highlighting the need for balanced catalyst acidity and porosity. The efficient coupling of the dehydration and dehydrogenation steps by varying the zeolite‐to‐Pd/C ratio allowed the competitive decarboxylation reaction to be effectively suppressed, which led to an improved 3‐methylphthalic anhydride/total aromatics selectivity ratio of 80 % (89 % total aromatics yield). The incorporation of Pd nanoparticles in close proximity to the acid sites in bifunctional Pd/H‐Y catalysts also afforded a flexible means to control aromatic products selectivity, as further demonstrated in the aromatization of hydrogenated DA adducts from other diene/dienophile combinations. PMID:27557889

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pathways of protein, lipid and carbohydrate isolated from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Sheng, Lili; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2017-04-01

    Microalgal components were isolated gradually to get lipid-rich, protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich components. The aim of this work was to study pyrolysis mechanism of microalgae by real isolated real algae components. Thermogrametric analysis (DTG) curve of microalgae was fitted by single pyrolysis curves of protein, lipid and carbohydrate except special zones, which likely affected by cell disruption and hydrolysis mass loss. Experimental microalgae liquefaction without water index N was 0.6776, 0.3861 and 0.2856 for isolated lipid, protein and carbohydrate. Pyrolysis pathways of lipid are decarboxylation, decarbonylation, fragmentation of glycerin moieties and steroid to form hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters. Pyrolysis pathways of protein are decarboxylation, deamination, hydrocarbon residue fragmentation, dimerization and fragmentation of peptide bonds to form amide/amines/nitriles, esters, hydrocarbons and N-heterocyclic compounds, especially diketopiperazines (DKPs). Pyrolysis pathways of carbohydrate are dehydrated reactions and further fragmentation to form ketones and aldehyde, decomposition of lignin to form phenols, and fragmentation of lipopolysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82more » and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.« less

  1. Molecular basis of P450 OleTJE: an investigation of substrate binding mechanism and major pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Liu, Lin; Guo, Li Zhong; Yao, Xiao Jun; Yang, Jian Ming

    2017-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 OleTJE has attracted much attention for its ability to catalyze the decarboxylation of long chain fatty acids to generate alkenes, which are not only biofuel molecule, but also can be used broadly for making lubricants, polymers and detergents. In this study, the molecular basis of the binding mechanism of P450 OleTJE for arachidic acid, myristic acid, and caprylic acid was investigated by utilizing conventional molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculations. Moreover, random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations were performed to uncover the most probable access/egress channels for different fatty acids. The predicted binding free energy shows an order of arachidic acid < myristic acid < caprylic acid. Key residues interacting with three substrates and residues specifically binding to one of them were identified. The RAMD results suggest the most likely channel for arachidic acid, myristic acid, and caprylic acid are 2e/2b, 2a and 2f/2a, respectively. It is suggested that the reaction is easier to carry out in myristic acid bound system than those in arachidic acid and caprylic acid bound system based on the distance of Hβ atom of substrate relative to P450 OleTJE Compound I states. This study provided novel insight to understand the substrate preference mechanism of P450 OleTJE and valuable information for rational enzyme design for short chain fatty acid decarboxylation.

  2. Activities of Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases in Various Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1985-01-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to Vmax, ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. α-Difluoromethylornithine and α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species. No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed. In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum. PMID:16664442

  3. Activities of arginine and ornithine decarboxylases in various plant species.

    PubMed

    Birecka, H; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1985-10-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to V(max), ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine and alpha-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species.No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed.In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum.

  4. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  5. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Zargar, K; Saville, R; Phelan, R M; Tringe, S G; Petzold, C J; Keasling, J D; Beller, H R

    2016-08-10

    Anaerobic bacterial biosynthesis of toluene from phenylacetate was reported more than two decades ago, but the biochemistry underlying this novel metabolism has never been elucidated. Here we report results of in vitro characterization studies of a novel phenylacetate decarboxylase from an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (CsdBC). However, the toluene synthase under study appears to be able to catalyze both phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation. Observations suggesting that phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation in complex cell-free extracts were catalyzed by the same enzyme include the following: (i) the specific activity for both substrates was comparable in cell-free extracts, (ii) the two activities displayed identical behavior during chromatographic separation of cell-free extracts, (iii) both activities were irreversibly inactivated upon exposure to O2, and (iv) both activities were similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding and ultimately harnessing it for making bio-based toluene.

  6. Oxidation of benzoic acid by heat-activated persulfate: Effect of temperature on transformation pathway and product distribution.

    PubMed

    Zrinyi, Nick; Pham, Anh Le-Tuan

    2017-09-01

    Heat activates persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) into sulfate radical (SO 4 - ), a powerful oxidant capable of transforming a wide variety of contaminants. Previous studies have shown that an increase in temperature accelerates the rates of persulfate activation and contaminant transformation. However, few studies have considered the effect of temperature on contaminant transformation pathway. The objective of this study was to determine how temperature (T = 22-70 °C) influences the activation of persulfate, the transformation of benzoic acid (i.e., a model compound), and the distribution of benzoic acid oxidation products. The time-concentration profiles of the products suggest that benzoic acid was transformed via decarboxylation and hydroxylation mechanisms, with the former becoming increasingly important at elevated temperatures. The pathway through which the products were further oxidized was also influenced by the temperature of persulfate activation. Our findings suggest that the role of temperature in the persulfate-based treatment systems is not limited only to controlling the rates of sulfate and hydroxyl radical generation. The ability of sulfate radical to initiate decarboxylation reactions and, more broadly, fragmentation reactions, as well as the effect of temperature on these transformation pathways could be important to the transformation of a number of organic contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus.

    PubMed

    De Masi, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico; Pignone, Domenico; Servillo, Luigi; Facchiano, Angelo

    2017-02-11

    Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N , N , N -trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus . We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis , available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus .

  8. Structure-function studies on the active site of the coelenterazine-dependent luciferase from Renilla.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jongchan; Howell, Matthew H; von Arnim, Albrecht G

    2008-04-01

    Renilla luciferase (RLUC) is a versatile tool for gene expression assays and in vivo biosensor applications, but its catalytic mechanism remains to be elucidated. RLUC is evolutionarily related to the alpha/beta hydrolase family. Its closest known homologs are bacterial dehalogenases, raising the question of how a protein with a hydrolase fold can function as a decarboxylating oxygenase. Molecular docking simulations with the coelenterazine substrate against an RLUC homology model as well as a recently determined RLUC crystal structure were used to build hypotheses to identify functionally important residues, which were subsequently tested by site-directed mutagenesis, heterologous expression, and bioluminescence emission spectroscopy. The data highlighted two triads of residues that are critical for catalysis. The putative catalytic triad residues D120, E144, and H285 bear only limited resemblance to those found in the active site of aequorin, a coelenterazine-utilizing photoprotein, suggesting that the reaction scheme employed by RLUC differs substantially from the one established for aequorin. The role of H285 in catalysis was further supported by inhibition using diethylpyrocarbonate. Multiple substitutions of N53, W121, and P220--three other residues implicated in product binding in the homologous dehalogenase Sphingomonas LinB--also supported their involvement in catalysis. Together with luminescence spectra, our data lead us to propose that the conserved catalytic triad of RLUC is directly involved in the decarboxylation reaction of coelenterazine to produce bioluminescence, while the other active-site residues are used for binding of the substrate.

  9. Stimulation of mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism and citrulline synthesis by dexamethasone. Effect of isolation and incubation media.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A D; Titheradge, M A

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic mitochondria isolated in 0.3 M-sucrose or 0.3 M-mannitol from rats treated for 3h with dexamethasone displayed stimulated rates of pyruvate carboxylation and decarboxylation and citrulline synthesis when compared with organelles from control animals. Mitochondria isolated in mannitol also displayed elevated rates of pyruvate carboxylation and decarboxylation when compared with those isolated in sucrose, and this stimulation was shown to be independent of the lengthy isolation procedure. Citrulline synthesis proceeded at similar rates in mitochondria isolated in either sugar. The concentration of exchangeable adenine nucleotides was identical in mitochondria isolated in sucrose or mannitol, suggesting that those prepared in the former sugar are not more permeable to metabolites than those prepared in the latter. The matrix volume of mitochondria isolated in mannitol was greater than that of mitochondria isolated in sucrose, and the effect of mannitol on pyruvate metabolism was mimicked by swelling the organelles in hypo-osmotic sucrose. Measurements of the extra-matrix volume by using [14C]sucrose or [14C]mannitol suggest that mannitol can permeate mitochondria to a greater extent than can sucrose. The possibility that mannitol elicits its effect by entering the mitochondrial matrix and so initiating swelling is discussed. PMID:6433898

  10. Structure of a prokaryotic virtual proton pump at 3.2 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yiling; Jayaram, Hariharan; Shane, Tania

    2009-09-15

    To reach the mammalian gut, enteric bacteria must pass through the stomach. Many such organisms survive exposure to the harsh gastric environment (pH 1.5-4) by mounting extreme acid-resistance responses, one of which, the arginine-dependent system of Escherichia coli, has been studied at levels of cellular physiology, molecular genetics and protein biochemistry. This multiprotein system keeps the cytoplasm above pH 5 during acid challenge by continually pumping protons out of the cell using the free energy of arginine decarboxylation. At the heart of the process is a 'virtual proton pump' in the inner membrane, called AdiC, that imports L-arginine from themore » gastric juice and exports its decarboxylation product agmatine. AdiC belongs to the APC superfamily of membrane proteins, which transports amino acids, polyamines and organic cations in a multitude of biological roles, including delivery of arginine for nitric oxide synthesis, facilitation of insulin release from pancreatic {beta}-cells, and, when inappropriately overexpressed, provisioning of certain fast-growing neoplastic cells with amino acids. High-resolution structures and detailed transport mechanisms of APC transporters are currently unknown. Here we describe a crystal structure of AdiC at 3.2 {angstrom} resolution. The protein is captured in an outward-open, substrate-free conformation with transmembrane architecture remarkably similar to that seen in four other families of apparently unrelated transport proteins.« less

  11. Aerobic Oxidation of Xylose to Xylaric acid in Water over Pt Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Saha, Basudeb; Sadula, Sunitha

    2018-05-02

    Energy-efficient catalytic conversion of biomass intermediates to functional chemicals can enable bio-products viable. Herein, we report an efficient and low temperature aerobic oxidation of xylose to xylaric acid, a promising bio-based chemical for the production of glutaric acid, over commercial catalysts in water. Among several heterogeneous catalysts investigated, Pt/C exhibits the best activity. Systematic variation of reaction parameters in the pH range of 2.5 to 10 suggests that the reaction is fast at higher temperatures but high C-C scission of intermediate C5-oxidized products to low carbon carboxylic acids undermines xylaric acid selectivity. The C-C cleavage is also high in basic solution. The oxidation at neutral pH and 60 C achieves the highest xylaric acid yield (64%). O2 pressure and Pt-amount have significant influence on the reactivity. Decarboxylation of short chain carboxylic acids results in formation of CO2, causing some carbon loss; however such decarboxylation is slow in the presence of xylose. The catalyst retained comparable activity, in terms of product selectivity, after five cycles with no sign of Pt leaching. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Putative Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase from Picrophilus torridus Is in Reality a Mevalonate-3-Kinase with High Potential for Bioproduction of Isobutene

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Stephen J.; Eastham, Graham; Licence, Peter; Stephens, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MVD) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation/decarboxylation of (R)-mevalonate-5-diphosphate to isopentenyl pyrophosphate in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. MVD is a key enzyme in engineered metabolic pathways for bioproduction of isobutene, since it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate (3-HIV) to isobutene, an important platform chemical. The putative homologue from Picrophilus torridus has been identified as a highly efficient variant in a number of patents, but its detailed characterization has not been reported. In this study, we have successfully purified and characterized the putative MVD from P. torridus. We discovered that it is not a decarboxylase per se but an ATP-dependent enzyme, mevalonate-3-kinase (M3K), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of MVA to mevalonate-3-phosphate. The enzyme's potential in isobutene formation is due to the conversion of 3-HIV to an unstable 3-phosphate intermediate that undergoes consequent spontaneous decarboxylation to form isobutene. Isobutene production rates were as high as 507 pmol min−1 g cells−1 using Escherichia coli cells expressing the enzyme and 2,880 pmol min−1 mg protein−1 with the purified histidine-tagged enzyme, significantly higher than reported previously. M3K is a key enzyme of the novel MVA pathway discovered very recently in Thermoplasma acidophilum. We suggest that P. torridus metabolizes MVA by the same pathway. PMID:25636853

  13. Cancer-associated Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations Inactivate NADPH-dependent Reductive Carboxylation*

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Roberta; Subramanian, Chitra; Jackowski, Suzanne; Rock, Charles O.

    2012-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is a reversible enzyme that catalyzes the NADP+-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate (ICT) to α-ketoglutarate (αKG) and the NADPH/CO2-dependent reductive carboxylation of αKG to ICT. Reductive carboxylation by IDH1 was potently inhibited by NADP+ and, to a lesser extent, by ICT. IDH1 and IDH2 with cancer-associated mutations at the active site arginines were unable to carry out the reductive carboxylation of αKG. These mutants were also defective in ICT decarboxylation and converted αKG to 2-hydroxyglutarate using NADPH. These mutant proteins were thus defective in both of the normal reactions of IDH. Biochemical analysis of heterodimers between wild-type and mutant IDH1 subunits showed that the mutant subunit did not inactivate reductive carboxylation by the wild-type subunit. Cells expressing the mutant IDH are thus deficient in their capacity for reductive carboxylation and may be compromised in their ability to produce acetyl-CoA under hypoxia or when mitochondrial function is otherwise impaired. PMID:22442146

  14. Structural basis of enzymatic activity for the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Yang, Jinkui; Lou, Zhiyong; Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-21

    Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.

  15. Simultaneous recovery of benzene-rich oil and metals by steam pyrolysis of metal-poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite waste.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2014-03-18

    The possibility of simultaneous recovery of benzene and metals from the hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-based materials such as X-ray films, magnetic tape, and prepaid cards under a steam atmosphere at a temperature of 450 °C was evaluated. The hydrolysis resulted in metal-containing carbonaceous residue and volatile terephthalic acid (TPA). The effects of metals and additives on the recovery process were also investigated. All metals were quantitatively recovered, and silver, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and anatase (TiO2) were recovered without any changes in their crystal structures or compositions. In a second step, TPA was decarboxylized in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) at 700 °C, producing benzene with an average yield of 34% and purity of 76%. Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) incorporated in magnetic tape and prepaid cards could decarboxylate TPA. Aluminum present in the prepaid cards produced hydrogen by the reaction with steam. However, the presence of metals had no adverse influence on the recovery of benzene-rich oil in the presence of CaO. Therefore, this method can be applied to PET-based materials containing inorganic substances, which cannot be recycled effectively otherwise.

  16. Isotope effect studies of the chemical mechanism of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide malic enzyme from Crassula

    SciTech Connect

    Grissom, C.B.; Willeford, O.; Wedding, R.T.

    1987-05-05

    The /sup 13/C primary kinetic isotope effect on the decarboxylation of malate by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide malic enzyme from Crassula argentea is 1.0199 +/- 0.0006 with proteo L-malate-2-H and 1.0162 +/- 0.0003 with malate-2-d. The primary deuterium isotope effect is 1.45 +/- 0.10 on V/K and 1.93 +/- 0.13 on V/sub max/. This indicates a stepwise conversion of malate to pyruvate and CO/sub 2/ with hydride transfer preceding decarboxylation, thereby suggesting a discrete oxaloacetate intermediate. This is in agreement with the stepwise nature of the chemical mechanism of other malic enzymes despite the Crassula enzyme's inability to reduce or decarboxylatemore » oxaloacetate. Differences in morphology and allosteric regulation between enzymes suggest specialization of the Crassula malic enzyme for the physiology of crassulacean and acid metabolism while maintaining the catalytic events founds in malic enzymes from animal sources.« less

  17. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed.

  18. Multiple isotope effects with alternative dinucleotide substrates as a probe of the malic enzyme reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, P.M.; Urbauer, J.L.; Cleland, W.W.

    1991-06-11

    Deuterium isotope effects and {sup 13}C isotope effects with deuterium- and protium-labeled malate have been obtained for both NAD- and NADP-malic enzymes by using a variety of alternative dinucleotide substrates. With nicotinamide-containing dinucleotides as the oxidizing substrate, the {sup 13}C effect decreases when deuterated malate is the substrate compared to the value obtained with protium-labeled malate. These data are consistent with a stepwise chemical mechanism in which hydride transfer precedes decarboxylation of the oxalacetate intermediate as previously proposed. When dinucleotide substrates such as thio-NAD, 3-nicotinamide rings are used, the {sup 13}C effect increases when deuterated malate is the substrate comparedmore » to the value obtained with protium-labeled malate. These data, at face value, are consistent with a change in mechanism from stepwise to concerted for the oxidative decarboxylation portion of the mechanism. However, the increase in the deuterium isotope effect from 1.5 to 3 with a concomitant decrease in the {sup 13}C isotope effect from 1.034 to 1.003 as the dinucleotide substrate is changed suggests that the reaction may still be stepwise with the non-nicotinamide dinucleotides. A more likely explanation is that a {beta}-secondary {sup 13}C isotope effect accompanies hydride transfer as a result of hyperconjugation of the {beta}-carboxyl of malate as the transition state for the hydride transfer step is approached.« less

  19. SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structuralmore » isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.« less

  20. Dietary nutrient levels regulate protein and carbohydrate intake, gluconeogenic/glycolytic flux and blood trehalose level in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.

  1. Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase: Probing the Limits of the Possible for Enzyme Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Amyes, Tina L; Reyes, Archie C

    2018-04-17

    The mystery associated with catalysis by what were once regarded as protein black boxes, diminished with the X-ray crystallographic determination of the three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. The report that several high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) failed to provide a consensus mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP to form uridine 5'-monophosphate, therefore, provoked a flurry of controversy. This controversy was fueled by the enormous 10 23 -fold rate acceleration for this enzyme, which had " jolted many biochemists' assumptions about the catalytic potential of enzymes." Our studies on the mechanism of action of OMPDC provide strong evidence that catalysis by this enzyme is not fundamentally different from less proficient catalysts, while highlighting important architectural elements that enable a peak level of performance. Many enzymes undergo substrate-induced protein conformational changes that trap their substrates in solvent occluded protein cages, but the conformational change induced by ligand binding to OMPDC is incredibly complex, as required to enable the development of 22 kcal/mol of stabilizing binding interactions with the phosphodianion and ribosyl substrate fragments of OMP. The binding energy from these fragments is utilized to activate OMPDC for catalysis of decarboxylation at the orotate fragment of OMP, through the creation of a tight, catalytically active, protein cage from the floppy, open, unliganded form of OMPDC. Such utilization of binding energy for ligand-driven conformational changes provides a general mechanism to obtain specificity in transition state binding. The rate enhancement that results from the binding of carbon acid substrates to enzymes is partly due to a reduction in the carbon acid p K a that is associated with ligand binding. The binding of UMP to OMPDC results in an unusually large >12 unit decrease in the p K a = 29 for

  2. Novel Three-Component Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid 1,2-Dioxygenase in Sphingomonas wittichii DP58

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xian-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, the main component of shenqinmycin, is widely used in southern China for the prevention of rice sheath blight. However, the fate of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in soil remains uncertain. Sphingomonas wittichii DP58 can use phenazine-1-carboxylic acid as its sole carbon and nitrogen sources for growth. In this study, dioxygenase-encoding genes, pcaA1A2, were found using transcriptome analysis to be highly upregulated upon phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biodegradation. PcaA1 shares 68% amino acid sequence identity with the large oxygenase subunit of anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus maanshanensis DSM 44675. The dioxygenase was coexpressed in Escherichia coli with its adjacent reductase-encoding gene, pcaA3, and ferredoxin-encoding gene, pcaA4, and showed phenazine-1-carboxylic acid consumption. The dioxygenase-, ferredoxin-, and reductase-encoding genes were expressed in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 or E. coli BL21, and the three recombinant proteins were purified. A phenazine-1-carboxylic acid conversion capability occurred in vitro only when all three components were present. However, P. putida KT2440 transformed with pcaA1A2 obtained phenazine-1-carboxylic acid degradation ability, suggesting that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1,2-dioxygenase has low specificities for its ferredoxin and reductase. This was verified by replacing PcaA3 with RedA2 in the in vitro enzyme assay. High-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis showed that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid was converted to 1,2-dihydroxyphenazine through decarboxylation and hydroxylation, indicating that PcaA1A2A3A4 constitutes the initial phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1,2-dioxygenase. This study fills a gap in our understanding of the biodegradation of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and illustrates a new dioxygenase for decarboxylation. IMPORTANCE Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is widely used in southern China

  3. Expression and stereochemical and isotope effect studies of active 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Stanley, T M; Johnson, W H; Burks, E A; Whitman, C P; Hwang, C C; Cook, P F

    2000-02-01

    4-Oxalocrotonate decarboxylase (4-OD) and vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH) from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 form a complex that converts 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate to 2-oxo-4-hydroxypentanoate in the catechol meta fission pathway. To facilitate mechanistic and structural studies of the complex, the two enzymes have been coexpressed and the complex has been purified to homogeneity. In addition, Glu-106, a potential catalytic residue in VPH, has been changed to glutamine, and the resulting E106QVPH mutant has been coexpressed with 4-OD and purified to homogeneity. The 4-OD/E106QVPH complex retains full decarboxylase activity, with comparable kinetic parameters to those observed for 4-OD in the wild-type complex, but is devoid of any detectable hydratase activity. Decarboxylation of (5S)-2-oxo-3-[5-D]hexenedioate by either the 4-OD/VPH complex or the mutant complex generates 2-hydroxy-2,4E-[5-D]pentadienoate in D(2)O. Ketonization of 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate by the wild-type complex is highly stereoselective and results in the formation of 2-oxo-(3S)-[3-D]-4-pentenoate, while the mutant complex generates a racemic mixture. These results indicate that 2-hydroxy-2, 4-pentadienoate is the product of 4-OD and that 2-oxo-4-pentenoate results from a VPH-catalyzed process. On this basis, the previously proposed hypothesis for the conversion of 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate to 2-oxo-4-hydroxypentanoate has been revised [Lian, H., and Whitman, C. P. (1994) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10403-10411]. Finally, the observed (13)C kinetic isotope effect on the decarboxylation of 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate by the 4-OD/VPH complex suggests that the decarboxylation step is nearly rate-limiting. Because the value is not sensitive to either magnesium or manganese, it is likely that the transition state for carbon-carbon bond cleavage is late and that the metal positions the substrate and polarizes the carbonyl group, analogous to its role in oxalacetate decarboxylase.

  4. Requirement of a Functional Flavin Mononucleotide Prenyltransferase for the Activity of a Bacterial Decarboxylase in a Heterologous Muconic Acid Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Weber, Heike E; Gottardi, Manuela; Brückner, Christine; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard; Tripp, Joanna

    2017-05-15

    Biotechnological production of cis , cis -muconic acid from renewable feedstocks is an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional, petroleum-based methods. Even though a heterologous production pathway for cis , cis -muconic acid has already been established in the host organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the generation of industrially relevant amounts of cis , cis -muconic acid is hampered by the low activity of the bacterial protocatechuic acid (PCA) decarboxylase AroY isomeric subunit C iso (AroY-C iso ), leading to secretion of large amounts of the intermediate PCA into the medium. In the present study, we show that the activity of AroY-C iso in S. cerevisiae strongly depends on the strain background. We could demonstrate that the strain dependency is caused by the presence or absence of an intact genomic copy of PAD1 , which encodes a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of a prenylated form of the cofactor flavin mononucleotide (prFMN). The inactivity of AroY-C iso in strain CEN.PK2-1 could be overcome by plasmid-borne expression of Pad1 or its bacterial homologue AroY subunit B (AroY-B). Our data reveal that the two enzymes perform the same function in decarboxylation of PCA by AroY-C iso , although coexpression of Pad1 led to higher decarboxylase activity. Conversely, AroY-B can replace Pad1 in its function in decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids by ferulic acid decarboxylase Fdc1. Targeting of the majority of AroY-B to mitochondria by fusion to a heterologous mitochondrial targeting signal did not improve decarboxylase activity of AroY-C iso , suggesting that mitochondrial localization has no major impact on cofactor biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the decarboxylation of protocatechuic acid (PCA) to catechol is the bottleneck reaction in the heterologous biosynthetic pathway for production of cis , cis -muconic acid, a valuable precursor for the production of bulk chemicals. In our work, we demonstrate

  5. Comparative study on the radiolytic degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoic ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swoboda, F.; Solar, S.

    1999-09-01

    The radiolytic degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester (4-HBAEE) and 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) and the subsequent product formation in N 2O-saturated and aerated solutions has been studied as a function of dose. The rate constants of OH • radicals with the substrates are k(OH •+4-HBAEE)=7.5×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and k(OH • +4-HBA)=6.7×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. Irradiation of 5×10 -4 mol dm -3 aqueous solutions (N 2O, pH 6.0) of 4-HBA leads to the products 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) and hydroquinone (HQ). In the case of 4-HBAEE neither hydroxylation nor decarboxylation products are observable. The predominating reaction pathway with 4-HBAEE is water elimination from the primarily formed dihydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals. By pulse radiolysis a protonation equilibrium of these transients with pK=8.0 could be determined. The protonated OH •-adducts (λ max=385 nm, ɛ=300 m 2 mol -1) decay with k=7×10 4 s -1, the radical anions (λ max=425 nm, ɛ=240 m 2 mol -1) with k=4×10 5 s -1, yielding phenoxyl radicals λ max 405 nm, ɛ=160 m 2 mol -1 and 425 nm, ɛ=175 m 2 mol -1, 2 k=3.6×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, which do not form phenolic compounds. With 4-HBA OH •-adducts water splitting at pH 6 is very slow, k=4×10 3 s -1, therefore second order decay reactions can compete. At pH 10, where base catalysed water elimination takes place, no hydroxylation products are observable either. In aerated solutions dihydroxy-compounds are formed with both substrates, due to the fast addition of oxygen to the OH •-adducts. In the case of 4-HBA 68% of the OH • radicals result in 3,4-dihydroxyderivatives; for 4-HBAEE these are only 25%. The decarboxylation product hydroquinone is generated only from 4-HBA, its yield corresponds to 18% of the OH • radicals. Comparison of the initial degradation yields demonstrates 4-HBAEE to be 1.6 times more stable towards radiation, for a 50% decomposition of the ester a 2.3 times higher dose as for 4-HBA is required

  6. Structural Basis for Flip-Flop Action of Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Dependent Enzymes Revealed by Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, Paulina; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand

    2003-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), the biologically active form of vitamin BI, is a cofactor of enzymes catalyzing reactions involving the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond adjacent to an oxo group. TPP-dependent enzymes show a common mechanism of TPP activation by: (1) forming the ionic N-H...O(sup -) hydrogen bonding between the N1' atom of the aminopirymidine ring of the coenzyme and intrinsic gamma-carboxylate group of glutamate and (2) imposing an "active" V-conformation that brings the N4' atom of the aminopirymidine to the distance required for the intramolecular C-H.. .N hydrogen bonding with the thiazolium C2 atom. Within these two hydrogen bonds that rapidly exchange protons, protonation of the N1' atom is strictly coordinated with the deprotonation of the 4' -amino group and eventually abstraction of the proton from C2. The human pyruvate dehydrogenase Elp, component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of the pyruvate followed by the reductive acetylation of the lipoyl group of dihydrolipoyl acyltransferase. Elp is alpha(sub 2)beta(sub2)-heterotetrameric with a molecular mass of I54 kDa, which has two catalytic sites, each providing TPP and magnesium ion as cofactors and each formed on the interface between the PP and PYR domains. The dynamic nonequivalence of two otherwise chemically equivalent catalytic sites has been observed and the flip-flop mechanism was suggested, according to which two active sites affect each other and in which different steps of the catalytic reaction are performed in each of the sites at any given moment. Based on specific futures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase including rigid and flexible connections between domains that bind the cofactor we propose a mechanistic model for the flip-flop action of this enzyme. We postulate that the dynamic protein environment drives the exchange of tautomers in the 4' -aminopyrimidine ring of the cofactor through a concerted shuttl-like motion of

  7. Affinity and Efficacy Studies of Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A at Cannabinoid Receptor Types One and Two.

    PubMed

    McPartland, John M; MacDonald, Christa; Young, Michelle; Grant, Phillip S; Furkert, Daniel P; Glass, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis biosynthesizes Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA-A), which decarboxylates into Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). There is growing interest in the therapeutic use of THCA-A, but its clinical application may be hampered by instability. THCA-A lacks cannabimimetic effects; we hypothesize that it has little binding affinity at cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 ). Materials and Methods: Purity of certified reference standards were tested with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Binding affinity of THCA-A and THC at human (h) CB 1 and hCB 2 was measured in competition binding assays, using transfected HEK cells and [ 3 H]CP55,940. Efficacy at hCB 1 and hCB 2 was measured in a cyclic adenosine monophosphase (cAMP) assay, using a Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) biosensor. Results: The THCA-A reagent contained 2% THC. THCA-A displayed small but measurable binding at both hCB 1 and hCB 2 , equating to approximate K i values of 3.1μM and 12.5μM, respectively. THC showed 62-fold greater affinity at hCB 1 and 125-fold greater affinity at hCB 2 . In efficacy tests, THCA-A (10μM) slightly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP at hCB 1 , suggestive of weak agonist activity, and no measurable efficacy at hCB 2 . Discussion: The presence of THC in our THCA-A certified standard agrees with decarboxylation kinetics (literature reviewed herein), which indicate contamination with THC is nearly unavoidable. THCA-A binding at 10μM approximated THC binding at 200nM. We therefore suspect some of our THCA-A binding curve was artifact-from its inevitable decarboxylation into THC-and the binding affinity of THCA-A is even weaker than our estimated values. We conclude that THCA-A has little affinity or efficacy at CB 1 or CB 2 .

  8. Multiple roles of mobile active center loops in the E1 component of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - Linkage of protein dynamics to catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Frank; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Kale, Sachin; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Furey, William

    2009-01-01

    The region encompassing residues 401–413 on the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Escherichia coli comprises a loop (the inner loop) which was not seen in the X-ray structure in the presence of thiamin diphosphate, the required cofactor for the enzyme. This loop is seen in the presence of a stable analogue of the pre-decarboxylation intermediate, the covalent adduct between the substrate analogue methyl acetylphosphonate and thiamin diphosphate, C2α-phosphonolactylthiamin diphosphate. It has been shown that the residue H407 and several other residues on this loop are required to reduce the mobility of the loop so electron density corresponding to it can be seen once the pre-decarboxylation intermediate is formed. Concomitantly, the loop encompassing residues 541–557 (the outer loop) appears to work in tandem with the inner loop and there is a hydrogen bond between the two loops ensuring their correlated motion. The inner loop was shown to: a) sequester the active center from carboligase side reactions; b) assist the interaction between the E1 and the E2 components, thereby affecting the overall reaction rate of the entire multienzyme complex; c) control substrate access to the active center. Using viscosity effects on kinetics it was shown that formation of the pre-decarboxylation intermediate is specifically affected by loop movement. A cysteine-less variant was created for the E1 component, onto which cysteines were substituted at selected loop positions. Introducing an electron spin resonance spin label and an 19F NMR label onto these engineered cysteines, the loop mobility was examined: a) both methods suggested that in the absence of ligand, the loop exists in two conformations; b) line-shape analysis of the NMR signal at different temperatures, enabled estimation of the rate constant for loop movement, and this rate constant was found to be of the same order of magnitude as the turnover number for the enzyme under the

  9. Conformational stability and thermodynamic characterization of the lipoic acid bearing domain of human mitochondrial branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Mandar T.; Huang, Tai-Huang

    2004-01-01

    The lipoic acid bearing domain (hbLBD) of human mitochondrial branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) plays important role of substrate channeling in oxidative decarboxylation of the branched chain α-ketoacids. Recently hbLBD has been found to follow two-step folding mechanism without detectable presence of stable or kinetic intermediates. The present study describes the conformational stability underlying the folding of this small β-barrel domain. Thermal denaturation in presence of urea and isothermal urea denaturation titrations are used to evaluate various thermodynamic parameters defining the equilibrium unfolding. The linear extrapolation model successfully describes the two-step; native state ↔denatured state unfolding transition of hbLBD. The average temperature of maximum stability of hbLBD is estimated as 295.6 ± 0.9 K. Cold denaturation of hbLBD is also predicted and discussed. PMID:15322287

  10. CO2 – Intrinsic Product, Essential Substrate, and Regulatory Trigger of Microbial and Mammalian Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Bastian; Takors, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide formation mirrors the final carbon oxidation steps of aerobic metabolism in microbial and mammalian cells. As a consequence, CO2/HCO3− dissociation equilibria arise in fermenters by the growing culture. Anaplerotic reactions make use of the abundant CO2/HCO3− levels for refueling citric acid cycle demands and for enabling oxaloacetate-derived products. At the same time, CO2 is released manifold in metabolic reactions via decarboxylation activity. The levels of extracellular CO2/HCO3− depend on cellular activities and physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressures, aeration, and the efficiency of mixing in large-scale bioreactors. Besides, local CO2/HCO3− levels might also act as metabolic inhibitors or transcriptional effectors triggering regulatory events inside the cells. This review gives an overview about fundamental physicochemical properties of CO2/HCO3− in microbial and mammalian cultures effecting cellular physiology, production processes, metabolic activity, and transcriptional regulation. PMID:26284242

  11. Metagenomic insight into methanogenic reactors promoting direct interspecies electron transfer via granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jong-Hun; Je Seong, Hoon; Sul, Woo Jun; Jin, Kang-Hyun; Park, Hee-Deung

    2018-07-01

    To provide insight into direct interspecies electron transfer via granular activated carbon (GAC), the effect of GAC supplementation on anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Compared to control samples, the GAC supplementation increased the total amount of methane production and its production rate by 31% and 72%, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed a shift in the archaeal community composition; the Methanosarcina proportion decreased 17%, while the Methanosaeta proportion increased 5.6%. Metagenomic analyses based on shotgun sequencing demonstrated that the abundance of pilA and omcS genes belonging to Geobacter species decreased 69.4% and 29.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the analyses suggested a carbon dioxide reduction pathway rather than an acetate decarboxylation pathway for methane formation. Taken together, these results suggest that GAC improved methane production performance by shifting the microbial community and altering functional genes associated with direct interspecies electron transfer via conductive materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. One-pot non-enzymatic formation of firefly luciferin in a neutral buffer from p-benzoquinone and cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Kanie, Shusei; Nishikawa, Toshio; Ojika, Makoto; Oba, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Firefly luciferin, the substrate for the bioluminescence reaction of luminous beetles, possesses a benzothiazole ring, which is rare in nature. Here, we demonstrate a novel one-pot reaction to give firefly luciferin in a neutral buffer from p-benzoquinone and cysteine without any synthetic reagents or enzymes. The formation of firefly luciferin was low in yield in various neutral buffers, whereas it was inhibited or completely prevented in acidic or basic buffers, in organic solvents, or under a nitrogen atmosphere. Labelling analysis of the firefly luciferin using stable isotopic cysteines showed that the benzothiazole ring was formed via the decarboxylation and carbon-sulfur bond rearrangement of cysteine. These findings imply that the biosynthesis of firefly luciferin can be developed/evolved from the non-enzymatic production of firefly luciferin using common primary biosynthetic units, p-benzoquinone and cysteine. PMID:27098929

  13. Quantum Yields of CAM Plants Measured by Photosynthetic O2 Exchange 1

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William W.; Nishida, Kojiro; Osmond, C. Barry

    1986-01-01

    The quantum yield of photosynthetic O2 exchange was measured in eight species of leaf succulents representative of both malic enzyme type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type CAM plants. Measurements were made at 25°C and CO2 saturation using a leaf disc O2 electrode system, either during or after deacidification. The mean quantum yield was 0.095 ± 0.012 (sd) moles O2 per mole quanta, which compared with 0.094 ± 0.006 (sd) moles O2 per mole quanta for spinach leaf discs measured under the same conditions. There were no consistent differences in quantum yield between decarboxylation types or during different phases of CAM metabolism. On the basis of current notions of compartmentation of CAM biochemistry, our observations are interpreted to indicate that CO2 refixation is energetically independent of gluconeogenesis during deacidification. PMID:16664793

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Alkylation in the Synthesis of Cyclopentanoid and Cycloheptanoid Core Structures Bearing All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Allen Y.; Bennett, Nathan B.; Krout, Michael R.; Jensen, Thomas; Harned, Andrew. M.

    2011-01-01

    General catalytic asymmetric routes toward cyclopentanoid and cycloheptanoid core structures embedded in numerous natural products have been developed. The central stereoselective transformation in our divergent strategies is the enantioselective decarboxylative alkylation of seven-membered β-ketoesters to form α-quaternary vinylogous esters. Recognition of the unusual reactivity of β-hydroxyketones resulting from the addition of hydride or organometallic reagents enabled divergent access to γ-quaternary acylcyclopentenes through a ring contraction pathway or γ-quaternary cycloheptenones through a carbonyl transposition pathway. Synthetic applications of these compounds were explored through the preparation of mono-, bi-, and tricyclic derivatives that can serve as valuable intermediates for the total synthesis of complex natural products. This work complements our previous work with cyclohexanoid systems. PMID:22347731

  15. Enzymatic approaches to rare sugar production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    Rare sugars have recently attracted much attention because of their potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. A systematic strategy for enzymatic production of rare sugars, named Izumoring, was developed >10years ago. The strategy consists of aldose-ketose isomerization, ketose C-3 epimerization, and monosaccharide oxidation-reduction. Recent development of the Izumoring strategy is reviewed herein, especially the genetic approaches to the improvement of rare sugar-producing enzymes and the applications of target-oriented bioconversion. In addition, novel non-Izumoring enzymatic approaches are also summarized, including enzymatic condensation, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cascade reaction, aldose epimerization, ulosonic acid decarboxylation, and biosynthesis of rare disaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methoxy-Directed Aryl-to-Aryl 1,3-Rhodium Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jun-Feng; Ugrinov, Angel; Pillai, Anthony F. X.; Sun, Zhong-Ming; Zhao, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Through-space metal/hydrogen shift is an important strategy for transition metal-catalyzed C-H bond activation. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of a Rh(I) 2,6-dimethoxybenzoate complex that underwent stoichiometric rearrangement via a highly unusual 1,3- rhodium migration. This aryl-to-aryl 1,3-Rh/H shift was also demonstrated in a Rh(I)-catalyzed decarboxylative conjugate addition to form a C-C bond at a meta position instead of the ipso-carboxyl position. A deuterium-labeling study under the conditions of Rh(I)-catalyzed protodecarboxylation revealed the involvement of an ortho-methoxy group in a multi-step pathway of consecutive sp3 and sp2 C-H bond activations. PMID:24171626

  17. Effect of In Vitro Human Digestion on Biogenic Amine (Tyramine) Formation in Various Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2018-03-01

    Biogenic amines are formed in various fermented foods by microbial amino acid decarboxylation activities, and ingestion of these amines may cause human illness. However, the effect of digestion on the biogenic amines in fermented sausages has not been studied. This study was conducted to determine the effect of in vitro human digestion with the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei on concentrations of the biogenic amine tyramine in six types of fermented sausages. Tyramine concentration was not significantly changed until simulated digestion in the small intestine. However, tyramine concentration for all sausage samples was increased after simulated digestion in the large intestine. Addition of E. coli and L. casei dramatically increased the tyramine concentrations ( P < 0.05). This result indicates that enterobacteria increase biogenic amine concentrations during human digestion.

  18. 5-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)-L-tryptophan as a substrate of system L transport for tumor imaging by PET.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Stefanie D; Mu, Linjing; Müller, Adrienne; Keller, Claudia; Kuznetsova, Olga F; Schweinsberg, Christian; Franck, Dominic; Müller, Cristina; Ross, Tobias L; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M

    2012-03-01

    Large neutral l-amino acids are substrates of system L amino acid transporters. The level of one of these, LAT1, is increased in many tumors. Aromatic l-amino acids may also be substrates of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the level of which is enhanced in endocrine tumors. Increased amino acid uptake and subsequent decarboxylation result in the intracellular accumulation of the amino acid and its decarboxylation product. (18)F- and (11)C-labeled neutral aromatic amino acids, such as l-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluorophenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA) and 5-hydroxy-l-[β-(11)C]tryptophan, are thus successfully used in PET to image endocrine tumors. However, 5-hydroxy-l-[β-(11)C]tryptophan has a relatively short physical half-life (20 min). In this work, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the (18)F-labeled tryptophan analog 5-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)-l-tryptophan ((18)F-l-FEHTP) as a PET probe for tumor imaging. (18)F-l-FEHTP was synthesized by no-carrier-added (18)F fluorination of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan. In vitro cell uptake and efflux of (18)F-l-FEHTP and (18)F-FDOPA were studied with NCI-H69 endocrine small cell lung cancer cells, PC-3 pseudoendocrine prostate cancer cells, and MDA-MB-231 exocrine breast cancer cells. Small-animal PET was performed with the respective xenograft-bearing mice. Tissues were analyzed for potential metabolites. (18)F-l-FEHTP specific activity and radiochemical purity were 50-150 GBq/μmol and greater than 95%, respectively. In vitro cell uptake of (18)F-l-FEHTP was between 48% and 113% of added radioactivity per milligram of protein within 60 min at 37°C and was blocked by greater than 95% in all tested cell lines by the LAT1/2 inhibitor 2-amino-2-norboranecarboxylic acid. (18)F-FDOPA uptake ranged from 26% to 53%/mg. PET studies revealed similar xenograft-to-reference tissue ratios for (18)F-l-FEHTP and (18)F-FDOPA at 30-45 min after injection. In contrast to the (18)F-FDOPA PET results, pretreatment with the

  19. One-pot non-enzymatic formation of firefly luciferin in a neutral buffer from p-benzoquinone and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Shusei; Nishikawa, Toshio; Ojika, Makoto; Oba, Yuichi

    2016-04-21

    Firefly luciferin, the substrate for the bioluminescence reaction of luminous beetles, possesses a benzothiazole ring, which is rare in nature. Here, we demonstrate a novel one-pot reaction to give firefly luciferin in a neutral buffer from p-benzoquinone and cysteine without any synthetic reagents or enzymes. The formation of firefly luciferin was low in yield in various neutral buffers, whereas it was inhibited or completely prevented in acidic or basic buffers, in organic solvents, or under a nitrogen atmosphere. Labelling analysis of the firefly luciferin using stable isotopic cysteines showed that the benzothiazole ring was formed via the decarboxylation and carbon-sulfur bond rearrangement of cysteine. These findings imply that the biosynthesis of firefly luciferin can be developed/evolved from the non-enzymatic production of firefly luciferin using common primary biosynthetic units, p-benzoquinone and cysteine.

  20. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular design and synthesis of functional photothermopolymers from hydroxyl benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao; Gu, Jiangnan; Wang, Liyuan; Zou, Yingquan; Yu, Shangxian

    2000-06-01

    The most applicable hydroxyl benzoic acid monomers were optimized to synthesize the thermolysis-decarboxylation polymers according to the relative results of TG analysis of hydroxyl benzoic acids, their 13C-NMR spectra analyses and their quantum chemistry calculation with AB-INITIO method. On the basis of the empirical rule -- M/A value rule, while phenols with high M/A value and hydroxyl benzoic acids were both cocondensed with formaldehyde at proper ratio, the novolak resin with carboxyl groups used as a thermal imaging material could be obtained. In the presence of an acid catalyst, such as oxalic acid, a hydroxyl benzoic acid could be additionally polymerized with divinyl benzene (DVB) to synthesize another kind of polymer with not only carboxyl groups but also phenolic hydroxyl groups. The thermal imaging mechanisms of these polymers with carboxyl groups were discussed in the paper.

  2. The Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Sert, Hüseyin; Havlioğlu, İnanç; Yüce, Hasan Hüsnü

    2014-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficit of oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain aminoacids. It leads to a build-up of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and toxic metabolites in blood and urine, progressing to acute and chronic brain dysfunction. The first symptoms appear in early childhood and are characterized by sweet-smelling urine, with an odor similar to that of maple syrup. At birth, infants seem healthy, but if untreated, they may suffer from neurological deterioration, seizures, hypertonia, or ataxia. During stressful situations, such as infection or surgery, patients may experience severe ketoacidosis, rapid neurological deterioration, and hypoglycemia. We report the anaesthetic management in a child patient with MSUD, admitted for peritonal dialysis catheter insertion with general anaesthesia. PMID:27366451

  3. The Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Sert, Hüseyin; Havlioğlu, İnanç; Yüce, Hasan Hüsnü

    2014-12-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficit of oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain aminoacids. It leads to a build-up of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and toxic metabolites in blood and urine, progressing to acute and chronic brain dysfunction. The first symptoms appear in early childhood and are characterized by sweet-smelling urine, with an odor similar to that of maple syrup. At birth, infants seem healthy, but if untreated, they may suffer from neurological deterioration, seizures, hypertonia, or ataxia. During stressful situations, such as infection or surgery, patients may experience severe ketoacidosis, rapid neurological deterioration, and hypoglycemia. We report the anaesthetic management in a child patient with MSUD, admitted for peritonal dialysis catheter insertion with general anaesthesia.

  4. Intermittent maple syrup urine disease: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Axler, Olof; Holmquist, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The presenting symptoms and clinical course of 2 cases of intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are described. Intermittent MSUD is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase, the enzyme complex that decarboxylates the 3 branched-chain amino acids. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form show normal development with normal intelligence and, when asymptomatic, normal levels of branched-chain amino acids. Symptoms usually appear between 5 months and 2 years of age, when a trivial infection such as otitis media or viral gastroenteritis triggers catabolism of muscle protein. Intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases of common infections with a clinically atypical course, especially in children displaying ataxia or marked drowsiness.

  5. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  6. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics in the environment.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Premasis; Spiteller, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used in large amounts for human and animal medical care. They are excreted as parent compound, as conjugates, or as oxidation, hydroxylation, dealkylation, or decarboxylation products of the parent compound. A considerable amount of FQs and their metabolites may reach the soil as constituents of urine, feces, or manure. The residues of FQs in foods of animal origin may pose hazards to consumers through emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. FQs bind strongly to topsoil, reducing the threat of surface water and groundwater contamination. The strong binding of FQs to soil and sediments delays their biodegradation and explains the recalcitrance of FQs. Wastewater treatment is an efficient elimination step (79%-87% removal) for FQs before they enter rivers. FQs are susceptible to photodegradation in aqueous medium, involving oxidation, dealkylation, and cleavage of the piperazine ring.

  7. Diagenesis of metabolites and a discussion of the origin of petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    Proteins and carbohydrates are rapidly degraded to compounds of no direct interest in the problem of the origin of petroleum. Lignin, if carried into marine basins in the form of humic substances, is probably the major progenitor of kerogen rather than the precursor of petroleum. Pigments are but minor contributors to petroleum. The fate of fatty acids in a marine environment is not completely understood. Although they may not be directly decarboxylated biochemically, it is shown how they can be converted into oxygenated or dehydrogenated acids more reactive than the parent compounds. Illustrations are also given for Diels-Alder reactions that could account for the formation from these compounds of the alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum. It is most likely that crude oil is generated in sediments containing concentrations of lipids, the character of which governs the nature of the oil that is formed. ?? 1960.

  8. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano; West, Ryan M.

    2015-06-30

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  9. Higher plant metabolism and energetics in hypogravity: Amino acid metabolism in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory's investigation into the amino acid metabolism of dwarf marigolds exposed to an environment of simulated hypogravity is summarized. Using both in vivo, and/or in vitro studies, the following effects of hypogravitational stress have been shown: (1) increased proline incorporation into cell wall protein, (2) inhibition of amino acid decarboxylation, (3) decrease in glutamic acid decarboxylase activity; and (4) decrease in the relative amount of a number of soluble amino acids present in deproteinized extracts of marigold leaves. It is concluded from these data there are several rapid, major alterations in amino acid metabolism associated with hypogravitational stress in marigolds. The mechanism(s) and generality of these effects with regard to other species is still unknown.

  10. Time-resolved FT EPR and optical spectroscopy study on photooxidation of aliphatic alpha-amino acids in aqueous solutions; electron transfer from amino vs carboxylate functional group.

    PubMed

    Tarabek, Peter; Bonifacić, Marija; Beckert, Dieter

    2006-06-08

    Using time-resolved Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance, FT EPR, and optical spectroscopy, the photooxidation of glycine, alpha-alanine, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, and model compounds beta-alanine, methylamine and sodium acetate, by excited triplets of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate dianion was studied in aqueous solutions in the pH range 5-13. Anthraquinone radical trianions showing strong emissive spin-polarization (CIDEP) were formed, indicating fast electron transfer from the quenchers to the spin-polarized quinone triplet as the primary reaction. None of the primary radicals formed upon one-electron oxidation of quenchers could be detected at the nanosecond time scale of FT EPR measurements because of their very fast transformation into secondary products. The latter were identified to be decarboxylated alpha-aminoalkyl radicals for alpha-amino acids anions and zwitterions, beta-aminoalkyl radicals for beta-alanine zwitterions, and methyl radicals for acetate anions; corresponding aminyl radicals were the first EPR detectable products from beta-alanine anions and methylamine. Thus, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate triplet can take an electron from both NH(2)- and -CO(2)(-) functional groups forming aminium ((+*)NH(2)-) and acyloxyl (-CO(2)(*)) radicals, respectively. Aminium radicals derived from beta-alanine anions and CH(3)-NH(2) stabilize by deprotonation into aminyl radicals, whereas these derived from alpha-amino acids anions are known to suffer ultrafast decarboxylation (tau approximately 10 ps). Analysis of the polarization patterns revealed that decarboxylation from acyloxyl radicals are considerably slower (ns < tau < 0.1 micros). Therefore, in the case of alpha-amino acids, the isoelectronic structures NH(2)-CR(2)-CO(2)(*) and (+*)NH(2)-CR(2)-CO(2)(-) probably do not constitute resonance mesomeric forms of one and the same species and the decarboxylation of aminium radicals is not preceded by the intramolecular carboxylate to amino group

  11. Characterized hydrochar of algal biomass for producing solid fuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Young; Lee, Kwanyong; Kim, Daegi

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characterized hydrochar of algal biomass to produce solid fuel though hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization conducted at temperatures ranging from 180 to 270 °C with a 60 min reaction improved the upgrading of the fuel properties and the dewatering of wet-basis biomasses such as algae. The carbon content, carbon recovery, energy recovery, and atomic C/O and C/H ratios in all the hydrochars in this study were improved. These characteristic changes in hydrochar from algal biomass are similar to the coalification reactions due to dehydration and decarboxylation with an increase in the hydrothermal reaction temperature. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means of generating highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources using algal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissecting the total transition state stabilization provided by amino acid side chains at orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase: a two-part substrate approach.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Shonoi A; Amyes, Tina L; Wood, Bryant M; Gerlt, John A; Richard, John P

    2008-07-29

    Kinetic analysis of decarboxylation catalyzed by S154A, Q215A, and S154A/Q215A mutant yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylases with orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) and with a truncated nucleoside substrate (EO) activated by phosphite dianion shows (1) the side chain of Ser-154 stabilizes the transition state through interactions with the pyrimidine rings of OMP or EO, (2) the side chain of Gln-215 interacts with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion, and (3) the interloop hydrogen bond between the side chains of Ser-154 and Gln-215 orients the amide side chain of Gln-215 to interact with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion.

  13. Resonant electron capture by orotic acid molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muftakhov, M. V.; Shchukin, P. V.; Khatymov, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    Resonant electron attachment by orotic acid molecules (6-COOH-uracil) are studied in the energy range of 0-14 eV via negative ion mass spectrometry. Molecular ions, whose lifetimes relative to electron autodetachment are found to be 300 μs are recorded in the region of thermal electron energies; they form in the valence state through a vibration-excited resonance mechanism. Unlike unsubstituted uracil, most dissociative processes occur in the low-energy region of <4 eV and are due to carboxylic anions. An absolute cross section of 2.4 × 10-17 cm2 is found for the most intense fragment ions [M-H]- at an output energy of 1.33 eV. The kinetics of decarboxylation is considered for these ions. This could be a model reaction for the last stage of uridine monophosphate biosynthesis.

  14. EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOCHEMICAL AMINE FORMATION (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Flemming, K.

    It is shown that phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine in aqueous solutions are decarboxylized to phenylethylamine, tryptamine, and tyramine by uv- irradiation: therefore, production of dopamine in uv-irradiated dioxyphenylalanine solutions is considered probable. Therefore, not only vasodilating (histamine, serotonine) but also vasoconstrictor amines are produced by the photochemical amino acid decomposition. A substance in its effect similar to histamine is formed in addition to tyramine in uv-irradiated tyrosine solutions. Its chemical nature is unknown. The photochemical production of amines is increased by oxygen, reducing substances, and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. It is assumed that it is caused not only directly by energymore » absorption but also indirectiy by the influence of OH- radicals. The radiobiological importance of the results is discussed. (auth)« less

  15. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  16. Role of agmatine in neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Morgana; Matheus, Filipe C; de Oliveira, Paulo A; Neis, Vivian B; Ben, Juliana; Walz, Roger; Rodrigues, Ana Lucia S; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Agmatine, a cationic polyamine synthesized after decarboxylation of L-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, is an endogenous neuromodulator that emerges as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, there is increasing number of preclinical studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of exogenous agmatine administration on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, nociception, morphine tolerance, memory, Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease, traumatic brain injury related alterations/disorders and epilepsy. The aim of this review is to summarize the knowledge about the effects of agmatine in CNS and point out its potential as new pharmacological treatment for diverse neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, some molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of agmatine will be discussed.

  17. Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation.

    PubMed

    Piletz, John E; Aricioglu, Feyza; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Gilad, Varda H; Haenisch, Britta; Halaris, Angelos; Hong, Samin; Lee, Jong Eun; Li, Jin; Liu, Ping; Molderings, Gerhard J; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Satriano, Joseph; Seong, Gong Je; Wilcox, George; Wu, Ning; Gilad, Gad M

    2013-09-01

    Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) has been known as a natural product for over 100 years, but its biosynthesis in humans was left unexplored owing to long-standing controversy. Only recently has the demonstration of agmatine biosynthesis in mammals revived research, indicating its exceptional modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, including neurotransmitter systems, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism, thus providing bases for broad therapeutic applications. This timely review, a concerted effort by 16 independent research groups, draws attention to the substantial preclinical and initial clinical evidence, and highlights challenges and opportunities, for the use of agmatine in treating a spectrum of complex diseases with unmet therapeutic needs, including diabetes mellitus, neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases, opioid addiction, mood disorders, cognitive disorders and cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conversion of kraft lignin over hierarchical MFI zeolite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Soo; Lee, Hyung Won; Ryoo, Ryong; Kim, Wookdong; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of kraft lignin was carried out using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Hierarchical mesoporous MFI was used as the catalyst and another mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was also used for comparison. The characteristics of mesoporous MFI were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and temperature programmed desorption of NH3. Two catalyst/lignin mass ratios were tested: 5/1 and 10/1. Aromatics and alkyl phenolics were the main products of the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin over mesoporous MFI. In particular, the yields of mono-aromatics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were increased substantially by catalytic upgrading. Increase in the catalyst dose enhanced the production of aromatics further, which is attributed to decarboxylation, decarbonlyation, and aromatization reactions occurring over the acid sites of mesoporous MFI.

  19. Tailoring partially reduced graphene oxide as redox mediator for enhanced biotransformation of iopromide under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Toral-Sánchez, Eduardo; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Ascacio Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    This work reports the first successful application of graphene oxide (GO) and partially reduced GO (rGO) as redox mediator (RM) to increase the biotransformation of the recalcitrant iodinated contrast medium, iopromide (IOP). Results showed that GO-based materials promoted up to 5.5 and 2.8-fold faster biotransformation of IOP by anaerobic sludge under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions, respectively. Correlation between the extent of reduction of GO and its redox-mediating capacity was demonstrated, which was reflected in faster removal and greater extent of biotransformation of IOP. Further analysis indicated that the biotransformation pathway of IOP involved multiple reactions including deiodination, decarboxylation, demethylation, dehydration and N-dealkylation. GO-based materials could be strategically tailored and integrated in biological treatment systems to effectively enhance the redox conversion of recalcitrant pollutants commonly found in wastewater treatment systems and industrial effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insights into the Biogenic Amine Metabolic Landscape during Industrial Semidry Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaole; Zhang, Qingwen; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Wuji; Wang, Wu

    2016-10-05

    Inspired by concerns about food safety, the metabolic landscape of biogenic amines (BAs) was elucidated during industrial semidry Chinese rice wine fermentation. The main fermentation process represented the largest contribution to BA formation, which corresponded to 69.1% (54.3 mg/L). Principal component analysis revealed that total acid and ethanol were strongly correlated with BAs, indicating that BA formation favored acidic and stressful conditions. Other than putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM), 5 BAs exhibited strong relationships with the precursor amino acids (R 2 > 0.85). PUT was mainly decarboxylated from arginine (89.6%) whereas SPD (100%) and SPM (83.1%) were obtained from ornithine. Interestingly, some SPD could convert back to PUT (24.3%). All 8 BAs showed good relationships with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (R 2 around 0.75). Moreover, among the five main LAB genera, Lactobacillus had a positive correlation with BA formation.

  1. Microbial detoxification of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Susan P

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal natural products that are toxic to vertebrate animals including humans. Microbes have been identified that enzymatically convert aflatoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, patulin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin to less toxic products. Mycotoxin-degrading fungi and bacteria have been isolated from agricultural soil, infested plant material, and animal digestive tracts. Biotransformation reactions include acetylation, glucosylation, ring cleavage, hydrolysis, deamination, and decarboxylation. Microbial mycotoxin degrading enzymes can be used as feed additives or to decontaminate agricultural commodities. Some detoxification genes have been expressed in plants to limit the pre-harvest mycotoxin production and to protect crop plants from the phytotoxic effects of mycotoxins. Toxin-deficient mutants may be useful in assessing the role of mycotoxins in the ecology of the microorganisms.

  2. Isonitrile Formation by a Non-heme Iron(II)-Dependent Oxidase/Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nicholas; Born, David; Cai, Wenlong; Huang, Yaobing; Martin, Joelle; Khalaf, Ryan; Drennan, Catherine; Zhang, Wenjun

    2018-06-15

    The electron-rich isonitrile is an important functionality in bioactive natural products, but its biosynthesis has been restricted to the IsnA family of isonitrile synthases. We here provide the first structural and biochemical evidence of an alternative mechanism for isonitrile formation. ScoE, a putative non-heme iron(II)-dependent enzyme from Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, was shown to catalyze the conversion of (R)-3-((carboxymethyl)amino)butanoic acid to (R)-3-isocyanobutanoic acid through an oxidative decarboxylation mechanism. This work further provides a revised scheme for the biosynthesis of a unique class of isonitrile lipopeptides, members of which are critical for the virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rapid biochemical screening for Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Aeromonas isolates from stool specimens.

    PubMed Central

    De Ryck, R; Struelens, M J; Serruys, E

    1994-01-01

    Four screens for the rapid (4 to 6 h) biochemical detection of pathogens from enteric isolation media are described. The Salmonella screen consisted of Kligler iron agar (KIA), motility-indole-urea-tryptophan-deamination semisolid medium (MIU-TDA), and the o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) test; the Shigella screen consisted of KIA, MIU-TDA, the ONPG test, and the lysine decarboxylation-indole test; the Yersinia screen consisted of a rhamnose broth; the Aeromonas screen consisted of a xylose agar plate. When tested on 2,102 fresh isolates and 71 stock strains, the screens correctly detected 212 enteric pathogens (sensitivity, 100%), with a specificity of 98.1%. PMID:8077408

  4. Phenotypic and genetic evaluations of biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Landeta, Gerardo; de las Rivas, Blanca; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Muñoz, Rosario; Hernández, Pablo E; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen

    2011-03-30

    In this work, biogenic amine production (histamine, tyramine and putrescine) by a collection of 74 lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin has been investigated by means of amino acid decarboxylation by growth on decarboxylase differential medium, biogenic amine detection by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and decarboxylase gene detection by PCR. None of the evaluated strains showed neither production of histamine and putrescine, nor presence of the genetic determinants encoding the corresponding decarboxylase activities. However, the tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdc) was present in all the enterococcal strains, and tyramine production was detected by TLC in all of them but Enterococcus faecium BCS59 and MV5. Analysis of the tyrosine decarboxylase operon of these strains revealed the presence of an insertion sequence upstream tdc that could be responsible for their lack of tyrosine decarboxylase activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. One-step simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-FTIR microspectroscopy to quickly detect continuous pathways in the solid-state glucose/asparagine Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Hsieh, Tzu-Feng; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The stepwise reaction pathway of the solid-state Maillard reaction between glucose (Glc) and asparagine (Asn) was investigated using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)-FTIR microspectroscopy. The color change and FTIR spectra of Glc-Asn physical mixtures (molar ratio = 1:1) preheated to different temperatures followed by cooling were also examined. The successive reaction products such as Schiff base intermediate, Amadori product, and decarboxylated Amadori product in the solid-state Glc-Asn Maillard reaction were first simultaneously evidenced by this unique DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy. The color changed from white to yellow-brown to dark brown, and appearance of new IR peaks confirmed the formation of Maillard reaction products. The present study clearly indicates that this unique DSC-FTIR technique not only accelerates but also detects precursors and products of the Maillard reaction in real time.

  6. Direct and indirect photolysis of two quinolinecarboxylic herbicides in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Pusino, Alba

    2012-02-01

    The photodegradation of two quinolinecarboxylic herbicides, 7-chloro-3-methylquinoline-8-carboxylic acid (QMe) and 3,7-dichloroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid (QCl), was studied in aqueous solution at different irradiation wavelengths. The effect of sunlight irradiation was investigated also in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). UV irradiation degraded rapidly QMe affording 7-chloro-3-methylquinoline (MeQ) through a decarboxylation reaction. The reaction rate was lower in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) because of the adsorption of the herbicide on the organic components. Instead, QCl was stable under both UV light and sunlight irradiation. The irradiation of QMe or QCl solutions with simulated sunlight in the presence of TiO(2) produced the complete mineralization of the two herbicides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction Method and Analysis of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Olive Oil Preparations.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Antonella; Roda, Gabriella; Casagni, Eleonora; Cristina, Cecilia; Musazzi, Umberto Maria; Franzè, Silvia; Rocco, Paolo; Giuliani, Claudia; Fico, Gelsomina; Minghetti, Paola; Gambaro, Veniero

    2018-03-01

    Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available. In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compounding methods, optimize the extraction process, and reduce the variability among preparations. Moreover, starting from the cannabis inflorescence, the effect of temperature on tetrahydrocannabinolic acid decarboxylation was evaluated. For the analysis, a GC/MS method, as suggested by the Italian Ministry of Health, and a GC/flame ionization detection method were developed, validated, and compared. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Biodegradation of naproxen by freshwater algae Cymbella sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda and the comparative toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tengda; Lin, Kunde; Yang, Bo; Yang, Mengting; Li, Juying; Li, Wenying; Gan, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Naproxen is one of the most prevalent pharmaceuticals and of great environment concern. Information about bioremediation of naproxen by algae remains limited and no study has been reported on the degradation mechanism and the toxicity of NPX on algae. In this study, both Cymbella sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda showed complete growth inhibition (100%) at 100mgL -1 within 24h. Biochemical characteristics including chlorophyll a, carotenoid contents and enzyme activities for these two microalgae were affected by NPX at relatively high concentrations after 4d of exposure. Degradation of naproxen was accelerated by both algae species. Cymbella sp. showed a more satisfactive effect in the bioremediation of NPX with higher removal efficiency. A total of 12 metabolites were identified by LC-MS/MS and the degradation pathways of naproxen in two algae were proposed. Hydroxylation, decarboxylation, demethylation, tyrosine conjunction and glucuronidation contributed to naproxen transformation in algal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin in aqueous solution as affected by humic acid and/or copper: intermediates and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jimin; Wang, Pingli; Liu, Jun; Lv, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Deli; Sun, Cheng

    2011-11-01

    The influence of coexisting humic acids (HA) or Cu²⁺ on the photodegradation of pesticides lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-CHT) and cypermethrin (CPM) in aqueous solution was studied under xenon lamp irradiation. The removal efficiency of pesticides λ-CHT and CPM were enhanced in the presence of either Cu²⁺ or HA but restrained in the presence of both Cu²⁺ and HA. The photodegradation of λ-CHT and CPM followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photodegradation intermediates of λ-CHT and CPM were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Possible photodegradation pathways included decarboxylation, ester bond cleavage, dechlorination, and phenyl group removal. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Formic acid interaction with the uranyl(VI) ion: structural and photochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Lucks, Christian; Rossberg, André; Tsushima, Satoru; Foerstendorf, Harald; Fahmy, Karim; Bernhard, Gert

    2013-10-07

    Complex formation between the uranyl(VI) ion and formic acid was studied by infrared absorption (IR) and X-ray absorption (EXAFS) spectroscopy as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In contrast to the acetate ion which forms exclusively a bidentate complex with uranyl(VI), the formate ion binds to uranyl(VI) in a unidentate fashion. The photochemistry of the uranyl(VI)-formic acid system was explored by DFT calculations and photoreduction of uranyl(VI) in the presence of formic acid was found to occur via an intermolecular process, that is, hydrogen abstraction from hydrogenformate by the photo-excited uranyl(VI). There is no photo-induced decarboxylation of uranyl(VI) formate via an intramolecular process, presumably due to lack of a C=C double bond.

  11. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2014-01-07

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  12. Properties of the branched-chain 2-hydroxy acid/2-oxo acid shuttle in mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Coronel, C E; Gallina, F G; Gerez de Burgos, N M; Burgos, C; Blanco, A

    1986-05-01

    Operation of the branched-chain 2-hydroxy acid/2-oxo acid shuttle for the transfer of reducing equivalents in mitochondria of mouse spermatozoa was studied in vitro in reconstituted systems. Results show that the branched-chain 2-oxo acids within the mitochondria are offered several metabolic pathways. (a) Decarboxylation: mouse sperm mitochondria possess high branched-chain 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity. (b) Recycling to the cytosol by using a transport system which can be inhibited by alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate and pH 6.8. (c) Transamination to the corresponding amino acids: experiments presented indicate that leucine formed from 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate may pass to the external phase, re-initiating the cycle. These two last possibilities would allow autocatalytic operation of the shuttle. The branched-chain 2-hydroxy acids apparently do not utilize the monocarboxylate carrier to penetrate the mitochondria.

  13. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states.

    PubMed

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.

  14. Extraction of intracellular protein from Glaciozyma antarctica for proteomics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizura, S. Nor; Farahayu, K.; Faizal, A. B. Mohd; Asmahani, A. A. S.; Amir, R.; Nazalan, N.; Diba, A. B. Farah; Muhammad, M. Nor; Munir, A. M. Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Two preparation methods of crude extracts of psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica were compared in order to obtain a good recovery of intracellular proteins. Extraction with mechanical procedures using sonication was found to be more effective for obtaining good yield compare to alkaline treatment method. The procedure is simple, rapid, and produce better yield. A total of 52 proteins were identified by combining both extraction methods. Most of the proteins identified in this study involves in the metabolic process including glycolysis pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, pyruyate decarboxylation and also urea cyle. Several chaperons were identified including probable cpr1-cyclophilin (peptidylprolyl isomerase), macrolide-binding protein fkbp12 and heat shock proteins which were postulate to accelerate proper protein folding. Characteristic of the fundamental cellular processes inferred from the expressed-proteome highlight the evolutionary and functional complexity existing in this domain of life.

  15. The Benefits of Photorespiratory Bypasses: How Can They Work?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Chang-Peng; Tholen, Danny; Devloo, Vincent; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Bypassing the photorespiratory pathway is regarded as a way to increase carbon assimilation and, correspondingly, biomass production in C3 crops. Here, the benefits of three published photorespiratory bypass strategies are systemically explored using a systems-modeling approach. Our analysis shows that full decarboxylation of glycolate during photorespiration would decrease photosynthesis, because a large amount of the released CO2 escapes back to the atmosphere. Furthermore, we show that photosynthesis can be enhanced by lowering the energy demands of photorespiration and by relocating photorespiratory CO2 release into the chloroplasts. The conductance of the chloroplast membranes to CO2 is a key feature determining the benefit of the relocation of photorespiratory CO2 release. Although our results indicate that the benefit of photorespiratory bypasses can be improved by increasing sedoheptulose bisphosphatase activity and/or increasing the flux through the bypass, the effectiveness of such approaches depends on the complex regulation between photorespiration and other metabolic pathways. PMID:25516604

  16. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  17. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Agmatine Ameliorates High Glucose-Induced Neuronal Cell Senescence by Regulating the p21 and p53 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Byeori; Kang, Somang; Oh, Yumi; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-02-01

    Neuronal senescence caused by diabetic neuropathy is considered a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Neuronal senescence leads to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the alteration of cellular homeostasis. Agmatine, which is biosynthesized by arginine decarboxylation, has been reported in previous in vitro to exert a protective effect against various stresses. In present study, agmatine attenuated the cell death and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-alpha and CCL2 in high glucose in vitro conditions. Moreover, the senescence associated-β-galatosidase's activity in high glucose exposed neuronal cells was reduced by agmatine. Increased p21 and reduced p53 in high glucose conditioned cells were changed by agmatine. Ultimately, agmatine inhibits the neuronal cell senescence through the activation of p53 and the inhibition of p21. Here, we propose that agmatine may ameliorate neuronal cell senescence in hyperglycemia.

  19. Active-Site Engineering of Benzaldehyde Lyase Shows That a Point Mutation Can Confer Both New Reactivity and Susceptibility to Mechanism-Based Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Petsko, Gregory A.

    2010-02-11

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) from Pseudomonas putida is a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of (R)-benzoin. Here we report that a point mutant, BAL A28S, not only catalyzes the decarboxylation of benzoylformate but, like benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC), is also inactivated by the benzoylformate analogues methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP) and benzoylphosphonate (BP). The latter has no effect on wild-type BAL, and the inactivation of the A28S variant is shown to result from phosphorylation of the newly introduced serine residue. This lends support to the proposal that an appropriately placed nucleophile facilitates the expulsion of carbon dioxide from the active sitemore » in many ThDP-dependent decarboxylases.« less

  20. Electrochemistry for biofuel generation: transformation of fatty acids and triglycerides to diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures and olefins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Tatiane R; Harnisch, Falk; Nilges, Peter; Schröder, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    Electroorganic synthesis can be exploited for the production of biofuels from fatty acids and triglycerides. With Coulomb efficiencies (CE) of up to 50 %, the electrochemical decarboxylation of fatty acids in methanolic and ethanolic solutions leads to the formation of diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures. Triglycerides can be directly converted in aqueous solutions by using sonoelectrochemistry, with olefins as the main products (with a CE of more than 20 %). The latter reaction, however, is terminated at around 50 % substrate conversion by the produced side-product glycerol. An energy analysis shows that the electrochemical olefin synthesis can be an energetically competitive, sustainable, and--in comparison with established processes--economically feasible alternative for the exploitation of fats and oils for biofuel production. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. In-Situ Measurements of the Radiation Stability of Amino Acids at 15-140 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.; Bell, Jan-Luca

    2012-01-01

    We present new kinetics data on the radiolytic destruction of amino acids measured in situ with infrared spectroscopy. Samples were irradiated at 15, 100, and 140 K with D.8-MeV protons, and amino-acid decay was followed at each temperature with and without H2O present. Observed radiation products included CO2 and amines, consistent with amino-acid decarboxylation. The half-lives of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine were estimated for various extraterrestrial environments. Infrared spectral changes demonstrated the conversion from the non-zwitterion structure NH2-CH2(R)-COOH at 15 K to the zwitterion structure +NH3-CH2(R)-COO- at 140 K for each amino acid studied.

  2. HemQ: An iron-coproporphyrin oxidative decarboxylase for protoheme synthesis in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Dailey, Harry A.; Gerdes, Svetlana

    2015-02-21

    Genes for chlorite dismutase-like proteins are found widely among heme-synthesizing bacteria and some Archaea. It is now known that among the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria these proteins do not possess chlorite dismutase activity but instead are essential for heme synthesis. These proteins, named HemQ, are ironcoproporphyrin (coproheme) decarboxylases that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of coproheme III into protoheme IX. As purified, HemQs do not contain bound heme, but readily bind exogeneously supplied heme with low micromolar affinity. We find that the heme-bound form of HemQ has low peroxidase activity and in the presence of peroxide the bound heme may be destroyed.more » Furthermore, it is possible that HemQ may serve a dual role as a decarboxylase in heme biosynthesis and a regulatory protein in heme homeostasis.« less

  3. Synaptic inhibition and γ-aminobutyric acid in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    OBATA, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission through synapses connecting two neurons is mediated by release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic axon terminals and activation of its receptor at the postsynaptic neurons. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), non-protein amino acid formed by decarboxylation of glutamic acid, is a principal neurotransmitter at inhibitory synapses of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous system. On one hand glutamic acid serves as a principal excitatory neurotransmitter. This article reviews GABA researches on; (1) synaptic inhibition by membrane hyperpolarization, (2) exclusive localization in inhibitory neurons, (3) release from inhibitory neurons, (4) excitatory action at developmental stage, (5) phenotype of GABA-deficient mouse produced by gene-targeting, (6) developmental adjustment of neural network and (7) neurological/psychiatric disorder. In the end, GABA functions in simple nervous system and plants, and non-amino acid neurotransmitters were supplemented. PMID:23574805

  4. InP/ZnS nanocrystals: coupling NMR and XPS for fine surface and interface description.

    PubMed

    Virieux, Héloïse; Le Troedec, Marianne; Cros-Gagneux, Arnaud; Ojo, Wilfried-Solo; Delpech, Fabien; Nayral, Céline; Martinez, Hervé; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-12-05

    Advanced (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P solution- and solid-state NMR studies combined with XPS were used to probe, at the molecular scale, the composition (of the core, the shell, and the interface) and the surface chemistry of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots prepared via a non-coordinating solvent strategy. The interface between the mismatched InP and ZnS phases is composed of an amorphous mixed oxide phase incorporating InPO(x) (with x = 3 and predominantly 4), In(2)O(3), and InO(y)(OH)(3-2y) (y = 0, 1). Thanks to the analysis of the underlying reaction mechanisms, we demonstrate that the oxidation of the upper part of the InP core is the consequence of oxidative conditions brought by decarboxylative coupling reactions (ketonization). These reactions occur during both the core preparation and the coating process, but according to different mechanisms.

  5. Lipoic acid synthetase deficiency causes neonatal-onset epilepsy, defective mitochondrial energy metabolism, and glycine elevation.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Fauth, Christine; Bergheim, Christa; Meierhofer, David; Radmayr, Doris; Zschocke, Johannes; Koch, Johannes; Sperl, Wolfgang

    2011-12-09

    Lipoic acid is an essential prosthetic group of four mitochondrial enzymes involved in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and branched chain amino acids and in the glycine cleavage. Lipoic acid is synthesized stepwise within mitochondria through a process that includes lipoic acid synthetase. We identified the homozygous mutation c.746G>A (p.Arg249His) in LIAS in an individual with neonatal-onset epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, lactic acidosis, and elevated glycine concentration in plasma and urine. Investigation of the mitochondrial energy metabolism showed reduced oxidation of pyruvate and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity. A pronounced reduction of the prosthetic group lipoamide was found in lipoylated proteins. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal-free trifluoromethylation of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yupu; Si, Tuda; Yang, Ming-Hsiu; Altman, Ryan A

    2014-08-01

    The ability to convert simple and common substrates into fluoroalkyl derivatives under mild conditions remains an important goal for medicinal and agricultural chemists. One representative example of a desirable transformation involves the conversion of aromatic and heteroaromatic ketones and aldehydes into aryl and heteroaryl β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes. The traditional approach for this net transformation involves stoichiometric metals and/or multistep reaction sequences that consume excessive time, material, and labor resources while providing low yields of products. To complement these traditional strategies, we report a one-pot metal-free decarboxylative procedure for accessing β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes from readily available ketones and aldehydes. This method features several benefits, including ease of operation, readily available reagents, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group compatibility, and scalability.

  7. Metal-Free Trifluoromethylation of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Aldehydes and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ability to convert simple and common substrates into fluoroalkyl derivatives under mild conditions remains an important goal for medicinal and agricultural chemists. One representative example of a desirable transformation involves the conversion of aromatic and heteroaromatic ketones and aldehydes into aryl and heteroaryl β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes. The traditional approach for this net transformation involves stoichiometric metals and/or multistep reaction sequences that consume excessive time, material, and labor resources while providing low yields of products. To complement these traditional strategies, we report a one-pot metal-free decarboxylative procedure for accessing β,β,β-trifluoroethylarenes and -heteroarenes from readily available ketones and aldehydes. This method features several benefits, including ease of operation, readily available reagents, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group compatibility, and scalability. PMID:25001876

  8. Decreased expression of IDH1-R132H correlates with poor survival in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieying; Huang, Jianfei; Huang, Fang; Jin, Qing; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Meng

    2016-11-08

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) is an NADP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate. The IDH1-R132H mutation predicts a better clinical outcome for glioma patients, and the expression of IDH1-R132H correlates with a favorable outcome in patients with brain tumors. Here, we investigated IDH1-R132H expression in both gastric (n=526) and colorectal (n=399) tissues by performing immunohistochemistry analyses on tissue microarrays. We also tested whether IDH1-R132H expression correlated with various clinical parameters. In both gastric and colorectal cancer, expression of IDH1-R132H was associated with tumor stage. Patients with low IDH1-R132H expression had a poor overall survival. Our data indicate that IDH1-R132H expression could be used as a predictive marker of prognosis for patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  9. Decreased expression of IDH1-R132H correlates with poor survival in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jieying; Huang, Jianfei; Huang, Fang; Jin, Qing; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) is an NADP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate. The IDH1-R132H mutation predicts a better clinical outcome for glioma patients, and the expression of IDH1-R132H correlates with a favorable outcome in patients with brain tumors. Here, we investigated IDH1-R132H expression in both gastric (n=526) and colorectal (n=399) tissues by performing immunohistochemistry analyses on tissue microarrays. We also tested whether IDH1-R132H expression correlated with various clinical parameters. In both gastric and colorectal cancer, expression of IDH1-R132H was associated with tumor stage. Patients with low IDH1-R132H expression had a poor overall survival. Our data indicate that IDH1-R132H expression could be used as a predictive marker of prognosis for patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:27655638

  10. Carbohydrates stimulate ethylene production in tobacco leaf discs : I. Interaction with auxin and the relation to auxin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Meir, S; Philosoph-Hadas, S; Epstein, E; Aharoni, N

    1985-05-01

    Various naturally occurring carbohydrates, applied at a concentration range of 1 to 100 mm, stimulated ethylene production for several days in indoleacetic acid (IAA)-treated or untreated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv ;Xanthi') leaf discs. The lag period for this sugar-stimulated ethylene production was 8 to 12 hours after excision in the untreated leaf discs, but less than 2 hours in the IAA-treated ones. Among the tested carbohydrates, 12 were found to increase synergistically ethylene production, with d-galactose, sucrose, and lactose being the most active; mannitol and l-glucose had no effect. The extent and duration of the increased ethylene production was dependent upon the type of sugar applied, the tissue's age, and the existence of both exogenous IAA and sugar in the medium. Sucrose appeared to elicit a continuous IAA effect for 48 hours, as expressed by increased ethylene production, even when IAA was removed from the medium after a 4-hour pulse. Sucrose stimulated both the uptake and decarboxylation of [1-(14)C]IAA, as well as the hydrolysis of the esteric and amide IAA conjugates formed in the tissue after application of free IAA. This gradual hydrolysis was accompanied by a further accumulation of a third IAA metabolite. Moreover, synthetic indole-3-acetyl-l-alanine increased ethylene production mainly with sucrose, and this effect was accompanied by its increased decarboxylation and turnover pattern suggesting that release of free IAA was involved. An esteric IAA conjugate, tentatively identified by GC retention time was found to be the major component (84%) of the naturally occurring IAA conjugates in tobacco leaves. Accordingly the sucrose-stimulated ethylene production in tobacco leaves can be ascribed mainly to the sucrose-stimulated hydrolysis of the esteric IAA conjugate.

  11. 2-Keto-3-fluoroglutarate: a useful mechanistic probe of 2-keto-glutarate-dependent enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Grissom, C B; Cleland, W W

    1987-12-18

    2-Keto-3-fluoroglutaric acid prepared by acid hydrolysis of its diethyl ester is stable, as the free acid in aqueous solution at pH 2, and can be stored at -20 degrees C for several years. Both enantiomers are reduced by NADH in the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.2) to the two diastereomers of 3-fluoro-L-glutamate, which are stable at neutral pH and at high pH unless heated. 2-Keto-3-fluoroglutarate exists in solution almost entirely as a hydrate both at low and neutral pH. Both enantiomers of ketofluoroglutarate react with the pyridoxamine forms of aspartate, alanine and 4-aminobutyrate transaminases to give fluoride release. 2 mol of cosubstrate amino acid react for each mol of ketofluoroglutarate (KFG) when starting from the pyridoxamine form of the enzyme: 2 RCHNH2COOH + KFG + H2O----F- + NH4+ + glutamate + 2 RCOCOOH. Both diastereomers of fluoroglutamate are decarboxylated by glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) with fluoride release: KFG + H2O----CO2 + F- + HCOCH2CH2COOH. By contrast, only one isomer of fluoroglutamate will react with the pyridoxal form of glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase to give fluoride release: HOOCCHNH2CHFCH2COOH + H2O----4F- + NH4+ + HOOCCOCH2CH2COOH. The enzymatic decarboxylation of 3-fluoroisocitrate produces only one enantiomer of ketofluoroglutarate, which is reduced to threo (2R,3R)-3-fluoroglutamate by NADH and glutamate dehydrogenase: [2R,3S]-HOOCCH(OH)CF(COOH)CH2COOH + NADP+----[3R]-KFG + CO2 + NADPH + H+. The proton, 13C, and 19F-NMR parameters of ketofluoroglutarate and the two fluoroglutamate diastereomers are presented. These molecules are useful probes of enzymatic mechanisms thought to involve carbanion intermediates.

  12. SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alistair K.; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Kremer, Laurent

    Mycolic acids are the dominant feature of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. These {alpha}-alkyl, {beta}-hydroxy fatty acids are formed by the condensation of two fatty acids, a long meromycolic acid and a shorter C{sub 24}-C{sub 26} fatty acid. The component fatty acids are produced via a combination of type I and II fatty acid synthases (FAS) with FAS-I products being elongated by FAS-II toward meromycolic acids. The {beta}-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III encoded by mtfabH (mtFabH) links FAS-I and FAS-II, catalyzing the condensation of FAS-I-derived acyl-CoAs with malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). The acyl-CoA chain length specificity of mtFabH wasmore » assessed in vitro; the enzyme extended longer, physiologically relevant acyl-CoA primers when paired with AcpM, its natural partner, than with Escherichia coli ACP. The ability of the enzyme to use E. coli ACP suggests that a similar mode of binding is likely with both ACPs, yet it is clear that unique factors inherent to AcpM modulate the substrate specificity of mtFabH. Mutation of proposed key mtFabH residues was used to define their catalytic roles. Substitution of supposed acyl-CoA binding residues reduced transacylation, with double substitutions totally abrogating activity. Mutation of Arg{sup 46} revealed its more critical role in malonyl-AcpM decarboxylation than in the acyl-CoA binding role. Interestingly, this effect was suppressed intragenically by Arg{sup 161} {yields} Ala substitution. Our structural studies suggested that His{sup 258}, previously implicated in malonyl-ACP decarboxylation, also acts as an anchor point for a network of water molecules that we propose promotes deprotonation and transacylation of Cys{sup 122}.« less

  13. Specific glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenating activity is deficient in cultured fibroblasts from glutaric aciduria patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, D.B.; Tanaka, K.

    Patients with glutaric aciduria (GA) have greatly increased urinary excretion of glutarate. Their leukocyte and fibroblast sonicates have deficient ability to produce /sup 14/CO2 from (1,5-/sup 14/C)glutaryl-CoA, an enzymatic process with two sequential reaction steps, dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. In normal individuals, it is not known whether these two reaction steps require one or two enzymes, and currently it is assumed that a single enzyme, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GDH), carries out these two reactions. Since GA patients also excrete increased amounts of 3-hydroxyglutarate and glutaconate in urine, it was thought that glutaryl-CoA in these patients may be dehydrogenated but not decarboxylated. Wemore » developed a new assay specific for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenation which measures enzyme-catalyzed tritium release from (2,3,4-3H)glutaryl-CoA, and we studied the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenating activity in cultured normal human fibroblasts and those from patients with GA. The Michaelis constant (Km) of normal human fibroblast GDH for (2,3,4-3H)glutaryl-CoA was 5.9 microM, and activity was severely inhibited by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA at low concentrations. Sonicates from all five GA fibroblast lines examined showed 2-9% of control glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenating activity, corresponding to the deficient 14CO2 releasing activity. These results indicate either that the conversion of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA is accomplished by two enzymes, and patients with GA are deficient in the activity of the first component, or alternatively, that this process is carried out by a single enzyme which is deficient in these patients. It is unlikely that urinary glutaconate and 3-hydroxyglutarate in GA patients are produced via GDH.« less

  14. The different paths and potential risks of photo(-electro)-catalytic degradation for rhodamine B in water by graphene/TiO2 membrane.

    PubMed

    Ren, Miao; Liu, Haiyang; Qu, Jiao; Zhang, Yanan; Ma, Ying; Yuan, Xing

    2018-03-07

    The graphene (GR)/TiO 2 membrane was prepared by the sol-gel method and coated on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, which showed high and stable photo(-electro)-catalytic activities to rhodamine B (Rh-B) in water. Characterization results showed that the GR was dispersed and wrapped in the needle-like TiO 2 . With GR/TiO 2 membrane and simulated sunlight irradiation, the removal efficiency of Rh-B (10 mg l -1 and pH at 5.4) arrived at 87.6% within 300 min. However, the higher removal efficiency for Rh-B reached to 97.8% by the photo-electro-catalytic degradation with the applied voltage 4 v for 30 min. The ·OH that generated in the photo-catalytic degradation process were responsible for Rh-B decomposition. The ·O 2 - played the significant role in the photo-electro-catalytic degradation of Rh-B. Furthermore, the decarboxylation was also occurred in the photo-electro-catalytic degradation for the Rh-B in water except for the deethylation and hydroxylation in the photo-catalytic degradation. In addition, the toxicities of the intermediates were calculated using the ECOSAR program and the EPIWIN software. The results indicated that the toxicities of intermediates from photo-electro-catalytic degradation for the Rh-B were higher than photo-catalytic degradation, due to the generation of decarboxylate.

  15. Ultrafast and low barrier motions in the photoreactions of the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    van Thor, Jasper J; Georgiev, Georgi Y; Towrie, Michael; Sage, J Timothy

    2005-09-30

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluoresces efficiently under blue excitation despite major electrostatic rearrangements resulting from photoionization of the chromophore and neutralization of Glu-222. A competing phototransformation process, which ionizes the chromophore and decarboxylates Glu-222, mimics the electrostatic and structural changes in the fluorescence photocycle. Structural and spectroscopic analysis of the cryogenically stabilized photoproduct at 100 K and a structurally annealed intermediate of the phototransformed protein at 170 K reveals distinct structural relaxations involving protein, chromophore, solvent, and photogenerated CO2. Strong structural changes of the 100 K photoproduct after decarboxylation appear exclusively within 15 angstroms of the chromophore and include the electrostatically driven perturbations of Gln-69, Cys-70, and water molecules in an H-bonding network connecting the chromophore. X-ray crystallography to 1.85 angstroms resolution and static and picosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy identify structural mechanisms common to phototransformation and to the fluorescence photocycle. In particular, the appearance of a 1697 cm(-1) (+) difference band in both photocycle and phototransformation intermediates is a spectroscopic signature for the structural perturbation of Gln-69. This is taken as evidence for an electrostatically driven dynamic response that is common to both photoreaction pathways. The interactions between the chromophore and the perturbed residues and solvent are decreased or removed in the T203H single and T203H/Q69L double mutants, resulting in a strong reduction of the fluorescence quantum yield. This suggests that the electrostatic response to the transient formation of a buried charge in the wild type is important for the bright fluorescence.

  16. Induced Fit and the Catalytic Mechanism of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase†

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Susana; Miller, Stephen P.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Dean, Anthony M.; Matias, Pedro M.

    2012-01-01

    NADP+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; EC 1.1.1.42) belongs to a large family of α-hydroxyacid oxidative β-decarboxylases that catalyze similar three-step reactions, with dehydrogenation to an oxaloacid intermediate preceding β-decarboxylation to an enol intermediate followed by tautomerization to the final α-ketone product. A comprehensive view of the induced fit needed for catalysis is revealed on comparing the first “fully closed” crystal structures of a pseudo-Michaelis complex of wild-type Escherichia coli IDH (EcoIDH) and the “fully closed” reaction product complex of the K100M mutant with previously obtained “quasi-closed” and “open” conformations. Conserved catalytic residues, binding the nicotinamide ring of NADP+ and the metal-bound substrate, move as rigid bodies during domain closure by a hinge motion that spans the central β-sheet in each monomer. Interactions established between Thr105 and Ser113, which flank the “phosphorylation loop”, and the nicotinamide mononucleotide moiety of NADP+ establish productive coenzyme binding. Electrostatic interactions of a Lys100-Leu103-Asn115-Glu336 tetrad play a pivotal role in assembling a catalytically competent active site. As predicted, Lys230* is positioned to deprotonate/reprotonate the α-hydroxyl in both reaction steps and Tyr160 moves into position to protonate C3 following β-decarboxylation. A proton relay from the catalytic triad Tyr160-Asp307-Lys230* connects the α-hydroxyl of isocitrate to the bulk solvent to complete the picture of the catalytic mechanism. PMID:22891681

  17. Ionization of isocitrate bound to pig hear NADP/sup +/-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase: /sup 13/C NMR study of substrate binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.S.; Colman, R.F.

    1987-06-16

    Isocitrate and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate have been synthesized with carbon-13 enrichment at specific positions. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these derivatives were measured as a function of pH. The magnitudes of the changes in chemical shifts with pH for free isocitrate and the magnesium-isocitrate complex suggest that the primary site of ionization at the ..beta..-carboxyl. In the presence of the enzyme NADP/sup +/-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and the activating metal magnesium, the carbon-13 resonances of all three carboxyls remain constant from pH 5.5 to pH 7.5. Thus, the carboxyls remain in the ionized form in the enzyme-isocitrate complex. The ..cap alpha..-hydroxylmore » carbon resonance could not be located in the enzyme-isocitrate complex, suggesting immobilization of this group. Magnesium produces a 2 ppm downfield shift of the ..beta..-carboxyl but does not change the resonances of the ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-carboxyls. This result is consistent with metal activation of both the dehydrogenation and decarboxylation reactions. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate remains unchanged in the presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase, implying the absence of alterations in geometry in the enzyme-bound form. Formation of the quaternary complex with Mg/sup 2 +/ and NADPH leads to loss of the ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate resonances and the appearance of new resonances characteristic of ..cap alpha..-hydroxyglutarate. In addition, a broad peak ascribed to the enol form of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate is observed. The substantial change in the shift of the ..beta..-carboxyl of isocitrate and the lack of significant shifts in the other carboxyls of isocitrate or ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate suggest that interaction of the ..beta..-carboxyl with the enzyme contributes to the tighter binding of isocitrate and may be significant for the oxidative decarboxylation function of isocitrate dehydrogenase.« less

  18. Removal of antibiotic cloxacillin by means of electrochemical oxidation, TiO2 photocatalysis, and photo-Fenton processes: analysis of degradation pathways and effect of the water matrix on the elimination of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Serna-Galvis, Efraim A; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the treatment of the antibiotic cloxacillin (CLX) in water by means of electrochemical oxidation, TiO 2 photocatalysis, and the photo-Fenton system. The three treatments completely removed cloxacillin and eliminated the residual antimicrobial activity from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing the antibiotic, commercial excipients, and inorganic ions. However, significant differences in the degradation routes were found. In the photo-Fenton process, the hydroxyl radical was involved in the antibiotic removal, while in the TiO 2 photocatalysis process, the action of both the holes and the adsorbed hydroxyl radicals degraded the pollutant. In the electrochemical treatment (using a Ti/IrO 2 anode in sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte), oxidation via HClO played the main role in the removal of CLX. The analysis of initial by-products showed five different mechanistic pathways: oxidation of the thioether group, opening of the central β-lactam ring, breakdown of the secondary amide, hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, and decarboxylation. All the oxidation processes exhibited the three first pathways. Moreover, the aromatic ring hydroxylation was found in both photochemical treatments, while the decarboxylation of the pollutant was only observed in the TiO 2 photocatalysis process. As a consequence of the degradation routes and mechanistic pathways, the elimination of organic carbon was different. After 480 and 240 min, the TiO 2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes achieved ∼45 and ∼15 % of mineralization, respectively. During the electrochemical treatment, 100 % of the organic carbon remained even after the antibiotic was treated four times the time needed to degrade it. In contrast, in all processes, a natural matrix (mineral water) did not considerably inhibit pollutant elimination. However, the presence of glucose in the water significantly affected the degradation of CLX by means of TiO 2 photocatalysis.

  19. Succinate transport by a ruminal selenomonad and its regulation by carbohydrate availability and osmotic strength.

    PubMed

    Strobel, H J; Russell, J B

    1991-01-01

    Washed cells of strain H18, a newly isolated ruminal selenomonad, decarboxylated succinate 25-fold faster than Selenomonas ruminantium HD4 (130 versus 5 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively). Batch cultures of strain H18 which were fermenting glucose did not utilize succinate, and glucose-limited continuous cultures were only able to decarboxylate significant amounts of succinate at slow (less than 0.1 h-1) dilution rates. Strain H18 grew more slowly on lactate than glucose (0.2 versus 0.4 h-1, respectively), and more than half of the lactate was initially converted to succinate. Succinate was only utilized after growth on lactate had ceased. Although nonenergized and glucose-energized cells had similar proton motive forces and ATP levels, glucose-energized cells were unable to transport succinate. Transport by nonenergized cells was decreased by small increases in osmotic strength, and it is possible that energy-dependent inhibition of succinate transport was related to changes in cell turgor. Since cells which were deenergized with 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetate did not transport succinate, it appeared that glycogen metabolism was providing the driving force for succinate uptake. An artificial delta pH drove succinate transport in deenergized cells, but an artificial membrane potential (delta psi) could not serve as a driving force. Because succinate is nearly fully dissociated at pH 7.0 and the transport process was electroneutral, it appeared that succinate was taken up in symport with two protons. An Eadie-Hofstee plot indicated that the rate of uptake was unusually rapid at high substrate concentrations, but the low-velocity, high-affinity component could account for succinate utilization by stationary cultures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THC-A) in urine of a 15-month-old child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Quaiotti, Jessica; Moretti, Matteo; Osculati, Antonio Marco Maria; Tajana, Luca; Groppi, Angelo; Vignali, Claudia

    2018-05-01

    The acidic forms of cannabinoids, THC-A and CBD-A are naturally present in cannabis plants and preparations and are generally decarboxylated to the active compounds before the use (e.g. thermally decarboxylated through smoking). Hence, the identification of the acidic compounds in urine could be an evidence of cannabis ingestion rather than a passive exposure to smoke. This case report described a 15-month-old child that suffered an acute intoxication by accidental cannabis ingestion. It is important to assess the ingestion and to discriminate it from a passive exposure to better interpret the clinical findings and to establish the correct therapeutic procedure. Urine samples were simply diluted in deionized water and directly injected in the LC-MS/MS system. D 3 -THCCOOH was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation of THCCOOH, THC-A and CBD-A was carried out in reversed phase on a c18 column. A triple quad in MRM negative mode was used to monitor the three analytes. The developed LC-MS/MS method was simple and fast. A LOD of 3.0ng/mL and a LOQ of 10.0ng/mL were measured for the three compounds. The analytical procedure was validated accordingly to international guidelines. The two urine samples collected from the 15-month-old child at the hospitalization and after three days provided positive results for THCCOOH (130.0 and 10.0ng/mL respectively). THC-A was found only in the urine sample collected at the hospitalization (concentration: 70.0ng/mL). THC-A was detected and quantitated in a urine sample of a 15-month-old child. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genealogy profiling through strain improvement by using metabolic network analysis: metabolic flux genealogy of several generations of lysine-producing corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Christoph; Heinzle, Elmar

    2002-12-01

    A comprehensive approach of metabolite balancing, (13)C tracer studies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and isotopomer modeling was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of a genealogy of five successive generations of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. The five strains examined (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, 13287, 21253, 21526, and 21543) were previously obtained by random mutagenesis and selection. Throughout the genealogy, the lysine yield in batch cultures increased markedly from 1.2 to 24.9% relative to the glucose uptake flux. Strain optimization was accompanied by significant changes in intracellular flux distributions. The relative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) flux successively increased, clearly corresponding to the product yield. Moreover, the anaplerotic net flux increased almost twofold as a consequence of concerted regulation of C(3) carboxylation and C(4) decarboxylation fluxes to cover the increased demand for lysine formation; thus, the overall increase was a consequence of concerted regulation of C(3) carboxylation and C(4) decarboxylation fluxes. The relative flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase dropped from 82.7% in the wild type to 59.9% in the lysine-producing mutants. In contrast to the NADPH demand, which increased from 109 to 172% due to the increasing lysine yield, the overall NADPH supply remained constant between 185 and 196%, resulting in a decrease in the apparent NADPH excess through strain optimization. Extrapolated to industrial lysine producers, the NADPH supply might become a limiting factor. The relative contributions of PPP and the tricarboxylic acid cycle to NADPH generation changed markedly, indicating that C. glutamicum is able to maintain a constant supply of NADPH under completely different flux conditions. Statistical analysis by a Monte Carlo approach revealed high precision for the estimated fluxes, underlining the

  2. Spliceostatin hemiketal biosynthesis in Burkholderia spp. is catalyzed by an iron/α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; Janso, Jeffrey E.; Ratnayake, Anokha S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Koehn, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Spliceostatins are potent spliceosome inhibitors biosynthesized by a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase−polyketide synthase (NRPS−PKS) system of the trans-acyl transferase (AT) type. Burkholderia sp. FERM BP-3421 produces hemiketal spliceostatins, such as FR901464, as well as analogs containing a terminal carboxylic acid. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence for hemiketal biosynthesis by oxidative decarboxylation rather than the previously hypothesized Baeyer–Villiger oxidative release postulated to be catalyzed by a flavin-dependent monooxygenase (FMO) activity internal to the last module of the PKS. Inactivation of Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenase gene fr9P led to loss of hemiketal congeners, whereas the mutant was still able to produce all major carboxylic acid-type compounds. FMO mutants, on the other hand, produced both hemiketal and carboxylic acid analogs containing an exocyclic methylene instead of an epoxide, indicating that the FMO is involved in epoxidation rather than Baeyer–Villiger oxidation. Moreover, recombinant Fr9P enzyme was shown to catalyze hydroxylation to form β-hydroxy acids, which upon decarboxylation led to hemiketal FR901464. Finally, a third oxygenase activity encoded in the biosynthetic gene cluster, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Fr9R, was assigned as a 4-hydroxylase based on gene inactivation results. Identification and deletion of the gene involved in hemiketal formation allowed us to generate a strain—the dioxygenase fr9P− mutant—that accumulates only the carboxylic acid-type spliceostatins, which are as potent as the hemiketal analogs, when derivatized to increase cell permeability, but are chemically more stable. PMID:25097259

  3. Pulse radiolysis studies of 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Singh, Beena G; Sharma, Asmita; Jain, Vimal K; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2014-11-06

    One electron redox reaction of two asymmetric 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers attached to ethanoic acid (DPSeEA) and propionic acid (DPSePA) were studied by pulse radiolysis technique using transient absorption detection. The reaction of the hydroxyl ((•)OH) radical with DPSeEA or DPSePA at pH 7 produced transients absorbing at 500 nm and at 300 nm, respectively. The absorbance at 500 nm increased with increasing parent concentration indicating formation of dimer radical cations. From the absorbance changes, the equilibrium constants for the formation of dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated as 2020 and 1608 M(-1), respectively. The rate constants at pH 7 for the reaction of the (•)OH radical with DPSeEA and DPSePA were determined to be 9.6 × 10(9) and 1.4 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA decayed by first order kinetics with a rate constant of 2.8 × 10(4) and 5.5 × 10(3) s(-1), respectively. The yield of radical cations of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated from the secondary electron transfer reaction, which corresponds to 38% and 48% of (•)OH radical yield, respectively. Some fraction of monomer radical cation undergoes decarboxylation reaction, and the yield of decarboxylation was 25% and 20% for DPSeEA and DPSePA, respectively. These results have implication in understanding their antioxidant activity. The reaction of trichloromethyl peroxyl radical, glutathione, and ascorbic acid further support their antioxidant behavior.

  4. Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater under Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Penghua; Hu, Zhihao; Song, Xin; Liu, Jianguo; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA using activated persulfate under mild conditions was investigated. The impact of different factors on persulfate activity, including pH, temperature (25 °C–50 °C), persulfate dosage and reaction time, was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Contrary to the traditional alkaline-activated persulfate oxidation, it was found that PFOA can be effectively degraded using activated persulfate under acidic conditions, with the degradation kinetics following the pseudo-first-order decay model. Higher temperature, higher persulfate dosage and increased reaction time generally result in higher PFOA degradation efficiency. Experimental results show that a PFOA degradation efficiency of 89.9% can be achieved by activated persulfate at pH of 2.0, with the reaction temperature of 50 °C, molar ratio of PFOA to persulfate as 1:100, and a reaction time of 100 h. The corresponding defluorination ratio under these conditions was 23.9%, indicating that not all PFOA decomposed via fluorine removal. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer analysis results indicate that both SO4−• and •OH contribute to the decomposition of PFOA. It is proposed that PFOA degradation occurs via a decarboxylation reaction triggered by SO4−•, followed by a HF elimination process aided by •OH, which produces one-CF2-unit-shortened perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, Cn−1F2n−1COOH). The decarboxylation and HF elimination processes would repeat and eventually lead to the complete mineralization all PFCAs. PMID:27322298

  5. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  6. Respiratory properties and malate metabolism in Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. smooth cayenne.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hoang Thi Kim; Nose, Akihiro; Agarie, Sakae

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made of the respiratory properties and the role of the mitochondria isolated from one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple) in malate metabolism during CAM phase III. Pineapple mitochondria showed very high malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and low malic enzyme (ME) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities. The mitochondria readily oxidized succinate and NADH with high rates and coupling, while they only oxidized NADPH in the presence of Ca(2+). Pineapple mitochondria oxidized malate with low rates under most assay conditions, despite increasing malate concentrations, optimizing pH, providing cofactors such as coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate, and NAD(+), and supplying individually external glutamate or GOT. However, providing glutamate and GOT simultaneously strongly increased the rates of malate oxidation. The OAA easily permeated the mitochondrial membranes to import into or export out of pineapple mitochondria during malate oxidation, but the mitochondria did not consume external Asp or alpha-KG. These results suggest that OAA played a significant role in the mitochondrial malate metabolism of pineapple, in which malate was mainly oxidized by active mMDH to produce OAA which could be exported outside the mitochondria via a malate-OAA shuttle. Cytosolic GOT then consumed OAA by transamination in the presence of glutamate, leading to a large increase in respiration rates. The malate-OAA shuttle might operate as a supporting system for decarboxylation in phase III of PCK-CAM pineapple. This shuttle system may be important in pineapple to provide a source of energy and substrate OAA for cytosolic PCK activity during the day when cytosolic OAA and ATP was limited for the overall decarboxylation process.

  7. Deoxygenation of methyl laurate over Ni based catalysts: Influence of supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Hui; Bi, Yadong; Hu, Jianli

    2017-10-01

    The use of a series of nickel based catalysts supported over HZSM-5, Al2O3, C and ZrO2 in the deoxygenation of methyl laurate shows that the deoxygenation activity and deoxygenation pathway of nickel based catalysts can be affected by properties of catalysts. In the absence of H2, β-elimination of methyl laurate is the dominant reaction and a small amount of laurate acid is converted into undecane by direct decarboxylation. At the same time, the highly acidic support HZSM-5 gave higher conversion and C11 alkane selectivity. In the presence of H2, Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst showed a significantly high deoxygenation activity, producing 71% alkanes by methyl laurate conversion at 280 °C and 4MPa H2. While as on mildly acidic (Al2O3) and neutral (C) supports, a restricted hydrodeoxygenation activity was achieved but more oxygenate products were yielded. According to the analysis of intermediate product, the deoxygenation reaction of methyl laurate follows three distinct pathways: in the absence of H2, decarboxylation: C11H23COOCH3→C11H23COOH→C11H24; in the presence of H2, decarbonylation: C11H23COOCH3→C11H23COOH→C11H23CHO→C11H24; and hydrodeoxygenation: C11H23COOCH3 →C11H23COOH→C11H23CHO→C12H25OH→C12H26

  8. Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase–thioesterase enzyme pair

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Diethelm, Stefan; Rahman, Imran; Schorn, Michelle A.; Sneed, Jennifer M.; Louie, Gordon V.; Whalen, Kristen E.; Mincer, Tracy J.; Noel, Joseph P.; Paul, Valerie J.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Halogenated pyrroles (halopyrroles) are common chemical moieties found in bioactive bacterial natural products. The halopyrrole moieties of mono- and dihalopyrrole-containing compounds arise from a conserved mechanism in which a proline-derived pyrrolyl group bound to a carrier protein is first halogenated and then elaborated by peptidic or polyketide extensions. This paradigm is broken during the marine pseudoalteromonad bacterial biosynthesis of the coral larval settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole (1), which arises from the substitution of the proline-derived carboxylate by a bromine atom. To understand the molecular basis for decarboxylative bromination in the biosynthesis of 1, we sequenced two Pseudoalteromonas genomes and identified a conserved four-gene locus encoding the enzymes involved in its complete biosynthesis. Through total in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthesis of 1 using purified enzymes and biochemical interrogation of individual biochemical steps, we show that all four bromine atoms in 1 are installed by the action of a single flavin-dependent halogenase: Bmp2. Tetrabromination of the pyrrole induces a thioesterase-mediated offloading reaction from the carrier protein and activates the biosynthetic intermediate for decarboxylation. Insights into the tetrabrominating activity of Bmp2 were obtained from the high-resolution crystal structure of the halogenase contrasted against structurally homologous halogenase Mpy16 that forms only a dihalogenated pyrrole in marinopyrrole biosynthesis. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of Bmp2 led to a reduction in the degree of halogenation catalyzed. Our study provides a biogenetic basis for the biosynthesis of 1 and sets a firm foundation for querying the biosynthetic potential for the production of 1 in marine (meta)genomes. PMID:27001835

  9. A novel pump-driven veno-venous gas exchange system during extracorporeal CO2-removal.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staudinger, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal CO2-removal (ECCO2-R) increasingly takes root in hypercapnic lung failure to minimize ventilation invasiveness or to avoid intubation. A recently developed device (iLA activve(®), Novalung, Germany) allows effective decarboxylation via a 22 French double lumen cannula. To assess determinants of gas exchange, we prospectively evaluated the performance of ECCO2-R in ten patients receiving iLA activve(®) due to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sweep gas flow was increased in steps from 1 to 14 L/min at constant blood flow (phase 1). Similarly, blood flow was gradually increased at constant sweep gas flow (phase 2). At each step gas transfer via the membrane as well as arterial blood gas samples were analyzed. During phase 1, we observed a significant increase in CO2 transfer together with a decrease in PaCO2 levels from a median of 66 mmHg (range 46-85) to 49 (31-65) mmHg from 1 to 14 L/min sweep gas flow (p < 0.0001), while arterial oxygenation deteriorated with high sweep gas flow rates. During phase 2, oxygen transfer significantly increased leading to an increase in PaO2 from 67 (49-87) at 0.5 L/min to 117 (66-305) mmHg at 2.0 L/min (p < 0.0001). Higher blood flows also significantly enhanced decarboxylation (p < 0.0001). Increasing sweep gas flow results in effective CO2-removal, which can be further reinforced by raising blood flow. The clinically relevant oxygenation effect in this setting could broaden the range of indications of the system and help to set up an individually tailored configuration.

  10. Dehydrogenation of formic acid catalyzed by magnesium hydride anions, HMgL2- (L = Cl and HCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairallah, George N.; O'Hair, Richard A. J.

    2006-08-01

    A two step gas-phase catalytic cycle for the dehydrogenation of formic acid was established using a combination of experiments carried out on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and DFT calculations. The catalysts are the magnesium hydride anions HMgL2- (L = Cl and HCO2), which are formed from the formate complexes, HCO2MgL2-, via elimination of carbon dioxide under conditions of collision induced dissociation. This is followed by an ion-molecule reaction between HMgL2- and formic acid, which yields hydrogen and also reforms the formate complex, HCO2MgL2-. A kinetic isotope effect in the range 2.3-2.9 was estimated for the rate determining decarboxylation step by carrying out CID on the (HCO2)(DCO2)MgCl2- and subjecting the resultant mixture of (H)(DCO2)MgCl2- and (HCO2)(D)MgCl2- ions at m/z 106 to ion-molecule reactions. DFT calculations (at the B3LYP/6-31 + G* level of theory) were carried out on the HMgCl2- system and revealed that: (i) the decarboxylation of HCO2MgCl2- is endothermic by 47.8 kcal mol-1, consistent with the need to carry out CID to form the HMgCl2-; (ii) HMgCl2- can react with formic acid via either a four centred transition state or a six centred transition state. The former reaction is favoured by 7.8 kcal mol-1.

  11. Monitoring flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway using [1-14C]gluconate.

    PubMed

    Garlick, Andrew P; Moore, Catherine; Kruger, Nicholas J

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the metabolism of exogenous gluconate by a 4-day-old cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Release of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]gluconate was dependent on the concentration in the medium and could be resolved into a substrate-saturable component (apparent K(m) of approximately 0.4 mM) and an unsaturable component. At an external concentration of 0.3 mM, the rate of decarboxylation of applied gluconate was 0.2% of the rate of oxygen consumption by the cells. There was no effect of 0.3 mM gluconate on the rate of oxygen consumption, or on the rate of (14)CO(2) release from either [1-(14)C]glucose or [6-(14)C]glucose by the culture. The following observations argue that gluconate taken up by the cells is metabolised by direct phosphorylation to 6-phosphogluconate and subsequent decarboxylation through 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. First, more than 95% of the label released from [1-(14)C]gluconate during metabolism by the cell culture was recovered as (14)CO(2). Secondly, inhibition of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) by treatment with 6-aminonicotinamide preferentially inhibited release of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]gluconate relative to that from [1-(14)C]glucose. Thirdly, perturbation of glucose metabolism by glucosamine did not affect (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]gluconate. Fourth, stimulation of the OPPP by phenazine methosulphate stimulated release of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]gluconate to a far greater extent than that from [1-(14)C]glucose. It is proposed that measurement of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]gluconate provides a simple and sensitive technique for monitoring flux through the OPPP pathway in plants.

  12. Genealogy Profiling through Strain Improvement by Using Metabolic Network Analysis: Metabolic Flux Genealogy of Several Generations of Lysine-Producing Corynebacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Christoph; Heinzle, Elmar

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive approach of metabolite balancing, 13C tracer studies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and isotopomer modeling was applied for comparative metabolic network analysis of a genealogy of five successive generations of lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. The five strains examined (C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, 13287, 21253, 21526, and 21543) were previously obtained by random mutagenesis and selection. Throughout the genealogy, the lysine yield in batch cultures increased markedly from 1.2 to 24.9% relative to the glucose uptake flux. Strain optimization was accompanied by significant changes in intracellular flux distributions. The relative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) flux successively increased, clearly corresponding to the product yield. Moreover, the anaplerotic net flux increased almost twofold as a consequence of concerted regulation of C3 carboxylation and C4 decarboxylation fluxes to cover the increased demand for lysine formation; thus, the overall increase was a consequence of concerted regulation of C3 carboxylation and C4 decarboxylation fluxes. The relative flux through isocitrate dehydrogenase dropped from 82.7% in the wild type to 59.9% in the lysine-producing mutants. In contrast to the NADPH demand, which increased from 109 to 172% due to the increasing lysine yield, the overall NADPH supply remained constant between 185 and 196%, resulting in a decrease in the apparent NADPH excess through strain optimization. Extrapolated to industrial lysine producers, the NADPH supply might become a limiting factor. The relative contributions of PPP and the tricarboxylic acid cycle to NADPH generation changed markedly, indicating that C. glutamicum is able to maintain a constant supply of NADPH under completely different flux conditions. Statistical analysis by a Monte Carlo approach revealed high precision for the estimated fluxes, underlining the fact that

  13. Structure-Derived Proton-Transfer Mechanism of Action Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1 thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p) that is involved in decarboxylation of pyruvate followed by reductive acetylation of lipoic acid covalently bound to a lysine residue of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The structure of E1p recently determined in our laboratory revealed patterns of association of foul subunits and specifics of two TPP binding sites. The mechanism of action in part includes a conserved hydrogen bond between the N1' atom of the aminopyrimidine ring of the cofactor and the carboxylate group of Glu59 from the beta subunits, and a V-conformation of the cofactor that brings the N4' atom of the aminopyrimidine ring to the distance of the intramolecular hydrogen bond formed with the C2-atom of the thiazolium moiety. The carboxylate group of Glu59 is the local proton acceptor that enables proton translocation within the aminopyrimidine ring and stabilization of the rare N4' - iminopyrimidine tautomer. Based on the analysis of E1p structure, we postulate that the protein environment drives N4' - amino/N4' - imino dynamics resulting in a concerted shuttle-like movement of the subunits. We also propose that this movement of the subunits is strictly coordinated with the two enzymatic reactions carried out in E1p by each of the two cofactor sites. It is proposed that these reactions are in alternating phases such that when one active site is involved in decarboxylation, the other is involved in acetylation of lipoyl noiety.

  14. Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-04-10

    An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan.

  15. Kinetics of Organic Transformations Under Mild Aqueous Conditions: Implications for the Origin of Life and Its Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The rates of thermal transformation of organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were systematically examined in order to identify the kinetic constraints that governed origin-of-life organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions. Arrhenius plots of the kinetic data were used to estimate the reaction half-life at 50 C, and to reveal the effect of functional groups on reactivity. This survey showed that hydrocarbons and organic substances containing a single oxygenated group were kinetically the most stable (i. e. acetate decarboxylation half-life was l0(exp 18) years at 50 C); whereas, organic substances containing two oxygenated groups in which one group was a beta-positioned carbonyl group were the most reactive (i. e. acetoacetate decarboxylation half-life was l0(exp-2) years at 50 C). Of all functional groups the beta-positioned carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) was the strongest activating group, giving rates of reaction that were up to 10(exp 24)-times faster than rates of similar molecules lacking the beta-carbonyl group. From this knowledge of organic reactivity and the inherent constraints of autocatalytic processes, we concluded that an origins-of-life process based on autocatalytic transformation of C,H,O-substrates was constrained to using the most reactive organic molecules that contain alpha- or beta-carbonyl groups, since small autocatalytic domains of plausible catalytic power that used less reactive substrates could not carry out chemical transformations fast enough to prevent catastrophic efflux (escape) of reaction intermediates. Knowledge of the kinetics of organic transformations is useful, not only in constraining the chemistry of the earliest autocatalytic process related to the origin of life, but also in establishing the relative reactivity of organic molecules on the early Earth and other planets that may or may not be related to the origin of life.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows

    PubMed Central

    Pessione, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize gut. A complex molecular cross-talk between LAB and host exists. LAB moonlight proteins are made in response to gut stimuli and promote bacterial adhesion to mucosa and stimulate immune cells. Similarly, when LAB are present, human enterocytes activate specific gene expression of specific genes only. Furthermore, LAB antagonistic relationships with other microorganisms constitute the basis for their anti-infective role. Histamine and tyramine are LAB bioactive catabolites that act on the CNS, causing hypertension and allergies. Nevertheless, some LAB biosynthesize both gamma-amino-butyrate (GABA), that has relaxing effect on gut smooth muscles, and beta-phenylethylamine, that controls satiety and mood. Since LAB have reduced amino acid biosynthetic abilities, they developed a sophisticated proteolytic system, that is also involved in antihypertensive and opiod peptide generation from milk proteins. Short-chain fatty acids are glycolytic and phosphoketolase end-products, regulating epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Nevertheless, they constitute a supplementary energy source for the host, causing weight gain. Human metabolism can also be affected by anabolic LAB products such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Some CLA isomers reduce cancer cell viability and ameliorate insulin resistance, while others lower the HDL/LDL ratio and modify eicosanoid production, with detrimental health effects. A further appreciated LAB feature is the ability to fix selenium into seleno-cysteine. Thus, opening interesting perspectives for their utilization as

  17. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    Research under way in this project centers upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage close-coupled catalytic process. As documented in the previous quarterly report there was little advantage for presoaking Black Thunder coal or Martin Lake lignite in a hydrogen-donor solvent, such as tetralin, at temperatures up to 600{degrees}F prior to liquefaction at higher temperatures. The amount of decarboxylation that occurred during the presoaking of Black Thunder coal or Martin Lake lignite in tetralin in the temperature range of 400 to 600{degrees}F was also relatively small. As indicated by both CO{sub 2} releasemore » and the change in oxygen-containing coal functionality, the level of decarboxylation in coal-derived solvent seems to correlate with the depth of coal dissolution. The feedstock liquefaction studies for the three feedstocks (Black Thunder subbituminous coal, Martin Lake lignite, and Illinois No. 6 coal) have been completed, and their results were compared in this report. Both Black Thunder coal and Martin Lake lignite gave lighter products than Illinois No. 6 coal at similar process conditions. Severe catalyst deactivation in the first stage was also observed with the Martin Lake lignite run. The first stage catalyst testing program was started. After a successful reference run with Illinois No. 6 coal, a high temperature run with AMOCAT{trademark} 1C was completed. In addition, a run was made with Illinois No. 6 coal using an oil-soluble catalyst, Molyvan L, in the first stage and AMOCAT{trademark} 1C in the second stage, where preliminary run results look promising.« less

  18. High content of biogenic amines in Pecorino cheeses.

    PubMed

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Corsetti, Aldo; Manetta, Anna Chiara; Ciarrocchi, Aurora; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-05-01

    Pecorino refers to Italian cheeses made exclusively from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk, characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the Middle and South of Italy by traditional procedures. The autochthonous microbiota plays an important role in the organoleptic traits of Pecorino cheese and it can influence biogenic amines (BA) content. The aim of this study was to characterize from microbiological and chemical point of view 12 randomly purchased commercial cheeses produced in Abruzzo region. Moreover, the BA content and the bacteria showing a decarboxylating activity were detected. For this purpose, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was applied to evaluate histamine and tyramine-producers. The samples were well differentiated for microbial groups composition, such as aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-negative staphylococci, yeasts, enterococci, mesophilic and thermophilic lactobacilli. Pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were absent in all samples. In most samples the content of BA resulted to be high, with prevalence of histamine and tyramine. In particular, total BA content reached 5861 mg/kg in Pecorino di Fossa cheese. The qPCR method resulted to be very useful to understand the role of autochthonous Pecorino cheese microbiota on BA accumulation in many different products. In fact, since the ability of microorganisms to decarboxylate aminoacids is highly variable being in most cases strain-specific, the detection of bacteria possessing this activity is important to estimate the risk of BA cheese content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface interactions and degradation of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic in the dark in aqueous TiO2 suspensions.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jonathan W; Gu, Baohua; Seymour, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) are important drugs used in human and veterinary medicine. Their detection in natural waters and waste water treatment plants, along with increased resistance to FQs among some bacteria, have generated an increased interest in the fate of these drugs in the environment. Partitioning of FQs between an aqueous solution and attendant substrates depends, in part, on the surface reactivity of the adsorbent, commonly a function of particle size, surface charge, and functional groups. This study investigated the surface interactions between the FQ drug ofloxacin (OFL) and titanium oxide (TiO2), a common catalyst and widely-observed constituent in many consumer products. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques, as well as LC/MS, were used to determine the OFL moieties present on TiO2 surfaces and in attendant solutions. Raman spectra indicate that the CO (ketone) group of the quinolone core, the NH(+) of the piperazinyl ring, and CH3 of benzoxazine core are the most active in sorption onto the TiO2 surface. Raman spectra also show that the sorbed benzoxazine-quinolone core and piperazinyl moieties are readily desorbed from the surface by re-suspending samples in water. Importantly, we found that OFL could be degraded by reacting with TiO2 even in the dark. Complementary LC/MS analysis of the attendant supernatants indicates the presence of de-piperazinylated and de-carboxylated OFL breakdown products in supernatant solutions. Together, both Raman and LC/MS analyses indicate that TiO2 breaks the compound into piperazinyl and carboxylate groups which attach to the surface, whereas de-carboxylated and hydroxylated quinolone moieties remain in solution. The present study thus identifies the sorption mechanisms and breakdown products of OFL during dark reactions with TiO2, which is critically important for understanding the fate and transport of OFL as it enters the soil and aquatic environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Comparative cell-specific transcriptomics reveals differentiation of C4 photosynthesis pathways in switchgrass and other C4 lineages

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiaolan; Lu, Nan; Li, Guifen; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all C4 plants require the co-ordination of the adjacent and fully differentiated cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The C4 photosynthetic pathway operates through two distinct subtypes based on how malate is decarboxylated in BS cells; through NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) or NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The diverse or unique cell-specific molecular features of M and BS cells from separate C4 subtypes of independent lineages remain to be determined. We here provide an M/BS cell type-specific transcriptome data set from the monocot NAD-ME subtype switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). A comparative transcriptomics approach was then applied to compare the M/BS mRNA profiles of switchgrass, monocot NADP-ME subtype C4 plants maize and Setaria viridis, and dicot NAD-ME subtype Cleome gynandra. We evaluated the convergence in the transcript abundance of core components in C4 photosynthesis and transcription factors to establish Kranz anatomy, as well as gene distribution of biological functions, in these four independent C4 lineages. We also estimated the divergence between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis in the two cell types within C4 species, including differences in genes encoding decarboxylating enzymes, aminotransferases, and metabolite transporters, and differences in the cell-specific functional enrichment of RNA regulation and protein biogenesis/homeostasis. We suggest that C4 plants of independent lineages in both monocots and dicots underwent convergent evolution to establish C4 photosynthesis, while distinct C4 subtypes also underwent divergent processes for the optimization of M and BS cell co-ordination. The comprehensive data sets in our study provide a basis for further research on evolution of C4 species. PMID:26896851

  1. Biochemical and biophysical CO2 concentrating mechanisms in two species of freshwater macrophyte within the genus Ottelia (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhi; Yin, Liyan; Jiang, Hong-Sheng; Li, Wei; Gontero, Brigitte; Maberly, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    Two freshwater macrophytes, Ottelia alismoides and O. acuminata, were grown at low (mean 5 μmol L(-1)) and high (mean 400 μmol L(-1)) CO2 concentrations under natural conditions. The ratio of PEPC to RuBisCO activity was 1.8 in O. acuminata in both treatments. In O. alismoides, this ratio was 2.8 and 5.9 when grown at high and low CO2, respectively, as a result of a twofold increase in PEPC activity. The activity of PPDK was similar to, and changed with, PEPC (1.9-fold change). The activity of the decarboxylating NADP-malic enzyme (ME) was very low in both species, while NAD-ME activity was high and increased with PEPC activity in O. alismoides. These results suggest that O. alismoides might perform a type of C4 metabolism with NAD-ME decarboxylation, despite lacking Kranz anatomy. The C4-activity was still present at high CO2 suggesting that it could be constitutive. O. alismoides at low CO2 showed diel acidity variation of up to 34 μequiv g(-1) FW indicating that it may also operate a form of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). pH-drift experiments showed that both species were able to use bicarbonate. In O. acuminata, the kinetics of carbon uptake were altered by CO2 growth conditions, unlike in O. alismoides. Thus, the two species appear to regulate their carbon concentrating mechanisms differently in response to changing CO2. O. alismoides is potentially using three different concentrating mechanisms. The Hydrocharitaceae have many species with evidence for C4, CAM or some other metabolism involving organic acids, and are worthy of further study.

  2. Structures of the Ca2+-regulated photoprotein obelin Y138F mutant before and after bioluminescence support the catalytic function of a water molecule in the reaction.

    PubMed

    Natashin, Pavel V; Ding, Wei; Eremeeva, Elena V; Markova, Svetlana V; Lee, John; Vysotski, Eugene S; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins, which are responsible for light emission in a variety of marine coelenterates, are a highly valuable tool for measuring Ca(2+) inside living cells. All of the photoproteins are a single-chain polypeptide to which a 2-hydroperoxycoelenterazine molecule is tightly but noncovalently bound. Bioluminescence results from the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-hydroperoxycoelenterazine, generating protein-bound coelenteramide in an excited state. Here, the crystal structures of the Y138F obelin mutant before and after bioluminescence are reported at 1.72 and 1.30 Å resolution, respectively. The comparison of the spatial structures of the conformational states of Y138F obelin with those of wild-type obelin gives clear evidence that the substitution of Tyr by Phe does not affect the overall structure of both Y138F obelin and its product following Ca(2+) discharge compared with the corresponding conformational states of wild-type obelin. Despite the similarity of the overall structures and internal cavities of Y138F and wild-type obelins, there is a substantial difference: in the cavity of Y138F obelin a water molecule corresponding to W2 in wild-type obelin is not found. However, in Ca(2+)-discharged Y138F obelin this water molecule now appears in the same location. This finding, together with the observed much slower kinetics of Y138F obelin, clearly supports the hypothesis that the function of a water molecule in this location is to catalyze the 2-hydroperoxycoelenterazine decarboxylation reaction by protonation of a dioxetanone anion before its decomposition into the excited-state product. Although obelin differs from other hydromedusan Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins in some of its properties, they are believed to share a common mechanism.

  3. Structure and function of PA4872 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a novel class of oxaloacetate decarboxylase from the PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Buvaneswari C; Niu, Weiling; Han, Ying; Zou, Jiwen; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2008-01-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA4872 was identified by sequence analysis as a structurally and functionally novel member of the PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily and therefore targeted for investigation. Substrate screens ruled out overlap with known catalytic functions of superfamily members. The crystal structure of PA4872 in complex with oxalate (a stable analogue of the shared family alpha-oxyanion carboxylate intermediate/transition state) and Mg2+ was determined at 1.9 A resolution. As with other PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily members, the protein assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit adopting an alpha/beta barrel fold and two subunits swapping their barrel's C-terminal alpha-helices. Mg2+ and oxalate bind in the same manner as observed with other superfamily members. The active site gating loop, known to play a catalytic role in the PEP mutase and lyase branches of the superfamily, adopts an open conformation. The Nepsilon of His235, an invariant residue in the PA4872 sequence family, is oriented toward a C(2) oxygen of oxalate analogous to the C(3) of a pyruvyl moiety. Deuterium exchange into alpha-oxocarboxylate-containing compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Having ruled out known activities, the involvement of a pyruvate enolate intermediate suggested a decarboxylase activity of an alpha-oxocarboxylate substrate. Enzymatic assays led to the discovery that PA4872 decarboxylates oxaloacetate (kcat = 7500 s(-1) and Km = 2.2 mM) and 3-methyloxaloacetate (kcat = 250 s(-1) and Km = 0.63 mM). Genome context of the fourteen sequence family members indicates that the enzyme is used by select group of Gram-negative bacteria to maintain cellular concentrations of bicarbonate and pyruvate; however the decarboxylation activity cannot be attributed to a pathway common to the various bacterial species.

  4. Crystal structure of a dodecameric FMN-dependent UbiX-like decarboxylase (Pad1) from Escherichia coli O157: H7

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Li, Yunge; Iannuzzi, Pietro; Tocilj, Ante; Hung, Li-Wei; Matte, Allan; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of the flavoprotein Pad1 from Escherichia coli O157:H7 complexed with the cofactor FMN has been determined by the multiple anomalous diffraction method and refined at 2.0 Å resolution. This protein is a paralog of UbiX (3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxylyase, 51% sequence identity) that catalyzes the third step in ubiquinone biosynthesis and to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pad1 (54% identity), an enzyme that confers resistance to the antimicrobial compounds phenylacrylic acids through decarbox-ylation of these compounds. Each Pad1 monomer consists of a typical Rossmann fold containing a non–covalently bound molecule of FMN. The fold of Pad1 is similar to MrsD, an enzyme associated with lantibiotic synthesis; EpiD, a peptidyl-cysteine decarboxylase; and AtHAL3a, the enzyme, which decarboxylates 4′-phosphopantothenoylcysteine to 4′-phosphopantetheine during coenzyme A biosynthesis, all with a similar location of the FMN binding site at the interface between two monomers, yet each having little sequence similarity to one another. All of these proteins associate into oligomers, with a trimer forming the common structural unit in each case. In MrsD and EpiD, which belong to the homo-dodecameric flavin-containing cysteine decarboxylase (HFCD) family, these trimers associate further into dodecamers. Pad1 also forms dodecamers, although the association of the trimers is completely different, resulting in exposure of a different side of the trimer unit to the solvent. This exposure affects the location of the substrate binding site and, specifically, its access to the FMN cofactor. Therefore, Pad1 forms a separate family, distinguishable from the HFCD family. PMID:15459342

  5. VID22 is required for transcriptional activation of the PSD2 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Non; Miyoshi, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Nakazono, Toshimitsu; Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2015-12-15

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is synthesized through decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PS), catalysed by PS decarboxylase 1 (Psd1p) and 2 (Psd2p) and the cytidine 5'-diphosphate (CDP)-ethanolamine (CDP-Etn) pathway. PSD1 null (psd1Δ) and PSD2 null (psd2Δ) mutants are viable in a synthetic minimal medium, but a psd1Δ psd2Δ double mutant exhibits Etn auxotrophy, which is incorporated into PE through the CDP-Etn pathway. We have previously shown that psd1Δ is synthetic lethal with deletion of VID22 (vid22Δ) [Kuroda et al. (2011) Mol. Microbiol. 80: , 248-265]. In the present study, we found that vid22Δ mutant exhibits Etn auxotrophy under PSD1-depressed conditions. Deletion of VID22 in wild-type and PSD1-depressed cells caused partial defects in PE formation through decarboxylation of PS. The enzyme activity of PS decarboxylase in an extract of vid22Δ cells was ∼70% of that in wild-type cells and similar to that in psd2Δ cells and the PS decarboxylase activity remaining in the PSD1-depressed cells became almost negligible with deletion of VID22. Thus, the vid22Δ mutation was suggested to cause a defect in the Psd2p activity. Furthermore, vid22Δ cells were shown to be defective in expression of the PSD2 gene tagged with 6×HA, the defect being ameliorated by replacement of the native promoter of the PSD2 gene with a CYC1 promoter. In addition, an α-galactosidase reporter assay revealed that the activity of the promoter of the PSD2 gene in vid22Δ cells was ∼5% of that in wild-type cells. These results showed that VID22 is required for transcriptional activation of the PSD2 gene. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Surface interactions and degradation of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic in the dark in aqueous TiO 2 suspensions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, Jonathan W.; Gu, Baohua; Seymour, Michael D.

    2015-06-15

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) are important drugs used in human and veterinary medicine. Their detection in natural waters and waste water treatment plants, along with increased resistance to FQs among some bacteria, have generated an increased interest in the fate of these drugs in the environment. Partitioning of FQs between an aqueous solution and attendant substrates depends, in part, on the surface reactivity of the adsorbent, commonly a function of particle size, surface charge, and functional groups. In this paper, this study investigated the surface interactions between the FQ drug ofloxacin (OFL) and titanium oxide (TiO 2), a common catalyst andmore » widely-observed constituent in many consumer products. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques, as well as LC/MS, were used to determine the OFL moieties present on TiO 2 surfaces and in attendant solutions. Raman spectra indicate that the C==O (ketone) group of the quinolone core, the NH + of the piperazinyl ring, and CH 3 of benzoxazine core are the most active in sorption onto the TiO 2 surface. Raman spectra also show that the sorbed benzoxazine–quinolone core and piperazinyl moieties are readily desorbed from the surface by re-suspending samples in water. Importantly, we found that OFL could be degraded by reacting with TiO 2 even in the dark. Complementary LC/MS analysis of the attendant supernatants indicates the presence of de-piperazinylated and de-carboxylated OFL breakdown products in supernatant solutions. Together, both Raman and LC/MS analyses indicate that TiO 2 breaks the compound into piperazinyl and carboxylate groups which attach to the surface, whereas de-carboxylated and hydroxylated quinolone moieties remain in solution. Finally, the present study thus identifies the sorption mechanisms and breakdown products of OFL during dark reactions with TiO 2, which is critically important for understanding the fate and transport of OFL as it enters the soil and aquatic environment.« less

  7. Structure and Function of PA4872 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Novel Class of Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase from the PEP Mutase/Isocitrate Lyase Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Buvaneswari C.; Niu, Weiling; Han, Ying

    2008-06-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA4872 was identified by sequence analysis as a structurally and functionally novel member of the PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily and therefore targeted for investigation. Substrate screens ruled out overlap with known catalytic functions of superfamily members. The crystal structure of PA4872 in complex with oxalate (a stable analogue of the shared family R-oxyanion carboxylate intermediate/transition state) and Mg{sup 2+} was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. As with other PEP mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily members, the protein assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit adopting an {alpha}/{beta} barrel fold and two subunits swapping their barrel's C-terminal {alpha}-helices. Mg2+more » and oxalate bind in the same manner as observed with other superfamily members. The active site gating loop, known to play a catalytic role in the PEP mutase and lyase branches of the superfamily, adopts an open conformation. The N{sup {epsilon}} of His235, an invariant residue in the PA4872 sequence family, is oriented toward a C(2) oxygen of oxalate analogous to the C(3) of a pyruvyl moiety. Deuterium exchange into {alpha}-oxocarboxylate-containing compounds was confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. Having ruled out known activities, the involvement of a pyruvate enolate intermediate suggested a decarboxylase activity of an {alpha}-oxocarboxylate substrate. Enzymatic assays led to the discovery that PA4872 decarboxylates oxaloacetate (k{sub cat}) = 7500 s{sup -1} and K{sub m} = 2.2 mM) and 3-methyloxaloacetate (k{sub cat}) = 250 s{sup -1} and K{sub m} = 0.63 mM). Genome context of the fourteen sequence family members indicates that the enzyme is used by select group of Gram-negative bacteria to maintain cellular concentrations of bicarbonate and pyruvate; however the decarboxylation activity cannot be attributed to a pathway common to the various bacterial species.« less

  8. Synthesis of [{AgO2CCH2OMe(PPh3)}n] and theoretical study of its use in focused electron beam induced deposition

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Julian; Frenzel, Peter; Rüffer, Tobias; Jakob, Alexander; Walfort, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis, chemical and physical properties of [{AgO2CCH2OMe}n] (1) and [{AgO2CCH2OMe(PPh3)}n] (2) are reported. Consecutive reaction of AgNO3 with HO2CCH2OMe gave 1, which upon treatment with PPh3 produced 2. Coordination compound 2 forms a 1D coordination polymer in the solid state as evidenced by single crystal X-ray structure analysis. The coordination geometry at Ag+ is of the [3 + 1] type, whereby the carboxylate anions act as bridging ligands. The formation of PPh3–Ag(I) coordinative bonds results in distorted T-shaped AgPO2 units, which are stabilized further by an additional O–Ag dative bond. TG and TG–MS measurements show that 1 and 2 decompose at 190–250 °C (1) and 260–300 °C (2) via decarboxylation, involving Ag–P (2), C–C and C–O bond cleavages to give elemental silver as confirmed by PXRD studies. In order to verify if polymeric 2 is suitable as a FEBID precursor for silver deposition, its vapor pressure was determined (p 170 °C = 5.318 mbar, ∆H vap = 126.1 kJ mol−1), evincing little volatility. Also EI and ESI mass spectrometric studies were carried out. The dissociation of the silver(I) compound 2 under typical electron-driven FEBID conditions was studied by DFT (B3LYP) calculations on monomeric [AgO2CCH2OMe(PPh3)]. At an energy of the secondary electrons up to 0.8 eV elimination of PPh3 occurs, giving Ag+ and O2CCH2OMe−. Likewise, by release of PPh3 from [AgO2CCH2OMe(PPh3)] the fragment [AgO2CCH2OMe]− is formed from which Ag+ and O2CCH2OMe− is generated, further following the first fragmentation route. However, at 1.3 eV the initial step is decarboxylation giving [AgCH2OMe(PPh3)], followed by Ag–P and Ag–C bond cleavages. PMID:29259876

  9. Synthesis of [{AgO2CCH2OMe(PPh3)} n ] and theoretical study of its use in focused electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Tamuliene, Jelena; Noll, Julian; Frenzel, Peter; Rüffer, Tobias; Jakob, Alexander; Walfort, Bernhard; Lang, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis, chemical and physical properties of [{AgO 2 CCH 2 OMe} n ] ( 1 ) and [{AgO 2 CCH 2 OMe(PPh 3 )} n ] ( 2 ) are reported. Consecutive reaction of AgNO 3 with HO 2 CCH 2 OMe gave 1 , which upon treatment with PPh 3 produced 2 . Coordination compound 2 forms a 1D coordination polymer in the solid state as evidenced by single crystal X-ray structure analysis. The coordination geometry at Ag + is of the [3 + 1] type, whereby the carboxylate anions act as bridging ligands. The formation of PPh 3 -Ag(I) coordinative bonds results in distorted T-shaped AgPO 2 units, which are stabilized further by an additional O-Ag dative bond. TG and TG-MS measurements show that 1 and 2 decompose at 190-250 °C ( 1 ) and 260-300 °C ( 2 ) via decarboxylation, involving Ag-P ( 2 ), C-C and C-O bond cleavages to give elemental silver as confirmed by PXRD studies. In order to verify if polymeric 2 is suitable as a FEBID precursor for silver deposition, its vapor pressure was determined ( p 170 °C = 5.318 mbar, ∆H vap = 126.1 kJ mol -1 ), evincing little volatility. Also EI and ESI mass spectrometric studies were carried out. The dissociation of the silver(I) compound 2 under typical electron-driven FEBID conditions was studied by DFT (B3LYP) calculations on monomeric [AgO 2 CCH 2 OMe(PPh 3 )]. At an energy of the secondary electrons up to 0.8 eV elimination of PPh 3 occurs, giving Ag + and O 2 CCH 2 OMe - . Likewise, by release of PPh 3 from [AgO 2 CCH 2 OMe(PPh 3 )] the fragment [AgO 2 CCH 2 OMe] - is formed from which Ag + and O 2 CCH 2 OMe - is generated, further following the first fragmentation route. However, at 1.3 eV the initial step is decarboxylation giving [AgCH 2 OMe(PPh 3 )], followed by Ag-P and Ag-C bond cleavages.

  10. Improving methodological aspects of the analysis of five regulated haloacetic acids in water samples by solid-phase extraction, ion-pair liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; Alpendurada, M F; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Machado, S; Gonçalves, C

    2012-05-30

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are organic pollutants originated from the drinking water disinfection process, which ought to be controlled and minimized. In this work a method for monitoring haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water samples is proposed, which can be used in quality control laboratories using the techniques most frequently available. Among its main advantages we may highlight its automated character, including minimal steps of sample preparation, and above all, its improved selectivity and sensitivity in the analysis of real samples. Five haloacetic acids (HAA5) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ion-pair liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. For the optimization of the chromatographic separation, two amines (triethylamine, TEA and dibutylamine, DBA) as ion pair reagents were compared, and a better selectivity and sensitivity was obtained using DBA, especially for monohaloacetic acids. SPE conditions were optimized using different polymeric adsorbents. The electrospray source parameters were studied for maximum precursor ion accumulation, while the collision cell energy of the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was adjusted for optimum fragmentation. Precursor ions detected were deprotonated, dimeric and decarboxylated ions. The major product ions formed were: ionized halogen atom (chloride and bromide) and decarboxylated ions. After enrichment of the HAAs in Lichrolut EN adsorbent, the limits of detection obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis (between 0.04 and 0.3 ng mL(-1)) were comparable to those obtained by GC-MS after derivatization. Linearity with good correlation coefficients was obtained over two orders of magnitude irrespective of the compound. Adequate recoveries were achieved (60-102%), and the repeatability and intermediate precision were in the range of 2.4-6.6% and 3.8-14.8%, respectively. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the method for routine HAAs monitoring, different types of water samples were

  11. Design and study of advanced photoresist materials: Positive tone photoresists with reduced environmental impact and materials for 157 nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shintaro

    Concern about using organic solvents in semiconductor manufacturing led us to consider a photoresist system that can be fully processed with aqueous media. A series of new polymers were designed and prepared that demonstrate fully aqueous processable positive tone imaging. Positive tone imaging requires two solubility switches, and this has been accomplished by two different methods. In both cases, a post application baking step was utilized to render the water soluble polymer insoluble in water, and photo-induced acid catalyzed reactions regenerated aqueous solubility only in the exposed areas. The first system is based on the reaction of vinyl ethers. When the film is baked after casting from water, the vinyl ethers incorporated into the photoresist react with acidic hydroxyl groups on the matrix polymer to form acetal cross-linkages. The acetal linkages of the exposed areas are hydrolyzed by photo-acids to create positive tone imaging with pure water development. Although these systems provided positive tone imaging and were successfully cast from and developed with pure water, there are some shortcomings to this design approach such as poor dry etch resistance and short shelf life. The second system was designed to address these shortcomings. Various polystyrene-based polymers bearing ammonium salts of malonic acid monoesters were prepared and studied. The ammonium salts render the styrenic polymers soluble in water. Upon baking, ammonia is volatilized, and the resulting malonic acid monoester undergoes decarboxylation that results in formation of a base insoluble polymer. Studies on the selection of acid labile ester protecting groups, kinetics of decarboxylation and imaging are presented. Lithography with 157 nm exposure is the most promising candidate for post-193 nm lithography, and this technology is expected to provide the resolution required for the next generation of microelectronic devices. Designing photoresists for 157 nm imaging is a challenge

  12. Enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of ortho-phthalate by the nitrate-reducing bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain PA01.

    PubMed

    Junghare, Madan; Spiteller, Dieter; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    The pathway of anaerobic degradation of o-phthalate was studied in the nitrate-reducing bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain PA01. Differential two-dimensional protein gel profiling allowed the identification of specifically induced proteins in o-phthalate-grown compared to benzoate-grown cells. The genes encoding o-phthalate-induced proteins were found in a 9.9 kb gene cluster in the genome of Azoarcus sp. strain PA01. The o-phthalate-induced gene cluster codes for proteins homologous to a dicarboxylic acid transporter, putative CoA-transferases and a UbiD-like decarboxylase that were assigned to be specifically involved in the initial steps of anaerobic o-phthalate degradation. We propose that o-phthalate is first activated to o-phthalyl-CoA by a putative succinyl-CoA-dependent succinyl-CoA:o-phthalate CoA-transferase, and o-phthalyl-CoA is subsequently decarboxylated to benzoyl-CoA by a putative o-phthalyl-CoA decarboxylase. Results from in vitro enzyme assays with cell-free extracts of o-phthalate-grown cells demonstrated the formation of o-phthalyl-CoA from o-phthalate and succinyl-CoA as CoA donor, and its subsequent decarboxylation to benzoyl-CoA. The putative succinyl-CoA:o-phthalate CoA-transferase showed high substrate specificity for o-phthalate and did not accept isophthalate, terephthalate or 3-fluoro-o-phthalate whereas the putative o-phthalyl-CoA decarboxylase converted fluoro-o-phthalyl-CoA to fluoro-benzoyl-CoA. No decarboxylase activity was observed with isophthalyl-CoA or terephthalyl-CoA. Both enzyme activities were oxygen-insensitive and inducible only after growth with o-phthalate. Further degradation of benzoyl-CoA proceeds analogous to the well-established anaerobic benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway of nitrate-reducing bacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. In situ ligand synthesis with the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Mark; Cahill, Christopher L.; Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC

    A novel uranium (VI) coordination polymer, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), has been prepared under the hydrothermal reaction of uranium nitrate hexahydrate and L-pyroglutamic acid. Compound 1 (monoclinic, C2/c, a=22.541(6) A, b=5.7428(15) A, c=15.815(4) A, {beta}=119.112(4){sup o}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0237, wR{sub 2}=0.0367) consists of uranium pentagonal bipyramids linked via L-pyroglutamate and oxalate anions to form an overall two-dimensional (2D) structure. With the absence of oxalic acid within the starting materials, the oxalate anions are hypothesized to form in situ whereby decarboxylation of L-pyroglutamic acid occurs followed by coupling of CO{sub 2} to form the oxalatemore » linkages as observed in the crystal structure. Addition of copper (II) to this system appears to promote oxalate formation in that synthetic moolooite (Cu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}).nH{sub 2}O; 0{<=}n{<=}1) and a known uranyl oxalate [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O], co-crystallize in significant quantity. Compound 1 exhibits the characteristic uranyl emission spectrum upon either direct uranyl excitation or ligand excitation, the latter of which shows an increase in relative intensity. This subsequent increase in the intensity indicates an energy transfer from the ligand to the uranyl cations thus illustrating an example of the antenna effect in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: A novel homometallic coordination polymer (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, in the uranium-L-pyroglutamic acid system has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The title compound consists of uranium pentagonal bipyramids bridged through both L-pyroglutamate and oxalate linkages to produce a 3D crystal structure. The oxalate anions are theorized to result from decarboxylation of L-pyroglutamic acid followed by subsequent coupling of CO{sub 2}.« less

  14. Transformation of diclofenac in hybrid biofilm-activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kevin S; Falås, Per; Wick, Arne; Joss, Adriano; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-11-15

    The biotransformation of diclofenac during wastewater treatment was investigated. Attached growth biomass from a carrier-filled compartment of a hybrid-MBBR at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Bad Ragaz, Switzerland was used to test the biotransformation. Laboratory-scale incubation experiments were performed with diclofenac and carriers and high-resolution LC-QTof-MS was implemented to monitor the biotransformation. Up to 20 diclofenac transformation products (TPs) were detected. Tentative structures were proposed for 16 of the TPs after characterization by MS 2 fragmentation and/or inferring the structure from the transformation pathway and the molecular formula given by the high resolution ionic mass. The remaining four TPs were unambiguously identified via analytical reference standards. The postulated reactions forming the TPs were: hydroxylation, decarboxylation, oxidation, amide formation, ring-opening and reductive dechlorination. Incubation experiments of individual TPs, those which were available as reference standards, provided a deeper look into the transformation pathways. It was found that the transformation consists of four main pathways but no pathway accounted for a clear majority of the transformation. A 10-day monitoring campaign of the full-scale plant confirmed an 88% removal of diclofenac (from approximately 1.6 μg/L in WWTP influent) and the formation of TPs as found in the laboratory was observed. One of the TPs, N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-indolinone detected at concentrations of around 0.25 μg/L in WWTP effluent, accounting for 16% of the influent diclofenac concentration. The biotransformation of carriers was compared to a second WWTP not utilising carriers. It was found that in contact with activated sludge, similar hydroxylation and decarboxylation reactions occurred but at much slower rates, whereas some reactions, e.g. reductive dechlorination, were not detected at all. Finally, incubation experiments were performed with

  15. Structure and mechanism of a cysteine sulfinate desulfinase engineered on the aspartate aminotransferase scaffold.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Francisco J; de Vries, Dominique; Peña-Soler, Esther; Coll, Miquel; Christen, Philipp; Gehring, Heinz; Vega, M Cristina

    2012-02-01

    The joint substitution of three active-site residues in Escherichia coli (L)-aspartate aminotransferase increases the ratio of l-cysteine sulfinate desulfinase to transaminase activity 10(5)-fold. This change in reaction specificity results from combining a tyrosine-shift double mutation (Y214Q/R280Y) with a non-conservative substitution of a substrate-binding residue (I33Q). Tyr214 hydrogen bonds with O3 of the cofactor and is close to Arg374 which binds the α-carboxylate group of the substrate; Arg280 interacts with the distal carboxylate group of the substrate; and Ile33 is part of the hydrophobic patch near the entrance to the active site, presumably participating in the domain closure essential for the transamination reaction. In the triple-mutant enzyme, k(cat)' for desulfination of l-cysteine sulfinate increased to 0.5s(-1) (from 0.05s(-1) in wild-type enzyme), whereas k(cat)' for transamination of the same substrate was reduced from 510s(-1) to 0.05s(-1). Similarly, k(cat)' for β-decarboxylation of l-aspartate increased from<0.0001s(-1) to 0.07s(-1), whereas k(cat)' for transamination was reduced from 530s(-1) to 0.13s(-1). l-Aspartate aminotransferase had thus been converted into an l-cysteine sulfinate desulfinase that catalyzes transamination and l-aspartate β-decarboxylation as side reactions. The X-ray structures of the engineered l-cysteine sulfinate desulfinase in its pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form or liganded with a covalent coenzyme-substrate adduct identified the subtle structural changes that suffice for generating desulfinase activity and concomitantly abolishing transaminase activity toward dicarboxylic amino acids. Apparently, the triple mutation impairs the domain closure thus favoring reprotonation of alternative acceptor sites in coenzyme-substrate intermediates by bulk water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Roberta; Marchei, Emilia; Salvatore, Francesco; Guandalini, Luca; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pichini, Simona

    2017-08-28

    Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis. The evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil was conducted using an easy and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay. Extraction efficiency of oil was significantly higher than that of water with respect to the different cannabinoids. This was especially observed in the case of the pharmacologically active THC, CBD and their acidic precursors. Fifteen minutes boiling was sufficient to achieve the highest concentrations of cannabinoids in the cannabis tea solutions. At ambient temperature, a significant THC and CBD decrease to 50% or less of the initial concentration was observed over 3 and 7 days, respectively. When refrigerated at 4 °C, similar decreasing profiles were observed for the two compounds. The cannabinoids profile in cannabis oil obtained after pre-heating the flowering tops at 145 °C for 30 min in a static oven resulted in a complete decarboxylation of cannabinoid acids CBDA and THCA-A. Nevertheless, it was apparent that heat not only decarboxylated acidic compounds, but also significantly increased the final concentrations of cannabinoids in oil. The stability of cannabinoids in oil samples was higher than that in tea samples since the maximum decrease (72% of initial concentration) was observed in THC coming from unheated flowering

  17. Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-01-23

    In white biotechnology biocatalysis represents a key technology for chemical functionalization of non-natural compounds. The plasmid-born overproduction of an alcohol dehydrogenase, an L-alanine-dependent transaminase and an alanine dehydrogenase allows for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols in whole cell biotransformation. Here, conditions to optimize the whole cell biocatalyst presented in (Bioorg Med Chem 22:5578-5585, 2014), and the role of L-alanine for efficient amine functionalization of 1,10-decanediol to 1,10-diaminodecane were analyzed. The enzymes of the cascade for amine functionalization of alcohols were characterized in vitro to find optimal conditions for an efficient process. Transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum, TaCv, showed three-fold higher catalytic efficiency than transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis, TaVf, and improved production at 37°C. At 42°C, TaCv was more active, which matched thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase and improved the 1,10-diaminodecane production rate four-fold. To study the role of L-alanine in the whole cell biotransformation, the L-alanine concentration was varied and 1,10.diaminodecane formation tested with constant 10 mM 1,10- decanediol and 100 mM NH4Cl. Only 5.6% diamine product were observed without added L-alanine. L-alanine concentrations equimolar to that of the alcohol enabled for 94% product formation but higher L-alanine concentrations allowed for 100% product formation. L-alanine was consumed by the E. coli biocatalyst, presumably due to pyruvate catabolism since up to 16 mM acetate accumulated. Biotransformation employing E. coli strain YYC202/pTrc99a-ald-adh-ta Cv, which is unable to catabolize pyruvate, resulted in conversion with a selectivity of 42 mol-%. Biotransformation with E. coli strains only lacking pyruvate oxidase PoxB showed similar reduced amination of 1,10-decanediol indicating that oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate by PoxB is primarily

  18. Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A

    2000-09-01

    The non-homeostatic regulation of blood sugar concentration in the insect Manduca sexta L. was affected by nutritional status. Larvae maintained on diets lacking sucrose displayed low concentrations of trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, which varied from 5 to 15 mM with increasing dietary casein level between 12.5 and 75 g/l. These insects were glucogenic, as demonstrated by the selective 13C enrichment of trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine, and de novo synthesis was the sole source of blood sugar. The distribution of 13C in glutamine established that following transamination of the 13C substituted substrate, [3-13C]pyruvate carboxylation rather than decarboxylation was the principal pathway of Pyr metabolism. The mean blood trehalose level was higher in insects maintained on diets with sucrose. At the lowest dietary casein level blood trehalose was approximately 50 mM, and declined to 20 mM at the highest casein level. Gluconeogenesis was detected in insects maintained on sucrose-free diets at the higher protein levels examined, but [3-13C]pyruvate decarboxylation and TCA cycle metabolism was the principal fate of [3-13C]alanine following transamination, and dietary carbohydrate was the principal source of glucose for trehalose synthesis. Feeding studies established a relationship between nutritional status, blood sugar level and dietary self-selection. Insects preconditioned by feeding on diets without sucrose had low blood sugar levels regardless of dietary casein level, and when subsequently given a choice between a sucrose diet or a casein diet, selected the former. Larvae preconditioned on a diet containing sucrose and the lowest level of casein had high blood sugar levels and subsequently selected the casein diet. Larvae maintained on the sucrose diet with the highest casein level had low blood sugar and self-selected the sucrose diet. When preconditioned on diets with sucrose and intermediate levels of casein, insects selected more equally

  19. Versatile solvent systems for the separation of betalains from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Ignatova, Svetlana; Garrard, Ian; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2013-12-15

    Two mixtures of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins from processed red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) juice were fractionated by high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) producing a range of isolated components. Mixture 1 contained mainly betacyanins, 14,15-dehydro-betanin (neobetanin) and their decarboxylated derivatives while mixture 2 consisted of decarboxy- and dehydro-betacyanins. The products of mixture 1 arose during thermal degradation of betanin/isobetanin in mild conditions while the dehydro-betacyanins of mixture 2 appeared after longer heating of the juice from B. vulgaris L. Two solvent systems were found to be effective for the HPCCC. A highly polar, high salt concentration system of 1-PrOH-ACN-(NH4)2SO4 (satd. soln)-water (v/v/v/v, 1:0.5:1.2:1) (tail-to-head mode) enabled the purification of 2-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin and neobetanin (all from mixture 1) plus 17-decarboxy-neobetanin, 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin, 2-decarboxy-neobetanin and 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-neobetanin (from mixture 2). The other solvent system included heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) as ion-pair reagent and consisted of tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME)-1-BuOH-ACN-water (acidified with 0.7% HFBA) (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) (head-to-tail mode). This system enabled the HPCCC purification of 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin and neobetanin (from mixture 1) plus 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin and 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-neobetanin (mixture 2). The results of this research are crucial in finding effective isolation methods of betacyanins and their derivatives which are meaningful compounds due their colorant properties and potential health benefits regarding antioxidant and cancer prevention. The pigments were detected by LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-07

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which four decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty-acid overproducing E. coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3more » (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-CoA produced the same C27 monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or -ACP) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which catalyzes decarboxylative Claisen

  1. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed

    Beller, Harry R; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-02-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which 4 decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso-branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty acid-overproducing Escherichia coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) produced the same C(27) monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or-ACP [acyl carrier protein]) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which

  2. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol.

  3. Study of the simulated sunlight photolysis mechanism of ketoprofen: the role of superoxide anion radicals, transformation byproducts, and ecotoxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfei; Deng, Wen; Wang, Fengliang; Su, Yuehan; Feng, Yiping; Chen, Ping; Ma, Jingshuai; Su, Haiying; Yao, Kun; Liu, Yang; Lv, Wenying; Liu, Guoguang

    2017-09-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the photolysis mechanism of ketoprofen (KET) under simulated sunlight. The results demonstrated that the photolysis of KET aligned well with pseudo first-order kinetics. Radical scavenging experiments and dissolved oxygen experiments revealed that the superoxide anion radical (O 2 ˙ - ) played a primary role in the photolytic process in pure water. Bicarbonate slightly increased the photodegradation of KET through generating carbonate radicals, while DOM inhibited the photolysis via both attenuating light and competing radicals. Moreover, Zhujiang river water inhibited KET phototransformation. Potential KET degradation pathways were proposed based on the identification of products using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS techniques. The theoretical prediction of reaction sites was derived from Frontier Electron Densities (FEDs), which primarily involved the KET decarboxylation reaction. The ecotoxicity of the treated solutions was evaluated by employing Daphnia magna and V. fischeri as biological indicators. Ecotoxicity was also hypothetically predicted through the "ecological structure-activity relationship" (ECOSAR) program, which revealed that toxic products might be generated during the photolysis process.

  4. Recent trends in the impurity profile of pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Pilaniya, Kavita; Chandrawanshi, Harish K.; Pilaniya, Urmila; Manchandani, Pooja; Jain, Pratishtha; Singh, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Various regulatory authorities such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA), and the Canadian Drug and Health Agency (CDHA) are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are — reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during \\ after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. The different pharmacopoeias such as the British Pharmacopoeia, United State Pharmacopoeia, and Indian Pharmacopoeia are slowly incorporating limits to allowable levels of impurities present in APIs or formulations. Various methods are used to isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals, such as, capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance, gas–liquid chromatography, gravimetric analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, liquid–liquid extraction method, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction column chromatography, mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. PMID:22247862

  5. Novel long-chain anteiso-alkanes and anteiso-alkanoic acids in Antarctic rocks colonized by living and fossil cryptoendolithic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Watanuki, K.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1992-01-01

    Saponified extracts of rock samples colonized by cryptoendolithic microbial communities from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, were separated into hydrocarbon and fatty acid fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Hydrocarbons and methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Unusually, a suite of long-chain anteiso-alkanes (a-C20 to a-C30) and anteiso-alkanoic acids (a-C20 to a-C30) were detected in many samples, together with straight-chain, branched and/or cyclic and acyclic isoprenoid compounds. These novel compounds are probably derived from unidentified heterotrophic bacteria or symbiotic processes in a unique microbial community in the Antarctic cold desert and suggest the occurrence of a special biosynthetic pathway. Long-chain anteiso-alkanes are probably formed through microbial decarboxylation of corresponding anteiso-alkanoic acids. They may serve as new biomarkers in environmental and geochemical studies.

  6. Phenethylamines in brain and liver of rats with experimentally induced phenylketonuria-like characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David J.; Blau, Karl

    1973-01-01

    1. Phenethylamines were extracted from brain and liver of rats with phenylketonuria-like characteristics produced in vivo by inhibition of phenylalanine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3.1) with p-chlorophenylalanine, with or without phenylalanine administration. To protect amines against oxidation by monoamine oxidase, pargyline was also administered. 2. β-Phenethylamine was the major compound found in brain and liver. β-Phenethanolamine and octopamine were also present, in lesser amounts, and the concentrations of these three amines paralleled blood phenylalanine concentrations. By comparison, tissues from control animals had only very low concentrations of these amines. 3. Small amounts of normetadrenaline, m-tyramine and 3-methoxytyramine were also found. 4. The inhibitors used, p-chlorophenylalanine and pargyline, gave rise to p-chlorophenethylamine and benzylamine respectively, the first via decarboxylation, the second probably by breakdown during extraction. 5. Distribution of phenethylamines in different brain regions and in subcellular fractions of rat brain cells was also investigated. The content of phenethylamine was highest in the striatum. 6. These findings are discussed in the light of changes occurring in human patients with uncontrolled phenylketonuria. PMID:4269184

  7. MICOS and phospholipid transfer by Ups2-Mdm35 organize membrane lipid synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Mari J; Friedman, Jonathan R; Osman, Christof; Salin, Bénédicte; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Nunnari, Jodi; Langer, Thomas; Tatsuta, Takashi

    2016-06-06

    Mitochondria exert critical functions in cellular lipid metabolism and promote the synthesis of major constituents of cellular membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase Psd1, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, promotes mitochondrial PE synthesis via two pathways. First, Ups2-Mdm35 complexes (SLMO2-TRIAP1 in humans) serve as phosphatidylserine (PS)-specific lipid transfer proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, allowing formation of PE by Psd1 in the inner membrane. Second, Psd1 decarboxylates PS in the outer membrane in trans, independently of PS transfer by Ups2-Mdm35. This latter pathway requires close apposition between both mitochondrial membranes and the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). In MICOS-deficient cells, limiting PS transfer by Ups2-Mdm35 and reducing mitochondrial PE accumulation preserves mitochondrial respiration and cristae formation. These results link mitochondrial PE metabolism to MICOS, combining functions in protein and lipid homeostasis to preserve mitochondrial structure and function. © 2016 Aaltonen et al.

  8. Serendipitous Discovery of α-Hydroxyalkyl Esters as β-Lactamase Substrates†

    PubMed Central

    Pelto, Ryan B.; Pratt, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    O-(1-Carboxy-1-alkyloxycarbonyl) hydroxamates were found to spontaneously decarboxylate in aqueous neutral buffer to form O-(2-hydroxyalkylcarbonyl) hydroxamates. While the former molecules do not react rapidly with serine β-lactamases, the latter are quite good substrates of representative classes A and C, but not D, enzymes, and particularly of a class C enzyme. The enzymes catalyze hydrolysis of these compounds to a mixture of the α-hydroxyacid and hydroxamate. Analogous compounds containing aryloxy leaving groups rather that hydroxamates are also substrates. Structure-activity experiments showed that the α-hydroxyl group was required for any substantial substrate activity. Although both D- and L-α-hydroxy acid derivatives were substrates, the former were preferred. The response of the class C activity to pH and to alternative nucleophiles (methanol and D-phenylalanine) suggested that the same active site functional groups participated in catalysis as for classical substrates. Molecular modeling was employed to explore how the α-hydroxy group might interact with the class C β-lactamase active site. Incorporation of the α-hydroxyalkyl moiety into novel inhibitors will be of considerable interest. PMID:21087009

  9. Postulated deficiency of hepatic heme and repair by hematin infusions in the "inducible" hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C J; Pierach, C A; Bossenmaier, I; Cardinal, R

    1977-01-01

    There is compelling, indirect evidence of hepatic heme deficiency due primarily to the respective genetic errors of the three inducible hepatic porphyrias, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria variegata, and hereditary coproporphyria. The induction is enhanced by exogenous inducers such as barbiturate, estrogens and other "porphyrogenic" chemicals and factors, including glucose deprivation. The newer knowledge of the induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase [delta-aminolevulinate synthase; succinyl--CoA:glycine C-succinyltransferase (decarboxylating), EC 2.3.1.37] in relation to inadequate heme, and repression by heme, stimulated early trials of hematin infusions to overcome the acute relapse in the foregoing inducible porphyrias. Recently this experience has been considerably expanded, 143 infusions of hematin having been given in 22 cases. Studies of the effect on the serum concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen have shown a highly significant decline, often to 0, especially of delta-aminolevulinic acid. A distinct relationship to the clinical severity of the attack has been evident in the frequency and magnitude of decline of serum delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. This was regularly associated with objective clinical improvement. PMID:266732

  10. Influence of the support of CoMo sulfide catalysts and of the addition of potassium and platinum on the catalytic performances for the hydrodeoxygenation of carbonyl, carboxyl, and guaiacol-type molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Centeno, A.; Laurent, E.; Delmon, B.

    1995-07-01

    The present work corresponds to part of a program aimed at upgrading oil obtained by pyrolysis of biomass by hydrotreatment (hydrodeoxygenation HDO). CoMo sulfide catalysts, nonsupported, supported on different supports (alumina, carbon, silica), or modified by K or Pt, were used. The authors used a model reacting mixture containing compounds representative of the molecules that must react to permit a primary stabilisation of the pyrolytic oil: 4-methy lacetophenone (4-MA), diethylsebacate (DES), and guaiacol (GUA). In the reaction of the carbonyl group of the 4-MA it is shown that no important role is played by any acid-base mechanism; dispersion determines themore » activity. Acidity of the support influences the formation of active sites for decarboxylation and hydrogenation of the carboxyl group of DES. It was confirmed that guaiacol-type molecules lead to coking reactions. The role of acidity in the mechanism of these reactions is confirmed, but the modifications made in the catalysts in this work are still not sufficient to control coke deposition. The catalysts supported on carbon lead to the direct elimination of the methoxyl group of the guaiacol. Carbon, on the whole, seems to be a promising support. This work suggests that appropriate modifications of the hydrotreating catalysts can lead to a more effective process for stabilisation of the bio-oils by reaction with hydrogen. 55 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  11. Structural Asymmetry and Disulfide Bridges among Subunits Modulate the Activity of Human Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase*

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, David; Pérez-Luque, Rosa; Carpena, Xavier; Díaz, Mireia; Ferrer, Joan C.; Loewen, Peter C.; Fita, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is an essential facet in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. The structure of human peroxisomal MCD reveals a molecular tetramer that is best described as a dimer of structural heterodimers, in which the two subunits present markedly different conformations. This molecular organization is consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity. Each subunit has an all-helix N-terminal domain and a catalytic C-terminal domain with an acetyltransferase fold (GNAT superfamily). Intersubunit disulfide bridges, Cys-206–Cys-206 and Cys-243–Cys-243, can link the four subunits of the tetramer, imparting positive cooperativity to the catalytic process. The combination of a half-of-the-sites mechanism within each structural heterodimer and positive cooperativity in the tetramer produces a complex regulatory picture that is further complicated by the multiple intracellular locations of the enzyme. Transport into the peroxisome has been investigated by docking human MCD onto the peroxisomal import protein peroxin 5, which revealed interactions that extend beyond the C-terminal targeting motif. PMID:23482565

  12. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  13. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect.

  14. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease: evaluation, management, and emerging role of droxidopa

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, Stuart H; Skettini, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is due to failure of the autonomic nervous system to regulate blood pressure in response to postural changes due to an inadequate release of norepinephrine, leading to orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. nOH is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prevalence varies throughout the course of PD, ranging from 40% to 60%, and resulting in symptomatic nOH in approximately half. Symptomatic nOH, including lightheadedness, can limit daily activities and lead to falls. Symptomatic nOH can also limit therapeutic options for treating PD motor symptoms. Clinical evaluation should routinely include symptom assessment and blood pressure measurement of supine, sitting, and 3-minute standing; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can also be helpful. Non-pharmacological management of symptomatic nOH involves education, physical maneuvers, and adequate hydration. Current pharmacological treatment of symptomatic nOH includes salt supplement, fludrocortisone, midodrine, pyridostigmine, and other empiric medications. Despite these options, treatment of symptomatic nOH remains suboptimal, often limited by severe increases in supine blood pressure. Droxidopa, an oral prodrug converted by decarboxylation to norepinephrine, is a promising therapeutic option for symptomatic nOH in PD, improving symptoms of nOH, daily activities, falls, and standing systolic blood pressure in several recent trials. These trials demonstrated short-term efficacy and tolerability, with comparable increases in standing and supine blood pressures. Longer-term studies are ongoing to confirm durability of treatment effect. PMID:24729712

  15. Norepinephrine precursor therapy in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Horacio; Saadia, Daniela; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Yahr, Melvin D; Nardin, Rachel; Freeman, Roy

    2003-08-12

    In patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), the availability of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic cleft is insufficient to maintain blood pressure while in the standing posture. We determined the effect of oral administration of the synthetic amino acid L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), which is decarboxylated to NE by the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (L-AADC) in neural and nonneural tissue, on blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance in 19 patients with severe NOH (8 with pure autonomic failure and 11 with multiple-system atrophy). A single-blind dose-titration study determined the most appropriate dose for each patient. Patients were then enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. L-DOPS significantly raised mean blood pressure both supine (from 101+/-4 to 141+/-5 mm Hg) and standing (from 60+/-4 to 100+/-6 mm Hg) for several hours and improved orthostatic tolerance in all patients. After L-DOPS, blood pressure increases were closely associated with increases in plasma NE levels. Oral administration of carbidopa, which inhibits L-AADC outside the blood-brain barrier, blunted both the increase in plasma NE and the pressor response to L-DOPS in all patients Acute administration of L-DOPS increases blood pressure and improves orthostatic tolerance in patients with NOH. The pressor effect results from conversion of L-DOPS to NE outside the central nervous system.

  16. Ceria promoted deoxygenation and denitrogenation of Thalassiosira weissflogii and its model compounds by catalytic in-situ pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Aysu, Tevfik; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Sanna, Aimaro

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose, egg white powder, palm-jojoba oils mixtures Thalassiosira weissflogii model compounds was performed with CeO2 at 500°C, to evaluate its catalytic upgrading mechanism. Light organics, aromatics and aliphatics were originated from carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, respectively. Dehydration and decarboxylation were the main reactions involved in the algae and model compounds deoxygenation, while nitrogen was removed as NH3 and HCN. CeO2 increased decarbonylation reactions compared to in absence of catalyst, with production of ketones. The results showed that the catalysts had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products composition of T. weissflogii. CeO2, NiCeAl2O3 and MgCe/Al2O3 catalysts increased the aliphatics and decreased the oxygen content in bio-oils to 6-7 wt% of the algae starting O2 content. Ceria catalysts were also able to consistently reduce the N-content in the bio-oil to 20-38% of that in the parent material, with NiCe/Al2O3 being the most effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-hydrothermal treatment of fallen leaves with iron sludge to prepare magnetic iron product and solid fuel.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lin; Li, Binglian; Wen, Haifeng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Liang; Ye, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was performed on Metasequoia Leaves (ML) in the presence of iron sludge, both of which were generated as solid residuals. The relations between sludge, char's properties and operating conditions were systemically investigated. Iron sludge primarily catalyzed the efficient formation of char with higher heating value (HHV) becoming 1.15-1.65 times of ML (18.21 MJ/kg) and was meanwhile reduced to magnetite. The hydrated Fe ions in octahedron crystals acted as nucleophiles facilitating the dehydration and decarboxylation reactions. The increased HHV is found strong temperature dependent while prolonging the residence time is more preferable for low organic acids generation. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the iron sludge enhanced conversion of volatile to fixed carbon. The as-prepared solid char showed better stability after catalytic HTC treatment, having ignition temperature increased from 253 to 426 °C as compared to the char prepared without iron sludge addition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lysine Decarboxylase with an Enhanced Affinity for Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate by Disulfide Bond-Mediated Spatial Reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Hye-Young; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-lysine to produce cadaverine, an important industrial platform chemical for bio-based polyamides. However, due to high flexibility at the pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) binding site, use of the enzyme for cadaverine production requires continuous supplement of large amounts of PLP. In order to develop an LDC enzyme from Selenomonas ruminantium (SrLDC) with an enhanced affinity for PLP, we introduced an internal disulfide bond between Ala225 and Thr302 residues with a desire to retain the PLP binding site in a closed conformation. The SrLDCA225C/T302C mutant showed a yellow color and the characteristic UV/Vis absorption peaks for enzymes with bound PLP, and exhibited three-fold enhanced PLP affinity compared with the wild-type SrLDC. The mutant also exhibited a dramatically enhanced LDC activity and cadaverine conversion particularly under no or low PLP concentrations. Moreover, introduction of the disulfide bond rendered SrLDC more resistant to high pH and temperature. The formation of the introduced disulfide bond and the maintenance of the PLP binding site in the closed conformation were confirmed by determination of the crystal structure of the mutant. This study shows that disulfide bond-mediated spatial reconstitution can be a platform technology for development of enzymes with enhanced PLP affinity.

  19. [Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology focused on cannabidiol, a major component of the fiber-type cannabis].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso

    2013-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.

  20. A New Insight of Graphene oxide-Fe(III) Complex Photochemical Behaviors under Visible Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Renlan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Chen, Baoliang

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) contains not only aromatic carbon lattice but also carboxyl groups which enhanced the aqueous solubility of GO. To study the transformation of GO nanosheets in natural environments, GO aqueous dispersion was mixed with Fe3+ ions to form photoactive complex. Under visible light irradiation, Fe(III) of the complex would be reduced to Fe(II) which could subsequently reduce highly toxic Cr(VI) to Cr3+. The electron of the reduction was contributed by the decarboxylation of carboxyl groups on GO and iron was acting as a catalyst during the photoreduction. On the other hand, the consumption of carboxyl groups may convert GO to rGO which are tend to aggregate since the decreased electrostatic repulsion and the increased π-π attraction. The formed Cr3+ may be electrostatically adsorbed by the rGO sheets and simultaneously precipitated with the aggregated rGO sheets, resulting the effective removal of chromium and GO nanosheets from the aqueous environment. This study may shed a light on understanding the environmental transformation of GO and guide the treatment of Cr(VI).

  1. A scalable and operationally simple radical trifluoromethylation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Joel W.; Douglas, James J.; Cole, Kevin P.; Stephenson, Corey R. J.

    2015-01-01

    The large number of reagents that have been developed for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated compounds is a testament to the importance of the CF3 group as well as the associated synthetic challenge. Current state-of-the-art reagents for appending the CF3 functionality directly are highly effective; however, their use on preparative scale has minimal precedent because they require multistep synthesis for their preparation, and/or are prohibitively expensive for large-scale application. For a scalable trifluoromethylation methodology, trifluoroacetic acid and its anhydride represent an attractive solution in terms of cost and availability; however, because of the exceedingly high oxidation potential of trifluoroacetate, previous endeavours to use this material as a CF3 source have required the use of highly forcing conditions. Here we report a strategy for the use of trifluoroacetic anhydride for a scalable and operationally simple trifluoromethylation reaction using pyridine N-oxide and photoredox catalysis to affect a facile decarboxylation to the CF3 radical. PMID:26258541

  2. Physiological effect and therapeutic application of alpha lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmi; Karunakaran, Udayakumar; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, In-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species promote endothelial dysfunction in old age and contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. α-Lipoic acid was identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate in 1951, and it has been studied intensively by chemists, biologists, and clinicians who have been interested in its role in energetic metabolism and protection from reactive oxygen species-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, many biological effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation can be attributed to the potent antioxidant properties of α-lipoic acid and dihydro α-lipoic acid. The reducing environments inside the cell help to protect from oxidative damage and the reduction-oxidation status of α-lipoic acid is dependent upon the degree to which the cellular components are found in the oxidized state. Although healthy young humans can synthesize enough α-lipoic acid to scavenge reactive oxygen species and enhance endogenous antioxidants like glutathione and vitamins C and E, the level of α-lipoic acid significantly declines with age and this may lead to endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, many studies have reported α-lipoic acid can regulate the transcription of genes associated with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. In this review, we will discuss recent clinical studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial dysfunction and propose possible mechanisms involved.

  3. Alpha lipoic acid in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Di Tucci, Chiara; Di Feliciantonio, Mara; Vena, Flaminia; Capone, Carmela; Schiavi, Michele Carlo; Pietrangeli, Daniela; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2018-05-04

    Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant synthetized by plants and animals, identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate. In this review, we analyzed the action of ALA in gynecology and obstetrics focusing in particular on neuropathic pain and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library for retrieving articles in English language on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ALA in gynecological and obstetrical conditions. ALA reduces oxidative stress and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The association of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), and bromelain (Br) is used for prevention and treatment of endometriosis. In association with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with amitriptyline is used for treatment of vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS). A promising area of research is ALA supplementation in patients with threatened miscarriage to improve the subchorionic hematoma resorption. Furthermore, ALA could be used in prevention of diabetic embryopathy and premature rupture of fetal membranes induced by inflamation. In conclusion, ALA can be safely used for treatment of neuropatic pain and as a dietary support during pregnancy.

  4. Transport of phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum to the site of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Muthukumar; Riekhof, Wayne R; Voelker, Dennis R

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, most of the genes specifying lipid synthesis and metabolism in yeast have been identified and characterized. Several of these biosynthetic genes and their encoded enzymes have provided valuable tools for the genetic and biochemical dissection of interorganelle lipid transport processes in yeast. One such pathway involves the synthesis of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and its non-vesicular transport to the site of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 (Psd2p) in membranes of the Golgi and endosomal sorting system. In this review, we summarize the identification and characterization of the yeast phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, and examine their role in studies of the transport-dependent pathways of de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). The emerging picture of the Psd2p-specific transport pathway is one in which the enzyme and its non-catalytic N-terminal domains act as a hub to nucleate the assembly of a multiprotein complex, which facilitates PtdSer transport at membrane contact sites between the ER and Golgi/endosome membranes. After transport to the catalytic site of Psd2p, PtdSer is decarboxylated to form PtdEtn, which is disseminated throughout the cell to support the structural and functional needs of multiple membranes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification and characterization of L-lysine decarboxylase from Huperzia serrata and its role in the metabolic pathway of lycopodium alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baofu; Lei, Lei; Zhu, Xiaocen; Zhou, Yiqing; Xiao, Youli

    2017-04-01

    Lysine decarboxylation is the first biosynthetic step of Huperzine A (HupA). Six cDNAs encoding lysine decarboxylases (LDCs) were cloned from Huperzia serrata by degenerate PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). One HsLDC isoform was functionally characterized as lysine decarboxylase. The HsLDC exhibited greatest catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m , 2.11 s -1  mM -1 ) toward L-lysine in vitro among all reported plant-LDCs. Moreover, transient expression of the HsLDC in tobacco leaves specifically increased cadaverine content from zero to 0.75 mg per gram of dry mass. Additionally, a convenient and reliable method used to detect the two catalytic products was developed. With the novel method, the enzymatic products of HsLDC and HsCAO, namely cadaverine and 5-aminopentanal, respectively, were detected simultaneously both in assay with purified enzymes and in transgenic tobacco leaves. This work not only provides direct evidence of the first two-step in biosynthetic pathway of HupA in Huperzia serrata and paves the way for further elucidation of the pathway, but also enables engineering heterologous production of HupA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SciTech Connect

    Ford, JP; Thapaliya, N; Kelly, MJ

    Fatty acids (FAs) derived via thermal hydrolysis of food-grade lard and canola oil were deoxygenated in the liquid phase using a commercially available 5 wt % Pd/C catalyst. Online quadrupole mass spectrometry and gas chromatography were used to monitor the effluent gases from the semi-batch stirred autoclave reactors. Stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids were employed as model compounds. A catalyst lifetime exceeding 2200 turnovers for oleic acid deoxygenation was demonstrated at 300 degrees C and 15 atm under 10% H-2. The initial decarboxylation rate of palmitic acid under 5% H-2 decreases sharply with increasing initial concentration; in contrast, the initialmore » decarbonylation rate increases linearly, indicative of first-order kinetics. Scale-up of diesel-range hydrocarbon production was investigated by increasing the reactor vessel size, initial FA concentration, and FA/catalyst mass ratio. Lower CO2 selectivity and batch productivity were observed at the larger scales (600 and 5000 mL), primarily because of the higher initial FA concentration (67 wt %) employed. Because unsaturated FAs must be hydrogenated before deoxygenation can proceed at an appreciable rate, the additional batch time required for FA hydrogenation reduces the batch productivity for unsaturated feedstocks. Low-temperature hydrogenation of unsaturated feedstocks (using Pd/C or another less-expensive catalyst) prior to deoxygenation is recommended.« less

  7. Direct nitration and azidation of aliphatic carbons by an iron-dependent halogenase

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-chen; Layne, Andrew P; Miles, Linde A; Krebs, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Iron-dependent halogenases employ cis-halo-Fe(IV)-oxo (haloferryl) complexes to functionalize unactivated aliphatic carbon centers, a capability elusive to synthetic chemists. Halogenation requires (1) coordination of a halide anion (Cl− or Br−) to the enzyme's Fe(II) cofactor; (2) coupled activation of O2 and decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to generate the haloferryl intermediate; (3) abstraction of hydrogen (H•) from the substrate by the ferryl oxo group; and (4) transfer of the cis halogen as Cl• or Br• to the substrate radical. This enzymatic solution to an unsolved chemical challenge is potentially generalizable to installation of other functional groups, provided that the corresponding anions can support the four requisite steps. We show here that the wild-type halogenase SyrB2 can indeed direct aliphatic nitration and azidation reactions by the same chemical logic. The discovery and enhancement by mutagenesis of these previously unknown reaction types suggests unrecognized or untapped versatility in ferryl-mediated enzymatic C–H-bond activation. PMID:24463698

  8. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose,more » glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.« less

  9. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. Themore » high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.« less

  10. Novel Route for Agmatine Catabolism in Aspergillus niger Involves 4-Guanidinobutyrase

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani

    2015-01-01

    Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome. PMID:26048930

  11. Deletion of genes involved in glutamate metabolism to improve poly-gamma-glutamic acid production in B. amyloliquefaciens LL3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; He, Yulian; Gao, Weixia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Mingfeng; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2015-02-01

    Here, we attempted to elevate poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production by modifying genes involved in glutamate metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Products of rocR, rocG and gudB facilitate the conversion from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in Bacillus subtillis. The gene odhA is responsible for the synthesis of a component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A. In-frame deletions of these four genes were performed. In shake flask experiments the gudB/rocG double mutant presented enhanced production of γ-PGA, a 38 % increase compared with wild type. When fermented in a 5-L fermenter with pH control, the γ-PGA yield of the rocR mutant was increased to 5.83 g/L from 4.55 g/L for shake flask experiments. The gudB/rocG double mutant produced 5.68 g/L γ-PGA compared with that of 4.03 g/L for the wild type, a 40 % increase. Those results indicated the possibility of improving γ-PGA production by modifying glutamate metabolism, and identified potential genetic targets to improve γ-PGA production.

  12. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of zero-/two-dimensional Cd(II) and Eu(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rui-Qing; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hong; Sun, Cun-fa; Yang, Yu-Lin; Su, Qing

    2012-12-01

    Three metal-organic complexes Cd(HBIDC)(phen)2·4H2O (1), [Cd(BIC)(phen)]n (2) and {[Eu(HBIDC)(H2BIDC)(H2O)]·H2O}n (3) (H3BIDC=benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid, H2BIC=benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. With similar reaction conditions, reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations selected from different blocks (d-block and f-block) result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups and final frameworks of complexes 1 and 3. The decarboxylation was observed in complex 2 and resulted in the formation of BIC2- ligand. Complexes 1-3 have intense fluorescent emissions at room temperature in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution and in the solid-state, which indicate they are potential fluorescence materials. The quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of these three complexes were systematically studied.

  13. Olive-oil consumption and health: the possible role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Giacosa, A; Hull, W E; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2000-10-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, olive oil, along with fruits, vegetables, and fish, is an important constituent of the diet, and is considered a major factor in preserving a healthy and relatively disease-free population. Epidemiological data show that the Mediterranean diet has significant protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease. We present evidence that it is the unique profile of the phenolic fraction, along with high intakes of squalene and the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, which confer its health-promoting properties. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified in olive oil belong to three different classes: simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol); secoiridoids (oleuropein, the aglycone of ligstroside, and their respective decarboxylated dialdehyde derivatives); and the lignans [(+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol]. All three classes have potent antioxidant properties. High consumption of extra-virgin olive oils, which are particularly rich in these phenolic antioxidants (as well as squalene and oleic acid), should afford considerable protection against cancer (colon, breast, skin), coronary heart disease, and ageing by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  14. Evaluation of the mitochondrial system in the gonad-digestive gland complex of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Santos, Anderson Teixeira; Garcia, Juberlan da Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-05-01

    The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated after exposure to 50 miracidia. The snails were dissected one, two, three and four weeks after infection for collection and mechanical permeabilization of the gonad-digestive gland (DGG) complex. The results obtained indicate that prepatent infection by this echinostomatid fluke significantly suppresses the phosphorylation state (respiratory state 3) and basal oxygen consumption of B. glabrata, demonstrating that the infection reduces the ability of the intermediate host to carry out aerobic oxidative reactions. Additionally, relevant variations related to the uncoupled mitochondrial (state 3u) of B. glabrata infected by E. paraensei were observed. Four weeks after exposure, a significant reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption after addition of ADP (3.68±0.26pmol O2/mg proteins) was observed in the infected snails in comparison with the respective control group (5.14±0.25). In the uncoupled state, the infected snails consumed about 62% less oxygen than the infected snails (7.87±0.84pmol O2/mg proteins) in the same period. These results demonstrate a reduction in oxidative decarboxylation rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and faster anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the infected snails. The possible mechanisms that explain this new metabolic condition in the infected organisms are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New Insight into the Role of the Calvin Cycle: Reutilization of CO2 Emitted through Sugar Degradation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Rie; Dempo, Yudai; Nakayama, Yasumune; Nakamura, Satoshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Fukui, Toshiaki

    2015-07-01

    Ralstonia eutropha is a facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that uses the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for CO2 fixation. This study showed that R. eutropha strain H16G incorporated (13)CO2, emitted by the oxidative decarboxylation of [1-(13)C1]-glucose, into key metabolites of the CBB cycle and finally into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] with up to 5.6% (13)C abundance. The carbon yield of P(3HB) produced from glucose by the strain H16G was 1.2 times higher than that by the CBB cycle-inactivated mutants, in agreement with the possible fixation of CO2 estimated from the balance of energy and reducing equivalents through sugar degradation integrated with the CBB cycle. The results proved that the 'gratuitously' functional CBB cycle in R. eutropha under aerobic heterotrophic conditions participated in the reutilization of CO2 emitted during sugar degradation, leading to an advantage expressed as increased carbon yield of the storage compound. This is a new insight into the role of the CBB cycle, and may be applicable for more efficient utilization of biomass resources.

  16. Production of gaba (γ – Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods. PMID:24031948

  17. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO 2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C 2–C 4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO 2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO 2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au 2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO 2.more » Infrared measurements of Au 2C=C=O formation as a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.« less

  19. Mechanisms of volatile production from non-sulfur amino acids by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Wangang; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Kichang

    2016-02-01

    Non-sulfur amino acid monomers were used to study the mechanisms of volatile production in meat by irradiation. Irradiation not only produced many volatiles but also increased the amounts of volatiles from non-sulfur amino acid monomers. The major reaction mechanisms involved in volatile production from each group of the amino acids by irradiation differ significantly. However, we speculate that the radiolysis of amino acid side chains were the major mechanism. In addition, Strecker degradation, especially the production of aldehydes from aliphatic group amino acids, and deamination, isomerization, decarboxylation, cyclic reaction and dehydrogenation of the initial radiolytic products were also contributed to the production of volatile compounds. Each amino acid monomers produced different odor characteristics, but the intensities of odor from all non-sulfur amino acid groups were very weak. This indicated that the contribution of volatiles produced from non-sulfur amino acids was minor. If the volatile compounds from non-sulfur amino acids, especially aldehydes, interact with other volatiles compounds such as sulfur compounds, however, they can contribute to the off-odor of irradiated meat significantly.

  20. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of biogenic amines in wines and beers.

    PubMed

    Nalazek-Rudnicka, Katarzyna; Wasik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic amines are group of organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds that naturally occur in plant, microorganism, and animal organisms. Biogenic amines are mainly produced through decarboxylation of amino acids. They are formed during manufacturing of some kind of food and beverages such as cheese, wine, or beer. Histamine, cadaverine, agmatine, tyramine, putrescine, and β -phenylethylamine are the most common biogenic amines found in wines and beers. This group of compounds can be toxic at high concentrations; therefore, their control is very important. Analysis of biogenic amines in alcoholic drinks (beers and wines) was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS after their derivatization with p -toluenesulfonyl chloride (tosyl chloride). The developed method has been applied for analysis of seventeen biogenic amines in twenty-eight samples of lager beers and in twelve samples of different homemade wines (white grape, red grape, strawberry, chokeberry, black currant, plum, apple, raspberry, and quince). The developed method is sensitive and repeatable for majority of the analytes. It is versatile and can be used for the determination of biogenic amines in various alcoholic beverages.

  1. Phase I trial of bortezomib and dacarbazine in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Poklepovic, Andrew; Youssefian, Leena E; Youseffian, Leena; Winning, Mary; Birdsell, Christine A; Crosby, Nancy A; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Ernstoff, Marc S; Roberts, John D

    2013-08-01

    Preclinical studies in human melanoma cell lines and murine xenograft tumor models suggest that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib enhances the activity of the cytotoxic agent dacarbazine. We performed a phase I trial of bortezomib and dacarbazine in melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumors. The primary objective was to identify recommended phase II doses for the combination. Bortezomib and dacarbazine were both administered intravenously once weekly. All patients received prophylactic antiemetics. Dose escalation proceeded using a standard 3 + 3 design. Response was assessed according to NCI RECIST v1.0. Twenty eight patients were enrolled to six dose levels. Bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and dacarbazine 580 mg/m(2) are the recommended phase II weekly doses. The combination was generally well tolerated. Among 15 patients with melanoma there was one durable complete response in a patient with an exon-11 cKIT mutation, and one partial response. Among 12 patients with soft tissue sarcoma there was one partial response. Bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and dacarbazine 580 mg/m(2) administered intravenously once weekly is well tolerated and has at least minimal activity in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma.

  2. Amine content of vaginal fluid from untreated and treated patients with nonspecific vaginitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K C; Forsyth, P S; Buchanan, T M; Holmes, K K

    1979-01-01

    We examined the vaginal washings from patients with nonspecific vaginitis (NSV) to seek biochemical markers and possible explanations for the signs and symptoms of this syndrome. Seven amines were identified including methylamine, isobutylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. These amines may contribute to the symptoms of NSV and may contribute to the elevated pH of the vaginal discharge. They may also be partly responsible for the "fishy" odor that is characteristic of vaginal discharges from these patients. Among the seven amines, putrescine and cadaverine were the most abundant and were present in all vaginal discharges from each of ten patients before treatment. These amines are produced in vitro during growth of mixed vaginal bacteria in chemically defined medium, presumably by decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids. We hypothesize the anaerobic vaginal organisms, previously shown to be quantitatively increased in NSV, are responsible for the amine production, because metronidazole inhibited the production of amines by vaginal bacteria in vitro, and Haemophilus vaginalis did not produce amines. H. vaginalis did release high concentrations of pyruvic acid and of amino acids during growth in peptone-starch-dextrose medium, whereas, other vaginal flora consumed both pyruvic acid and amino acids in the same medium during growth. These findings suggest that a symbiotic relationship may exist between H. vaginalis and other vaginal flora in patients with NSV. Images PMID:447831

  3. The Conservation of Structure and Mechanism of Catalytic Action in a Family of Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzymes are a divergent family of TPP and metal ion binding proteins that perform a wide range of functions with the common decarboxylation steps of a -(O=)C-C(OH)- fragment of alpha-ketoacids and alpha- hydroxyaldehydes. To determine how structure and catalytic action are conserved in the context of large sequence differences existing within this family of enzymes, we have carried out an analysis of TPP-dependent enzymes of known structures. The common structure of TPP-dependent enzymes is formed at the interface of four alpha/beta domains from at least two subunits, which provide for two metal and TPP-binding sites. Residues around these catalytic sites are conserved for functional purpose, while those further away from TPP are conserved for structural reasons. Together they provide a network of contacts required for flip-flop catalytic action within TPP-dependent enzymes. Thus our analysis defines a TPP-action motif that is proposed for annotating TPP-dependent enzymes for advancing functional proteomics.

  4. Function of Several Critical Amino Acids in Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Revealed by Its Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Ciszak, E.; Patel, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and reductive acetylation of lipoyl moieties of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The roles of beta W135, alpha P188, alpha M181, alpha H15 and alpha R349 of E1 determined by kinetic analysis were reassessed by analyzing the three-dimensional structure of human E1. The residues identified above are found to play a structural role rather than being directly involved in catalysis: beta W135 is the center residue in the hydrophobic interaction between beta and beta' subunits; alpha P188 and alpha M181 are critical for the conformation of the TPP-binding motif and interaction between alpha and beta subunits; alpha H15, is necessary for the organization of the N-terminus of alpha and alpha'; subunits and alpha R349 supports the interaction of the C-terminus of the alpha subunits with the beta subunits. Analysis of several critical E1 residues confirms the importance of residues distant from the active site for subunit interactions and enzyme function.

  5. Structural Model for the Flip-Flop Action in Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Dependent Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1 thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is a cofactor of enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production, including (i) decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids followed by (ii) transketolation. These enzymes have shown a common mechanism of TPP activation by imposing an active V-conformation of this coenzyme that brings the N4 atom of the aminopyrimidine ring to the distance required for the intramolecular C-H N hydrogen-bonding with the C2- atom of the thiazolium ring. The reactive C2 atom of TPP is the nucleophile that attacks the carbonyl carbon of different substrates used by the TPP-dependent enzymes. The structure of the heterotetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase (Elp) recently determined in our laboratory (1) revealed the association pattern of the subunits and the specifics of two chemically equivalent cofactor binding sites. Dynamic nonequivalence of these two cofactor sites directs the flip-flop action of this enzyme, depending upon which two active sites effect each other (2). The crystal structure derived from the holo-form of Elp provided the basis for the model of the flip-flop action of Elp in which different steps of the catalytic reaction are performed in each of the two cofactor sites at any given moment, where these steps are governed by the concerted shuttle-like motion of the subunits. It is further proposed that balancing a hydrogen-bond network and related cofactor geometry determine the continuity of catalytic events.

  6. The Thiamine-Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), a derivative of vitamin B1, is a cofactor for enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production including the well known decarboxylation of a-keto acid dehydrogenases followed by transketolation. TPP-dependent enzymes constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group exhibiting multimeric subunit organization, multiple domains and two chemically equivalent catalytic centers. Annotation of functional TPP-dependcnt enzymes, therefore, has not been trivial due to low sequence similarity related to this complex organization. Our approach to analysis of structures of known TPP-dependent enzymes reveals for the first time features common to this group, which we have termed the TPP-motif. The TPP-motif consists of specific spatial arrangements of structural elements and their specific contacts to provide for a flip-flop, or alternate site, enzymatic mechanism of action. Analysis of structural elements entrained in the flip-flop action displayed by TPP-dependent enzymes reveals a novel definition of the common amino acid sequences. These sequences allow for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes, thus advancing functional proteomics. Further details of three-dimensional structures of TPP-dependent enzymes will be discussed.

  7. Substrate-Tuned Catalysis of the Radical S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Enzyme NosL Involved in Nosiheptide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-27

    NosL is a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme that converts L-Trp to 3-methyl-2-indolic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of a thiopeptide antibiotic nosiheptide. In this work we investigated NosL catalysis by using a series of Trp analogues as the molecular probes. Using a benzofuran substrate 2-amino-3-(benzofuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (ABPA), we clearly demonstrated that the 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction in NosL catalysis is not from the indole nitrogen but likely from the amino group of L-Trp. Unexpectedly, the major product of ABPA is a decarboxylated compound, indicating that NosL was transformed to a novel decarboxylase by an unnatural substrate. Furthermore, we showed that, for the first time to our knowledge, the dAdo radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction can occur from an alcohol hydroxy group. Our study demonstrates the intriguing promiscuity of NosL catalysis and highlights the potential of engineering radical SAM enzymes for novel activities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2012-04-03

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  9. Control of Biogenic Amines in Food—Existing and Emerging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Naila, Aishath; Flint, Steve; Fletcher, Graham; Bremer, Phil; Meerdink, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been reported in a variety of foods, such as fish, meat, cheese, vegetables, and wines. They are described as low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic structures. The most common biogenic amines found in foods are histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, tryptamine, and agmatine. In addition octopamine and dopamine have been found in meat and meat products and fish. The formation of biogenic amines in food by the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids can result in consumers suffering allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, itching, rash, vomiting, fever, and hypertension. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth through chilling and freezing. However, for many fishing based subsistence populations, such measures are not practical. Therefore, secondary control measures to prevent biogenic amine formation in foods or to reduce their levels once formed need to be considered as alternatives. Such approaches to limit microbial growth may include hydrostatic pressures, irradiation, controlled atmosphere packaging, or the use of food additives. Histamine may potentially be degraded by the use of bacterial amine oxidase or amine-negative bacteria. Only some will be cost-effective and practical for use in subsistence populations. PMID:21535566

  10. Multifaceted effects of HZSM-5 (Proton-exchanged Zeolite Socony Mobil-5) on catalytic cracking of pinewood pyrolysis vapor in a two-stage fixed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    The pinewood was pyrolyzed in the first reactor at a heating rate of 10°Cmin(-1) from room temperature to 700°C, and the vapor was allowed to be cracked through the second reactor in a temperature range of 450-750°C without and with HZSM-5. Attempts were made to determine a wide spectrum of gaseous and liquid products, as well as the mass and element partitions to gas, water, bio-oil, coke and char. HZSM-5 showed a preferential deoxygenation effect via the facilitated decarbonylation and decarboxylation with the inhibited dehydration at 550-600°C. This catalyst also displayed a high selectivity for the formations of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins by the promoted hydrogen transfer to these products at 550-600°C. The bio-oil produced with HZSM-5 at 500-600°C had the yields of 14.5-16.8%, the high heat values of 39.1-42.4MJkg(-1), and the energy recoveries of 33-35% (all dry biomass basis). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Survey of recent clinical trials of the prevention and immunointervention of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Boerschmann, H; Walter, M; Achenbach, P; Ziegler, A-G

    2010-02-01

    Immunomodulatory strategies in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have as their primary target the prevention of initiating islet autoimmunity (primary-), the secondary one is the progression to diabetes (secondary-) in non-diabetic persons at risk, and the decline of beta-cell function in new-onset patients (tertiary-prevention). This article reviews four recent immunointervention trials in patients with T1DM. (1) The Pre-POINT study is a primary prevention trial that will test whether vaccination with oral or nasal insulin can prevent the progression of islet autoimmunity and of T1DM in autoantibody-negative children who are genetically at high diabetes risk. (2) The Cord Blood study is a tertiary immunointervention trial that will test whether administration of autologous umbilical cord blood to children with T1DM can lead to regeneration of pancreatic islet insulin-producing beta-cells and improved blood glucose control. (3) The GAD Vaccination study will test whether vaccination with alum-formulated rhGAD65 (recombinant human glutamic acid decarboxylate) can preserve beta-cell function in 320 children with newly diagnosed T1DM, as has been suggested in a recent phase II study. (4) The AIDA study will test the beta-cell protective effect of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist Anakinra in 80 patients with T1DM, which has recently been shown to improve beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  12. Characterisation of a thiamine diphosphate-dependent alpha-keto acid decarboxylase from Proteus mirabilis JN458.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biying; Bai, Yajun; Fan, Taiping; Zheng, Xiaohui; Cai, Yujie

    2017-10-01

    Alpha-keto acid decarboxylases can convert keto acids to their corresponding aldehydes, which are often volatile aroma compounds. The gene encoding α-keto acid decarboxylase in Proteus mirabilis JN458 was cloned, and the enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified in high yield, and characterised. The molecular weight is 62.291kDa by MALDI-TOF MS, and optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 40-50°C. The enzyme is a typical decarboxylase, dependent on thiamine diphosphate and Mg 2+ as cofactors. For the decarboxylation reaction, the enzyme displayed a broad substrate range. Kinetic parameters were determined using 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid, phenyl pyruvate and 3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid as substrates. K m and k cat values for phenyl pyruvate were 0.62mM and 77.38s -1 , respectively, and the k cat /K m value was 124.81mM -1 s -1 . The enzyme properties suggest it may act effectively under cheese ripening conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Photochemical reaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen) with basic amino acids and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Shinoda, Mio; Osanai, Yohei; Isozaki, Tasuku

    2013-08-22

    Photoreaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen, KP) with basic amino acids (histidine, lysine, and arginine) and dipeptides (carnosine and anserine) including a histidine moiety in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) has been investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. With UV irradiation KP(-) gave rise to a carbanion through a decarboxylation reaction, and the carbanion easily abstracted a proton from the surrounding molecule to yield a 3-ethylbenzophenone ketyl biradical (EBPH). The dipeptides as well as the basic amino acids were found to accelerate the proton transfer reaction whereas alanine and glycine had no effect on the reaction, revealing that these amino acids having a protonated side chain act as a proton donor. The formation quantum yield of EBPH was estimated to be fairly large by means of an actinometrical method with benzophenone, and the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer between the carbanion and the protonated basic amino acids or the protonated dipeptides was successfully determined. It has become apparent that the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer depended on the acid dissociation constant for the side chain of the amino acids for the first time. This reaction mechanism was interpreted by difference of the heat of reaction for each basic amino acid based on the thermodynamical consideration. These results strongly suggest that the side chain of the basic amino acid residue in protein should play an important role for photochemistry of KP in vivo.

  14. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana: contribution of glycerol kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-11-21

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. PMID:25288791

  16. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of 2-Phenylethylacetate from L-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyi; Zhang, Lihua; Pan, Hong; Li, Xun

    2017-08-01

    In order to meet the need of consumer preferences for natural flavor compounds, microbial synthesis method has become a very attractive alternative to the chemical production. The 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and its ester 2-phenylethylacetate (2-PEAc) are two extremely important flavor compounds with a rose-like odor. In recent years, Escherichia coli and yeast have been metabolically engineered to produce 2-PE. However, a metabolic engineering approach for 2-PEAc production is rare. Here, we designed and expressed a 2-PEAc biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. This pathway comprised four steps: aminotransferase (ARO8) for transamination of L-phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate, 2-keto acid decarboxylase KDC for the decarboxylation of the phenylpyruvate to phenylacetaldehyde, aldehyde reductase YjgB for the reduction of phenylacetaldehyde to 2-PE, alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 for the esterification of 2-PE to 2-PEAc. Using the engineered E. coli strain for shake flasks cultivation with 1 g/L L-phenylalanine, we achieved co-production of 268 mg/L 2-PEAc and 277 mg/L 2-PE. Our results suggest that approximately 65% of L-phenylalanine was utilized toward 2-PEAc and 2-PE biosynthesis and thus demonstrate potential industrial applicability of this microbial platform. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Discovery and Biochemical Characterization of the UDP-Xylose Biosynthesis Pathway in Sphaerobacter thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Laborda, Pedro; Wei, Shuang; Duan, Xu-Chu; Song, Hui-Bo; Liu, Li; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of UDP-xylose requires the stepwise oxidation/ decarboxylation of UDP-glucose, which is catalyzed by the enzymes UDPglucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UGD) and UDP-xylose synthase (UXS). UDPxylose biosynthesis is ubiquitous in animals and plants. However, only a few UGD and UXS isoforms of bacterial origin have thus far been biochemically characterized. Sphaerobacter thermophilus DSM 20745 is a bacterium isolated from heated sewage sludge, and therefore can be a valuable source of thermostable enzymes of biotechnological interest. However, no biochemical characterizations of any S. thermophilus enzymes have yet been reported. Herein, we describe the cloning and characterization of putative UGD (StUGD) and UXS (StUXS) isoforms from this organism. HPLC- and plate reader-based activity tests of the recombinantly expressed StUGD and StUXS showed that they are indeed active enzymes. Both StUGD and StUXS showed a temperature optimum of 70°C, and a reasonable thermal stability up to 60°C. No metal ions were required for enzymatic activities. StUGD had a higher pH optimum than StUXS. The simple purification procedures and the thermotolerance of StUGD and StUXS make them valuable biocatalysts for the synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-xylose at elevated temperatures. The biosynthetic potential of StUGD was further exemplified in a coupled enzymatic reaction with an UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, allowing the glucuronylation of the natural model substrate bilirubin.

  18. Structure-Guided Engineering of α-Keto Acid Decarboxylase for the Production of Higher Alcohols at Elevated Temperature.

    PubMed

    Sutiono, Samuel; Carsten, Jörg; Sieber, Volker

    2018-06-28

    Branched chain keto acid decarboxylases (KDCs) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of α-keto acids. It is a key enzyme for production of higher alcohols in vivo and in vitro. However, the two most active KDCs (KivD and KdcA) have only moderate thermostability (<55 °C) hindering the production of the alcohols at high temperatures. In this study, structure-guided engineering toward improved thermostability of KdcA is outlined. Several strategies such as, stabilization of the catalytic center, surface engineering, and optimization of dimer interactions were applied. With 7 point mutations, our mutant (7M.D) showed an increase of T501h by 14.8 °C without compromising its substrate specificity. 7M.D exhibited >400-fold improvement of half-life at 70 °C and >600-fold increase in process stability in the presence of 4 % isobutanol at 50 °C. 7M.D is more promising for the production of higher alcohols in thermophiles (>65 °C) as well as in cell-free applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Unveiling the Mechanism of Arginine Transport through AdiC with Molecular Dynamics Simulations: The Guiding Role of Aromatic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Ghaddar, Kassem; André, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Commensal and pathogenic enteric bacteria have developed several systems to adapt to proton leakage into the cytoplasm resulting from extreme acidic conditions. One such system involves arginine uptake followed by export of the decarboxylated product agmatine, carried out by the arginine/agmatine antiporter (AdiC), which thus works as a virtual proton pump. Here, using classical and targeted molecular dynamics, we investigated at the atomic level the mechanism of arginine transport through AdiC of E. coli. Overall, our MD simulation data clearly demonstrate that global rearrangements of several transmembrane segments are necessary but not sufficient for achieving transitions between structural states along the arginine translocation pathway. In particular, local structural changes, namely rotameric conversions of two aromatic residues, are needed to regulate access to both the outward- and inward-facing states. Our simulations have also enabled identification of a few residues, overwhelmingly aromatic, which are essential to guiding arginine in the course of its translocation. Most of them belong to gating elements whose coordinated motions contribute to the alternating access mechanism. Their conservation in all known E. coli acid resistance antiporters suggests that the transport mechanisms of these systems share common features. Last but not least, knowledge of the functional properties of AdiC can advance our understanding of the members of the amino acid-carbocation-polyamine superfamily, notably in eukaryotic cells. PMID:27482712

  20. Molecular Dynamics and Free Energy Simulations of Phenylacetate and CO2 Release from AMDase and Its G74C/C188S Mutant: A Possible Rationale for the Reduced Activity of the Latter.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Tarak; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

    2016-11-17

    Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methyl malonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates of industrial and medicinal importance. Herein, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to delineate the mechanism of the release of product molecules phenylacetate (PAC) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), from the wild-type (WT) and its G74C/C188S mutant enzymes. Both of the product molecules follow a crystallographically characterized solvent-accessible channel to come out of the protein interior. A higher free energy barrier for the release of PAC from G74C/C188S compared to that in the WT is consistent with the experimentally observed compromised efficiency of the mutant. The release of CO 2 precedes that of PAC; free energy barriers for CO 2 and PAC release in the WT enzyme are calculated to be ∼1-2 and ∼23 kcal/mol, respectively. Postdecarboxylation, CO 2 moves toward a hydrophobic pocket formed by Pro 14, Leu 38, Leu 40, Leu 77, and the side chain of Tyr 48 which serves as its temporary "reservoir". CO 2 releases following a channel mainly decorated by apolar residues, unlike in the case of oxalate decarboxylase where polar residues mediate its transport.

  1. Synthesis of methylene- and difluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of uridine-4-phosphate and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott D; Mirzaei, Farzad; Sharifi, Ali; Bearne, Stephen L

    2006-12-08

    Cytidine triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) catalyzes the formation of cytidine triphosphate from glutamine, uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP), and adenosine-5'-triphosphate. Inhibitors of CTPS are of interest because of their potential as therapeutic agents. One approach to potent enzyme inhibitors is to use analogues of high energy intermediates formed during the reaction. The CTPS reaction proceeds via the high energy intermediate UTP-4-phosphate (UTP-4-P). Four novel analogues of uridine-4-phosphate (U-4-P) and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate (3-deazaU-4-P) were synthesized in which the labile phosphate ester oxygen was replaced with a methylene and difluoromethylene group. The methylene analogue of U-4-P, compound 1, was prepared by a reaction of the sodium salt of tert-butyl diethylphosphonoacetate with protected, 4-O-activated uridine followed by acetate deprotection and decarboxylation. It was found that this compound undergoes relatively facile dephosphonylation presumably via a metaphosphate intermediate. The difluoromethylene derivative, compound 2, was prepared by electrophilic fluorination of protected 1. This compound was stable and did not undergo dephosphonylation. Synthesis of the methylene analogue of 3-deazaU-4-P, compound 3, was achieved by ribosylation of protected 4-(phosphonomethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine. Electrophilic fluorination was also employed in the preparation of protected 4-(phosphonodifluoromethyl)-2-hydroxypyridine which was used as the key building block in the synthesis of difluoro derivative 4. These compounds represent the first examples of a nucleoside in which the base has been chemically modified with a methylene or difluormethylenephosphonate group.

  2. Degradation and metabolic profiling for benzene kresoxim-methyl using carbon-14 tracing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Likun; Zhao, Jinhao; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Cheng, Jingli; Wang, Yichen; Zhang, Sufen; Ye, Qingfu; Wang, Wei

    2018-10-01

    Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is an effective strobilurin fungicide for controlling fungal pathogens but limited information is available on its degradation and metabolism. This study explored the degradation and metabolic profiling for BKM in soils by carbon-14 tracing and HPLC-TOF-MS 2 analyzing. Results indicated that 88%-98% of 14 C-BKM remained as parent or incomplete intermediates after 100 days. Three main radioactive metabolites (M1 to M3, ≥90%) and three subordinate radioactive metabolites (Ma to Mc, ≤2%) were observed, along with a non-radioactive metabolite M4. The main intermediates were further confirmed by self-synthesizing their authentic standards, and BKM was proposed to degrade via pathways including: 1) the oxidative cleavage of the acrylate double bond to give BKM-enol (M1); 2) the hydrolysis of the methyl ester to give BKM acid (M2); 3) the cleavage of M1 and M2 to yield Mc, which could be decarboxylated to give M3; and 4) the ether cleavage between aromatic rings to form M4. This study builds a solid metabolic profiling method for strobilurins and gives a deeper insight into the eventual fate of BKM by demonstrating its transformation pathways for the first time, which may also be beneficial for understanding the risks of other analogous strobilurins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enchancement of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Co-Localization of Neurospora crassa OR74A Glutamate Decarboxylase with Escherichia coli GABA Transporter Via Synthetic Scaffold Complex.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Ganesh, Irisappan; Eom, Gyeong Tae; Hong, Soon Ho

    2017-09-28

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a precursor of nylon-4, which is a promising heat-resistant biopolymer. GABA can be produced from the decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, a synthetic scaffold complex strategy was employed involving the Neurospora crassa glutamate decarboxylase (GadB) and Escherichia coli GABA antiporter (GadC) to improve GABA production. To construct the complex, the SH3 domain was attached to the N. crassa GadB, and the SH3 ligand was attached to the N-terminus, middle, and C-terminus of E. coli GadC. In the C-terminus model, 5.8 g/l of GABA concentration was obtained from 10 g/l glutamate. When a competing pathway engineered strain was used, the final GABA concentration was further increased to 5.94 g/l, which corresponds to 97.5% of GABA yield. With the introduction of the scaffold complex, the GABA productivity increased by 2.9 folds during the initial culture period.

  4. Photodegradation kinetics, transformation, and toxicity prediction of ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ma, Li-Yun; Li, Lu-Shuang; Xu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Photodegradation of 3 commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid, was conducted under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The kinetic results showed that the 3 pharmaceuticals obeyed the first-order reaction with decreasing rate constants of 1.54 × 10 -4 , 5.91 × 10 -5 , and 7.78 × 10 -6  s -1 for carprofen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac acid, respectively. Moreover, the main transformation products were identified by ion-pair liquid-liquid extraction combined with injection port derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric analysis. There were 8, 3, and 6 transformation products identified for ketoprofen, carprofen, and diclofenac acid, respectively. Decarboxylation, dechlorination, oxidation, demethylation, esterification, and cyclization were proposed to be associated with the transformation of the 3 pharmaceuticals. Toxicity prediction of the transformation products was conducted on the EPI Suite software based on ECOSAR model, and the results indicate that some of the transformation products were more toxic than the parent compounds. The present study provides the foundation to understand the transformation behavior of the studied pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3232-3239. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Hydrolytic stability of biomolecules at high temperatures and its implication for life at 250 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert H.

    1984-08-01

    The upper temperature at which a living system can exist is limited by the hydrolytic breakdown rate of its chemical constituents. The peptide bonds of proteins, the phosphodiester and N-glycosyl bonds in RNA and DNA, and the pyrophosphate and N-glycosyl bonds in nucleotides such as ATP and NAD are among the more important bonds that will undergo hydrolysis. The decomposition of biomolecules via non-hydrolytic pathways such as decarboxylations and dehydrations may also be critical factors in determining this upper temperature limit. Baross and Deming1 recently reported `black smoker' bacteria, which they isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, growing at 250 °C. Here I have attempted to establish the rates for the hydrolysis and/or decomposition of critical biomolecules to determine their ability to exist at this temperature. My results clearly indicate that if these organisms exist, and if their metabolic reactions occur in an aqueous environment, they could not survive at this temperature if they were composed of biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids, due to the very rapid rate of decomposition of such molecules.

  6. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

  7. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  8. Sulfur deficiency changes mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) composition of Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937: a possible role of sulfur in MAA bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Klisch, Manfred; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation we show for the first time that bioconversion of a primary mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) into a secondary MAA is regulated by sulfur deficiency in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937. This cyanobacterium synthesizes the primary MAA shinorine (RT = 2.2 min, lambda(max) = 334 nm) under normal conditions (PAR + UV-A + UV-B); however, under sulfur deficiency, a secondary MAA palythine-serine (RT = 3.9 min, lambda(max) = 320 nm) appears. Addition of methionine to sulfur-deficient cultures resulted in the disappearance of palythine-serine, suggesting the role of primary MAAs under sulfur deficiency in recycling of methionine by donating the methyl group from the glycine subunit of shinorine to tetrahydrofolate to regenerate the methionine from homocysteine. This is also the first report for the synthesis of palythine-serine by cyanobacteria which has so far been reported only from corals. Addition of methionine also affected the conversion of mycosporine-glycine into shinorine, consequently, resulted in the appearance of mycosporine-glycine (RT = 3.6 min, lambda(max) = 310 nm). Our results also suggest that palythine-serine is synthesized from shinorine. Based on these results we propose that glycine decarboxylase is the potential enzyme that catalyzes the bioconversion of shinorine to palythine-serine by decarboxylation and demethylation of the glycine unit of shinorine.

  9. Molecular differentiation between Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Pullorum and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Gallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Simone Alves Mendes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Berchieri Jánior, Ângelo

    2009-01-01

    S. Pullorum (SP) and S. Gallinarum (SG) are very similar. They are the agents of pullorum disease and fowl typhoid, respectively, and the two diseases are responsible for economic losses in poultry production. Although SP and SG are difficult to be differentiated in routine laboratory procedures, the ability to metabolize ornithine is a biochemical test that may be used to achieve this aim. While SP is able to decarboxylate this amino acid, SG is not. However, the isolation of strains showing atypical biochemical behavior has made this differentiation difficult. One of the genes associated with the metabolization of the amino acid ornithine is called speC, and is found in both serovars. The analysis of 21 SP and 15 SG strains by means of PCR did not enable the differentiation of the two serovars, because fragments produced were identical. However, after enzymatic treatment with restriction enzyme Eco RI, the band pattern of each serovar showed to be different, even in samples of atypical biochemical behavior. This fact enabled the standardization of the technique for a quick and safe differentiation of serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum. PMID:24031341

  10. Production of vinyl derivatives from alkaline hydrolysates of corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli containing the phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The enzyme PAD from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T decarboxylates some cinnamic acids namely p-coumaric acid (p-CA), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives (4-VD): 4-vinyl phenol (4-VP), 4-vinyl catechol (4-VC), and 4-vinyl guaiacol (4-VG), respectively, which are valuable food additives mainly employed as flavouring agents. The gene encoding this enzyme was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli cells overproducing L. plantarum PAD showed a preference to degrade mainly p-CA and CA. Sterilized liquors obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of corn cob or alkaline hydrolysis of the solid residue coming from acid hydrolysis of corn cob were employed as growth media in fermentations performed in shaker or bioreactor. The fermentative process allowed converting 2222.8 mg/L p-CA into 993.9 mg/L 4-VP. The process described here allowed the production with a high-yield of a valuable food additive from a by-product of the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioproduction of 4-vinylphenol from corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate in two-phase extractive fermentation using free or immobilized recombinant E. coli expressing pad gene.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-05-10

    In situ extractive fermentation was used to produce 4-vinyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids extracted from corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing Lactobacillus plantarum phenolic acid descarboxylase (PAD) gene. This microorganism mainly produced 4-vinylphenol (4VP) from p-coumaric acid (p-CA). In the first study , we observed that the concentrations of 4VP are higher than 1g/L which had a negative impact on decarboxylation of p-CA to 4VP by recombinant E. coli cells. Because of this, and in order to improve the downstream process, a two-phase aqueous-organic solvent system was developed. The results of the extractive fermentation indicated that it was possible to use hydrolyzates as aqueous phase to bioproduce 4VP, and recover simultaneously the product in the organic phase containing hexane. The detoxification of pre-treated corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate improved 4VP production up to 1003.5mg/L after 24h fermentation (QP=41.813mg/Lh). Additionally, preliminary experiments using cells immobilized in calcium alginate showed to be a good system for the biotransform of p-CA to 4VP in extractive fermentation, although the process hindered partially the recovery of 4VP in the organic phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connectedmore » by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.« less

  13. Effects of pumpless extracorporeal lung assist on hemodynamics, gas exchange and inflammatory cascade response during experimental lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Zhihai; Ma, Jinhui; Wang, Chen; Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yeru; Hei, Feilong

    2018-01-01

    Pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (pECLA) has been reported to efficiently remove the systemic CO2 production and provide mild to moderate oxygenation, thereby allowing for ventilator settings and modes prioritizing oxygenation and lung protection. However, an adequate bypass flow, the capacity to provide respiratory support and the effect on the inflammatory cascade response and tissue perfusion require further study to be determined. After induction of acute lung injury (ALI) by oleic acid injection, pECLA was implemented in 12 anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs for 48 h. Improved oxygenation [partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured by arterial blood gas analysis, and increased by 29 and 18%, respectively] and CO2 elimination (partial CO2 pressure decreased by 43.35%) were obtained after pECLA implementation. A maximum arterio-venous shunt flow of up to 25% of the foundational CO resulted in stable hemodynamics. The pECLA procedure did not elicit any further increase in the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and endothelin-1 compared with that in the group subjected to oleic acid injection only. In addition, the pECLA procedure had no effect on lactate levels and urine production. In conclusion, pECLA is an efficient and promising strategy for providing a mild to moderate oxygenation and adequate decarboxylation, while avoiding excessive inflammatory cascade response and tissue hypoperfusion in an experimental ALI model. PMID:29434789

  14. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into themore » coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.« less

  15. Efficient production of hyperpolarized bicarbonate by chemical reaction on a DNP precursor to measure pH.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajat K; Kadlecek, Stephen J; Pourfathi, Mehrdad; Rizi, Rahim R

    2015-11-01

    To produce hyperpolarized bicarbonate indirectly via chemical reaction from a hyperpolarized precursor and utilize it for the simultaneous regional measurement of metabolism and pH. Alpha keto carboxylic acids are first hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). These precursor molecules are rapidly reacted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to decarboxylate the species, resulting in new target molecules. Unreacted H2O2 is removed from the system by reaction with sulfite. Interrogation of the ratio of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) to bicarbonate can be used to determine pH. Conversion of hyperpolarized alpha keto acids to bicarbonate and CO2 results in a minimal loss of the spin order. The reaction can be conducted to completion within seconds and preserves the nuclear spin polarization. Through a rapid chemical reaction, we can conserve the nuclear spin order of a DNP precursor to generate multiple hyperpolarized bioprobes otherwise unamenable to polarization. This indirect technique for the production of hyperpolarized agents can be applied to different precursor compounds to generate additional novel probes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Tan, Kui; Li, Jia-Luo; Kirchon, Angelo; Liu, Ling-Mei; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yu; Chabal, Yves J; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-02-14

    Sufficient pore size, appropriate stability, and hierarchical porosity are three prerequisites for open frameworks designed for drug delivery, enzyme immobilization, and catalysis involving large molecules. Herein, we report a powerful and general strategy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultrastable hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores by generating crystal defects throughout a microporous MOF crystal via thermolysis. The crystallinity and stability of HP-MOFs remain after thermolabile linkers are selectively removed from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) through a decarboxylation process. A domain-based linker spatial distribution was found to be critical for creating hierarchical pores inside MTV-MOFs. Furthermore, linker thermolysis promotes the formation of ultrasmall metal oxide nanoparticles immobilized in an open framework that exhibits high catalytic activity for Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions. Most importantly, this work provides fresh insights into the connection between linker apportionment and vacancy distribution, which may shed light on probing the disordered linker apportionment in multivariate systems, a long-standing challenge in the study of MTV-MOFs.

  17. The coupling of glycolysis and the Rubisco-based pathway through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to achieve low carbon dioxide emission fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Han; Ou-Yang, Fan-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Han; Li, Si-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Rubisco-based engineered Escherichia coli, containing two heterologous enzymes of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PrkA), has been shown to be capable of the in situ recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) during glycolysis. Two alternative approaches have been proposed to further enhance the carbon flow from glycolysis to a Rubisco-based pathway through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP). The first is achieved by elevating the expression of transketolase I (TktA) and the second by blocking the native oxidation-decarboxylation reaction of E. coli by deleting the zwf gene from the chromosome (designated as JB/pTA and MZB, respectively). Decreases in the CO2 yield and the CO2 evolution per unit mole of ethanol production by at least 81% and 40% are observed. It is demonstrated in this study that the production of one mole of ethanol using E. coli strain MZB, the upper limit of CO2 emission is 0.052mol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  19. SadA-Expressing Staphylococci in the Human Gut Show Increased Cell Adherence and Internalization.

    PubMed

    Luqman, Arif; Nega, Mulugeta; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Ebner, Patrick; Götz, Friedrich

    2018-01-09

    A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora. Furthermore, sadA-expressing staphylococci showed increased adherence to HT-29 cells and 2- to 3-fold increased internalization. Internalization and adherence was also increased in a sadA mutant in the presence of tryptamine. The α2-adrenergic receptor is required for enhanced adherence and internalization. Thus, staphylococci in the gut might contribute to gut activity and intestinal colonization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological and Chemical Investigations into Microbial Degradation of Synthetic Poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Helge B.; Zeeck, Axel; Plückhahn, Kirsten; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor 1A and Pseudomonas citronellolis were able to degrade synthetic high-molecular-weight poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and vulcanized natural rubber. Growth on the polymers was poor but significantly greater than that of the nondegrading strain Streptomyces lividans 1326 (control). Measurement of the molecular weight distribution of the polymer before and after degradation showed a time-dependent increase in low-molecular-weight polymer molecules for S. coelicolor 1A and P. citronellolis, whereas the molecular weight distribution for the control (S. lividans 1326) remained almost constant. Three degradation products were isolated from the culture fluid of S. coelicolor 1A grown on vulcanized rubber and were identified as (6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-10-oxo-undec-6-enoic acid, (5Z)-6-methyl-undec-5-ene-2,9-dione, and (5Z,9Z)-6,10-dimethyl-pentadec-5,9-diene-2,13-dione. An oxidative pathway from poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) to methyl-branched diketones is proposed. It includes (i) oxidation of an aldehyde intermediate to a carboxylic acid, (ii) one cycle of β-oxidation, (iii) oxidation of the conjugated double bond resulting in a β-keto acid, and (iv) decarboxylation. PMID:10966376

  1. Characterization and inactivation of an agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Justin E.; Causey, Corey P.; Lovelace, Leslie

    2010-11-12

    Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10-30 mg/L media). Themore » initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine-based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described.« less

  2. Light-regulated phosphorylation of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase plays a vital role in its activity.

    PubMed

    Chao, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Mei, Ying-Chang; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Chen, Yi-Bo; Qian, Chun-Rong; Hao, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-the major decarboxylase in PEPCK-type C4 plants-is also present in appreciable amounts in the bundle sheath cells of NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 plants, such as maize (Zea mays), where it plays an apparent crucial role during photosynthesis (Wingler et al., in Plant Physiol 120(2):539-546, 1999; Furumoto et al., in Plant Mol Biol 41(3):301-311, 1999). Herein, we describe the use of mass spectrometry to demonstrate phosphorylation of maize PEPCK residues Ser55, Thr58, Thr59, and Thr120. Western blotting indicated that the extent of Ser55 phosphorylation dramatically increases in the leaves of maize seedlings when the seedlings are transferred from darkness to light, and decreases in the leaves of seedlings transferred from light to darkness. The effect of light on phosphorylation of this residue is opposite that of the effect of light on PEPCK activity, with the decarboxylase activity of PEPCK being less in illuminated leaves than in leaves left in the dark. This inverse relationship between PEPCK activity and the extent of phosphorylation suggests that the suppressive effect of light on PEPCK decarboxylation activity might be mediated by reversible phosphorylation of Ser55.

  3. Effects of serotonin 5-HT1A agonist in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bara-Jimenez, William; Bibbiani, Francesco; Morris, Michael J; Dimitrova, Tzvetelina; Sherzai, Abdullah; Mouradian, Maral M; Chase, Thomas N

    2005-08-01

    Intermittent stimulation of striatal dopaminergic receptors seems to contribute to motor dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). With severe dopaminergic denervation, exogenous levodopa is largely decarboxylated to dopamine in serotonergic terminals. If 5-HT1A autoreceptors regulate dopamine as well as serotonin release, in parkinsonian patients inhibition of striatal serotonergic neuron firing might help maintain more physiological intrasynaptic dopamine concentrations and thus ameliorate motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. To evaluate this hypothesis, effects of a selective 5-HT1A agonist, sarizotan, given orally at 2 and 5 mg twice daily to 18 relatively advanced parkinsonian patients, were compared with baseline placebo function during a 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study. Sarizotan alone or with intravenous levodopa had no effect on parkinsonian severity. But at safe and tolerable doses, sarizotan coadministration reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesias and prolonged its antiparkinsonian response (P < or = 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, our findings suggest that 5-HT1A receptor stimulation in levodopa-treated parkinsonian patients can modulate striatal dopaminergic function and that 5-HT1A agonists may be useful as levodopa adjuvants in the treatment of PD. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society

  4. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase production in Pichia pastoris enables chemical synthesis of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kerstin; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2015-10-10

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is of increasing interest as a pharmaceutical and bioactive compound. Chemical synthesis of THC uses a laborious procedure and does not satisfy the market demand. The implementation of biocatalysts for specific synthesis steps might be beneficial for making natural product availability independent from the plant. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from C. sativa L. catalyzes the cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which is non-enzymatically decarboxylated to THC. We report the preparation of THCAS in amounts sufficient for the biocatalytic production of THC(A). Active THCAS was most efficiently obtained from Pichia pastoris. THCAS was produced on a 2L bioreactor scale and the enzyme was isolated by single-step chromatography with a specific activity of 73Ug(-1)total protein. An organic/aqueous two-liquid phase setup for continuous substrate delivery facilitated in situ product removal. In addition, THCAS activity in aqueous environments lasted for only 20min whereas the presence of hexane stabilized the activity over 3h. In conclusion, production of THCAS in P. pastoris Mut(S) KM71 KE1, subsequent isolation, and its application in a two-liquid phase setup enables the synthesis of THCA on a mg scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Targeting of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex/Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDC/PDK) Axis in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stacpoole, Peter W

    2017-11-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A, thereby linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and defining a critical step in cellular bioenergetics. Inhibition of PDC activity by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-mediated phosphorylation has been associated with the pathobiology of many disorders of metabolic integration, including cancer. Consequently, the PDC/PDK axis has long been a therapeutic target. The most common underlying mechanism accounting for PDC inhibition in these conditions is post-transcriptional upregulation of one or more PDK isoforms, leading to phosphorylation of the E1α subunit of PDC. Such perturbations of the PDC/PDK axis induce a "glycolytic shift," whereby affected cells favor adenosine triphosphate production by glycolysis over mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular proliferation over cellular quiescence. Dichloroacetate is the prototypic xenobiotic inhibitor of PDK, thereby maintaining PDC in its unphosphorylated, catalytically active form. However, recent interest in the therapeutic targeting of the PDC/PDK axis for the treatment of cancer has yielded a new generation of small molecule PDK inhibitors. Ongoing investigations of the central role of PDC in cellular energy metabolism and its regulation by pharmacological effectors of PDKs promise to open multiple exciting vistas into the biochemical understanding and treatment of cancer and other diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. CO2 fixation by anaerobic non-photosynthetic mixotrophy for improved carbon conversion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shawn W; Fast, Alan G; Carlson, Ellinor D; Wiedel, Carrissa A; Au, Jennifer; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T; Tracy, Bryan P

    2016-09-30

    Maximizing the conversion of biogenic carbon feedstocks into chemicals and fuels is essential for fermentation processes as feedstock costs and processing is commonly the greatest operating expense. Unfortunately, for most fermentations, over one-third of sugar carbon is lost to CO 2 due to the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and limitations in the reducing power of the bio-feedstock. Here we show that anaerobic, non-photosynthetic mixotrophy, defined as the concurrent utilization of organic (for example, sugars) and inorganic (for example, CO 2 ) substrates in a single organism, can overcome these constraints to increase product yields and reduce overall CO 2 emissions. As a proof-of-concept, Clostridium ljungdahlii was engineered to produce acetone and achieved a mass yield 138% of the previous theoretical maximum using a high cell density continuous fermentation process. In addition, when enough reductant (that is, H 2 ) is provided, the fermentation emits no CO 2 . Finally, we show that mixotrophy is a general trait among acetogens.

  7. Structure-activity relationship studies on a Trp dendrimer with dual activities against HIV and enterovirus A71. Modifications on the amino acid.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gualda, Belén; Sun, Liang; Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Flores, Aida; Quesada, Ernesto; Balzarini, Jan; Noppen, Sam; Liekens, Sandra; Schols, Dominique; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; Mirabelli, Carmen; Camarasa, María-José; San-Félix, Ana

    2017-03-01

    We have recently described a new class of dendrimers with tryptophan (Trp) on the surface that show dual antiviral activities against HIV and EV71 enterovirus. The prototype compound of this family is a pentaerythritol derivative with 12 Trps on the periphery. Here we complete the structure-activity relationship studies of this family to identify key features that might be significant for the antiviral activity. With this aim, novel dendrimers containing different amino acids (aromatic and non-aromatic), tryptamine (a "decarboxylated" analogue of Trp) and N-methyl Trp on the periphery have been prepared. Dendrimer with N-Methyl Trp was the most active against HIV-1 and HIV-2 while dendrimer with tyrosine was endowed with the most potent antiviral activity against EV71. This tyrosine dendrimer proved to inhibit a large panel of EV71 clinical isolates (belonging to different clusters) in the low nanomolar/high picomolar range. In addition, a new synthetic procedure (convergent approach) has been developed for the synthesis of the prototype and some other dendrimers. This convergent approach proved more efficient (higher yields, easier purification) than the divergent approach previously reported. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel protein-protein interaction between spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arjun K; Agnihotri, Pragati; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Pratap, J Venkatesh

    2015-01-09

    Polyamine biosynthesis pathway has long been considered an essential drug target for trypanosomatids including Leishmania. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDc) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) are enzymes of this pathway that catalyze successive steps, with the product of the former, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), acting as an aminopropyl donor for the latter enzyme. Here we have explored the possibility of and identified the protein-protein interaction between SpdSyn and AdoMetDc. The protein-protein interaction has been identified using GST pull down assay. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that the interaction is thermodynamically favorable. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies also confirms the interaction, with SpdSyn exhibiting a change in tertiary structure with increasing concentrations of AdoMetDc. Size exclusion chromatography suggests the presence of the complex as a hetero-oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzymes indeed form a heteromer. Computational analyses suggest that this complex differs significantly from the corresponding human complex, implying that this complex could be a better therapeutic target than the individual enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SciTech Connect

    Hai, Yang; Christianson, David W.

    Leishmaniaarginase is a potential drug target for the treatment of leishmaniasis because this binuclear manganese metalloenzyme initiatesde novopolyamine biosynthesis by catalyzing the hydrolysis of L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea. The product L-ornithine subsequently undergoes decarboxylation to yield putrescine, which in turn is utilized for spermidine biosynthesis. Polyamines such as spermidine are essential for the growth and survival of the parasite, so inhibition of enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway comprises an effective strategy for treating parasitic infections. To this end, two X-ray crystal structures ofL. mexicanaarginase complexed with α,α-disubstituted boronic amino-acid inhibitors based on the molecular scaffold of 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acidmore » are now reported. Structural comparisons with human and parasitic arginase complexes reveal interesting differences in the binding modes of the additional α-substituents,i.e.the D side chains, of these inhibitors. Subtle differences in the three-dimensional contours of the outer active-site rims among arginases from different species lead to different conformations of the D side chains and thus different inhibitor-affinity trends. The structures suggest that it is possible to maintain affinity while fine-tuning intermolecular interactions of the D side chain of α,α-disubstituted boronic amino-acid inhibitors in the search for isozyme-specific and species-specific arginase inhibitors.« less

  10. DIRECT AND INDIRECT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobitz, H.

    1961-01-01

    The primary physical processes, ionization and excitation, induced by radiation in biological materials are discussed. Their effects in causing reduction, decarboxylation, and depolymerization in proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid of the cell nucleus are examined. The action of radiation doses of 100,000- 600,000 r on pollen of Digitalis purpurea maintained at room temperature and at approximates 190 deg C showed that biological activity was destroyed by doses >200,000 r at room temperature, but at approximates 190 deg the pollen retained some activity even after the highest dose. A similar effect was seen with Bacterium cadaveris cells, about 0.5% of which survivedmore » 50000 r given at l8O deg whereas no cells survived 20000 r given at 4 deg . The presence of 1% cysteamine at the higher temperature increased survival 20-fold. Cytochrome c showed markedly different responses to radiation in dry form as compared with aqueous solution. The anhydrous enzyme showed a linear decline in log activity with radiation dose but in aqueous solution the activity declined more slowly at higher doses. The radiation dose to-produce 50% inactivation was 4 x 10/sup 7/ r in dry form and 6 x 10/sup 5/ r in solution, a 67-fold difference. The results suggest that diffusion of the free radicals (H: or OH:) produced in the primary process is considerably hindered at low temperature and by the absence of water. (H.H.D.)« less

  11. Solar photo-Fenton using peroxymonosulfate for organic micropollutants removal from domestic wastewater: comparison with heterogeneous TiO₂ photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Brienza, Monica; Goetz, Vincent; Chiron, Serge

    2014-12-01

    This work aims at decontaminating biologically treated domestic wastewater effluents from organic micropollutants by sulfate radical based (SO4(-)) homogeneous photo-Fenton involving peroxymonosulfate as an oxidant, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) as a catalyst and simulated solar irradiation as a light source. This oxidative system was evaluated by using several probe compounds belonging to pesticides (bifenthrin, mesotrione and clothianidin) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine) classes and its kinetic efficiency was compared to that to the well known UV-Vis/TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis. Except for carbamazepine, apparent kinetic rate constants were always 10 times higher in PMS/Fe(II)/UV-Vis than in TiO2/UV-Vis system and more than 70% of total organic carbon abatement was reached in less than one hour treatment. Hydroxyl radical (OH) and SO4(-) reactivity was investigated using mesotrione as a probe compound through by-products identification by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry and transformation pathways elucidation. In addition to two OH based transformation pathways, a specific SO4(-) transformation pathway which first involved degradation through one electron transfer oxidation processes followed by decarboxylation were probably responsible for mesotrione degradation kinetic improvement upon UV-Vis/PMS/Fe(II) system in comparison to UVVis/TiO2 system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short Access to Belt Compounds with Spatially Close C=C Bonds and Their Transannular Reactions.

    PubMed

    Camps, Pelayo; Gómez, Tània; Otermin, Ane; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Estarellas, Carolina; Luque, Francisco Javier

    2015-09-28

    Two domino Diels-Alder adducts were obtained from 3,7-bis(cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-ylidene)-cis-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate or N-methylmaleimide under microwave irradiation. From the first adduct, a C20H24 diene with C2v symmetry was obtained by Zn/AcOH reduction, hydrolysis, oxidative decarboxylation, and selective hydrogenation. Photochemical [2+2] cycloaddition of this diene gave a thermally unstable cyclobutane derivative, which reverts to the diene. However, both the diene and the cyclobutane derivatives could be identified by X-ray diffraction analysis upon irradiation of the diene crystal. New six-membered rings are formed upon the transannular addition of bromine or iodine to the diene. The N-type selectivity of the addition was examined by theoretical calculations, which revealed the distinct susceptibility of the doubly bonded carbon atoms to the bromine attack. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Upper Cretaceous Shannon Sandstone Reservoirs, Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Evidence for organic acid diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansley, P.L.; Nuccio, V.F.

    Comparison of the petrology of shallow and deep oil reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Shannon Sandstone Beds of the Steele Member of the Cody Shale strongly suggests that organic acids have had a more significant impact on the diagenetic alteration of aluminosilicate grains and carbonate cements in the deep reservoirs than in the shallow reservoirs. In shallow reservoirs, detrital grains exhibit minor dissolution, sparse and small overgrowths, and secondary porosity created by dissolution of early calcite cement. However, deeper sandstones are characterized by extensive dissolution of detrital K-feldspar and detrital glauconite grains, and precipitation of abundant, large quartz and feldsparmore » overgrowths. Throughout the Shannon and Steele, dissolution of glauconite and degradation of kerogen were probably aided by clay mineral/organic catalysis, which caused simultaneous reduction of iron and oxidation of kerogen. This process resulted in release of ferrous iron and organic acids and was promoted in the deep reservoirs by higher formation temperatures accounting for more extensive dissolution of aluminosilicate grains. Carbonic acid produced from the dissolution of early calcite cement, decarboxylation of organic matter, and influx of meteoric water after Laramide uplift produced additional dissolution of cements and grains. Dissolution by organic acids and complexing by organic acid anions, however, best explain the intensity of diagenesis and absence of dissolution products in secondary pores and on etched surfaces of framework grains in deep reservoirs.« less

  14. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolite pools and carbon flow during C4 photosynthesis in maize: 13CO2 labeling kinetics and cell type fractionation.

    PubMed

    Arrivault, Stéphanie; Obata, Toshihiro; Szecówka, Marek; Mengin, Virginie; Guenther, Manuela; Hoehne, Melanie; Fernie, Alisdair R; Stitt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide efforts to engineer C 4 photosynthesis into C 3 crops require a deep understanding of how this complex pathway operates. CO 2 is incorporated into four-carbon metabolites in the mesophyll, which move to the bundle sheath where they are decarboxylated to concentrate CO 2 around RuBisCO. We performed dynamic 13 CO 2 labeling in maize to analyze C flow in C 4 photosynthesis. The overall labeling kinetics reflected the topology of C 4 photosynthesis. Analyses of cell-specific labeling patterns after fractionation to enrich bundle sheath and mesophyll cells revealed concentration gradients to drive intercellular diffusion of malate, but not pyruvate, in the major CO 2 -concentrating shuttle. They also revealed intercellular concentration gradients of aspartate, alanine, and phosphenolpyruvate to drive a second phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-type shuttle, which carries 10-14% of the carbon into the bundle sheath. Gradients also exist to drive intercellular exchange of 3-phosphoglycerate and triose-phosphate. There is rapid carbon exchange between the Calvin-Benson cycle and the CO 2 -concentrating shuttle, equivalent to ~10% of carbon gain. In contrast, very little C leaks from the large pools of metabolites in the C concentration shuttle into respiratory metabolism. We postulate that the presence of multiple shuttles, alongside carbon transfer between them and the Calvin-Benson cycle, confers great flexibility in C 4 photosynthesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Structural Characterization of the Molecular Events during a Slow Substrate-Product Transition in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2009-04-06

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6more » of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.« less

  17. Orotidine Monophosphate Decarboxylase--A Fascinating Workhorse Enzyme with Therapeutic Potential.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Mnpotra, Jagjeet S; Mishra, Ram Kumar; Pai, Emil F; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2015-05-20

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) is known as one of the most proficient enzymes. The enzyme catalyzes the last reaction step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, the conversion from orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) to uridine 5'-monophosphate. The enzyme is found in all three domains of life, Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea. Multiple sequence alignment of 750 putative ODCase sequences resulted in five distinct groups. While the universally conserved DxKxxDx motif is present in all the groups, depending on the groups, several characteristic motifs and residues can be identified. Over 200 crystal structures of ODCases have been determined so far. The structures, together with biochemical assays and computational studies, elucidated that ODCase utilized both transition state stabilization and substrate distortion to accelerate the decarboxylation of its natural substrate. Stabilization of the vinyl anion intermediate by a conserved lysine residue at the catalytic site is considered the largest contributing factor to catalysis, while bending of the carboxyl group from the plane of the aromatic pyrimidine ring of OMP accounts for substrate distortion. A number of crystal structures of ODCases complexed with potential drug candidate molecules have also been determined, including with 6-iodo-uridine, a potential antimalarial agent. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural characterization of the molecular events during a slow substrate-product transition in orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Pai, Emil F

    2009-04-17

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.

  19. A potent, covalent inhibitor of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase with antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Bello, Angelica M; Poduch, Ewa; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Amani, Merhnaz; Li, Yan; Crandall, Ian; Hui, Raymond; Lee, Ping I; Kain, Kevin C; Pai, Emil F; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2007-03-08

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has evolved to catalyze the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate without any covalent intermediates. Active site residues in ODCase are involved in an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. We discovered that 6-iodouridine 5'-monophosphate (6-iodo-UMP) irreversibly inhibits the catalytic activities of ODCases from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and Plasmodium falciparum. Mass spectral analysis of the enzyme-inhibitor complex confirms covalent attachment of the inhibitor to ODCase accompanied by the loss of two protons and the iodo moiety. The X-ray crystal structure (1.6 A resolution) of the complex of the inhibitor and ODCase clearly shows the covalent bond formation with the active site Lys-72 [corrected] residue. 6-Iodo-UMP inhibits ODCase in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. 6-Iodouridine, the nucleoside form of 6-iodo-UMP, exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity, with IC50s of 4.4 +/- 1.3 microM and 6.2 +/- 0.7 microM against P. falciparum ItG and 3D7 isolates, respectively. 6-Iodouridine 5'-monophosphate is a novel covalent inhibitor of ODCase, and its nucleoside analogue paves the way to a new class of inhibitors against malaria.

  20. Tyrosine decarboxylase activity of enterococci grown in media with different nutritional potential: tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine accumulation and tyrDC gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gatto, Veronica; Gardini, Fausto; Torriani, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accumulate tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine by two strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains Enterococcus faecium was evaluated in two cultural media added or not with tyrosine. All the enterococcal strains possessed a tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC) which determined tyramine accumulation in all the conditions tested, independently on the addition of high concentration of free tyrosine. Enterococci differed in rate and level of biogenic amines accumulation. E. faecalis EF37 and E. faecium FC12 produced tyramine in high amount since the exponential growth phase, while 2-phenylethylamine was accumulated when tyrosine was depleted. E. faecium FC12 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 showed a slower tyraminogenic activity which took place mainly in the stationary phase up to 72 h of incubation. Moreover, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 produced 2-phenylethylamine only in the media without tyrosine added. In BHI added or not with tyrosine the tyrDC gene expression level differed considerably depending on the strains and the growth phase. In particular, the tyrDC gene expression was high during the exponential phase in rich medium for all the strains and subsequently decreased except for E. faecium FC12. Even if tyrDC presence is common among enterococci, this study underlines the extremely variable decarboxylating potential of strains belonging to the same species, suggesting strain-dependent implications in food safety.