Science.gov

Sample records for decay spectrometer perkeo

  1. beta. -decay asymmetry of the free neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Dubbers, D.; Klemt, E.; Last, J.; Schuetze, H.; Weibler, W.; Freedman, S.J.; Schaerpf, O.

    1983-01-01

    The ..beta..-decay of polarized neutrons has been studied with the new superconducting spectrometer PERKEO at the ILL. The energy dependence of the ..beta..-decay asymmetry has been measured for the first time. From the measured ..beta..-asymmetry parameter we obtain a new value for the ratio of weak coupling constants g/sub A//g/sub V/. 11 references.

  2. A decay total absorption spectrometer for DESPEC at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; Agramunt, J.; Guadilla, V.; Jordan, M. D.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Rubio, B.; Valencia, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gelletly, W.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P.; Simpson, J.; Smith, A. J.; Strachan, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a total absorption γ-ray spectrometer for the determination of β-decay intensity distributions of exotic nuclear species at the focal plane of the FAIR-NUSTAR Super Fragment Separator. The spectrometer is a key instrument in the DESPEC experiment and the proposed implementation follows extensive design studies and prototype tests. Two options were contemplated, based on NaI(Tl) and LaBr3:Ce inorganic scintillation crystals respectively. Monte Carlo simulations and technical considerations determined the optimal configurations consisting of sixteen 15 × 15 × 25cm3 crystals for the NaI(Tl) option and one hundred and twenty-eight 5.5 × 5.5 × 11cm3 crystals for the LaBr3:Ce option. Minimization of dead material was crucial for maximizing the spectrometer full-energy peak efficiency. Module prototypes were build to verify constructional details and characterize their performance. The measured energy and timing resolution was found to agree rather well with estimates based on simulations of scintillation light transport and collection. The neutron sensitivity of the spectrometer, important when measuring β-delayed neutron emitters, was investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Development of the NPL gamma-ray spectrometer NANA for traceable nuclear decay and structure studies.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, G; Shearman, R; Regan, P H; Judge, S M; Bell, S; Collins, S M; Larijani, C; Ivanov, P; Jerome, S M; Keightley, J D; Lalkovski, S; Pearce, A K; Podolyak, Zs

    2016-03-01

    We present a brief report on the progress towards the construction of the National Nuclear Array (NANA), a gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer for discrete-line nuclear structure and decay measurements. The proposed spectrometer will combine a gamma-ray energy resolution of approximately 3% at 1MeV with sub-nanosecond timing discrimination between successive gamma rays in mutually coincident decay cascades. We also review a number of recent measurements using coincidence fast-timing gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear structure studies, which have helped to inform the design criteria for the NANA spectrometer.

  4. Characterization of a new modular decay total absorption gamma-ray spectrometer (DTAS) for FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Montaner Piza, A.; Tain, J. L.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Guadilla, V.; Marin, E.; Rice, S.; Rubio, B.

    2013-06-10

    Beta-decay studies are one of the main goals of the DEcay SPECtroscopy experiment (DESPEC) to be installed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). DESPEC aims at the study of nuclear structure of exotic nuclei. A new modular Decay Total Absorption gamma-ray Spectrometer (DTAS) is being built at IFIC and is specially adapted to studies at fragmentation facilities such as the Super Fragment Separator (Super-FRS) at FAIR. The designed spectrometer is composed of 16 identical NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. This work focuses on the characterization of these independent modules, as an initial step for the characterization of the full spectrometer. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to understand the detector response.

  5. New search for double electron capture in {sup 106}Cd decay with the TGV-2 spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Briançon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Jose, J. M.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Rosov, S. V.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Rukhadze, N. I. Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Fajt, L.; Hodak, R.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Špavorova, M.; Štekl, I.; Yakushev, E. A.

    2015-09-15

    A new experiment devoted to searches for double electron capture in {sup 106}Cd decay is being performed at the Modane underground laboratory (4800 mwe) with the 32-detector TGV-2 spectrometer. The limit T{sub 1/2}(2νEC/EC) > 2.0×10{sup 20} yr at a 90%confidence level (C.L.) was obtained from a preliminary analysis of data obtained over 2250 h of measurements with about 23.2 g sample enriched in the isotope {sup 106}Cd to 99.57%. The limits T{sub 1/2}(KL, 2741 keV) > 0.9 × 10{sup 20} yr and T{sub 1/2}(KK, 2718 keV) ≫ 1.4 × 10{sup 20} yr at a 90% C.L. on the neutrinoless decay of {sup 106}Cd were obtained from measurements performed with the Obelix low-background spectrometer from high-purity germanium (HPGe spectrometer) for a sample of mass about 23.2 g enriched in the isotope {sup 106}Cd.

  6. Homestake tracking spectrometer: a one-mile deep 1400-ton liquid-scintillation nucleon-decay detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, M.L.; Davidson, I.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Marshall, E.; Steinberg, R.I.; Cleveland, B.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lowenstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a proposed nucleon decay detector able to demonstrate the existence of nucleon decay for lifetimes up to 5 x 10/sup 32/ yr. The proposed instrument is a self-vetoed completely-active 1400-ton liquid scintillation Tracking Spectrometer to be located in the Homestake Mine at a depth of 4200 mwe, where the cosmic ray muon flux is only 1100/m/sup 2//yr, more than 10/sup 7/ times lower than the flux at the earth's surface. Based on computer simulations and laboratory measurements, the Tracking Spectrometer will have a spatial resolution of +- 15 cm (0.32 radiation lengths); energy resolution of +- 4.2%; and time resolution of +-1.3 ns. Because liquid scintillator responds to total ionization energy, all neutrinoless nucleon decay modes will produce a sharp (+- 4.2%) total energy peak at approximately 938 MeV, thereby allowing clear separation of nucleon decay events from atmospheric neutrino and other backgrounds. The instrument will be about equally sensitive to most nucleon decay modes. It will be able to identify most of the likely decay modes (including n ..-->.. ..nu.. + K/sub s//sup 0/ as suggested by supersymmetric grand unified theories), as well as determine the charge of lepton secondaries and the polarization of secondary muons.

  7. Conversion electrons from high-statistics β-decay measurements with the 8π spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Radich, A. J.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Green, K. L.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Williams, S. J.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-09-01

    The 8π spectrometer, located at TRIUMF-ISAC, was the world's most powerful spectrometer dedicated to β-decay studies until its decommissioning in early 2014 for replacement with the GRIFFIN array. An integral part of the 8π spectrometer was the Pentagonal Array for Conversion Electron Spectroscopy (PACES) consisting of 5 Si(Li) detectors used for charged-particle detection. PACES enabled both γ - e- and e- - e- coincidence measurements, which were crucial for increasing the sensitivity for discrete e- lines in the presence of large backgrounds. Examples from a 124Cs decay experiment, where the data were vital for the expansion of the 124Cs decay scheme, are shown. With suffcient statistics, measurements of conversion coeffcients can be used to extract the E0 components of Jπ → Jπ transitions for J ≠ 0, which is demonstrated for data obtained in 110In→110Cd decay. With knowledge of the shapes of the states involved, as obtained, for example, from the use of Kumar-Cline shape invariants, the mixing of the states can be extracted.

  8. Influence of the thorium decay series on the background of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Bučar, K; Korun, M; Vodenik, B

    2012-06-01

    The background induced by the members of the thorium decay sequence in six high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometers was analyzed. For the analysis, the count rates in the peaks of the background spectra, normalized to the unit of emission probability and detection probability, were used. The energy dependence of these normalized count rates carries information about the location of the sources of contamination. The contributions of the detector contamination, the contamination of the shielding material and the radiation penetrating the shield were calculated. The comparison of these contributions among the spectrometers pointed to the weaknesses of some shields, making such a comparison a useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of the shields.

  9. Measurements of optical loss in transparent solids using a novel spectrometer based on optical cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F.P.; Hunt, J.T.; Roe, J.N.

    1988-12-14

    Recent advances in High Average Power (HAP) solid state lasers and the development of new concept lasers with the potential of ultra- high average power output have put increasing demands on the transparency of optical window materials. To gain a better understanding of the current status of window materials and to direct research toward more nearly transparent materials, we have constructed an optical characterization facility with the purpose of making quantitative optical loss measurements in the sensitivity range of 10/sup /minus/3/ to 10/sup /minus/6/ cm/sup /minus/1/. The cornerstone of this facility is a scanning optical lossmeter in which loss is determined by comparing the decay time of an optical cavity with and without a transparent solid present. The lossmeter has been successfully applied to measurements of the optical loss of witness samples of highly transparent fused silica. A description of the lossmeter and a compilation of preliminary loss measurements are presented here. 3 refs.

  10. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  11. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  12. The GRIFFIN spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is an advanced new high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer being developed for use in decay spectroscopy experiments with low-energy radioactive ion beams provided by TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC-I) radioactive ion beam facility. GRIFFIN will be comprised of sixteen large-volume clover-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray detectors coupled to custom digital signal processing electronics and used in conjunction with a suite of auxiliary detection systems. This article provides an overview of the GRIFFIN spectrometer and its expected performance characteristics.

  13. Applications of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. l. Metastable decay and collision-induced dissociation for sequencing peptides.

    PubMed

    Ackloo, Suzanne; Loboda, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The use of a high-performance orthogonal time-of-flight (o-TOF) mass spectrometer for sequence analysis is described. The mass spectrometer is equipped with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source that operates at elevated pressure, 0.01-1 Torr. Ion fragmentation is controlled by varying the pressure of the buffer gas, the laser energy, the voltage difference between the MALDI target and the adjacent sampling cone, and between the cone and the quadrupole ion guide. The peptides were analyzed under optimal ionization conditions to obtain their molecular mass, and under conditions that promote ion dissociation via metastable decomposition or collision-induced dissociation (CID). The fragmentation spectra were used to obtain sequence information. Ion dissociation was promoted via three configurations of the ionization parameters. All methods yielded sequencing-grade b- and y-type ions. Two binary mixtures of peptides were used to demonstrate that: (1) external calibration provides a standard deviation (sigma) of 4 ppm with a mode of 9 ppm; and (2) that peptides with molecular masses that differ by a factor of two may be independently fragmented by appropriately choosing the CID energy and the low-mass cut-off. Analyses of tryptic digests employed liquid chromatography (LC), deposition of the eluant on a target, and finally MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The mass fingerprint and the (partial) sequence of the tryptic peptides were matched to their precursor protein via database searches.

  14. Multidimensional spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  15. Development of detector technologies for neutron beta decay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Cude-Woods, Chris; Young, Albert; Los Alamos UCN Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    In the past year we have developed two detector technologies for neutron beta decay measurements. The first is designed specifically to detect the recoil proton from neutron decay. In particular, the PERKEO III experiments planned for the Institut Laue Langevin require detectors with active area greater than about 600 cm2 area to achieve the targeted statistical sensitivity. We have developed an implementation of transmission foil detectors utilizing free standing foils of roughly 100 nm thickness and 700 cm2 area, coated with LiF converting crystal. These foils are placed in an accelerating electric field geometry to first accelerate the protons to 30 kV and then convert them to an electron shower which can be detected with conventional semiconductor or scintillator detectors. We've also begun development of technology that is designed to detect charged particles from neutron-capture reaction on 10B. The UCNtau experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratories requires non-magnetic neutron sensors that can be used to measure the density of neutrons in a magnetic trap. We are employing a multilayer surface detector recently developed at Los Alamos for the UCN flux monitoring, adapting it for a compact, 1 cm2 detector and ultralow dark rates. The detector consists of 10B on ZnS scintillating sheet that will be adhered to both faces of an acrylic plate with scintillating optical fibers embedded into it. The optical fibers will be coupled to 2, Hamamatsu micro-PMTs for coincident detection of a neutron event.

  16. Neutron beta decay studies with Nab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeßler, S.; Alarcon, R.; Alonzi, L. P.; Balascuta, S.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Bowman, J. D.; Bychkov, M. A.; Byrne, J.; Calarco, J. R.; Chupp, T.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Crawford, C.; Frlež, E.; Gericke, M. T.; Glück, F.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Harrison, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Ito, T.; Makela, M.; Martin, J.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGovern, S.; Page, S.; Penttilä, S. I.; Počanić, D.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Salas-Bacci, A.; Tompkins, Z.; Wagner, D.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, A. R.

    2013-10-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  17. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  18. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  19. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  20. HISS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

  1. The Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2012-03-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating ), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old technology. In this paper I would like to discuss its ancestors.

  2. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  3. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  4. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  5. Deconvolution method for fluorescence decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apanasovich, V. V.; Novikov, E. G.

    1990-09-01

    A new method for fluorescence decay deconvolution is offered. It has acceptable accuracy, high speed of deconvolution, and allows to estimate the number of exponentials. Some results of statistical experiments, using a simulation model of a pulsed fluorescence spectrometer, are introduced.

  6. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  7. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  8. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  9. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    You call it a cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole in your tooth. The cause of tooth decay is plaque, a sticky substance in your mouth made up mostly of germs. Tooth decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without ...

  10. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernat, Jacek; P¯ANDA Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P¯ANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD¯ decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed.

  11. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  12. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  13. Decay Studies of NEPTUNIUM-237.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, S. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The decay of ^{237}Np (T_{1over2} = 2.14 times 10^6 years) has been investigated from singles and coincidence gamma-ray spectra acquired using Ge detectors and also from internal conversion electron spectra acquired using an iron-free, pi/2 double-focusing, beta-ray spectrometer. Such a long-lived nucleus has a very low specific activity which has previously made the determination of the internal conversion following its decay extremely difficult. In order to overcome this problem, the luminosity of the beta -ray spectrometer has been increased by utilising the multistrip source technique of Bergkvist in conjunction with a sixteen-element proportional counter. Twenty-four gamma-rays have been observed in the singles studies, with four additional gamma -rays observed in the coincidence studies alone, all of which have been placed in the level scheme of ^{233}Pa. The coincidence data also indicates the presence of two unobserved transitions of low energy. The absolute conversion coefficients and multipolarity of five gamma-ray transitions following the decay of ^{237} Np, together with those of seven gamma -ray transitions following the decay of the daughter nucleus, ^{233}Pa, have been determined and the levels of ^{233 }Pa assigned within the framework of the Nilsson Model.

  14. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  15. Composite Spectrometer Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

  16. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  17. Spectrometer technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    A typical heterodyne remote sensing system contains three major elements: the antenna, the radiometer, and the spectrometer. The radiometer consists of the local oscillator, the mixer, and the intermediate frequency amplifiers. This subsystem performs the function of down converting the high frequency incident thermal emission signal to a lower intermediate frequency. The spectrometer measures the power spectrum of the down-converted signal simultaneously in many contiguous frequency channels. Typical spectrum analysis requirements involve measurement of signal bandwidths of 100 to 1000 MHz with a channel resolution of 0.5 to 10 MHz. Three general approaches are used for spectrometers: (1) filter banks, (2) Acousto-Optic Spectrometers (AOS's), and (3) digital autocorrelators. In contrast to the two frequency domain techniques, an autocorrelator works in the time domain. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the incoming signal is computed and averaged over the integration time. The averaged ACF is then Fourier transformed to obtain the signal power spectrum. Significant progress was made in the development of sub mm antennas and radiometers. It is now time to begin research in the development of low power spaceborne spectrometers and to reduce their size and weight. The near-term research goal will be to develop a prototype digital autocorrelation spectrometer, using VLSI gate array technology, which will have a small size, low power requirements, and can be used in spacecraft mm and sub mm radiometer systems. The long-range objective of this technology development is to make extremely low power, less than 10 mW/channel, small and stable wideband spectrometers which can be used in future mm and sub mm wavelength space missions such as the Large Deployable Reflector.

  18. Spectrometer technology recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William J.

    1988-08-01

    A typical heterodyne remote sensing system contains three major elements: the antenna, the radiometer, and the spectrometer. The radiometer consists of the local oscillator, the mixer, and the intermediate frequency amplifiers. This subsystem performs the function of down converting the high frequency incident thermal emission signal to a lower intermediate frequency. The spectrometer measures the power spectrum of the down-converted signal simultaneously in many contiguous frequency channels. Typical spectrum analysis requirements involve measurement of signal bandwidths of 100 to 1000 MHz with a channel resolution of 0.5 to 10 MHz. Three general approaches are used for spectrometers: (1) filter banks, (2) Acousto-Optic Spectrometers (AOS's), and (3) digital autocorrelators. In contrast to the two frequency domain techniques, an autocorrelator works in the time domain. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the incoming signal is computed and averaged over the integration time. The averaged ACF is then Fourier transformed to obtain the signal power spectrum. Significant progress was made in the development of sub mm antennas and radiometers. It is now time to begin research in the development of low power spaceborne spectrometers and to reduce their size and weight. The near-term research goal will be to develop a prototype digital autocorrelation spectrometer, using VLSI gate array technology, which will have a small size, low power requirements, and can be used in spacecraft mm and sub mm radiometer systems. The long-range objective of this technology development is to make extremely low power, less than 10 mW/channel, small and stable wideband spectrometers which can be used in future mm and sub mm wavelength space missions such as the Large Deployable Reflector.

  19. Neutrino mass from triton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillation in different fields and by many different experiments we believe that neutrinos have non-vanishing masses in contrast to their current description within the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the absolute values of the neutrino masses, which are as important for particle physics as they are for cosmology and astrophysics, cannot be determined by oscillation experiments alone. There are a few ways to determine the neutrino mass scale, but the only model-independent method is the investigation of the electron energy spectrum of a β decay near its endpoint with tritium being the ideal isotope for the classical spectrometer set-up. The tritium β decay experiments at Mainz and Troitsk have recently been finished. At Mainz all relevant systematic uncertainties have been investigated by dedicated experiments yielding an upper limit of m(ν)<2.3eV/c (90% C.L.). The new Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will enhance the sensitivity on the neutrino mass by an ultra-precise measurement of the tritium β decay spectrum near the endpoint by another order of magnitude down to 0.2 eV/c2 by using a very strong windowless gaseous molecular tritium source and a huge ultra-high resolution electrostatic spectrometer of MAC-E-Filter type. The recent achievements in test experiments show, that this very challenging experiment is feasible.

  20. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  1. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  2. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  3. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  4. Portable reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Graham, R. A.; Ozawa, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A portable reflectance spectrometer is disclosed. The spectrometer essentially includes an optical unit and an electronic recording unit. The optical unit includes a pair of thermoelectrically-cooled detectors, for detecting total radiance and selected radiance projected through a circular variable filter wheel, and is capable of operating to provide spectral data in the range 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers without requiring coventional substitution of filter elements. The electronic recording unit includes power supplies, amplifiers, and digital recording electronics designed to permit recordation of data on tape casettes. Both the optical unit and electronic recording unit are packaged to be manually portable.

  5. Miniaturised TOF mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, U.; Wurz, P.; Whitby, J.

    2003-04-01

    For the BepiColombo misson of ESA to Mercury, we built a prototype of a miniaturised Time of Flight mass spectrometer with a low mass and low power consumption. Particles will be set free form the surface and ionized by short laser pluses. The mass spectrometer is dedicated to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of almost all elements of Mercurys planetary surface with an adequate dynamique range, mass range and mass resolution. We will present first results of our prototype and future designs.

  6. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  7. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  8. Smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaohu; Chen, Peng; Tran, Nhung Thi; Zhang, Jinling; Chia, Wei Sheng; Boujday, Souhir; Liedberg, Bo

    2016-05-23

    We report on a smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing applications. The spectrometer relies on a sample cell with an integrated grating substrate, and the smartphone's built-in light-emitting diode flash and camera. The feasibility of the smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated for detection of glucose and human cardiac troponin I, the latter in conjunction with peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

  9. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  10. The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertel, G. M.; Capell, M.

    1998-12-01

    The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will be the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. It is scheduled to be installed on the future International Space Station ALPHA (ISSA) in the year 2002 to perform measurements of the charged particle composition to answer fundamental questions in particle physics and astrophysics. Before installation on ISSA, AMS will fly on the shuttle DISCOVERY for a period of 10 days starting in May 1998. This will enable AMS to perform a test of the apparatus and first measurements. The AMS detector has five major components: A permanent NdFeB magnet, six planes of Silicon double-sided microstrip detectors, a plastic scintillator time of flight hodoscope, a plastic scintillator anticoincidence counter and an Aerogel Cherenkov threshold counter. In addition, there are electronics, support infrastructure and interfaces.

  11. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  12. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  13. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  14. Demonstration AOTF Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1993-01-01

    Spectral images of high quality obtained. Acousto-optical-tunable-filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer is optical system in which AOTF serves as spectrally dispersive element causing image on final focal plane to be shifted on plane by distance depending on wavelength of light emanating from scene. Useful in several applications involving identification, via characteristic spectras, of substances in observed scenes: examples include prospecting for minerals and detecting chemical pollutants.

  15. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  16. Beta decay of 99Tcm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alburger, D. E.; Richards, P.; Ku, T. H.

    1980-02-01

    The emission of β rays from 6.02-h 99Tcm has been detected with an intermediate-image magnetic spectrometer. β-ray components with end-point energies of 434.8+/-2.6 keV (β0) to the 99Ru ground state and 346.7+/-2.0 keV (β1) to the 90-keV state were found with intensities per decay of (1.0+/-0.3) × 10-5 for β0 and (2.6+/-0.5) × 10-5 for β1. In the Kurie plot analysis the unique first-forbidden "α" shape was assumed for β0 and an allowed shape was assumed for β1. Values of f1t=9.39+/-0.11 for β0 and f0t=8.66+/-0.08 for β1 were derived. γ rays of 322, 233, and 140 keV were observed in a calibrated Ge(Li) detector with relative source intensities of I322:I233:I140=(1.13+/-0.09)×10-6:(0.95+/-0.17)×10-7:1.000. The total β-ray branching of 3.7 × 10-5 results in a negligible correction to dosage calculations in the use of 99Tcm for diagnostic nuclear medicine. RADIOACTIVITY 99Tcm: measured Eβ, Iβ, and Iγ magnetic spectrometer, Ge(Li); deduced decay scheme.

  17. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  18. The GRANIT spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Beau, M; Kreuz, Michael; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Kurlov, V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K.; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  19. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  20. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. T.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blanc, M.; Burch, J. L.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Grande, M.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Kelha, V.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Svenes, K. R.; Szegö, K.; Tanskanen, P.; Ahola, K.; Anderson, D.; Bakshi, S.; Baragiola, R. A.; Barraclough, B. L.; Black, R. K.; Bolton, S.; Booker, T.; Bowman, R.; Casey, P.; Crary, F. J.; Delapp, D.; Dirks, G.; Eaker, N.; Funsten, H.; Furman, J. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Hannula, H.; Holmlund, C.; Huomo, H.; Illiano, J. M.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Linder, D. R.; Luntama, T.; Maurice, S.; McCabe, K. P.; Mursula, K.; Narheim, B. T.; Nordholt, J. E.; Preece, A.; Rudzki, J.; Ruitberg, A.; Smith, K.; Szalai, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Viherkanto, K.; Vilppola, J.; Vollmer, T.; Wahl, T. E.; Wüest, M.; Ylikorpi, T.; Zinsmeyer, C.

    2004-09-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding Saturn’s magnetosphere and its complex interactions with Titan, the icy satellites and rings, Saturn’s ionosphere and aurora, and the solar wind. Our design approach meets these goals by emphasizing two complementary types of measurements: high-time resolution velocity distributions of electrons and all major ion species; and lower-time resolution, high-mass resolution spectra of all ion species. The CAPS instrument is made up of three sensors: the Electron Spectrometer (ELS), the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS), and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). The ELS measures the velocity distribution of electrons from 0.6 eV to 28,250 keV, a range that permits coverage of thermal electrons found at Titan and near the ring plane as well as more energetic trapped electrons and auroral particles. The IBS measures ion velocity distributions with very high angular and energy resolution from 1 eV to 49,800 keV. It is specially designed to measure sharply defined ion beams expected in the solar wind at 9.5 AU, highly directional rammed ion fluxes encountered in Titan’s ionosphere, and anticipated field-aligned auroral fluxes. The IMS is designed to measure the composition of hot, diffuse magnetospheric plasmas and low-concentration ion species 1 eV to 50,280 eV with an atomic resolution M/ΔM ˜70 and, for certain molecules, (such asN 2 + and CO+), effective resolution as high as ˜2500. The three sensors are mounted on a motor-driven actuator that rotates the entire instrument over approximately one-half of the sky every 3 min.

  1. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  2. Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-10-02

    The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

  3. A measurement of the branching ratio of K+-- ->pi+--mu+mu- decays in the Hyper CP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zyla, Piotr; other HyperCP Collaborators

    2001-11-26

    Large samples of hyperon and kaon decays were collected with the Hyper CP spectrometer during two fixed-target runs at Fermilab. Based on an analysis of 110 million K pm decays from the 1997 data sample we present a branching ratio for K pm right arrow pi pm mu+ mu-. This is the first observation of K- right arrow pi- mu+ mu- decay.

  4. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  5. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  6. Search for the CP forbidden decay eta-->4pi(0)

    PubMed

    Prakhov; Tippens; Allgower; Bekrenev; Berger; Briscoe; Clajus; Comfort; Craig; Grosnick; Huber; Isenhower; Knecht; Koetke; Koulbardis; Kozlenko; Kruglov; Kycia; Lolos; Lopatin; Manley; Marusic; Manweiler; McDonald; Nefkens; Olmsted

    2000-05-22

    We report the first determination of the upper limit for the branching ratio of the CP forbidden decay eta-->4pi(0). No events were observed in a sample of 3.0x10(7) eta decays. The experiment was performed with the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer installed in a separated pi(-) beam at the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron). At the 90% confidence limit, B(eta-->4pi(0))

  7. Spatial heterodyne spectrometer for FLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Alan; Zheng, Sheng-Hai; Brown, Stephen; Bell, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has significant advantages for high spectral resolution imaging over narrow pre-selected bands compared to traditional solutions. Given comparable optical étendue at R~6500, a field-widened SHS will have a throughput-resolution product ~170 x larger than an air-spaced etalon spectrometer, and ~1000 x larger than a standard grating spectrometer. The monolithic glass Michelson design and lack of moving parts allows maximum stability of spectral calibration over the mission life. For these reasons, SHS offers considerable advantages for the core spectrometer instrument in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission.

  8. Particle Spectrometers for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthor, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    FRIB promises to dramatically expand the variety of nuclear systems available for direct experimental study by providing rates of many rare isotopes orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. A new generation of experimental systems, including new particle spectrometers will be critical to our ability to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by FRIB. The High-Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) will allow for experiments with the most neutron-rich and short-lived isotopes produced by in-flight fragmentation at FRIB. The bending capability of the HRS (8 Tm) matches to the rigidity for which rare isotopes are produced at the highest intensity in the FRIB fragment separator. The experimental program will be focused on nuclear structure and astrophysics, and allow for the use of other cutting-edge detection systems for gamma, neutron, and charged-particle detection. Stopped and reaccelerated beam studies will be an important compliment to in-flight techniques at FRIB, providing world-unique, high quality, intense rare isotope beams at low energies up to and beyond the Coulomb barrier--with the completion of ReA12--and serving many of the science goals of the broader facility, from nuclear structure and astrophysics to applications. Two specialized recoil spectrometers are being developed for studies with reaccelerated beams. SECAR, the Separator for Capture Reactions, will be built following ReA3, coupled to a windowless gas jet target, JENSA, and will focus on radiative capture reactions for astrophysics, particularly those needed to improve our understanding of novae and X-ray bursts. A recoil separator following ReA12 is proposed to address a variety of physics cases based on fusion-evaporation, Coulomb excitation, transfer, and deep-inelastic reactions by providing a large angular, momentum and charge state acceptance; a high mass resolving power; and the flexibility to couple to a variety of auxiliary detector systems. Two designs

  9. Dilepton Analysis in the Hades Spectrometer for 12C+12C at 2 Agev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otwinowski, J.; Agakichiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez-Poll, H.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Bielcik, J.; Bömer, M.; Bokemeyer, H.; Boyard, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Coniglione, R.; Djeridi, R.; Dohrmann, F.; Durán, I.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Garzón, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Grosse, E.; Gruber, F.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Jaskuła, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.; Kopf, U.; Kotte, R.; Kotulic-Bunta, J.; Krücken, R.; Kugler, A.; Kühn, W.; Kulessa, R.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lehnert, J.; Maiolino, C.; Market, J.; Metag, V.; Mousa, J.; Münch, M.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, J.; Novotný, J.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pant, L. M.; Pechenov, V.; Pérez, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Pleskač, R.; Pospíšil, V.; Przygoda, W.; Rabin, N.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Ritman, J.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Sánchez, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Smolyanikin, V.; Smykov, L.; Spataro, S.; Stroebele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tlustý, P.; Toia, A.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Wiśniowski, M.; Wójcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Žoviniec, D.; Zumbruch, P.

    The identification of the light mesons in the HADES spectrometer is based on an invariant mass reconstruction of their decay into e+e- pairs. In the dilepton (e+e-) signal reconstruction, particularly important is the reduction of a huge combinatorial background arising from wrong combinations of e+ and e- to unlike sign pairs. Methods of the dilepton signal and combinatorial background reconstruction in the HADES spectrometer will be presented.

  10. Thermoluminescence emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J R; Fox, P J; Akber, R A; Jensen, H E

    1988-08-15

    A sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectrometer based on Fourier transform spectroscopy is described. It employs a modified scanning Twyman-Green interferometer with photomultiplier detection in a photon-counting mode. The etendue is 180pi mm(2), and it covers the 350-600-nm wavelength range. The output can be displayed either as a 3-D isometric plot of intensity vs temperature and wavelength, as a contour diagram, or as a conventional TL glow curve of intensity vs temperature. It is sufficiently sensitive to record thermoluminescence spectra of dosimeter phosphors and minerals for thermoluminescence dating at levels corresponding to those found during actual use as radiation monitors or in dating. Examples of actual spectra are given.

  11. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  12. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  13. Bolometers as particle spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. H.; Artzner, G.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Hansen, P. G.

    1986-02-01

    A spectrometer based on low-temperature calorimetry has been under development since 1983. The present detector, capable of recording individual alpha and beta particles and X-ray photons, is based on a composite diamond-germanium bolometer. The advantage of a composite bolometer is that it separates the absorption and detection functions. Diamond, as an absorber, is of particular advantage because of its low heat capacity and high thermal diffusivity. The goal is a theoretical energy resolution of a few eV at 0.1 K. Initial experiments at 1.3 K and 0.9 K, which give resolutions in the keV range, are still noise-limited. High-resolution applications, such as in X-ray astronomy and nuclear physics (in particular, neutron mass measurements) are foreseen.

  14. Short-orbit spectrometer for Hall C at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.; Potterveld, D.H.; Zeidman, B.

    1995-08-01

    An examination of the proposed experimental program for Hall C at CEBAF reveals a major emphasis on coincidence experiments involving a {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} spectrometer and a second arm capable of detecting particles with momenta < 2 GeV/c with moderate energy and angular resolution. In most cases, the core spectrometer serves to tag a virtual photon, which induces a reaction in a nuclear target resulting in the ejection of a hadron in the energy range (0.2-2.0 GeV) which is observed in the second spectrometer. Nuclear physics topics addressed in these experiments include color transparency, nucleon propagation, pion electroproduction, and hyperon physics. All of these programs require an acceptance in the hadron spectrometer as large as possible in solid angle and momentum to maximize operational efficiency. In addition, relatively short spectrometer drift lengths are required in experiments involving detection of pions or kaons in order to minimize decay losses. Because the requirements for energy resolution in this class of experiments is moderate, typically {approximately} 10{sup -3}, an optimized design with a short optical length less than 10 m will provide a well-matched spectrometer capability. Excellent particle discrimination will be essential for detection of pions and kaons in the presence of high backgrounds. Operation at luminosities as high as 10{sup 38}/cm{sup 2} sec will be required frequently. To provide this second-arm capability, the Argonne group has built, under contract to CEBAF, a short-orbit spectrometer, the SOS, based on a QD{bar D} design. The QD{bar D} configuration provides a large momentum acceptance, with good energy resolution and solid-angle acceptance in a very compact geometry which can meet the needs of a broad spectrum of studies appropriate for Hall C at CEBAF.

  15. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  16. Total Absorption Study of Beta Decays Relevant for Nuclear Applications and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Valencia, E.; Taín, J.L.; Jordan, M.D.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Montaner, A.; Guadilla, V.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Bui, V.M.; and others

    2014-06-15

    An overview is given of our activities related to the study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclei relevant for nuclear applications. Recent results of the study of the beta decay of {sup 87,88}Br using a new segmented total absorption spectrometer are presented. The measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility using trap-assisted total absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Total Absorption Study of Beta Decays Relevant for Nuclear Applications and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Jordan, M. D.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Montaner, A.; Guadilla, V.; Fallot, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Gelletly, W.; Bowry, M.; Mason, P.; Farrelly, G. F.; Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Moore, I.; Penttila, H.; Aysto, J.; Eloma, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolkinen, V.; Reponen, M.; Sonnenschein, V.; Cano-Ott, D.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Garcia, A. R.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Kondev, F. G.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present an overview of our activities related to the study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclei relevant for nuclear applications. Recent results of the study of the beta decay of Br using a new segmented total absorption spectrometer are presented. Our measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility using trap-assisted total absorption spectroscopy.

  18. Neutron decay of the Giant Pairing Vibration in 15C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Assié, M.; Azaiez, F.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; de Séréville, N.; Foti, A.; Pandola, L.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.

    2016-06-01

    The neutron decay of the resonant states of light neutron-rich nuclei is an important and poorly explored property, useful to extract valuable nuclear structure information. The neutron decay of the 15C resonances populated via the two-neutron transfer reaction 13C(18O,16O n) at 84 MeV incident energy is studied using an innovative technique which couples the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer and the EDEN neutron detector array. The data show that the recently observed 15C Giant Pairing Vibration at 13.7 MeV mainly decays via two-neutron emission.

  19. An acoustic dielectric and mechanical spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifen; Stevenson, Adrian C; Lowe, Christopher R

    2012-06-21

    In this report, the dielectric constant of glycerol solutions (0-70% (w/w)) and the mechanical transitions of poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) films (600-800 nm, 1.5-10 mol% cross-linker) have been investigated by the magnetic acoustic resonance sensor (MARS), which is an electrode-free acoustic sensor and operates over a continuous frequency spectrum (6-200 MHz). When a glycerol solution was loaded, the response of the MARS decayed exponentially as the operating frequency was increased. The decay rate against frequency as a function of the glycerol concentration reflects the change of the dielectric property of the glycerol solutions. In addition, mechanical relaxation of the poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) film has been observed on the MARS and the corresponding viscoelastic transition frequency has been estimated. The viscoelastic transition frequency increased as the polymer was more highly cross-linked. The MARS system behaved as a dielectric and mechanical spectrometer, monitoring the electrical and mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials or on the solid-liquid interfaces simultaneously, which has prospective application in studies of biomaterials, molecular interactions and drug deliveries.

  20. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  1. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  2. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  3. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  4. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  5. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  6. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  7. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  8. Fast-neutron spectrometer developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moler, R. B.; Zagotta, W. E.; Baker, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Li6 sandwich-type neutron spectrometer is equipped with proportional counter for particle identification. System uses current-sensitive preamplifiers to minimize pile-up of gamma-ray and particle pulses.

  9. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present

  10. Baryonic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this talk the decays of B-mesons into baryons are discussed. Large mass of B-meson makes possible the decays of the type B → baryon (+mesons). Experimental observations and measurements of these decays at B-factories Belle and BaBar have stimulate the development of theoretical models in this field. We briefly review the experimental results together with the current theoretical models which describe baryonic B decays.

  11. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  12. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; De Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Gonzalez Ureña, A.; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; La Cascio, L.; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-01

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. A system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. It is demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  13. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; ...

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3more » km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.« less

  14. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Viveiros, L. De; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Ureña, A. Gonzalez; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; Cascio, L. La; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H. -W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C. -O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  15. aCORN Beta Spectrometer and Electrostatic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    aCORN uses a high efficiency backscatter suppressed beta spectrometer to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron beta decay. We measure the correlation by counting protons and beta electrons in coincidence with precisely determined electron energy. There are 19 photomultiplier tubes arranged in a hexagonal array coupled to a single phosphor doped polystyrene scintillator. The magnetic field is shaped so that electrons that backscatter without depositing their full energy strike a tulip-shaped array of scintillator paddles and these events are vetoed. The detailed construction, performance and calibration of this beta spectrometer will be presented. I will also present the simulation, construction, and features of our novel electrostatic mirror. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  16. Scintillation gamma spectrometer for analysis of hydraulic fracturing waste products.

    PubMed

    Ying, Leong; O'Connor, Frank; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    Flowback and produced wastewaters from unconventional hydraulic fracturing during oil and gas explorations typically brings to the surface Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), predominantly radioisotopes from the U238 and Th232 decay chains. Traditionally, radiological sampling are performed by sending collected small samples for laboratory tests either by radiochemical analysis or measurements by a high-resolution High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. One of the main isotopes of concern is Ra226 which requires an extended 21-days quantification period to allow for full secular equilibrium to be established for the alpha counting of its progeny daughter Rn222. Field trials of a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector offers a more economic solution for rapid screenings of radiological samples. To achieve the quantification accuracy, this gamma spectrometer must be efficiency calibrated with known standard sources prior to field deployments to analyze the radioactivity concentrations in hydraulic fracturing waste products.

  17. The MAGNEX spectrometer: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2016-06-01

    This review discusses the main achievements and future perspectives of the MAGNEX spectrometer at the INFN-LNS laboratory in Catania (Italy). MAGNEX is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer for the detection of the ions emitted in nuclear collisions below Fermi energy. In the first part of the paper an overview of the MAGNEX features is presented. The successful application to the precise reconstruction of the momentum vector, to the identification of the ion masses and to the determination of the transport efficiency is demonstrated by in-beam tests. In the second part, an overview of the most relevant scientific achievements is given. Results from nuclear elastic and inelastic scattering as well as from transfer and charge-exchange reactions in a wide range of masses of the colliding systems and incident energies are shown. The role of MAGNEX in solving old and new puzzles in nuclear structure and direct reaction mechanisms is emphasized. One example is the recently observed signature of the long searched Giant Pairing Vibration. Finally, the new challenging opportunities to use MAGNEX for future experiments are briefly reported. In particular, the use of double charge-exchange reactions toward the determination of the nuclear matrix elements entering in the expression of the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. The new NUMEN project of INFN, aiming at these investigations, is introduced. The challenges connected to the major technical upgrade required by the project in order to investigate rare processes under high fluxes of detected heavy ions are outlined.

  18. Resolution-enhanced Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Aubrun, J. N.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    A familiar mapping spectrometer implementation utilizes two dimensional detector arrays with spectral dispersion along one direction and spatial along the other. Spectral images are formed by spatially scanning across the scene (i.e., push-broom scanning). For imaging grating and prism spectrometers, the slit is perpendicular to the spatial scan direction. For spectrometers utilizing linearly variable focal-plane-mounted filters the spatial scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of spectral variation. These spectrometers share the common limitation that the number of spectral resolution elements is given by the number of pixels along the spectral (or dispersive) direction. Resolution enhancement by first passing the light input to the spectrometer through a scanned etalon or Michelson is discussed. Thus, while a detector element is scanned through a spatial resolution element of the scene, it is also temporally sampled. The analysis for all the pixels in the dispersive direction is addressed. Several specific examples are discussed. The alternate use of a Michelson for the same enhancement purpose is also discussed. Suitable for weight constrained deep space missions, hardware systems were developed including actuators, sensor, and electronics such that low-resolution etalons with performance required for implementation would weigh less than one pound.

  19. Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Green, Robert; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Cable, Morgan; Ehlmann, Bethany; Haag, Justin; Lamborn, Andrew; McKinley, Ian; Rodriguez, Jose; van Gorp, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a modular visible to short wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer architecture which could be adapted to a variety of mission concepts requiring low mass and low power. Imaging spectroscopy is an established technique to address complex questions of geologic evolution by mapping diagnostic absorption features due to minerals, organics, and volatiles throughout our solar system. At the core of UCIS is an Offner imaging spectrometer using M3 heritage and a miniature pulse tube cryo-cooler developed under the NASA Maturation of Instruments for Solar System Exploration (MatISSE) program to cool the focal plane array. The TRL 6 integrated spectrometer and cryo-cooler provide a basic imaging spectrometer capability that is used with a variety of fore optics to address lunar, mars, and small body science goals. Potential configurations include: remote sensing from small orbiters and flyby spacecraft; in situ panoramic imaging spectroscopy; and in situ micro-spectroscopy. A micro-spectroscopy front end is being developed using MatISSE funding with integration and testing planned this summer.

  20. On-chip random spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Liew, S. F.; Sarma, R.; Cao, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectrometers are widely used tools in chemical and biological sensing, material analysis, and light source characterization. The development of a high-resolution on-chip spectrometer could enable compact, low-cost spectroscopy for portable sensing as well as increasing lab-on-a-chip functionality. However, the spectral resolution of traditional grating-based spectrometers scales with the optical pathlength, which translates to the linear dimension or footprint of the system, which is limited on-chip. In this work, we utilize multiple scattering in a random photonic structure fabricated on a silicon chip to fold the optical path, making the effective pathlength much longer than the linear dimension of the system and enabling high spectral resolution with a small footprint. Of course, the random spectrometer also requires a different operating paradigm, since different wavelengths are not spatially separated by the random structure, as they would be by a grating. Instead, light transmitted through the random structure produces a wavelengthdependent speckle pattern which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the input spectra after calibration. In practice, these wavelength-dependent speckle patterns are experimentally measured and stored in a transmission matrix, which describes the spectral-to-spatial mapping of the spectrometer. After calibrating the transmission matrix, an arbitrary input spectrum can be reconstructed from its speckle pattern. We achieved sub-nm resolution with 25 nm bandwidth at a wavelength of 1500 nm using a scattering medium with largest dimension of merely 50 μm.

  1. Two RICH detectors as velocity spectrometers in the CKM experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgen Engelfried et al.

    2002-09-04

    We present the design of two velocity spectrometers, to be used in the recently approved CKM experiment. CKM's main goal is the measurement of the branching ratio of K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} with a precision of 10%, via decays in flight of the K{sup +}. The design of both RICH detectors is based on the SELEX Phototube RICH. We will discuss the design and the expected performance, based on studies with SELEX data and Monte Carlo Simulations.

  2. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  3. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  4. Mobile spectrometer measures radar backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S.; Moore, R. K.; Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Bushnell, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a helicopter-borne spectrometer (Heloscat), which has been developed to permit high-quality scattering measurements from a mobile platform at remote sites. The term 'spectrometer' referes to a class of scatterometers. The term 'scatterometer' is employed to denote a specialized radar for measuring scattering coefficients as a function of angle. A spectrometer, on the other hand, is a scatterometer which can measure backscatter at several frequencies. The Heloscat system is discussed, taking into account two antennas, RF hardware, and an externally mounted pendulum for angle encoding. A dual-antenna configuration is used for cross-polarized measurements, while a single-antenna system is used for like-polarized measurements. Attention is also given to oscillator characteristics, efficient data handling, and aspects of calibration.

  5. The GRAVITY spectrometers: mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Wiest, Michael; Straubmeier, Christian; Yazici, Senol; Araujo-Hauck, Constanza; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Perraut, Karine; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Operating on 6 interferometric baselines, i.e. using all 4 UTs, the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. Within the international GRAVITY consortium, the Cologne institute is responsible for the development and construction of the two spectrometers: one for the science object, and one for the fringe tracking object. Optically two individual components, both spectrometers are two separate units with their own housing and interfaces inside the vacuum vessel of GRAVITY. The general design of the spectrometers, however, is similar. The optical layout is separated into beam collimator (with integrated optics and metrology laser injection) and camera system (with detector, dispersive element, & Wollaston filter wheel). Mechanically, this transfers to two regions which are separated by a solid baffle wall incorporating the blocking filter for the metrology Laser wavelength. The optical subunits are mounted in individual rigid tubes which pay respect to the individual shape, size and thermal expansion of the lenses. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the GRAVITY vacuum dewar. The integrated optics beam combiner and the metrology laser injection, which are operated at 200/240K, are mounted thermally isolated to the cold housing of the spectrometers. The optical design has shown that the alignment of the detector is crucial to the performance of the spectrometers. Therefore, in addition to four wheel mechanisms, six cryogenic positioning mechanisms are included in the mechanical design of the detector mount.

  6. The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

  7. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  8. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  9. A high-throughput neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

  10. Light Meson Decays from Photon-Induced Reactions with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Michael; CLAS Collaboration; Light Meson Decay (LMD) Team

    2015-04-01

    Photo-production experiments with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory produce data sets with unprecedented statistics of light mesons. With these data sets, measurements of transition form factors for η, ω, and η ' via conversion decays can be performed using a line shape analysis on the invariant mass of the final state dileptons. Tests of fundamental symmetries and information on the light quark mass difference can be performed using a Dalitz plot analysis of the meson decay. In addition, the data allows for a search for dark matter, such as the heavy photon via conversion decays of light mesons and physics beyond the Standard Model can be searched for via invisible decays of η mesons. An overview of the first results and future prospects will be given.

  11. Far From ‘Easy’ Spectroscopy with the 8π and GRIFFIN Spectrometers at TRIUMF-ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Radich, A. J.; Allmond, J. M.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Bidaman, H.; Braid, R.; Burbadge, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Deng, G.; Demand, G. A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, M. R.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Ilyushkin, S.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Kisliuk, D.; Kuhn, K.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; MacLean, A. D.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Miller, D.; Moore, W.; Olaizola, B.; Orce, J. N.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J. L.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Sarazin, F.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Turko, J.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Williams, S. J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2015-09-01

    The 8π spectrometer, installed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility, was the world's most sensitive γ-ray spectrometer dedicated to β-decay studies. A description is given of the 8π spectrometer and its auxiliary detectors including the plastic scintillator array SCEPTAR used for β-particle tagging and the Si(Li) array PACES for conversion electron measurements, its moving tape collector, and its data acquisition system. The recent investigation of the decay of 124Cs to study the nuclear structure of 124Xe, and how the β-decay measurements complemented previous Coulomb excitation studies, is highlighted, including the extraction of the deformation parameters for the excited 0+ bands in 124Xe. As a by-product, the decay scheme of the (7+) 124Cs isomeric state, for which the data from the PACES detectors were vital, was studied. Finally, a description of the new GRIFFIN spectrometer, which uses the same auxiliary detectors as the 8π spectrometer, is given.

  12. Radiative decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubega, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements on rare radiative B decays are performed with the LHCb experiment at LHC. The LHCb results regarding the ratio of branching fractions for two radiative decays, B 0 → K *0 γ and B s → ϕ γ, the direct CP asymmetry in B 0 → K *0 γ decay channel and the observation of the photon polarization in the B ± → K ±π∓π± γ decay, are included. The first two measurements were performed in 1 fb-1 of pp collisions data and the third one in 3 fb-1 of data, respectively.

  13. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  14. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  15. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

  16. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  17. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  18. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  19. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  20. Airborne spectrometer senses several gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Dowall, J.; Moffat, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Spectrometer's variable shutter permits observation of a wide range of plume widths. Adjustable grating, counter, and access window enable operator to reset grating's position during flight by resetting the counter to a predetermined number. Quartz correlation mask and spectral-aperture instrument-function filter are mounted in a replaceable precision frame.

  1. Development of the ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX at Modane underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Hodák, R.; Klimenko, A. A.; Loaiza, P.; Mamedov, F.; Piquemal, F.; Rukhadze, E.; Rukhadze, N.; Štekl, I.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Warot, G.; Yakushev, E. A.; Zampaolo, M.

    2017-02-01

    A new ultra low-background spectrometer based on a HPGe detector with a sensitive volume of 600 cm3 was developed to investigate rare nuclear processes, such as resonant neutrino-less double electron capture (0νEC/EC) and double beta decay processes (2ν2β‑, 2νβ+EC, 2νEC/EC) to the excited states of daughter nuclei. The spectrometer was installed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). Sensitivity of the spectrometer and its background were tested. A new method for the efficiency calibration in measurements of low-active samples was developed. The spectrometer was used for the measurements of low active materials and samples. Results obtained in 395 h investigation of resonant 0νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the 2718 keV and 2741 keV excited states of 106Pd with ~23.2 g of enriched 106Cd and 2ν2β‑ decay of 100Mo sample with a mass of 2588 g to the 0+, 1130 keV and 2+, 539.5 keV excited states of 100Ru are presented.

  2. Light meson decays from photon-induced reactions with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Michael C.

    2016-05-01

    Photo-production experiments with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory produce data sets with unprecedented statistics for light mesons. With these data sets, measurements of transition form factors for η, ω, and η' mesons via conversion decays can be performed using the invariant mass distribution of the final state dileptons. Tests of fundamental symmetries and information on the light quark mass difference can be performed using a Dalitz plot analysis of the meson decay. An overview of the first results, from existing CLAS data, and future prospects within the newly upgraded CLAS12 apparatus are given.

  3. Light meson decays from photon-induced reactions with CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    Photoproduction experiments with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer CLAS at the Thomas Jefferson National Facility produce data sets with competitive statistics of light mesons. With these data sets, measurements of transition form factors for η, ω, and η' mesons via conversion decays can be performed using the invariant mass distribution of the final state dileptons. Tests of fundamental symmetries and information on the light quark mass difference can be performed using a Dalitz plot analysis of the meson decay. An overview of preliminary results, from existing CLAS data, and future prospects within the newly upgraded CLAS12 apparatus are given.

  4. Laser Magneto-Optic Rotation Spectrometer (LMORS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    traditional method of measuring atomic concentrations uses atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), herein referred to as an AAS 15 spectrometer...MOR spectrometer of the present invention. Fig. 2 illustrates a calibration curve for a conventional 10 atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS

  5. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  6. Development of a method for activity measurements of 232Th daughters with a multidetector gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Antovic, N; Svrkota, N

    2009-06-01

    The method for activity measurements of the (232)Th daughters, developed at the six-crystal gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M and based on coincidence counting of the 583 and 2615 keV photons from cascade transitions which follow beta(-)-decay of (208)Tl, as well as on counting the 911 keV photons which follow beta(-)-decay of (228)Ac in the integral and non-coincidence mode of counting, is presented.

  7. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  8. Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleeson, P.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

  9. Simulation of background from low-level tritium and radon emanation in the KATRIN spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Leiber, B.; Collaboration: KATRIN Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a large-scale experiment for the model independent determination of the mass of electron anti-neutrinos with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. It investigates the kinematics of electrons from tritium beta decay close to the endpoint of the energy spectrum at 18.6 keV. To achieve a good signal to background ratio at the endpoint, a low background rate below 10{sup −2} counts per second is required. The KATRIN setup thus consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), a magnetic electron transport system with differential and cryogenic pumping for tritium retention, and electro-static retarding spectrometers (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a segmented detector system for counting transmitted beta-electrons. A major source of background comes from magnetically trapped electrons in the main spectrometer (vacuum vessel: 1240 m{sup 3}, 10{sup −11} mbar) produced by nuclear decays in the magnetic flux tube of the spectrometer. Major contributions are expected from short-lived radon isotopes and tritium. Primary electrons, originating from these decays, can be trapped for hours, until having lost almost all their energy through inelastic scattering on residual gas particles. Depending on the initial energy of the primary electron, up to hundreds of low energetic secondary electrons can be produced. Leaving the spectrometer, these electrons will contribute to the background rate. This contribution describes results from simulations for the various background sources. Decays of {sup 219}Rn, emanating from the main vacuum pump, and tritium from the WGTS that reaches the spectrometers are expected to account for most of the background. As a result of the radon alpha decay, electrons are emitted through various processes, such as shake-off, internal conversion and the Auger deexcitations. The corresponding simulations were done using the KASSIOPEIA

  10. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  11. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  12. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  13. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  14. R×B drift momentum spectrometer with high resolution and large phase space acceptance.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Konrad, G; Abele, H

    2013-02-11

    We propose a new type of momentum spectrometer, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse the charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, and measures the particles with large phase space acceptance and high resolution. This kind of R×B spectrometer is designed for the momentum analyses of the decay electrons and protons in the PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) beam station, which provides a strong magnetic field to guide the charged particles in the instrument. Instead of eliminating the guiding field, the R×B spectrometer evolves the field gradually to the analysing field, and the charged particles can be adiabatically transported during the dispersion and detection. The drifts of the particles have similar properties as their dispersion in the normal magnetic spectrometer. Besides, the R×B spectrometer is especially ideal for the measurements of particles with low momenta and large incident angles. We present a design of the R×B spectrometer, which can be used in PERC. For the particles with solid angle smaller than 88 msr, the maximum aberration is below 10(-4). The resolution of the momentum spectra can reach 14.4 keV/c, if the particle position measurements have a resolution of 1 mm.

  15. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  16. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  17. Delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electron impact for PAH studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najeeb, P. K.; Kadhane, U.

    2017-03-01

    A time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer with a pulsed electron beam as well as pulsed extraction of the recoil ions, with variable delay is reported. The effectiveness of this technique is highlighted by studying the statistical decay of mono-cations over microsecond time scales. Various details of the design and operation are discussed in the context of electron impact ionization and fragmentation of naphthalene (C10H8). The temporal behavior of acetylene (C2H2) and diacetylene (C4H2) loss is observed and compared with the associated Arrhenius decay constant, internal energy and plasmon excitation energy.

  18. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  19. Charmless B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gradl, Wolfgang; /Edinburgh U.

    2007-03-06

    Rare charmless hadronic B decays are a good testing ground for the standard model. The dominant amplitudes contributing to this class of B decays are CKM suppressed tree diagrams and b {yields} s or b {yields} d loop diagrams (''penguins''). These decays can be used to study interfering standard model (SM) amplitudes and CP violation. They are sensitive to the presence of new particles in the loops, and they provide valuable information to constrain theoretical models of B decays. The B factories BABAR at SLAC and Belle at KEK produce B mesons in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B}. So far they have collected integrated luminosities of about 406 fb{sup -1} and 600 fb{sup -1}, respectively. The results presented here are based on subsets of about 200-500 fb{sup -1} and are preliminary unless a journal reference is given.

  20. Radiative B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2011-11-23

    I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.

  1. Search for Dark Photons with the SeaQuest Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita de Medeiros, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    The SeaQuest E906 experiment is a fixed target Drell-Yan experiment which is aimed at studying the anti-quark distributions in the nucleon and nuclei. 120 GeV protons from the Main Injector at Fermilab could also be used to search for massive dark gauge bosons or dark photons in SeaQuest. The interactions of the proton beam with the 5m long iron beam dump can produce dark photons through processes such as proton bremsstrahlung and eta decay. These dark photons can decay into dimuons, and for dark photons with weak coupling to the EM sector, the decay vertex is significantly displaced from the dark photon production point, allowing for a very low background search. By detecting the dimuons with the SeaQuest spectrometer and analyzing its invariant mass distribution, one can search for signatures of these exotic processes. Exclusion limit projections for SeaQuest and preliminary results of the dark photon search will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  3. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  4. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Erkkila, B.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  5. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Erkkila, Bruce H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  6. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  7. Modular multichannel surface plasmon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuert, G.; Kufer, S.; Benoit, M.; Gaub, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a modular multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer on the basis of a commercially available hybrid sensor chip. Due to its modularity this inexpensive and easy to use setup can readily be adapted to different experimental environments. High temperature stability is achieved through efficient thermal coupling of individual SPR units. With standard systems the performance of the multichannel instrument was evaluated. The absorption kinetics of a cysteamine monolayer, as well as the concentration dependence of the specific receptor-ligand interaction between biotin and streptavidin was measured.

  8. Triple axis and spins spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    In the paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, the work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  9. Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers and techniques for its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers is presented. The calculations are based on newly available interaction cross sections and new analytic techniques, and are the most detailed and accurate published to date. Results compare well with measurements made in the 20 keV to 10 MeV energy range by the Goddard Low Energy Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LEGS). The principal components of the continuum background in spectrometers with GE detectors and thick active shields are: (1) elastic neutron scattering of atmospheric neutrons on the Ge nuclei; (2) aperture flux of atmospheric and cosmic gamma rays; (3) beta decays of unstable nuclides produced by nuclear interactions of atmospheric protons and neutrons with Ge nuclei; and (4) shield leakage of atmospheric gamma rays. The improved understanding of these components leads to several recommended techniques for reducing the background.

  10. Engine spectrometer probe and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

  11. New results from Compton spectrometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Webb, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Over the past three years, a Compton spectrometer has successfully measured the x-ray spectra of intense radiographic sources. In this method, a collimated beam of x-rays incident on a convertor foil ejects Compton electrons. A collimator in the entrance to the spectrometer selects the forward-scattered electrons, which enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is proportional to the square root of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. The spectrometer is a neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the less than 1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In addition, a new spectrometer has been constructed that is a samarium-cobalt magnet with a calculated energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV. The spectrometers have been fielded at both continuous and pulsed power facilities. Recent experimental results will be presented.

  12. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  13. A combined electron-ion spectrometer for studying complete kinematics of molecular dissociation upon shell selective ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, K.; Banerjee, S. B.; Bapat, B.

    2013-07-15

    A combined electron-ion spectrometer has been built to study dissociation kinematics of molecular ions upon various electronic decay processes ensuing from ionization of neutral molecules. The apparatus can be used with various ionization agents. Ion time-of-flight (ToF) spectra arising from various electronic decay processes are acquired by triggering the ToF measurement in coincidence with energy analyzed electrons. The design and the performance of the spectrometer in a photoionization experiment is presented in detail. Electron spectra and ion time of flight spectra resulting from valence and 2p{sub 1/2} ionization of Argon and those from valence ionization of CO are presented to demonstrate the capability of the instrument. The fragment ion spectra show remarkable differences (both kinematic and cross sectional) dependent on the energy of the ejected electron, corresponding to various electron loss and decay mechanisms in dissociative photoionization of molecules.

  14. NA62 spectrometer to search for K+ → π+ ν bar nu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkarovskiy, S.

    2017-02-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN is aimed at measuring the ultra-rare decay K+→ π+ν bar nu with 10% accuracy. Since the branching fraction of this decay is O(10‑10), the detector must be able to suppress background events with branching ratios up to 10 orders of magnitude higher than the signal. In order to achieve this goal a set of modern detector systems has been designed and built. Among them is a low mass (~ 1.8% X0) spectrometer to detect charged kaon decay products. The spectrometer contains 7168 straw tubes operating in vacuum. The detector was successfully installed and commissioned in 2014–2015. The goal of this report is to give a general overview of the system. The track time resolution obtained from reconstructed data is also described.

  15. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  16. Positron-electron decay of 28Si at an excitation energy of 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C.; Balanda, A.; van der Ploeg, H.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.

    1993-03-01

    The electron-position pair decay of 28Si at 50 MeV excitation produced by the isospin T=0 (α + 24Mg) and the mixed isospin T=0,1 (3He + 25Mg) reactions has been studied using a special designed Positron-Electron pair spectrometer PEPSI.

  17. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  19. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  20. Search for the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-08-01

    A search for decays is performed using 3 .0 fb1- of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The f 0(980) meson is reconstructed through its decay to the π + π - final state in the mass window 900 MeV /c 2 < m( π + π -) < 1080 MeV /c 2. No significant signal is observed. The first upper limits on the branching fraction of are set at 90 % (95 %) confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. The Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Meier, A.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer and the other for the inner coma, with each obtaining complementary information in the region for which it is not optimized. The outer coma is characterized by the interaction between solar wind and comentary plasmas, the inner coma by the outflow of cometary neutrals and their ionization products. Both sensors feature mass imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by multidetector arrays. Resultant mass-per-charge resolution is greater than or = 20. Energy per charge, and the elevation and aximuth of incident ions are measured. Calibration and in-flight solar-wind data show that the IMS will meet its scientific goals for the Halley encounter.

  2. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Kenneth; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung (James)

    2012-09-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (~2.7km×2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  3. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  4. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the Geo

  5. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  6. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  7. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  8. Determination of the muon charge sign with the dipolar spectrometers of the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Goloubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyer, M.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Rokujo, H.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2016-07-01

    The OPERA long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiment has observed the direct appearance of ντ in the CNGS νμ beam. Two large muon magnetic spectrometers are used to identify muons produced in the τ leptonic decay and in νμ CC interactions by measuring their charge and momentum. Besides the kinematic analysis of the τ decays, background resulting from the decay of charmed particles produced in νμ CC interactions is reduced by efficiently identifying the muon track. A new method for the charge sign determination has been applied, via a weighted angular matching of the straight track-segments reconstructed in the different parts of the dipole magnets. Results obtained for Monte Carlo and real data are presented. Comparison with a method where no matching is used shows a significant reduction of up to 40% of the fraction of wrongly determined charges.

  9. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  10. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  11. The high momentum spectrometer drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D.; Baker, O. K.; Beaufait, J.; Bennett, C.; Bryant, E.; Carlini, R.; Kross, B.; McCauley, A.; Naing, W.; Shin, T.; Vulcan, W.

    1992-12-01

    The High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C will use planar drift chambers for charged particle track reconstruction. The chambers are constructed using well understood technology and a conventional gas mixture. Two (plus one spare) drift chambers will be constructed for this spectrometers. Each chamber will contain 6 planes of readout channels. This paper describes the chamber design and gas handling system used.

  12. Spin Spectrometer at the ALS and APS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; University of Missouri-Rolla; Boyd Technologies; Morton, Simon A; Morton, Simon A; Tobin, James G; Yu, Sung Woo; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George D; Boyd, Peter

    2007-04-20

    A spin-resolving photoelectron spectrometer, the"Spin Spectrometer," has been designed and built. It has been utilized at both the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, and the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne, IL. Technical details and an example of experimental results are presented here.

  13. Anatomy of decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Lennaert; De Bruyn, Kristof; Fleischer, Robert; Mulder, Mick; Tuning, Niels

    2015-07-01

    The decays B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} probe the CP-violating mixing phases ϕ d and ϕ s , respectively. The theoretical uncertainty of the corresponding determinations is limited by contributions from penguin topologies, which can be included with the help of the U-spin symmetry of the strong interaction. We analyse the currently available data for B {/d, s 0} → D {/d, s -} D {/d, s +} decays and those with similar dynamics to constrain the involved non-perturbative parameters. Using further information from semileptonic B {/d 0} → D {/d -} ℓ + ν ℓ decays, we perform a test of the factorisation approximation and take non-factorisable SU(3)-breaking corrections into account. The branching ratios of the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +}, B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +}, B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/s +} decays show an interesting pattern which can be accommodated through significantly enhanced exchange and penguin annihilation topologies. This feature is also supported by data for the B {/s 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} channel. Moreover, there are indications of potentially enhanced penguin contributions in the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} decays, which would make it mandatory to control these effects in the future measurements of ϕ d and ϕ s . We discuss scenarios for high-precision measurements in the era of Belle II and the LHCb upgrade.

  14. Symmetry relations in nucleon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlbert, Anya; Wilczek, Frank

    1980-05-01

    Some experimental consequences of the structure of the effective hamiltonian for nucleon decay are presented. New results concern relations among inclusive decay rates, a striking test of the kinship hypothesis involving μ+ polarization, and soft π theorems.

  15. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  16. Precision Measurement of Nuclear Electron Capture Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltick, David; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Haoyu; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The method of accurately measuring the radioactive decay constant of a isotope by measuring the decay rate as a function of time requires that both the detector and environment be stable over time periods comparable to the life-time of the isotope. In addition statistical accuracy requires initial counting rates be high but limited by the dead time capability of the data collection system and the detectors double-event resolving time. A High Purity Germanium (HPGe) spectrometer, sensitive to radiation from 3-KeV to over 3-MeV, has been built to measure radioactive decay constants to a level of 10-5 10-6 at a location only 6 meters from the core of the High Flux Isotope Reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Such accuracy requires understanding of, background, signal-processing algorithms, and both the double and triple event pile-up in the observed spectrum. The approach taken is to fit the collected energy spectrum with invariant shapes, independent of event rate. By fixing the source-detector geometry and environmental conditions, the invariant shapes are (1) ideal energy spectrum without pile-up and background, (2) the ideal double event pile-up spectrum, (3) the ideal triple event pile-up spectrum, and (4) the stable background spectrum. A method is presented that finds these ideal shapes using the collected data in situ. Taking this approach the HPGe detector photopeak shape in the absence of background and pile-up is presented showing associated structure over a range of 7 orders of magnitude.

  17. Theory of weak hypernuclear decay

    SciTech Connect

    Dubach, J.F.; Feldman, G.B.; Holstein, B.R. |; de la Torre, L.

    1996-07-01

    The weak nomesonic decay of {Lambda}-hypernuclei is studied in the context of a one-meson-exchange model. Predictions are made for the decay rate, the {ital p}/{ital n} stimulation ratio and the asymmetry in polarized hypernuclear decay. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  18. B Decays Involving Light Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Eschrich, Ivo Gough; /UC, Irvine

    2007-01-09

    Recent BABAR results for decays of B-mesons to combinations of non-charm mesons are presented. This includes B decays to two vector mesons, B {yields} {eta}{prime}({pi}, K, {rho}) modes, and a comprehensive Dalitz Plot analysis of B {yields} KKK decays.

  19. The hot plasma spectrometers on Freja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, O.; Eliasson, L.

    1991-11-01

    The hot plasma instrumentation F3H on the Swedish-German Freja satellite due for launch in 1992 will consist of electron and ion spectrometers. The spectrometer Magnetic imaging Two dimensional Electron (MATE) will measure the two dimensional electron distribution in the spin plane in the energy range 0.1 to 120 keV. The ion mass spectrometer Three dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer (TICS) measures a full three dimensional distribution in the energy range 0.5 to 15000 eV/q with high mass resolution. The instruments use a particle 'imaging' detector technique based on a large diameter microchannel plate with position sensitive anode. The topics to be studied with the Freja hot plasma spectrometers include auroral particle acceleration, heating and acceleration of ionospheric ions, and the dynamics of auroral arc systems. Of special importance to the scientific objectives is the high data rate from the Freja instrumentation, the MATE and TICS spectrometers will be sampled every 10 ms, corresponding to a spatial resolution better than 70 m at ionospheric heights. The design, simulation, and calibration of the spectrometers are discussed.

  20. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  1. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  2. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  3. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  4. Superallowed Fermi beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J. C.; Towner, I. S.

    1998-12-21

    Superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay provides a direct measure of the weak vector coupling constant, G{sub V}. We survey current world data on the nine accurately determined transitions of this type, which range from the decay of {sup 10}C to that of {sup 54}Co, and demonstrate that the results confirm conservation of the weak vector current (CVC) but differ at the 98% confidence level from the unitarity condition for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. We examine the reliability of the small calculated corrections that have been applied to the data, and assess the likelihood of even higher quality nuclear data becoming available to confirm or deny the discrepancy. Some of the required experiments depend upon the availability of intense radioactive beams. Others are possible today.

  5. Decay Dynamics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010

  6. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  7. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  8. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E; Ladner, Edward P

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  9. Acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Reyes, George; Rider, David; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    A remote sensing multispectral imaging instrument is being developed that uses a high resolution, fast programmable acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) as the spectral bandpass filter. A compact and fully computer controllable AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that operates in the visible wavelength range (0.5-0.8 microns) has been built and tested with success. A second imaging spectrometer operating in the near-infrared wavelength range (1.2-2.4 microns) is also under experimental investigation. The design criteria meeting various system issues, such as imaging quality, spectral response, and field of view (FOV), are discussed. An experiment using this AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard is described.

  10. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  11. Charmless b decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Donega, Mauro; /Geneva U.

    2005-07-01

    The authors report on the charmless B decays measurements performed on 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper describes: the first observation of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and the measurement of the direct Cp asymmetry in the ({bar B}){sub d} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay; the first evidence of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} and the branching ratio and Cp asymmetry for the B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} decay.

  12. A >= 62 Superallowed Fermi β-decays and Future Prospects with GRIFFIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Ryan; Griffin Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Superallowed Fermi β decays of A >= 62 nuclei involve relatively large nucleus dependent isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections. The magnitudes of these corrections are of great interest, and the A >= 62 decays provide a demanding test of theoretical models. Branching ratio measurements for these decays involve a unique challenge as they have large QEC, and hence a high density of available states in the daughter nucleus, resulting in the Pandemonium effect in which weak feeding is distributed over a large number of states and is difficult to observe. Therefore, high-efficiency detectors are of paramount importance in determining the branching ratio for these decays. The 8 π spectrometer at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC), has been used to establish high-precision branching ratios for 62Ga and 74Rb. The newly commissioned GRIFFIN spectrometer at ISAC provides an efficiency 17 times higher than the 8 π for 1 MeV γ-rays, and larger gains at higher energies which are of particular importance in resolving the Pandemonium effect. The recent branching ratio measurement for the superallowed Fermi β-decay of 74Rb will be discussed, as well as the importance of GRIFFIN for future superallowed β decay studies at ISAC.

  13. Search for monenergetic gamma rays from psi /3684/ decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. W.; Beron, B. L.; Ford, R. L.; Hofstadter, R.; Howell, R. L.; Hughes, E. B.; Liberman, A. D.; Martin, T. W.; Oneill, L. H.; Hilger, E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of a search for monoenergetic gamma rays with energies above 50 MeV arising from psi (3684) decay. The measurements were made by operating an electron-positron storage ring at a center-of-mass energy of 3684 MeV and detecting the secondary gamma rays with large-crystal NaI(T1) spectrometers. No significant evidence is found for the emission of such radiation, and upper limits are placed on such emissions for energies above 50 MeV.

  14. High Resolution Study of the 222Ra Exotic Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J. F.; Brillard, L.; Dalmasso, J.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-10-01

    The 14C-decay of 222Ra has been reinvestigated using a strong 230U source and the magnetic superconducting spectrometer SOLENO in view of looking for a possible feeding of the first 208Pb excited state. 210 14C-events were recorded in a single peak of (30.930±0.090) MeV energy; the 14C branching ratio values b=(2.31±0.31)×10-10 and <1×10-12 to the respective 208Pb ground and Iπ=3- octupole state were deduced.

  15. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  16. Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

    2007-01-01

    A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

  17. A novel digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengmin; Zhao, Cong; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2006-01-01

    Spectrometer is the essential part of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. It controls the transmitting and receiving of signals. Many commercial spectrometers are now available. However, they are usually costly and complex. In this paper, a new digital spectrometer based on PCI extensions for instrumentation (PXI) architecture is presented. Radio frequency (RF) pulse is generated with the method of digital synthesis and its frequency and phase are continuously tunable. MR signal acquired by receiver coils is processed by digital quadrature detection and filtered to get the k-space data, which avoid the spectral distortion due to amplitude and phase errors between two channels of traditional detection. Compared to the conventional design, the presented spectrometer is built with general PXI platform and boards. This design works in a digital manner with features of low cost, high performance and accuracy. The experiments demonstrate its efficiency.

  18. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-0IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 pm (1000 -4000 cm-') to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications [l-51. One application will be theremote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the sameairmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefiingent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches toachieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventionalFourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, systemarchitecture and recent experimental progress will be presen.

  19. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-O IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 micron (1000-4000/cm) to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications. One application will be the remote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the same airmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefringent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches to achieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, system architecture and recent experimental progress will be presented.

  20. AVIRIS Spectrometer Maps Total Water Vapor Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg A.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) processes maps of vertical-column abundances of water vapor in atmosphere with good precision and spatial resolution. Maps provide information for meteorology, climatology, and agriculture.

  1. Tunable Laser Spectrometers for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Forouhar, S.; Christensen, L. E.; Briggs, R.; Keymeulen, D.; Blacksberg, J.; Alerstam, E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tunable laser spectrometers enjoy a wide range of applications in scientific research, medicine, industry, Earth and planetary space missions. We will describe instruments for planetary probes, aircraft, balloon, landers and CubeSats.

  2. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  3. Calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.; Wright, C. Wayne; Piazza, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer is presented. Through this approach, incident light radiance derivation is made by recognizing and tracing gain characteristics for each photomultiplier tube.

  4. LCLS Injector Straight-Ahead Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey , C.

    2010-12-10

    The spectrometer design was modified to allow the measurement of uncorrelated energy spread for the nominal lattice. One bunch from every 120 each second would be sent to the straight ahead spectrometer while the transverse cavity is on. The implementation of this 'stealing mode' will not be available for the LCLS commissioning and the early stage of operation. However, the spectrometer was redesigned to retain that option. The energy feedback relies independently on the beam position of the beam in the dispersive section of dogleg 1 (DL1). The main modification of the spectrometer design is the Pole face rotation of 7.5 degrees on both entrance and exit faces. The location and range of operation of the 3 quadrupoles remains unchanged relative to those of the earlier design.

  5. Long-Wave Infrared Dyson Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for an ultra compact long-wave infrared slit spectrometer based on the dyson concentric design. The dyson spectrometer has been integrated in a dewar environment with a quantum well infrared photodetecor (QWIP), concave electron beam fabricated diffraction grating and ultra precision slit. The entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to maximize signal to noise ratio performance, hence eliminating thermal signal from transmissive elements and internal stray light. All of this is done while maintaining QWIP thermal control. A general description is given of the spectrometer, alignment technique and predicated performance. The spectrometer has been designed for optimal performance with respect to smile and keystone distortion. A spectral calibration is performed with NIST traceable targets. A 2-point non-uniformity correction is performed with a precision blackbody source to provide radiometric accuracy. Preliminary laboratory results show excellent agreement with modeled noise equivalent delta temperature and detector linearity over a broad temperature range.

  6. Multielectron spectroscopy: Auger decays of the krypton 3d hole

    SciTech Connect

    Palaudoux, J.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Andric, L.; Ito, K.; Shigemasa, E.; Eland, J. H. D.; Jonauskas, V.; Kucas, S.; Karazija, R.

    2010-10-15

    The emission of one or two Auger electrons, following Kr 3d inner-shell ionization by synchrotron light, has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. All electrons emitted in the process are detected in coincidence and analyzed in energy thanks to a magnetic-bottle electron time-of-flight spectrometer. In addition, noncoincident high-resolution electron spectra have been measured to characterize the cascade double-Auger paths more fully. Combination of the two experimental approaches and of our calculations allows a full determination of the decay pathways and branching ratios in the case of Kr 3d single- and double-Auger decays. The Kr{sup 3+} threshold is found at 74.197{+-}0.020 eV.

  7. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-12-01

    The {sup 3}He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Mathematical methods of spectrometer resolution improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Efimkin, N.G.; Rodionov, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The highly desired property of the nuclear spectrometer is the monochromativity. This property is very often restricted by the line width achievable for the detector and by the competing effects such as radiation rescattering. These restrictions make the data interpretation difficult. The idea of spectrum reconstruction from instrumentally obtained data by means of mathematical procedures is not new. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the method for the energy resolution improvement of a germanium-lithium gamma spectrometer.

  9. Tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer within Zemax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    Techniques are described for tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer system within Zemax, including: how to set up and verify the tolerancing model, performance metrics and tolerance operands used, as well as post- Zemax analysis methods. Use of the tolerancing model for various analyses will be discussed, such as: alignment sensitivity, radial velocity sensitivity, and sensitivity of the optical system to temperature changes. Tolerance results from the Keck Planet Finder project (a precision radial velocity spectrometer of asymmetric white pupil design) will be shown.

  10. Ruggedized Spectrometers Are Built for Tough Jobs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Curiosity Chemistry and Camera instrument, or ChemCam, analyzes the elemental composition of materials on the Red Planet by using a spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of light they emit. Principal investigator Roger Wiens worked with Ocean Optics, out of Dunedin, Florida, to rework the company's spectrometer to operate in cold and rowdy conditions and also during the stresses of liftoff. Those improvements have been incorporated into the firm's commercial product line.

  11. Exit slit mirrors for the ebert spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fastie, W G

    1972-09-01

    The use of a very long straight entrance slit in an Ebert grating spectrometer with two plane mirrors at the shorter exit slit to increase the energy density is described. This system has been employed in a far uv rocket spectrometer to provide higher sensitivity than has been achieved previously. The imaging properties and required slit and mirror adjustments are presented. Experimental results are included.

  12. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  13. The role of electron scattering from registration detector in the "Troitsk nu-mass" MAC-E type spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, P. V.; Nozik, A. A.; Pantuev, V. S.; Skasyrskaya, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    There is a proposal to search for a sterile neutrino in a few keV mass range by the "Troitsk nu-mass" facility. In order to estimate sterile neutrino mixing one needs to make precision spectrum measurements well below the endpoint using the existing electrostatic spectrometer with a magnetic adiabatic collimation, or MAC-E filter. The expected signature will be a kink in the electron energy spectrum in tritium beta-decay. In this paper we consider the systematic effect of electron backscattering on the detector used in the spectrometer. For this purpose we provide a set of Monte-Carlo simulation results of electron backscattering on a silicon detector with a thin golden window with realistic electric and magnetic fields in the spectrometer. We have found that the probability of such an effect reaches up to 20-30%. The scattered electron could be reflected backwards to the detector by electrostatic field or by magnetic mirror. There is also a few percent probability to escape from the spectrometer through its entrance. A time delay between the scattering on the detector and the return of the reflected electron can reach a couple of microseconds in the Troitsk spectrometer. Such estimations are critical for the planning upgrades of the detector and the registration electronics. All considered effects are relevant to any MAC-E type spectrometer with solid detector.

  14. SUB 1-Millimeter Size Fresnel Micro Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Koch, Laura; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Sangloon; King, Glen; Choi, Sang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-small micro spectrometer with less than 1mm diameter was constructed using Fresnel diffraction. The fabricated spectrometer has a diameter of 750 nmicrometers and a focal length of 2.4 mm at 533nm wavelength. The micro spectrometer was built with a simple negative zone plate that has an opaque center with an ecliptic shadow to remove the zero-order direct beam to the aperture slit. Unlike conventional approaches, the detailed optical calculation indicates that the ideal spectral resolution and resolving power do not depend on the miniaturized size but only on the total number of rings. We calculated 2D and 3D photon distribution around the aperture slit and confirmed that improved micro-spectrometers below 1mm size can be built with Fresnel diffraction. The comparison between mathematical simulation and measured data demonstrates the theoretical resolution, measured performance, misalignment effect, and improvement for the sub-1mm Fresnel micro-spectrometer. We suggest the utilization of an array of micro spectrometers for tunable multi-spectral imaging in the ultra violet range.

  15. NIST Calibration of a Neutron Spectrometer ROSPEC.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Craig

    2006-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was acquired for use in the measurement of National Institute of Standards and Technology neutron fields. The spectrometer included options for the measurement of low and high energy neutrons, for a total measurement range from 0.01 eV up to 17 MeV. The spectrometer was evaluated in calibration fields and was used to determine the neutron spectrum of an Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The calibration fields used included bare and moderated (252)Cf, monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and a thermal-neutron beam. Using the calibration values determined in this exercise, the spectrometer gives a good approximation of the neutron spectrum, and excellent values for neutron fluence, for all NIST calibration fields. The spectrometer also measured an Americium-Beryllium neutron field in a NIST exposure facility and determined the field quite well. The spectrometer measured scattering effects in neutron spectra which previously could be determined only by calculation or integral measurements.

  16. NIST Calibration of a Neutron Spectrometer ROSPEC

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, Craig

    2006-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was acquired for use in the measurement of National Institute of Standards and Technology neutron fields. The spectrometer included options for the measurement of low and high energy neutrons, for a total measurement range from 0.01 eV up to 17 MeV. The spectrometer was evaluated in calibration fields and was used to determine the neutron spectrum of an Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The calibration fields used included bare and moderated 252Cf, monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and a thermal-neutron beam. Using the calibration values determined in this exercise, the spectrometer gives a good approximation of the neutron spectrum, and excellent values for neutron fluence, for all NIST calibration fields. The spectrometer also measured an Americium-Beryllium neutron field in a NIST exposure facility and determined the field quite well. The spectrometer measured scattering effects in neutron spectra which previously could be determined only by calculation or integral measurements. PMID:27274944

  17. A multi-functional apparatus for α and β spectroscopy utilizing a permanent ring-magnet β spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Febbraro, M.; Riggins, J.; Torres-Isea, R. O.

    2016-11-01

    A multi-functional teaching apparatus has been developed for α and β spectroscopy utilizing a solid-state detector and associated electronics. The possible experiments include conventional measurements to determine α and β decay energies, half lives, characteristic energy loss of nuclear particles in matter, and limits on the β-neutrino mass set from endpoints in β-decay spectra. In addition, the relativistic mass increase of β particles is verified using a high-efficiency, axially symmetric permanent ring-magnet β spectrometer. The basic apparatus also can be adapted for experiments in Rutherford scattering and other nuclear measurements.

  18. Large-volume ultralow background germanium-germanium coincidence/anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Wogman, N.A.; Avignone, F.T. III; Miley, H.S.; Moore, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    A large volume (approx. 1440 cm/sup 3/), multicrystal, high resolution intrinsic germanium gamma-ray spectrometer has been designed based on 3 generations of experiments. The background from construction materials used in standard commercial configurations has been reduced by at least two orders of magnitude. Data taken with a 132 cm/sup 3/ prototype detector, installed in the Homestake Gold Mine, are presented. The first application of the full scale detector will be an ultrasensitive search for neutrinoless and two-neutrino double beta decay of /sup 76/Ge. The size and geometrical configuration of the crystals is chosen to optimize detection of double decay to the first excited state of /sup 76/Se with subsequent emission of a 559 keV gamma ray. The detector will be sufficiently sensitive for measuring the neutrinoless double beta decay to the ground state to establish a minimum half life of 1.4.10/sup 24/ y. Application of the large spectrometer system to the analysis of low level environmental and biological samples is discussed.

  19. Is radioactive decay really exponential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, P. J.

    2012-03-01

    Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating methods will have been removed, requiring a radical reappraisal both of radioisotope dating methods and of currently predicted dates obtained using these methods.

  20. E6 Gamma Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.

    2011-05-06

    Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.

  1. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  2. Rare decays and CP asymmetries in charged B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of loop induced rare decays and the rate asymmetry due to CP violation in charged B Decays in reviewed. After considering b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} se{sup +}e{sup {minus}} decays, the asymmetries for pure penguin process are estimated first. A larger asymmetry can result in those modes where a tree diagram and a penguin diagram interfere, however these estimates are necessarily model dependent. Estimates of Cabbibo suppressed penguins are also considered.

  3. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  4. Pure rotational spectrometers for trace-level VOC detection and chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Harris, Brent J.; Pulliam, Robin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Reynolds, Roger; McDaniel, David; Pate, Brooks H.

    2014-05-01

    Pure rotational spectroscopy in the centimeter, millimeter, and THz regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is a powerful technique for the characterization of polar molecules in the gas phase. Although this technology has a long history in the research sector for structural characterization, recent advances in digital electronics have only recently made commercial instruments competitive with established chemical analysis techniques. BrightSpec is introducing a platform of pure rotational spectrometers in response to critical unmet needs in chemical analysis. These instruments aim to deliver the operational simplicity of Fourier transform infrared spectrometers in conjunction with the chemical analysis capabilities of mass spectrometers. In particular, the BrightSpec ONE instrument a broadband gas mixture analyzer with full capabilities for chemical analysis. This instrument implements Fourier transform millimeter-wave emission spectroscopy, wherein a brief excitation pulse is applied to the sample, followed by the measurement of the coherent free induction decay responses of all molecular transitions within the excitation bandwidth. After sample injection and characterization, the spectrometer returns a list of all known species detected in the sample, along with their concentrations in the mixture. No prior knowledge about the sample composition is required. The instrument can then perform double-resonance measurements (analogous to 2-D COSY NMR), direct mass determination through analysis of the time profile of the molecular signal, and automated isotopic identification as part of a suite of tools that can return the structural identity of the unknowns in the sample.

  5. Total Absorption Spectroscopy of the 137Xe, 137I, and 92Rb β-Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, B. C.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Goetz, K. C.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gross, C. J.; Miernik, K.; Stracener, D.

    2015-10-01

    The NaI(Tl) based Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) was constructed to measure improved β-decay feeding patterns from neutron-rich nuclei. It is difficult to measure β-decay feeding intensities with high precision γ-ray measurements due to the low efficiency of high precision detectors. There are several important applications of improved measurements of β-decay feeding patterns by total absorption spectroscopy; improve understanding of elemental abundances in the universe, help with stockpile stewardship, contribute to understanding of underlying nuclear structure, and improve β-decay feeding measurements to calculate accurately the νe spectra needed to evaluate precisely reactor neutrino measurements. We present β-decay feeding results for two ``priority one'' measurements, 137Xe and 137I, and for 92Rb, which is a large individual contributor to the νe uncertainty of the reactor anomaly. In addition to β- γ decays, 137I has a β-neutron decay channel which is measurable in MTAS. We will demonstrate techniques for analyzing MTAS γ-decay data. We will also describe β and neutron spectroscopy in MTAS. This work was supported by the US DOE by Award No. DE-FG02- 96ER40978 and by US DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  6. Recoil-decay tagging spectroscopy of 74162W88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. J.; Cederwall, B.; Bäck, T.; Qi, C.; Doncel, M.; Jakobsson, U.; Auranen, K.; Bönig, S.; Drummond, M. C.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.; HerzáÅ, A.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Leino, M.; McPeake, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Page, R. D.; Pakarinen, J.; Partanen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Sayǧı, B.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Taylor, M. J.; Thornthwaite, A.; Uusitalo, J.; Xiao, Z. G.

    2015-07-01

    Excited states in the highly neutron-deficient nucleus 162W have been investigated via the 92Mo (78Kr,2α ) 162W reaction. Prompt γ rays were detected by the JUROGAM II high-purity germanium detector array and the recoiling fusion-evaporation products were separated by the recoil ion transport unit (RITU) gas-filled recoil separator and identified with the gamma recoil electron alpha tagging (GREAT) spectrometer at the focal plane of RITU. γ rays from 162W were identified uniquely using mother-daughter and mother-daughter-granddaughter α -decay correlations. The observation of a rotational-like ground-state band is interpreted within the framework of total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations, which suggest an axially symmetric ground-state shape with a γ -soft minimum at β2≈0.15 . Quasiparticle alignment effects are discussed based on cranked shell model calculations. New measurements of the 162W ground-state α -decay energy and half-life were also performed. The observed α -decay energy agrees with previous measurements. The half-life of 162W was determined to be t1 /2=990 (30 ) ms. This value deviates significantly from the currently adopted value of t1 /2=1360 (70 ) ms. In addition, the α -decay energy and half-life of 166Os were measured and found to agree with the adopted values.

  7. Neutron decay widths of excited states of {sup 11}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, P. J.; Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Bloxham, T.; Curtis, N.; McEwan, P.; Bohlen, H. G.; Dorsch, T.; Kokalova, Tz.; Schulz, Ch.; Wheldon, C.

    2009-01-15

    The two-neutron transfer reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 16}O, {sup 14}O){sup 11}Be[{sup 10}Be +n] has been used to measure the branching ratios for the neutron decay of excited states of {sup 11}Be. The {sup 14}O ejectile was detected by a Q3D spectrometer at forward angles. The energies and angles of the {sup 10}Be fragments of the decaying {sup 11}Be* recoil were measured in coincidence with the {sup 14}O ejectile using a double-sided silicon strip detector array at backward angles. This enabled a kinematic reconstruction of the reaction to be performed. Theoretical decay branch ratios were calculated using barrier penetrability factors and were compared to the measured ratios to provide information on the relative reduced widths of the states. The decay widths have been used to link states in {sup 11}Be with a common structure and structurally to states in the daughter nucleus {sup 10}Be. The 3/2{sup -} 8.82-MeV state was identified as a candidate for a molecular band head.

  8. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Primary electron spectrometer, 18:63 UE: Electrostatic analyzer description and energy spectrum determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The primary electron spectrometer used to detect auroral electrons on sounding rocket 18:63 UE is described. The spectrometer used exponentially decaying positive and negative voltages applied to spherical deflection plates for energy analysis. A method for determining the analyzer response which does not require the assumptions that the ratio of plate separation to mean radius, the entrance or the exit apertures are small is described. By comparison with experiment it is shown that the effect of neither entrance nor exit collimation can be ignored. The experimental and calculated values of the limiting orbits agree well. A non-iterative technique of unfolding the electron differential energy spectrum is described. This method does not require the usual assumption of a flat or histogram-type energy spectrum. The unfolded spectra using both this technique and one which assumes a flat spectrum are compared to actual input spectra. This technique is especially useful in analyzing peaked auroral electron energy spectra.

  10. Construction of the Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) at Notre Dame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jacob; Bardayan, Dan; Blankstein, Drew; Hall, Matthew; Hall, Oscar; Kolata, James; O'Malley, Patrick; Becchetti, Frederick; Blackmon, Jeffery; Pain, Steven

    2016-09-01

    The study of nucleon transfer reactions gives information about many nuclei involved in astrophysical processes. The design and use of new detector systems improves our ability to accurately characterize these nuclei. The Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) is a new helical orbit spectrometer being designed at the University of Notre Dame to study transfer reactions with high-energy light ion beams from the FN tandem accelerator. SSNAP incorporates a series of position-sensitive silicon detectors to be set on-axis inside the second TwinSol solenoid. SSNAP will be sensitive to light ions produced in different reactions and the charged-particle decay products from the exotic nuclei produced. Results of initial testing and future plans with this detector system will be shown in this presentation. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.

  11. Half-life determination of the ground state decay of ¹¹¹Ag.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Harms, A V; Regan, P H

    2016-02-01

    The radioactive decay half-life of the β(-)-emitter (111)Ag has been measured using decay transitions identified using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometer. The time series of measurements of the net peak areas of the 96.8 keV, 245.4 keV and 342.1 keV γ-ray emissions following the β(-) decay of (111)Ag were made over approximately 23 days, i.e. ~3 half-life periods. The measured half-life of the ground state decay of (111)Ag was determined as 7.423 (13) days which is consistent with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) recommended half-life of 7.45 (1) days at k=2. Utilising all available experimental half-life values, a revised recommended half-life of 7.452 (12) days has been determined.

  12. Measurement of |V_cs| Using W Decays at LEP2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eržen, Borut

    1998-04-01

    Copious production of W^± boson pairs at the LEP2 collider has been exploited to study their hadronic decays. A method, based on the impact parameter measurement and particle identification capabilities of the DELPHI spectrometer, was used to tag W^± decays into c and s quarks. Using the information from the silicon vertex detector and Rich counters, a single tagging variable was constructed, which separates decays into c and s quarks from the rest of hadronic W^± decays, thus enabling a direct measurement of V_cs magnitude. With the accumulated luminosity, taken at centre-of-mass energies from 161 to 184 GeV, and including the information on the value of hadronic and leptonic W^± branching ratios, measured on the same data, the accuracy of the |V_cs| determination already surpasses the present world average.

  13. An echelle diffraction grating for imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minyue; Wang, Han; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate an echelle diffraction grating (EDG) of 17 input waveguides and 33 output waveguides. For each input waveguide, only 17 of 33 output waveguides are used, receiving light ranging from 1520 nm to 1600 nm wavelength. The channel spacing of the EDG is 5 nm, with loss of -6dB and crosstalk of -17dB for center input waveguide and -15dB for edge input waveguides. Based on the 3 μm SOI platform the device is polarization insensitive. As a simple version of EDG spectrometer it is designed to be a part of the on-chip spectroscopic system of the push-broom scanning imaging spectrometer. The whole on-chip spectrometer consists of an optical on-off switch array, a multi-input EDG and detector array. With the help of on-off switch array the multiple input waveguides of the EDG spectrometer could work in a time division multiplexed fashion. Since the switch can scan very fast (less than 10 microseconds), the imaging spectrometer can be operated in push-broom mode. Due to the CMOS compatibility, the 17_channel EDG scales 2.5×3 mm2. The full version of EDG spectrometer is designed to have 129 input waveguides and 257 output waveguides (129 output channel for each input waveguide), working in wavelength ranging from 1250 nm to 1750 nm, and had similar blazed facet size with the 17_channel one, which means similar fabrication tolerance in grating facets. The waveguide EDG based imaging spectrometer can provide a low-cost solution for remote sensing on unmanned aerial vehicles, with advantages of small size, light weight, vibration-proof, and high scalability.

  14. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  15. Limits to the radiative decays of neutrinos and axions from gamma-ray observations of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray observations obtained by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer in the energy range 4.1-6.4 MeV are used to provide limits on the possible radiative decay of neutrinos and axions emitted by SN 1987A. For branching ratio values for the radiative decay modes of less than about 0.0001, the present limits are more stringent than those based upon the photon flux from decaying relic neutrinos. The data are also used to set an axion mass limit.

  16. Rare B Decays at Babar

    SciTech Connect

    Palombo, Fernando; Collaboration, for the BABAR

    2009-01-12

    The author presents some of the most recent BABAR measurements for rare B decays. These include rate asymmetries in the B decays to K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} and K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and branching fractions in the B decays to l{sup +}{nu}{sub l}, K{sub 1}(1270){sup +}{pi}{sup -} and K{sub 1}(1400){sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The author also reports a search for the B{sup +} decay to K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}.

  17. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  18. Recent results from Compton spectrometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    During the previous three years, a Compton spectrometer has successfully measured the x-ray spectra of both continuous and flash radiographic sources. In this method, a collimated beam of x-rays incident on a convertor foil ejects Compton electrons. A collimator in the entrance to the spectrometer selects the forward-scattered electrons, which enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is proportional to the square root of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. The spectrometer is a neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was experimentally tested with the 44 MeV Short-Pulse Electron LINAC at the Idaho Accelerator Center. The measured values are mostly consistent with the design specification and historical values of the greater of 1% or 0.1 MeV. Experimental results from this study are presented in these proceedings.

  19. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  20. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

  1. Instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Strickman, M. S.; Letaw, J. R.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary identifications of instrumental and atmospheric background lines detected by the gamma-ray spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) are presented. The long-term and stable operation of this experiment has provided data of high quality for use in this analysis. Methods are described for identifying radioactive isotopes which use their different decay times. Temporal evolution of the features are revealed by spectral comparisons, subtractions, and fits. An understanding of these temporal variations has enabled the data to be used for detecting celestial gamma-ray sources.

  2. Code CUGEL: A code to unfold Ge(Li) spectrometer polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Born, U.

    1970-01-01

    A FORTRAN code was developed for the Univac 1108 digital computer to unfold lithium-drifted germanium semiconductor spectrometers, polyenergetic gamma photon experimental distributions. It was designed to analyze the combination continuous and monoenergetic gamma radiation field of radioisotope volumetric sources. The code generates the detector system response matrix function and applies it to monoenergetic spectral components discretely and to the continuum iteratively. It corrects for system drift, source decay, background, and detection efficiency. Results are presented in digital form for differential and integrated photon number and energy distributions, and for exposure dose.

  3. Preliminary results from the lunar prospector alpha particle spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) builds on Apollo heritage and maps the distribution of outgassing sites on the Moon. The APS searches for lunar surface gas release events and maps their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life) and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but remains on the surface with a 21 year half-life as lead-210), which are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon is in such small quantities that it is not released directly from the lunar interior, rather it is entrained in a stream of gases and serves as a tracer for such gases. Once released, the radon spreads out by 'bouncing' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The 3.8 day half-life of radon-222 allows the gas to spread out by several 100 km before it decays and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to a few days after they occur. The long residence time (10s of years) of the lead-210 precursor to the polonium-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 50 years. Because radon and polonium are daughter products of the decay of uranium, the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Using radioactive radon and polonium as tracers, the Apollo 15 and 16 Command Module orbital alpha particle experiments obtained evidence for the release of gases at several sites beneath the orbit tracks, especially over the Aristarchus Plateau and Mare Fecunditatis [1]. Aristarchus crater had previously been identified by ground-based observers as the site of transient optical events [2]. The Apollo 17 surface mass spectrometer showed that argon-40 is released from the lunar interior every few months, apparently in concert with some of the shallow moonquakes that are believed to be of tectonic origin [3]. The latter tectonic events could be

  4. Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    00-01 -2013 Technical June20 l l-June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER DTRA MIPR 11-2362M Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes Sb...268 x E +2 4.788 026 x E -2 6.894 757 4.535 924 x E -1 4.214 011 x E -2 1.601 846 x E +1 1.000 000 x E -2 2.579 760 x E - 4 1.000 000 x E -8...c a y o f R a d i o i s o t o p e s " P r o p o s a l # B R C A L L 0 7 - N - 2 - 0 0 4 7 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f \\ P F R P a s p o

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2007-06-01

    The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.

  6. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  7. A broadband Fourier transform microwave spectrometer based on chirped pulse excitation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gordon G; Dian, Brian C; Douglass, Kevin O; Geyer, Scott M; Shipman, Steven T; Pate, Brooks H

    2008-05-01

    Designs for a broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer are presented. The spectrometer is capable of measuring the 7-18 GHz region of a rotational spectrum in a single data acquisition. One design uses a 4.2 Gsampless arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to produce a 1 mus duration chirped pulse with a linear frequency sweep of 1.375 GHz. This pulse is sent through a microwave circuit to multiply the bandwidth of the pulse by a factor of 8 and upconvert it to the 7.5-18.5 GHz range. The chirped pulse is amplified by a traveling wave tube amplifier and broadcast inside the spectrometer by using a double ridge standard gain horn antenna. The broadband molecular free induction decay (FID) is received by a second horn antenna, downconverted, and digitized by a 40 Gsampless (12 GHz hardware bandwidth) digital oscilloscope. The second design uses a simplified pulse generation and FID detection scheme, employing current state-of-the-art high-speed digital electronics. In this spectrometer, a chirped pulse with 12 GHz of bandwidth is directly generated by using a 20 Gsampless AWG and upconverted in a single step with an ultrabroadband mixer. The amplified molecular emission is directly detected by using a 50 Gsampless digital oscilloscope with 18 GHz bandwidth. In both designs, fast Fourier transform of the FID produces the frequency domain rotational spectrum in the 7-18 GHz range. The performance of the CP-FTMW spectrometer is compared to a Balle-Flygare-type cavity-FTMW spectrometer. The CP-FTMW spectrometer produces an equal sensitivity spectrum with a factor of 40 reduction in measurement time and a reduction in sample consumption by a factor of 20. The CP-FTMW spectrometer also displays good intensity accuracy for both sample number density and rotational transition moment. Strategies to reduce the CP-FTMW measurement time by another factor of 90 while simultaneously reducing the sample consumption by a factor of 30 are demonstrated.

  8. Decay of oscillating universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithani, Audrey Todhunter

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.

  9. Progress of the Hypernuclear Decay Pion Spectroscopy Program at MAMI-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Sho; Achenbach, Patrick; Arai, Naoki; Ayerbe Gayoso, Carlos; Böhm, Ralph; Borodina, Olga; Bosnar, Damir; Bozsurt, Vakkas; Devenjak, Luka; Distler, Michael O.; Esser, Anselm; Fujita, Manami; Friščič, Ivica; Fujii, Yuu; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Gómez Rodríguez, Mar; Hirose, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, Masashi; Kim, Eunhee; Kusaka, Junichiro; Margaryan, Amur; Merkel, Harald; Müller, Ulrich; Nakamura, Satoshi N.; Pochodzalla, Josef; Rappold, Christophe; Reinhold, Joerg; Saito, Takehiko R.; Sanchez Lorente, Alicia; Sánchez Majos, Salvador; Sören Schlimme, Björn; Schoth, Matthias; Schulz, Florian; Sfienti, Concettina; Širca, Simon; Takahashi, Yuta; Tang, Liguang; Thiel, Michaela; Tsukada, Kyo; Uchiyama, Daisuke

    We have performed high resolution spectroscopies for binding energies of light Λ hypernuclei with newly established experimental technique "hypernuclear decay pion spectroscopy using electro-photo production". We identified successfully a first decay pion peak from Λ 4H in 2012 experiment. A spectrometer Kaos for K+ tagger was upgraded and suppressed large positron background using a lead wall in the experiment. We performed the next generation experiment with higher statistics in 2014. In this experiment, we achieved twice higher beam intensity and doubled the length of the beam-time with a lower background rate thanks to improvements for the lead wall and a trigger system.

  10. Recent results on S = /minus/3 baryon spectroscopy from the LASS (Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; D'Amore, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Endorf, R.; Fujii, K.; Hayashiii, H.; Iwata, S.

    1989-02-01

    Data demonstrating the existence of two ..cap omega../sup */minus// resonances produced in K/sup /minus//p interactions at 11 GeV/c in the LASS spectrometer are presented. The first state is seen in the ..xi../sup */degree//minus// decay channel with mass 2253 +- 13 MeV/c/sup 2/ and width 81 +- 38 MeV/c/sup 2/, and the second in the ..cap omega../sup /minus//..pi../sup +/..pi../sup /minus// system with mass 2474 +- 12 and width 72 +- 33 MeV/c/sup 2/. Inclusive cross sections corresponding to these decays corrected for unseen charge modes are estimated to be respectively 630 +- 180 and 290 +- 90 nb, respectively. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Measurement of lifetimes in {sup 46}V with the EUROBALL {gamma}-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen, K.; Moeller, O.; Dewald, A.; Brentano, P. von; Fitzler, A.; Jolie, J.; Saha, B.; Petkov, P.; Brandolini, F.; Gadea, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Gall, B. J. P.

    2006-08-15

    In {sup 46}V picosecond lifetimes were determined using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with the Cologne plunger device coupled to the EUROBALL IV spectrometer. The experiment was carried out using the {sup 24}Mg({sup 28}Si, {alpha}pn) reaction at 110 MeV at the Strasbourg VIVITRON accelerator. Subsequently the differential decay curve method in coincidence mode was employed to derive lifetimes for four excited states in the K{sup {pi}}=0{sup -} band. The resulting transition probabilities give a comparison of isospin allowed and forbidden E1 transitions, which clarifies the decay properties of the 2{sup -},T=0 state. Furthermore the B(E2) values within the K{sup {pi}}=0{sup -} band are discussed.

  12. Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

  13. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  14. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong; Goldsten, John

    2002-10-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband.

  15. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  16. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  17. Portable instant display and analysis reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A portable analysis spectrometer (10) for field mineral identification is coupled to a microprocessor (11) and memory (12) through a bus (13) and A/D converter (14) to display (16) a spectrum of reflected radiation in a band selected by an adjustable band spectrometer (20) and filter (23). A detector array (21) provides output signals at spaced frequencies within the selected spectrometer band which are simultaneously converted to digital form for display. The spectrum displayed is compared with a collection of spectra for known minerals. That collection is stored in memory and selectively displayed with the measured spectrum, or stored in a separate portfolio. In either case, visual comparison is made. Alternatively, the microprocessor may use an algorithm to make the comparisons in search for the best match of the measured spectrum with one of the stored spectra to identify the mineral in the target area.

  18. Automated calibration of a flight particle spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    An automatic calibration system was designed for use in the vacuum facility at the Space Science Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center. That system was developed and used in the intervening winter to calibrate the ion spectrometer that eventually flew in May 1986 aboard the NASA project, CRIT 1. During this summer, it is planned to implement the calibration of both an ion and electron spectrometer of a new design whose basic elements were conceived during the winter of 1985 to 1986. This spectrometer was completed in the summer and successfully mounted in the vacuum tank for calibration. However, the source gate valve malfunctioned, and, at the end of the summer, it still needed a replacement. During the inevitable delays in the experimental research, the numerical model of the Critical Velocity effect was completed and these results were presented.

  19. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  20. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l∕mm VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  1. 140-GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-01-01

    A pulsed microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 140 GHz for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules is described. The spectrometer incorporates a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity and a subharmonically pumped superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. A 70-GHz source supplying a high-efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at 30 MHz produces sidebands of sufficient power at 140 GHz to excite the molecules. The cavity is tuned to one of the modulation sidebands. The operation of the spectrometer is illustrated by the detection of emission signals from the 6(2, 4)-6(1, 5) transition of SO2 gas. The generation of the electric dipole analog of nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) ``spin-echo'' signals by a π/2-π pulse sequence is also described.

  2. Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment consists of a 1.1 Kton fine grained iron tracking calorimeter. It has a very isotropic detection structure which along with its flexible trigger will allow detection of multiparticle and neutrino proton decay modes. The detector has now entered its construction stage.

  3. Theoretical understanding of charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bigi, I.I.

    1986-08-01

    A detailed description of charm decays has emerged. The various concepts involved are sketched. Although this description is quite successful in reproducing the data the chapter on heavy flavour decays is far from closed. Relevant questions like on th real strength of weak annihilation, Penguin operators, etc. are still unanswered. Important directions in future work, both on the experimental and theoretical side are identified.

  4. Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

  5. Top decays in extended models

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2009-04-20

    Top quark decays are interesting as a mean to test the Standard Model (SM) predictions. The Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t{yields}cWW, and the rare decays t{yields}cZ, t{yields}H{sup 0}+c, and t{yields}c{gamma} an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t{yields}H{sup 0}+c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t{yields}c+{gamma}, which involves radiative corrections.

  6. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

  7. Time-of-flight Fourier UCN spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulin, G. V.; Frank, A. I.; Goryunov, S. V.; Kustov, D. V.; Geltenbort, P.; Jentschel, M.; Lauss, B.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a new time-of-flight Fourier spectrometer for investigation of UCN diffraction by a moving grating. The device operates in the regime of a discrete set of modulation frequencies. The results of the first experiments show that the spectrometer may be used for obtaining UCN energy spectra in the energy range of 60 - 200 neV with a resolution of about 5 neV. The accuracy of determination of the line position was estimated to be several units of 10-10 eV.

  8. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  9. The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jean C.

    2006-01-01

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission will provide high sensitivity, high-resolution spectra in the soft x-ray band. The RGS performance requirements are specified as a resolving power of greater than 300 and an effective area of greater than 1000 sq cm across most of the 0.25 to 2.0 keV band. These requirements are driven by the science goals of the mission. We will describe the performance requirements and goals, the reference design of the spectrometer, and examples of science cases where we expect data from the RGS to significantly advance our current understanding of the universe.

  10. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  11. Automated calibration of a flight particle spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    A system for calibrating both electron and ion imaging particle spectrometers was devised to calibrate flight instruments in a large vacuum facility in the Space Science Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An IBM-compatible computer was used to control, via an IEEE 488 buss protocol, a two-axis gimbled table, constructed to fit inside the tank. Test settings of various diagnostic voltages were also acquired via the buss. These spectrometers constructed by the author at UCSD were calibrated in an automatic procedure programmed on the small computer. Data was up-loaded to the SSL VAX where a program was developed to plot the results.

  12. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 μm, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  13. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  14. SAMURAI spectrometer for RI beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Chiga, N.; Isobe, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H.; Sako, T.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, R.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    A large-acceptance multiparticle spectrometer SAMURAI has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for RI beam experiments. It was designed primarily for kinematically complete experiments such as the invariant-mass spectroscopy of particle-unbound states in exotic nuclei, by detecting heavy fragments and projectile-rapidity nucleons in coincidence. The system consists of a superconducting dipole magnet, beam line detectors, heavy fragment detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. The SAMURAI spectrometer was commissioned in March 2012, and a rigidity resolution of about 1/1500 was obtained for RI beams up to 2.4 GeV/c.

  15. NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

  16. Combined hyperspatial and hyperspectral imaging spectrometer concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Ian; Zwick, Harold

    1995-01-01

    There is a user need for increasing spatial and spectral resolution in Earth Observation (EO) optical instrumentation. Higher spectral resolution will be achieved by the introduction of spaceborne imaging spectrometers. Higher spatial resolutions of 1 - 3m will be achieved also, but at the expense of sensor redesign, higher communications bandwidth, high data processing volumes, and therefore, at the risk of time delays due to large volume data-handling bottlenecks. This paper discusses a design concept whereby the hyperspectral properties of a spaceborne imaging spectrometer can be used to increase the image spatial resolution, without such adverse cost impact.

  17. Improved real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Yu, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that offers several advantages over prior art AOTF imaging spectrometers is presented. The ability to electronically set the bandpass wavelength provides observational flexibility. Various improvements in optical architecture provide simplified magnification variability, improved image resolution and light throughput efficiency and reduced sensitivity to ambient light. Two embodiments of the invention are: (1) operation in the visible/near-infrared domain of wavelength range 0.48 to 0.76 microns; and (2) infrared configuration which operates in the wavelength range of 1.2 to 2.5 microns.

  18. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  19. Charm and bottom semileptonic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'donnell, Patrick J.; Turan, Gürsevil

    1997-07-01

    We review the present status of theoretical attempts to calculate the semileptonic charm and bottom decays and then present a calculation of these decays in the light-front frame at the kinematic point q2=0. This allows us to evaluate the form factors at the same value of q2, even though the allowed kinematic ranges for charm and bottom decays are very different. Also, at this kinematic point the decay is given in terms of only one form factor A0(0). For the ratio of the decay rates given by the E653 collaboration we show that the determination of the ratio of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements is consistent with that obtained from the unitarity constraint, though a new measurement by the E687 Collaboration is about two standard deviations too high. At present, though, the unitarity method still has greater accuracy. Since comparisons of the semileptonic decays into ρ and either electrons or muons will be available soon from the E791 Fermilab experiment, we also look at the massive muon case. We show that for a range of q2 the SU(3)F symmetry breaking is small even though the contributions of the various helicity amplitudes becomes more complicated. For B decays, the decay B-->K*ll¯ at q2=0 involves an extra form factor coming from the photon contribution and so is not amenable to the same kind of analysis, leaving only the decay B-->K*νν¯ as a possibility. As the mass of the decaying particle increases we note that the SU(3) symmetry becomes badly broken at q2=0.

  20. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  1. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  2. 12C+16O: Properties of sub-barrier resonance γ-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goasduff, A.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Jenkins, D. G.; Fallis, J.; Ruiz, C.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Amandruz, P.-A.; Davis, C.; Hager, U.; Ottewell, D.; Ruprecht, G.

    2012-10-01

    In a recent experiment performed at Triumf using the Dragon 0° spectrometer and its associated BGO array, the complete γ-decay of the radiative capture channel below the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. This measurement has been performed at two energies Ec.m. = 6.6 and 7.2 MeV. A selective contribution of the entrance spins 2+ and 3- has been evidenced which is consistent with existing results above the barrier.

  3. Measurement of charged kaon semileptonic decay branching fraction using ISTRA+ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, V. A.; Akimenko, S. A.; Bolotov, V. N.; Britvich, G. I.; Duk, V. A.; Filin, A. P.; Inyakin, A. V.; Kholodenko, S. A.; Khudyakov, A. A.; Konstantinov, A. S.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Leontiev, V. M.; Makarov, A. I.; Obraztsov, V. F.; Polyakov, V. A.; Polyarush, A. Yu.; Popov, A. V.; Romanovsky, V. I.; Stenyakin, O. V.; Tchikilev, O. G.; Yushchenko, O. P.

    2014-06-01

    The ratio of branching fractions for and K - → π-π0 decays has been measured using the ISTRA+ spectrometer. The result of our measurement is the following: Using the current PDG value for the K 2π branching fraction, this result leads to the measured K e3 branching fraction of Br( K e3) = 0.0501 ± 0.0009 and to the value of | V us | f +(0) = 0.2115 ± 0.0021.

  4. Semileptonic and leptonic B decays, circa 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardi, Giulia

    2017-02-01

    We summarize the status of semileptonic and leptonic B decays, including |Vcb| and |Vub| exclusive and inclusive determinations, decays to excited states of the charm meson spectrum and decays into τ leptons.

  5. Detailed Spectroscopy of 46Ca with the GRIFFIN Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pore, Jennifer; Griffin Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The neutron-rich calcium isotopes are currently a new frontier for modern ab-initio calculations based on NN and 3N forces. Detailed experimental data from these nuclei is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the region. Many excited states in 46Ca have been previously identified by various reaction mechanisms, most notably from (p ,p') and (p , t) reactions, but many spins are only tentatively assigned or not measured and very few gamma-ray transitions have been placed in the level scheme. A high-statistics data set of the 46K decay into low-lying levels of 46Ca was taken with the new GRIFFIN spectrometer located at TRIUMF-ISAC. The level scheme of 46Ca has been greatly expanded to include 160 new gamma-ray transitions and 12 new excited states. Angular correlations between cascading gamma rays have been investigated to obtain information about the spins of the excited states. An overview of the experiment and a discussion of the results will be presented.

  6. New detector array - the HRIBF Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof; Karny, Marek; Kuzniak, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Robert; Rasco, Charlie; Miller, David; Gross, Carl J.; Johnson, Jim

    2011-10-01

    The construction of a new Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be presented. The total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS will be used to derive a true beta-feeding pattern and resulting beta strength function for fission products. In particular, the measurements of decay heat released by radioactive nuclei produced in nuclear fuels at power reactors will be performed. MTAS is made up of 19 large NaI(Tl) crystals each encapsulated with a 0.8-mm-thick carbon fiber. There are also two 1-mm- thick Silicon Strip Detectors surrounding a moving tape collector that count beta-energy loss signals. The structure is shielded by more than 1-inch of lead around MTAS which reduces background radiation significantly. MTAS efficiency for full energy deposition of gamma ray approaches nearly 90% for 300 keV gammas and over 75% for a 5 MeV gamma transition. Research supported by the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  7. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission productsmore » from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  8. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  9. Pseudoscalar Semileptonic Decays of the D0 Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    The FOCUS experiment is designed to investigate charm particle decays. These charm particles are produced by the interaction of a photon beam with an average energy of 175 GeV on a BeO target and travel an average of few millimeters before decaying in the spectrometer. By reconstructing the daughters from the decay, we can infer properties of the charm particles. Semileptonic decays have been used to measure many CKM matrix elements. These decays are interesting due to the simplicity of their theoretical description but they are experimentally challenging due to the fact that a neutrino is not detected. Analysis of semileptonic decays in the charm sector are of great interest because they provide an excellent environment to test and to calibrate theoretical calculation that can be implemented in the determination of poorly known matrix elements such as Vub. In this thesis we report an analysis of the decays D0 → π-μ+v and D0 → K- μ+v. We measure the relative branching ratio as well as the ratio of the form factors f$π\\atop{+}$0)/f$K\\atop{+}$(0). Using a weighting technique, we further report a parametric analysis of the q2 dependence for both the decay modes measuring the pole masses. For the decay D0 → K-μ+v, we report on the form factor ratio f$K\\atop{-}$(0)/f$K\\atop{+}$(0). Finally, they report a non-parametric study of the q2 dependence of the form factor for the decay D0 → K- μ+v.

  10. Primordial nucleosynthesis with decaying particles. I - Entropy-producing decays. II - Inert decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a nonrelativistic particle X, which decays out of equilibrium, on primordial nucleosynthesis is investigated, including both the energy density of the X particle and the electromagnetic entropy production from its decay. The results are parametrized in terms of the X particle lifetime and the density parameter rm(X), where m(X) is the X particle mass and r is the ratio of X number density to photon number density prior to nucleosynthesis. The results rule out particle lifetimes greater than 1-10 s for large values of rm(X). The question of a decaying particle which produces no electromagnetic entropy in the course of its decay is addressed, and particles which produce both entropy and an inert component in their decay are discussed.

  11. Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2010-12-01

    Almost exactly seventy years ago and only one year before his tragic disappearance the ingenious idea of Ettore Majorana is becoming one of the most important step in the development of fundamental physics. The problem of the nature of the neutrino, namely if it is a massless Dirac particle different from its antineutrino or a Majorana particle with finite mass, is discussed. In fact the recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicates that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavours is finite. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to determine the effective value of the mass of a Majorana neutrino. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already at least partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is indeed a Majorana particle.

  12. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  13. Reflecting Schmidt/Littrow Prism Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution achieved with wide field of view. Imaging Spectrometer features off-axis reflecting optics, including reflecting "slit" that also serves as field flattener. Only refracting element is prism. By scanning slit across object or scene and timing out signal, both spectral and spatial information in scene are obtained.

  14. Digital Signal Processing in the GRETINA Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromaz, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Developments in the segmentation of large-volume HPGe crystals has enabled the development of high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometers which have the ability to track the path of gamma-rays scattering through the detector volume. This technology has been successfully implemented in the GRETINA spectrometer whose high efficiency and ability to perform precise event-by-event Doppler correction has made it an important tool in nuclear spectroscopy. Tracking has required the spectrometer to employ a fully digital signal processing chain. Each of the systems 1120 channels are digitized by 100 Mhz, 14-bit flash ADCs. Filters that provide timing and high-resolution energies are implemented on local FPGAs acting on the ADC data streams while interaction point locations and tracks, derived from the trace on each detector segment, are calculated in real time on a computing cluster. In this presentation we will give a description of GRETINA's digital signal processing system, the impact of design decisions on system performance, and a discussion of possible future directions as we look towards soon developing larger spectrometers such as GRETA with full 4 π solid angle coverage. This work was supported by the Office of Science in the Department of Energy under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  15. Broadband Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C G; Cunningham, C T; Tringe, J W

    2010-12-16

    This report summarizes the most important results of our effort to develop a new class of infrared spectrometers based on a novel broadband heterodyne design. Our results indicate that this approach could lead to a near-room temperature operation with performance limited only by quantum noise carried by the incoming signal. Using a model quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), we demonstrated key performance features of our approach. For example, we directly measured the beat frequency signal generated by superimposing local oscillator (LO) light of one frequency and signal light of another through a spectrograph, by injecting the LO light at a laterally displaced input location. In parallel with the development of this novel spectrometer, we modeled a new approach to reducing detector volume though plasmonic resonance effects. Since dark current scales directly with detector volume, this ''photon compression'' can directly lead to lower currents. Our calculations indicate that dark current can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude in an optimized ''superlens'' structure. Taken together, our spectrometer and dark current reduction strategies provide a promising path toward room temperature operation of a mid-wave and possibly long-wave infrared spectrometer.

  16. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  17. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  18. Recent advances in miniaturization of infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.; Bodkin, W. Andrew; Stevenson, William A.; White, David A.

    2000-03-01

    In the past ten years, a number of miniature spectrometers covering the visible and near infrared wavelengths out to 2.5 microns wavelength have been developed and are now commercially available. These small but high performance instruments have taken advantage of continuing advances in high sensitivity detectors--both CCD's and diode arrays, improvements in holographic gratings, and the availability of low-loss optical materials both in bulk and fiber form that transmit at these wavelengths and that can readily be formed into monolithic shapes for complex optical structures. More recently, a number of researchers have addressed the more intractable problems of extending these miniaturization innovations to spectrometers capable of operation in the mid-infrared wavelengths from 3 microns to 12 microns and beyond. Key enabling technologies for this effort include the recent development of high D*, uncooled thermopile and micro-bolometer detector arrays, new low- mass, high-efficiency pulsed infrared sources, and the design and fabrication of novel monolithic optical structures and waveguides using high index infrared optical materials. This paper reviews the development of these innovative infrared spectrometers and, in particular, the development of the `wedge' spectrometer by Foster-Miller, Inc. and the MicroSpecTM, a MEMS-based solid state spectrograph, by Ion Optics, Inc.

  19. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  20. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  1. Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, E.O.

    1984-05-01

    A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

  2. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  3. Apollo 17 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment (S-169)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the ultraviolet spectrometer experiment are discussed, along with design and operational details, instrument preparation and performance, and scientific results. Information gained from the experiment is given concerning the lunar atmosphere and albedo, zodiacal light, astronomical observations, spacecraft environment, and the distribution of atomic hydrogen in the solar system and in the earth's atmosphere.

  4. Matching the Spectrometers on board ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgdorf, M.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Salama, A.; García-Lario, P.; Müller, T.; Lord, S.

    We report on the findings of the Spectral Matching Working Group, the main aim of which was to investigate discontinuities between SWS and LWS in complete ISO spectra from 2 - 200 μm. In order to check in a quantitative way the agreement between the two spectrometers, a software tool was developed which automatically selected observations made with SWS and LWS on the same coordinates and which calculated the ratio of the fluxes in the overlap region from the browser products. In this way all observations suitable for this cross-calibration exercise could be selected, provided that they were performed with standard Astronomical Observing Templates and covered the wavelength range that SWS and LWS have in common. 95% of those targets which were neither extended nor variable showed an agreement better than 20% between the two spectrometers. Several problems with the data from the instruments, like saturation effects, detector transients and discontinuities between the sub-spectra from different detectors, affect both spectrometers in a similar way and require special processing steps. We show, for some solar system objects, to which extent the spectra taken with ISO from the mid- to the far-infrared agree with theoretical models. Furthermore, we discuss for the example of Neptune how the combined information from both spectrometers can be used to put new constraints on models of objects that are possible calibration standards for future missions.

  5. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  6. Instrumentation for the Atmospheric Explorer photoelectron spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peletier, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The photoelectron spectrometer (PES) is part of the complements of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites. The PES measures the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. Measurements of energies between 2 and 500 eV are made at altitudes as low as 130 km. The design, characteristics, and performance of the instrument are described.

  7. ARO Research Instrumentation Program - IR Spectrometer Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    via simultaneous electrochemical and spectroscopic studies. These studies are enabling us to understanding the microscopic (molecular and ionic...program. The instrument is being utilized to characterize ionic liquid-based (IL-based) electrolyte systems via simultaneous electrochemical and...spectrometer has been synchronized with a potentiostat to perform surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy during electrochemical

  8. Optical alignment of a pupil imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horchem, Stephen D.; Kohrman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Sounder is a 19-channel discrete filter spectrometer with an additional channel for star sensing. This paper presents the GOES Sounder's instrument optics and compensations, alignment rationale, and alignment mechanism and sensitivities. The results of a line of sight tolerance analysis of the instrument are described, and the prealignment and instrument coregistration are addressed.

  9. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Product File Readers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    TES Product File Reader software extracts data from publicly available Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) product data files using publicly available format specifications for scientific analysis in IDL (interactive data language). In this innovation, the software returns data fields as simple arrays for a given file. A file name is provided, and the contents are returned as simple IDL variables.

  10. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  11. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  12. Nonleptonic Bc→VV decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Susmita; Dash, P. C.; Priyadarsini, M.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Barik, N.

    2013-11-01

    We study the exclusive nonleptonic Bc→VV decays, within the factorization approximation, in the framework of the relativistic independent quark model, based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The weak form factors are extracted from the overlap integral of meson wave functions derived in the relativistic independent quark model. The predicted branching ratios for different Bc-meson decays are obtained in a wide range, from a tiny value of O(10-6) for Bc→D*D(s)* to a large value of 24.32% for Bc→Bs*ρ-, in general agreement with other dynamical-quark-model predictions. The decay modes Bc→Bs*ρ- and Bc→B*ρ- with high branching ratios of 24.32% and 1.73%, respectively, obtained in this model should be detectable at the LHC and Tevatron in the near future. The b→c, u induced decays are predicted predominantly in the longitudinal mode, whereas the c¯→s¯, d¯ induced decays are obtained in a slightly higher transverse mode. The CP-odd fractions (R⊥) for different decay modes are predicted and those for color-favored Bc→D*D*, D*Ds* decays indicate significant CP violation in this sector.

  13. Decays of the b quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndike, Edward H.; Poling, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental results on the decay of b-flavored hadrons are reviewed. Substantial progress has been made in the study of exclusive and inclusive B-meson decays, as well as in the theoretical understanding of these processes. The two most prominent developments are the continuing failure to observe evidence of decays of the b quark to a u quark rather than a c quark, and the surprisingly high level of B 0- overlineB0 mi xing which has recently been reported by the ARGUS collaboration. Notwithstanding these results, we conclude that the health of the Standard Model is excellent.

  14. Tensor interactions and τ decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina Nava, J. J.; López Castro, G.

    1995-09-01

    We study the effects of charged tensor weak currents on the strangeness-changing decays of the τ lepton. First, we use the available information on the K+e3 form factors to obtain B(τ--->K-π0ντ)~10-4 when the Kπ system is produced in an antisymmetric tensor configuration. Then we propose a mechanism for the direct production of the K*2(1430) in τ decays. Using the current upper limit on this decay we set a bound on the symmetric tensor interactions.

  15. Glueball decay in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tan, C.-I; Terashima, Seiji

    2008-04-15

    Using holographic QCD based on D4-branes and D8-anti-D8-branes, we have computed couplings of glueballs to light mesons. We describe glueball decay by explicitly calculating its decay widths and branching ratios. Interestingly, while glueballs remain less well understood both theoretically and experimentally, our results are found to be consistent with the experimental data for the scalar glueball candidate f{sub 0}(1500). More generally, holographic QCD predicts that decay of any glueball to 4{pi}{sup 0} is suppressed, and that mixing of the lightest glueball with qq mesons is small.

  16. Beta Decay Study of Neutron-rich Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, John; Rajabali, Mustafa; Griffin Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Within the ``island of inversion'' around the N = 20 shell gap, isotopes of magnesium, and aluminum deviate from the expected closed-shell structure. Particles promoted across the N = 20 shell gap result in a lower energy deformed ground state configuration rather than the expected spherical configuration. An experiment was conducted at TRIUMF laboratory in the summer of 2015 to study the decay of ``island of inversion'' isotopes 33 , 34 , 35Mg and the structure of the respective daughter nuclei. The isotopes of interest were produced by a proton beam from TRIUMF's 500 MeV cyclotron impacting on a UCx target. The magnesium decays populated states along the decay chain in Al, Si, P, and S isotopes. The new GRIFFIN spectrometer in the ISAC-I facility was used to detect the gamma rays. Two sets of scintillators, one for detecting the beta particles (SCEPTAR) and the other for detecting beta-delayed neutrons (DESCANT), were also used in conjunction with GRIFFIN. The GRIFFIN data were energy calibrated and partially analyzed for this project. New algorithms were developed for the analysis. Preliminary results for new transitions detected in 34Mg as well as the half lives obtained will be presented in their current form. This research was supported by the Tennessee Tech research office.

  17. α decay of 97249Bk and levels in 95245Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Boll, R. A.; Ezold, J. G.; Van Cleve, S. M.; Browne, E.

    2013-05-01

    α decay of 249Bk has been investigated by measuring its α and γ-ray spectra, both in singles and in coincidence modes. The α spectrum of a freshly purified 249Bk sample was measured with a high-resolution, double-focusing magnetic spectrometer. γ singles, γ-γ coincidence, and γ-α coincidence spectra were also recorded. The absolute intensity of the 327.45-keV γ ray has been determined to be (1.44±0.08)×10-5% per 249Bk decay. Assignments of previously known single-particle states were confirmed. A new rotational band was identified in the α singles spectrum and Am K x rays have been observed in its decay. This single-particle state, with an energy of 154 keV, has been assigned to the 3/2-[521] Nilsson state. This is the lowest excitation energy for this orbital in any Am nucleus. More precise energies and intensities of the 249Bk α groups and γ-ray transitions are provided.

  18. Inverse kinematics (p, n) reactions studies using the WINDS slow neutron detector and the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, J.; Sasano, M.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Baba, H.; Chao, W.; Dozono, M.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jhang, G.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Milman, E.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Panin, V.; Powell, W.; Sakai, H.; Sako, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stuhl, L.; Suzuki, H.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Takeda, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Sumikama, T.; Tako, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Togano, Y.; Shikata, M.; Tsubota, J.; Yako, K.; Shimoura, S.; Ota, S.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Takaki, M.; Michimasa, S.; Kisamori, K.; Lee, C. S.; Tokieda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koyama, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Wakasa, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Mucher, D.; Reichert, S.; Bazin, D.; Lee, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS (Wide-angle Inverse-kinematics Neutron Detectors for SHARAQ) and the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in order to perform (p, n) reactions in inverse kinematics for unstable nuclei in the mass region around A ∼ 100 . In this setup, WINDS is used for detecting recoil neutrons and the SAMURAI spectrometer is used for tagging decay channel of heavy residue. The first experiment by using the setup was performed to study Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn in April 2014. The atomic number Z and mass-to-charge ratio A / Q of the beam residues were determined from the measurements of time of flight, magnetic rigidity and energy loss. The obtained A / Q and Z resolutions were σA/Q = 0.14 % and σZ = 0.22 , respectively. Furthermore, owing to the large momentum acceptance (50 %) of SAMURAI, the beam residues associated with the γ , 1n and 2n decay channel were measured in the same magnetic field setting. The kinematic loci of the measured recoil neutron energy and laboratory angle are clearly seen. It shows that the excitation energy up to about 20 MeV can be reconstructed.

  19. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  20. Radiative Leptonic B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Edward Tann

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a search for B+ meson decays into γℓ+v, where ℓ = e,μ. We use a sample of 232 million B$\\bar{B}$ meson pairs recorded at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We measure a partial branching fraction Δβ in a restricted region of phase space that reduces the effect of theoretical uncertainties, requiring the lepton energy to be in the range 1.875 and 2.850 GeV, the photon energy to be in the range 0.45 and 2.35 GeV, and the cosine of the angle between the lepton and photon momenta to be less than -0.36, with all quantities computed in the Υ(4S) center-of-mass frame. We find Δβ(B+ → γℓ+v) = (-0.31.5+1.3(statistical) -0.6+0.6(systematic) ± 0.1(theoretical)) x 10-6, under the assumption of lepton universality. Interpreted as a 90% confidence-level Bayesian upper limit, the result corresponds to 1.7 x 10-6 for a prior at in amplitude, and 2.3 x 10-6 for a prior at in branching fraction.

  1. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  2. The Search for Proton Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)

  3. CP violation in K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Decoherence delays false vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.

    2013-05-01

    We show that gravitational interactions between massless thermal modes and a nucleating Coleman-de Luccia bubble may lead to efficient decoherence and strongly suppress metastable vacuum decay for bubbles that are small compared to the Hubble radius. The vacuum decay rate including gravity and thermal photon interactions has the exponential scaling \\Gamma \\sim \\Gamma _{CDL}^{2}, where ΓCDL is the Coleman-de Luccia decay rate neglecting photon interactions. For the lowest metastable initial state an efficient quantum Zeno effect occurs due to thermal radiation of temperatures as low as the de Sitter temperature. This strong decoherence effect is a consequence of gravitational interactions with light external mode. We argue that efficient decoherence does not occur for the case of Hawking-Moss decay. This observation is consistent with requirements set by Poincaré recurrence in de Sitter space.

  5. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  6. CP violation in sbottom decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppisch, Frank F.; Kittel, Olaf

    2010-06-01

    We study CP asymmetries in two-body decays of bottom squarks into charginos and top quarks. These asymmetries probe the SUSY CP phases of the sbottom and the chargino sector in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We identify the MSSM parameter space where the CP asymmetries are sizeable. As a result, potentially detectable CP asymmetries in sbottom decays are found, which motivates further detailed experimental studies for probing the SUSY CP phases at the LHC.

  7. Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherall, James; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D.; Smith, Barry; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a for- mat suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064nm DeltaNu rst generation, eld-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064nm Bruker spectrometer and a 785nm Kaiser spectrometer. The steps taken to compensate for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and wavenumber sensitivity variation are described.

  8. IR spectrometers for Venus and Mars measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Rachel; Neefs, Eddy; Vandaele, Ann C.

    2012-07-01

    The SOIR spectrometer [1] is an infra-red spectrometer that has performed over 500 solar occultation measurements of the Venus atmosphere, profiling major and minor constituents and studying aerosol absorption, temperature and pressure effects. NOMAD is a 3-channel spectrometer for Mars occultation, limb and nadir measurements. 2 channels are infra-red, the other UV-visible. We will present the technology that enables SOIR and NOMAD to get to parts per billion mixing ratio sensitivities for trace atmospheric components and highlight the improvements made to the SOIR design to enable nadir viewing with NOMAD. Key components include the Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter with radio frequency driver that allows these spectrometers to select the wavelength domain under observation with no need for mechanical moving parts. It also allows background measurements because it is opaque when no RF is applied. The grating with 4 grooves/mm is a very hard to manufacture optical component, and suppliers were very difficult to find. The detector-cooler combination (working at 90K) is from Sofradir/Ricor and the model on board Venus Express is still working after 6 years in space (more on/off cycles that ON hour lifetime problem). The detector MCT mix is slightly altered for nadir observation, in order to reduce thermal background noise and the nadir channel spectrometer is cooled down to 173K by a large V-groove radiator. All the optical components have been enlarged to maximise signal throughput and the slit (that determines spatial and spectral resolution) has also been increased. The spacecraft attitude control system switches from yaw steering for nadir to inertial pointing for solar occultations. 1. Nevejans, D., E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.P. Dubois, and E. Villard, Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on

  9. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, K.

    2012-11-12

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  10. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  11. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  12. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, K.

    2012-11-01

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  13. Diagnostics of a Supersonic Beam Using a Microwave Cavity Fourier Transform Spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Adam David

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The use of a pulsed Fourier transform microwave cavity spectrometer combined with a synchronous pulsed supersonic nozzle beam is described for spectroscopy and beam diagnostics. The use of an appropriate cylindrical cavity mode was shown to give signals without the Doppler splitting characteristics of similar spectrometers employing Fabry-perot cavities. The high sensitivity of the spectrometer and measured linewidths as low as 20 KHz make it ideally suited to the observation of hyperfine components in multi-quadrupole molecules. The tri-quadrupolar structure of the 3 --> 2 transition of PCl_3 was investigated and a measured Cl-P-Cl bond angle of 104.5(4)^circ, differing significantly from 100.27(9)^circ from electron diffraction measurements led to the conclusion of either some form of axial asymmetry in the bond or "bent bonds". Experiments to determine the vibrational and rotational temperature of spectrally active molecules in the beam are described. The rotational beam temperature for the 3_{03} --> 2_{12} OA transition of ethanal was found to reach less than 2 K for dilute mixes in helium. In marked contrast the vibrational temperature of the CS stretching mode of OCS was found to exceed 230 K, showing a small collision cross section for transfer of vibrational energy to the atoms of the carrier gas. The properties of the beam in the centre and at the leading and trailing edges were investigated and found to differ, with the trailing edge showing collisional decay with the buildup of static gas and a decay time of around 80 mus. The use of cavity modes showing a Doppler splitting produced an additional centre peak not theoretically predicted and showing evidence of fringing fields.

  14. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  15. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  16. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  17. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. The cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy are described. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. The 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  18. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result, it is not possible for instructors to take full advantage of this equipment. Therefore, to facilitate accessibility to this tool, we have developed a realistic computer-based simulator. Using this software, students are able to practice their ability to identify the components of the original gas, thereby gaining a better understanding of the underlying physical laws. The software is available as a free download.

  19. A 4 π dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bałanda, A.; van Klinken, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.

    1993-11-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd 2Fe 14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 π magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient ( απ) of the 15.1 MeV M1 transition from a Jπ = 1 + state to the ground state in 12C. Our experimental value of απ = (3.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -3 is in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  20. A wideband spectrometer for the SRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comoretto, G.; Natale, V.

    A radiotelescope operating at millimeter wavelengths must be able to analyze an instantaneous bandwidth of at least a few GHz in spectroscopic mode, with a number of spectral points of the order of thousands. Two solutions are examined. In the first, it is assumed that a multi-channel digital spectrometer, with a bandwidth of the order of 100 MHz for each channel, will be available. In this case, a digital filterbank derived from the experience with the ALMA correlator could be used to synthesize a total bandwidth of 1-2 GHz. For wider bandwidths, an acousto-optical spectrometer is proposed. The experience at IRA, Sez. di Firenze with these instruments is presented, and possible solutions are outlined.

  1. Data analysis for Skylab proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The data from a proton spectrometer flown aboard Skylab is examined. The instrument is sensitive to protons in the energy range 18 to 400 MeV. A partial failure of the spectrometer restricted spectral analysis to two energy bands, 18 to 27 MeV and 27 to 400 MeV. The directional data showed that a Gaussian angular distribution parameter of at least 70 degrees is required for the low energy band and at least 40 degrees for the high energy band. The data, integrated over angle, indicate that the AP3 model extrapolated down to 18-27 MeV is high by factors of 2 to 5 over most of the B-L space mapped. In the 27 to 400 MeV range, the AP3 model is 20 to 100 percent low at low and high values of L, and is high at medium L values in the B-L space mapped.

  2. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Myers, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  3. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  4. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  5. Compact chopper spectrometers for pulsed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, J.; Violini, N.; Schweika, W.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the opportunities for direct geometry chopper spectrometers (DGCS) by polychromatic illumination of the sample. At pulsed sources the use of multiple initial neutron energies appears naturally, if the repetition rate of chopper in front of the sample is larger than the repetition rate of the source. As a consequence, a large part of the spectrum is measured redundantly with variable energy and momentum transfer resolution. This can be used to optimize a chopper instrument for deep inelastic scattering, relaxing the requirements on the pulse length, by which the sample is illuminated, and on the secondary flight path, while the width of the spectral distribution must be narrowed down. This can open the path to new types of compact direct geometry chopper spectrometers, which need comparably small areas of detector coverage and allow very high repetition rates to provide a high intensity even if sample size and divergence distributions are limited.

  6. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  7. A photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, E. M.; Bezerra, E.; Scalabrin, A.

    2005-06-01

    A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed for trace gas detection with absorption transitions in coincidence with CO2 laser emission lines (9,2-10,9 μm: 920-1086 cm-1). The CO2 laser operates in 90 CW lines with power of up to 15 W. A PC-controlled step motor can tune the laser lines. The resonance frequency of first longitudinal mode of the photoacoustic cell is at 1600 Hz. The cell Q-factor and cell constant are measured close to 50 and 28 mVcmW-1, respectively. The spectrometer has been tested in preliminary studies to analyze the absorption transitions of ozone (O_3). The ethylene (C_2H_4) from papaya fruit is also investigated using N2 as carrier gas at a constant flow rate.

  8. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  9. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp; Michael P.

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  10. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  11. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  12. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  13. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  14. Few body hypernuclear systems: Weak decays

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical situation regarding mesonic and non-mesonic decays of light hypernuclei is reviewed. Although some models give reasonable results for pionic decays as well as the total weak decay rate, no existing approach explains, even qualitatively, the observed spin-isospin dependence of ..lambda..N ..-->.. NN non-mesonic weak decays. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  17. Spectrometer of high energy gamma quantums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhintsev, I. D.; Melioranskiy, A. S.; Kalinkin, L. F.; Nagornykh, Y. I.; Pryakhin, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the apparatus GG-2M is given. The spectrometer contains a Cerenkov and scintillation (including anticoincidence) counter. The energies of the gamma quantums are measured by a shower calorimeter, in which scintillation counters are used in the capacity of detectors. Results are given for tuning the device on mu-mesons of cosmic rays. The data of physical tuning allow more reliable interpretation of the results of measurements which are received on the satellites.

  18. The Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is presented for a tunable far infrared laser spectrometer based on frequency mixing of an optically pumped molecular gas laser with tunable microwave radiation in a Schottky point contact diode. The system has been operated on over 30 laser lines in the range 10-100/cm and exhibits a maximum absorption sensitivity near one part in a million. Each laser line can be tuned by + or - 110 GHz with first-order sidebands.

  19. Midrapidity measurements with the BRAHMS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, D.

    1995-07-15

    The forward- and midrapidity-arms of the BRAHMS experiment are designed to measure charged particle production over a wide range of transverse momentum for rapidities, 0{le}y{le}4. Details of the midrapidity spectrometer, which provides coverage for 0{le}{eta}{le}1.3, are presented here. The capabilities for inclusive {pi}{sup +-}, K{sup +-}, and p{sup +-} measurements and boson pair correlations are discussed.

  20. Time Dispersive Spectrometer Using Digital Switching Means

    DOEpatents

    Tarver, III, Edward E.; Siems, William F.

    2004-09-07

    Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

  1. Pulsed millimeter wave Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Leskovar, B.

    1986-09-01

    An improved pulsed microwave spectrometer for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules in the frequency range of 130-150 GHz is described. It incorporates a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity and a low noise superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. The molecules are excited by pi/2 pulses provided by a high efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at an IF frequency of 1.4 GHz.

  2. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  3. Calibration and monitoring of spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Frings, C S; Broussard, L A

    1979-06-01

    We have delineated some of the factors affecting the performance of spectrometers and spectrophotometers in the clinical laboratory and have presented some of the methods for verifying that these instruments are functioning properly. At a minimum, every laboratory should perform periodic inspections of spectrometric functions to check wavelength calibration, linearity of detector response, and stray radiation. Only through such an inspection program can a laboratory ensure that these instruments are not contributing to inaccurate analytical results.

  4. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  5. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  6. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Betamore » Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.« less

  7. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Beta Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.

  8. Charged-particle Decay of the Isoscalar giant dipole resonance in ^58Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Hunyadi, Matyas; Garg, Umesh; Hoffman, Joe; Nayak, B. K.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Itoh, M.; Murakami, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Kishi, S.; Sakaguchi, H.; Terashima, S.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2004-10-01

    The isoscalar giant dipole resonance(ISGDR) has been measured by single experiments with the use of inelastic α-scattering in many nuclei[1]. However, information on its decay properties is scarce. The decay properties, especially the relative population and total strength of hole states in the (A-1) nucleus resulting from particle decay of giant resonance in nuclei can provide crucial tests for the microscopic model calculations. Caculations based on continuum-RPA approach have recently become abailable and provide results on partial branching ratios for direct neutron and proton decay of ISGDR [2]. We report on a coincidence experiment searching for these direct particle decay branches from the ISGDR in the nucleus ^58Ni. The experiment was performed at the RCNP, Osaka University, using inelastic α-scattering at a beam energy of 400 MeV. The inelastically scattered α particles were detected by the magnetic spectrometer ``Grand Raiden'' at 2.5^rc, with the decay protons detected by a set of sixteen Si(Li) detectors with a thickness of 5.0 mm and an effective area of 400 mm^2 each placed at backward angles. The result for the observed final states in ^57Co will be presented and compared with the theoretical calculations. References: [1] M.Uchida et al., Phys.Rev. C 69, 051301 (2004), [2] M.L. Gorelik et al., Phys. Rev. C 69, 054322 (2004)

  9. Modular reconfigurable matched spectral filter spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schundler, Elizabeth; Engel, James R.; Gruber, Thomas; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Mansur, David J.; Dixon, John; Potter, Kevin; Newbry, Scott

    2015-06-01

    OPTRA is currently developing a modular, reconfigurable matched spectral filter (RMSF) spectrometer for the monitoring of greenhouse gases. The heart of this spectrometer will be the RMSF core, which is a dispersive spectrometer that images the sample spectrum from 2000 - 3333 cm-1 onto a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) such that different columns correspond to different wavebands. By applying masks to this DMD, a matched spectral filter can be applied in hardware. The core can then be paired with different fore-optics or detector modules to achieve active in situ or passive remote detection of the chemicals of interest. This results in a highly flexible system that can address a wide variety of chemicals by updating the DMD masks and a wide variety of applications by swapping out fore-optic and detector modules. In either configuration, the signal on the detector is effectively a dot-product between the applied mask and the sample spectrum that can be used to make detection and quantification determinations. Using this approach significantly reduces the required data bandwidth of the sensor without reducing the information content, therefore making it ideal for remote, unattended systems. This paper will focus on the design of the RMSF core.

  10. The compact neutron spectrometer at ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Zimbal, A.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schuhmacher, H.; Tardini, G.; Neu, R.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-12-15

    The first neutron spectrometer of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) was installed in November 2008. It is a compact neutron spectrometer (CNS) based on a BC501A liquid scintillating detector, which can simultaneously measure 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted from deuterium (D) plasmas and {gamma} radiation. The scintillating detector is coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination data acquisition (DPSD) system capable of count rates up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The DPSD system can operate in acquisition and processing mode. With the latter n-{gamma} discrimination is performed off-line based on the two-gate method. The paper describes the tests of the CNS and its installation at AUG. The neutron emission from the D plasma measured during a discharge with high auxiliary heating power was used to validate the CNS performance. The study of the optimal settings for the DPSD data processing to maximize the n-{gamma} discrimination capability of the CNS is reported. The CNS measured both 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted in AUG D plasmas with a maximum count rate of 5.4 x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (>10 times higher than similar spectrometers previously achieved) with an efficiency of 9.3 x 10{sup -10} events per AUG neutron.

  11. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  12. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  13. Prismatic analyser concept for neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, Jonas O.; Jacobsen, Johan; Hansen, Rasmus L.; Lefmann, Kim; Markó, Márton; Niedermayer, Christof; Freeman, Paul G.; Christensen, Niels B.; Månsson, Martin; Rønnow, Henrik M.

    2014-11-15

    Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor of 2.4 in flux gain compared to a single flat analyser slab.

  14. Real-time Raman sensing without spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho; Yang, Timothy K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bae, Sung Chul

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in various fields of science and technology ranging from analytical chemistry to biomedical imaging. In spite of unique features, Raman spectroscopy has also some limitations. Among them are weak Raman signal compared to strong fluorescence and relatively complicated setup with expensive and bulky spectrometer. In order to increase the sensitivity of Raman technique, many clever attempts have been made and some of them were very successful including CARS, SRS, and so on. However, these still requires expensive and more complicated setup. In this work, we have attempted to build a real-time compact Raman sensor without spectrometer. Conventional spectrometer was replaced with a narrow-band optical filter and alternatively modulated two lasers with slightly different wavelengths. At one laser, Raman signal from a target molecule was transmitted through the optical filter. At the other laser, this signal was blocked by the optical filter and could not be detected by photon detector. The alternative modulation of two lasers will modulate the Raman signal from a target molecule at the same modulation frequency. This modulated weak Raman signal was amplified by a lock-in amplifier. The advantages of this setup include compactness, low cost, real-time monitoring, and so on. We have tested the sensitivity of this setup and we found that it doesn't have enough sensitivity to detect single molecule-level, but it is still good enough to monitor the change of major chemical composition in the sample.

  15. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  16. The wide-angle neutron spin echo spectrometer project WASP

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design and optimization for the wide angle spin-echo spectrometer (WASP) presently being planned at the ILL. The spectrometer will be a replacement for the high intensity spectrometer IN11 and will enhance its signal by more than one order of magnitude while maintaining the resolution of the present spectrometer. The paper outlines the magnetic field calculations and the considerations about possible limitations. The projected performance has been verified carefully by Monte Carlo raytracing and Biot-Savart magnetic field calculations. The maximum momentum transfer of the new spectrometer is to be extended to 4 angstroms {sup -1}.

  17. FIP BIAS EVOLUTION IN A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Yardley, S. L.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. van; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.

    2015-04-01

    Solar coronal plasma composition is typically characterized by first ionization potential (FIP) bias. Using spectra obtained by Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer instrument, we present a series of large-scale, spatially resolved composition maps of active region (AR)11389. The composition maps show how FIP bias evolves within the decaying AR during the period 2012 January 4–6. Globally, FIP bias decreases throughout the AR. We analyzed areas of significant plasma composition changes within the decaying AR and found that small-scale evolution in the photospheric magnetic field is closely linked to the FIP bias evolution observed in the corona. During the AR’s decay phase, small bipoles emerging within supergranular cells reconnect with the pre-existing AR field, creating a pathway along which photospheric and coronal plasmas can mix. The mixing timescales are shorter than those of plasma enrichment processes. Eruptive activity also results in shifting the FIP bias closer to photospheric in the affected areas. Finally, the FIP bias still remains dominantly coronal only in a part of the AR’s high-flux density core. We conclude that in the decay phase of an AR’s lifetime, the FIP bias is becoming increasingly modulated by episodes of small-scale flux emergence, i.e., decreasing the AR’s overall FIP bias. Our results show that magnetic field evolution plays an important role in compositional changes during AR development, revealing a more complex relationship than expected from previous well-known Skylab results showing that FIP bias increases almost linearly with age in young ARs.

  18. Ultra-compact holographic spectrometers for diffuse source spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chaoray

    Compact and sensitive spectrometers are of high utility in biological and environmental sensing applications. Over the past half century, enormous research resources are dedicated in making the spectrometers more compact and sensitive. However, since all works are based on the same structure of the conventional spectrometers, the improvement on the performance is limited. Therefore, this ancient research filed still deserves further investigation, and a revolutionary idea is required to take the spectrometers to a whole new level. The research work presented in this thesis focuses on developing a new class of spectrometers that work based on diffractive properties of volume holograms. The hologram in these spectrometers acts as a spectral diversity filter, which maps different input wavelengths into different locations in the output plane. The experimental results show that properly designed volume holograms have excellent capability for separating different wavelength channels of a collimated incident beam. By adding a Fourier transforming lens behind the hologram, a slitless Fourier-transform volume holographic spectrometer is demonstrated, and it works well under diffuse light without using any spatial filter (i.e., slit) in the input. By further design of the hologram, a very compact slitless and lensless spectrometer is implemented for diffuse source spectroscopy by using only a volume hologram and a CCD camera. More sophisticated output patterns are also demonstrated using specially designed holograms to improve the performance of the holographic spectrometers. Finally, the performance of the holographic spectrometers is evaluated and the building of the holographic spectrometer prototype is also discussed.

  19. Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

  20. New generation VNIR/SWIR/TIR airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueming; Wei, Liqin; Yuan, Liyin; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Xie, Feng; Han, Guicheng; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-10-01

    Imaging spectrometer plays an important role in the remote sensing application. Imaging spectrometer can collects and provides a unique spectral signature of many materials. The spectral signature may be absorbing, reflecting, and emitting. Generally, optical spectral bands for earth observing consist of VNIR, SWIR, TIR/LWIR. VNIR band imaging spectrometer is well-known in vegetation remote sensing and ocean detection. SWIR band imaging spectrometer is widely applied in mineralogy investigation. For its uniquely capability of spectral radiance measurement, TIR/LWIR imaging spectrometer attracts much attention these years. This paper will present a new generation VNIR/SWIR/TIR imaging spectrometer. The preliminary result of its first flight will also be shared. The spectral sampling intervals of VNIR/SWIR/TIR are 2.4nm/3nm/30nm, respectively. The spatial pixel numbers are 2800/1400/700,respectively. It's a push-broom imaging spectrometer.

  1. Decay curve study in a standard electron capture decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, D.; Fukuda, M.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Makisaka, K.; Matsumiya, R.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Izumikawa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2010-05-12

    We have searched for a time-modulated decay in a standard electron capture experiment for {sup 140}Pr, in order to confirm a report from GSI, where an oscillatory decay has been observed for hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr and {sup 142}Pm ions in the cooler storage ring. {sup 140}Pr has been produced with the {sup 140}Ce(p, n) reaction by a pulsed proton beam accelerated from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. Resultant time dependence of the K{sub a}lpha and K{sub b}eta X-ray intensities from the daughter shows no oscillatory behavior.

  2. Design of a k-space spectrometer for ultra-broad waveband spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Gongpu; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear sampling of the interferograms in wavenumber (k) space degrades the depth-dependent signal sensitivity in conventional spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Here we report a linear-in-wavenumber (k-space) spectrometer for an ultra-broad bandwidth (760 nm–920 nm) SD-OCT, whereby a combination of a grating and a prism serves as the dispersion group. Quantitative ray tracing is applied to optimize the linearity and minimize the optical path differences for the dispersed wavenumbers. Zemax simulation is used to fit the point spread functions to the rectangular shape of the pixels of the line-scan camera and to improve the pixel sampling rates. An experimental SD-OCT is built to test and compare the performance of the k-space spectrometer with that of a conventional one. Design results demonstrate that this k-space spectrometer can reduce the nonlinearity error in k-space from 14.86% to 0.47% (by approximately 30 times) compared to the conventional spectrometer. The 95% confidence interval for RMS diameters is 5.48 ± 1.76 μm—significantly smaller than both the pixel size (14 μm × 28 μm) and the Airy disc (25.82 μm in diameter, calculated at the wavenumber of 7.548 μm−1). Test results demonstrate that the fall-off curve from the k-space spectrometer exhibits much less decay (maximum as −5.20 dB) than the conventional spectrometer (maximum as –16.84 dB) over the whole imaging depth (2.2 mm). PMID:28266502

  3. Design of a k-space spectrometer for ultra-broad waveband spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Gongpu; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear sampling of the interferograms in wavenumber (k) space degrades the depth-dependent signal sensitivity in conventional spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Here we report a linear-in-wavenumber (k-space) spectrometer for an ultra-broad bandwidth (760 nm–920 nm) SD-OCT, whereby a combination of a grating and a prism serves as the dispersion group. Quantitative ray tracing is applied to optimize the linearity and minimize the optical path differences for the dispersed wavenumbers. Zemax simulation is used to fit the point spread functions to the rectangular shape of the pixels of the line-scan camera and to improve the pixel sampling rates. An experimental SD-OCT is built to test and compare the performance of the k-space spectrometer with that of a conventional one. Design results demonstrate that this k-space spectrometer can reduce the nonlinearity error in k-space from 14.86% to 0.47% (by approximately 30 times) compared to the conventional spectrometer. The 95% confidence interval for RMS diameters is 5.48 ± 1.76 μm—significantly smaller than both the pixel size (14 μm × 28 μm) and the Airy disc (25.82 μm in diameter, calculated at the wavenumber of 7.548 μm‑1). Test results demonstrate that the fall-off curve from the k-space spectrometer exhibits much less decay (maximum as ‑5.20 dB) than the conventional spectrometer (maximum as –16.84 dB) over the whole imaging depth (2.2 mm).

  4. Measurement of the Michel parameter {rho} in normal muon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, X.; Amann, J.F.; Bolton, R.D.; Chen, Y.; Cooper, M.D.; Cooper, P.S.; Dzemidzic, M.; Foreman, W.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Haim, D.; Harrison, R.; Hart, G.; Hogan, G.E.; Hungerford, E.V. III; Jui, C.C.H.; Knott, J.E.; Koetke, D.D.; Kozlowski, T.; Kroupa, M.A.; Lan, K.; Liu, F.; Manweiler, R.; Mayes, B.W. II; Mischke, R.E.; Otis, J.N.; Piilonen, L.E.

    1995-07-10

    A new measurement of the Michel parameter {rho} in normal muon decay has been performed using the MEGA positron spectrometer. Over 500 million triggers were recorded and the data are currently being analyzed. The previous result has a precision on the value of {rho}{plus_minus}0.0026. The present experiment expects to improve the precision to {plus_minus}0.0008 or better. The improved result will be a precise test of the standard model of electroweak interactions for a purely leptonic process. It also will provide a better constraint on the {ital W}{sub {ital R}}{minus}{ital W}{sub {ital L}} mixing angle in the left-right symmetric models. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer coupled with the Lohengrin spectrometer for fission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessedjian, G.; Chebboubi, A.; Faust, H.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Sage, C.; Serot, O.

    2013-03-01

    The accurate knowledge of the fission of actinides is necessary for studies of innovative nuclear reactor concepts. The fission yields have a direct influence on the evaluation of the fuel inventory or the reactor residual power after shutdown. A collaboration between the ILL, LPSC and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at ILL in order to measure the isotopic and isomeric yields. The method is illustrated using the 233U(n,f)98Y reaction. However, the extracted beam from the Lohengrin spectrometer is not isobaric ions which limits the low yield measurements. Presently, the coupling of the Lohengrin spectrometer with a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM) is studied at the ILL in order to define and validate the enhanced purification of the extracted beam. This work will present the results of the spectrometer characterisation, along with a comparison with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation especially developed for this purpose.

  6. EC decay of 244Bk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Palit, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Berkelium isotopes have been produced in 11B-induced reaction on 238U. The EC decay of 244Bk → 244Cm has been studied by carrying out the single and coincidence measurements of the γ-rays emitted during the de-excitation of the 244Cm levels. Radiochemical separations have been carried out to minimize the contribution from the fission products and target. The new half-life of 244Bk is obtained as 5.02 ± 0.03 h, which is close to the theoretically calculated value. The relative intensities of the decay γ-rays have been re-evaluated. Based on the coincidence measurements, a tentative partial level scheme for 244Bk → 244Cm decay has been proposed.

  7. Charmless B decays involving baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    1988-02-01

    Predictions are made for the fraction of B-meson decays involving specific final states of NN¯+nπ (n>=0), as functions of (a) decay dynamics, (b) models for multipion production, (c) the isospin of the final state, and (d) the ratio ||Vbu/Vbc|| of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements. From recent observations of B+-->pp¯π+(+c.c.) and B0-->pp¯π+π- by the ARGUS Collaboration, it is concluded that ||Vbu/Vbc||>~0.08, similar to the ARGUS Collaboration's own estimate of 0.07. However, a more likely value for this ratio is near its present experimental upper limit. Predictions are made for further final states in NN¯+nπ and in other charmless B decays. We also comment briefly on prospects for observing CP violation in B-->NN¯+nπ.

  8. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazard, Derek E.; Petrov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays M →ℓ1ℓ¯ 2 of quarkonium states M with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating M →γ ℓ1ℓ¯ 2 decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  9. Studies of Ion Acoustic Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.P.; Bauer, B.S.; Baker, K.L. |

    1994-03-07

    In this project, we advanced knowledge of Ion Acoustic Decay on several fronts. In this project, we have developed and demonstrated the capability to perform experimental and theoretical studies of the Ion Acoustic Decay Instability. We have at the same time demonstrated an improved capability to do multichannel spectroscopy and Thomson scattering. We made the first observations of the time-resolved second harmonic emission at several angles simultaneously, and the first observations of the emission both parallel and perpendicular to the electric field of the laser light. We used Thomson scattering to make the first observations of the plasma waves driven by acoustic decay in a warm plasma with long density scale lengths. We also advanced both the linear and the nonlinear theory of this instability. We are thus prepared to perform experiments to address this mechanism as needed for applications.

  10. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  11. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  12. Decay of capillary wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Deike, Luc; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We report on the observation of freely decaying capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The capillary wave turbulence spectrum decay is found to be self-similar in time with the same power law exponent as the one found in the stationary regime, in agreement with weak turbulence predictions. The amplitude of all Fourier modes are found to decrease exponentially with time at the same damping rate. The longest wavelengths involved in the system are shown to be damped by a viscous surface boundary layer. These long waves play the role of an energy source during the decay that sustains nonlinear interactions to keep capillary waves in a wave turbulent state.

  13. Electronic decay through carbon chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleff, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    Using the multielectron wave-packet propagation method the electronic decay of O2s vacancy in fluorinated cumulenones, OCnF2 , containing a chain of up to five carbons is traced in time and space. It is shown that in all studied cases this state decays non-locally by emitting an electron from the remote fluorines. Even in the pentatetraenone case, where the oxygen and the flourines are more than 7 Å apart, this non-local decay is extremely efficient, with a time constant of about 5 fs. The process can be viewed as an ultrafast energy transfer through the carbon chain and thus our systematic study allows to shed some light on the dependence of the time scale of the electron-correlation driven energy transfer through a medium.

  14. Luminescence decay of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Uttamchandani, D.; Sander, D.; O'Donnell, K. P.

    1993-04-01

    The luminescence decay pattern of porous silicon samples prepared by electrochemical etching is characterised experimentally by a non-exponential profile, a strong dependence on temperature and an absence of spectral diffusion. We describe this luminescence as carrier-dopping-assisted recombination. Following the correlation function approach to non-dispersive transport developed by Scher and co-workers [Physics Today 41 (1991) 26], we suggest a simple derivation of analytical functions which accurately describes the anomalous luminescence decay of porous silicon, and show that this model includes exponential and Kohlrausch [Pogg. Ann. Phys. 119 (1863) 352] (stretched-exponential) relaxations as special cases.

  15. Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): evaluation of the main 233Pa decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P; Kuzmenko, Nikolay K

    2006-01-01

    The results of a decay data evaluation are presented for 233Pa (beta-) decay to nuclear levels in 233U. These evaluated data have been obtained within the Decay Data Evaluation Project using information published up to 2005.

  16. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  17. Spectrometers for RF breakdown studies for CLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacewicz, M.; Ziemann, V.; Ekelöf, T.; Dubrovskiy, A.; Ruber, R.

    2016-08-01

    An e+e- collider of several TeV energy will be needed for the precision studies of any new physics discovered at the LHC collider at CERN. One promising candidate is CLIC, a linear collider which is based on a two-beam acceleration scheme that efficiently solves the problem of power distribution to the acceleration structures. The phenomenon that currently prevents achieving high accelerating gradients in high energy accelerators such as the CLIC is the electrical breakdown at very high electrical field. The ongoing experimental work within the CLIC collaboration is trying to benchmark the theoretical models focusing on the physics of vacuum breakdown which is responsible for the discharges. In order to validate the feasibility of accelerating structures and observe the characteristics of the vacuum discharges and their eroding effects on the structure two dedicated spectrometers are now commissioned at the high-power test-stands at CERN. First, the so called Flashbox has opened up a possibility for non-invasive studies of the emitted breakdown currents during two-beam acceleration experiments. It gives a unique possibility to measure the energy of electrons and ions in combination with the arrival time spectra and to put that in context with accelerated beam, which is not possible at any of the other existing test-stands. The second instrument, a spectrometer for detection of the dark and breakdown currents, is operated at one of the 12 GHz stand-alone test-stands at CERN. Built for high repetition rate operation it can measure the spatial and energy distributions of the electrons emitted from the acceleration structure during a single RF pulse. Two new analysis tools: discharge impedance tracking and tomographic image reconstruction, applied to the data from the spectrometer make possible for the first time to obtain the location of the breakdown inside the structure both in the transversal and longitudinal direction thus giving a more complete picture of the

  18. Reactor Decay Heat in {sup 239}Pu: Solving the {gamma} Discrepancy in the 4-3000-s Cooling Period

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Jordan, D.; Tain, J. L.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Molina, F.; Caballero, L.; Nacher, E.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Hunyadi, M. D.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Aeysto, J.; Penttilae, H.; Moore, I. D.; Eronen, T.; Jokinen, A.

    2010-11-12

    The {beta} feeding probability of {sup 102,104,105,106,107}Tc, {sup 105}Mo, and {sup 101}Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the {gamma} component of the decay heat for {sup 239}Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  19. Reactor decay heat in 239Pu: solving the γ discrepancy in the 4-3000-s cooling period.

    PubMed

    Algora, A; Jordan, D; Taín, J L; Rubio, B; Agramunt, J; Perez-Cerdan, A B; Molina, F; Caballero, L; Nácher, E; Krasznahorkay, A; Hunyadi, M D; Gulyás, J; Vitéz, A; Csatlós, M; Csige, L; Aysto, J; Penttilä, H; Moore, I D; Eronen, T; Jokinen, A; Nieminen, A; Hakala, J; Karvonen, P; Kankainen, A; Saastamoinen, A; Rissanen, J; Kessler, T; Weber, C; Ronkainen, J; Rahaman, S; Elomaa, V; Rinta-Antila, S; Hager, U; Sonoda, T; Burkard, K; Hüller, W; Batist, L; Gelletly, W; Nichols, A L; Yoshida, T; Sonzogni, A A; Peräjärvi, K

    2010-11-12

    The β feeding probability of (102,104,105,106,107)Tc, 105Mo, and 101Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the γ component of the decay heat for 239Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  20. Decay of the Iπ=8- isomeric state in 134Nd and 184Pt studied by electron and γ spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkowski, J.; Andrzejewski, J.; Droste, Ch.; Janiak, Ł.; Grodner, E.; Rohoziński, S. G.; Próchniak, L.; Srebrny, J.; Samorajczyk-Pyśk, J.; Abraham, T.; Hadyńska-KlÈ©k, K.; Kisieliński, M.; Komorowska, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kownacki, J.; Marchlewski, T.; Mierzejewski, J.; Napiorkowski, P.; Stolarz, A.; Korman, A.; Zielińska, M.

    2017-01-01

    The properties of the K -isomer decays in the 134Nd and 184Pt nuclei have been investigated. Measurements were carried out in e -γ and γ -γ coincidence modes using electron spectrometers coupled to the central European Array for Gamma Levels Evaluations at the Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. Internal conversion coefficients were obtained for transitions relevant to the decay of the isomeric states, allowing the determination of multipolarities and mixing ratios as well as hindrance factors. Two possible causes of the weakening of the K forbiddenness, namely rotational K mixing (Coriolis interaction) and triaxiality, are briefly discussed using schematic theoretical models.

  1. Reactor Decay Heat in 239Pu: Solving the Gamma Discrepancy in the 4–3000-s Cooling Period

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Sonzogni, A.; Algora,A.; Jordan,D.; Tain,J.L.; Rubio,B.; Agramunt,J.; Perez-Cerdan,A.B.; Molina,F; Caballero,L.; Nacher,E.; Krasznahorkay,A.; Hunyadi,M.D.; Gulyas,J; Vitez,A.; Csatlos,M.; Csige,L.; Aysto,J.; Penttila,H.; Moore,I.D.; Eronen,T.; Jokinen,A.; Nieminen,A.; Hakala,J.; Karvonen,P.; Kankainen,A.; Saastamoinen,A.; Rissanen,J.; Kessler,T.; Weber,C.; Ronkainen,J.; Rahaman,S.; Elomaa,V.; Rinta-Antila,S.; Hager,U.; Sonoda,T.; Burkard,K.; Huller,W.; Batist,L.; Gelletly,W.; Nichols,A.L.; Yoshida,T.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Perajarvi,K.

    2010-11-08

    The {beta} feeding probability of {sup 102,104,105,106,107}Tc, {sup 105}Mo, and {sup 101}Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the {gamma} component of the decay heat for {sup 239}Pu in the 4-3000 s range.

  2. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  3. UV Spectrometer System AFGL 801 A HUP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    metallic tipped screws around the edge. Two screws on each side permit the necessary adjustments along the X and Y axis as well as rotation about the Z axis...mounting pads contact the mirror. The mirror is constrained around the sides and back by non-metallic tipped screws. The mirrors were aluminized and...FIGURE 13. 4.5 SLITS The precision machined slits used in the -9- spectrometers are cut on standard punched blanks. Separate blanks are used to produce the

  4. The High Rigidity Spectrometer for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T.

    2016-06-01

    The High Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) is being developed to make optimum use of the fast rare-isotope beams that will be available at the Facility for Rare-Isotope Beams (FRIB) and will be the key experimental tool to study the most exotic, neutron-rich nuclei. The HRS will accommodate detector systems for charged particles, neutrons, and gamma rays. This will enable coincidence measurements of reaction products that stem from a variety of reactions such as knockout, breakup, charge exchange or Coulomb excitation. First-order ion optical studies are under way and this paper will offer some details on the current design ideas.

  5. Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

    NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous

  6. Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Engineering Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Shoen, Steven S.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) successfully completed its first set of engineering test flights. HyTES was developed in support of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). HyspIRI is one of the Tier II Decadal Survey missions. HyTES currently provides both high spectral resolution (17 nm) and high spatial resolution (2-5m) data in the thermal infrared (7.5-12 micron) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. HyTES data will be used to help determine the optimum band positions for the HyspIRI Thermal Infrared (TIR) sensor and provide antecedent data for HyspIRI related studies.

  7. Conceptual design of a Disk Chopper Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Copley, J.R.D.

    1997-09-01

    We describe methods that we have used for the conceptual design of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the Cold Neutron Research Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most of the discussion concerns the multiple chopper system. No single design method is best in every situation. We believe that an analytical approach is preferable, whenever possible. Graphical methods of expressing problems have been very instructive. We have also found it useful, and occasionally invaluable, to cross-check results obtained using different methods, such as analytical integration and ray-tracing.

  8. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  10. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-07-29

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

  11. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  12. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-06-07

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  13. An on-line Kerr spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, G.; Vasilescu, D.

    1991-10-01

    A transient electric birefringence computerized spectrometer inducing Kerr effect in anisotropically polarizable solutions such as DNA is described. Rectangular unipolar or bipolar pulses up to 400 V (I<10 A) can be applied to solutions with relatively high conductivity. The software developed for recording the signal in a PC/AT computer, interpreting the shape of the signals and plotting the experimental and theoretical curves, is also described. The software is written in turbo Pascal 5.0, except for the Labcard driver, which is in 80286 assembly language. The performances of the apparatus have been checked on various DNA solutions.

  14. Microwave spectrometer for saturated absorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Legrand, J; Ségard, B; Krosta, A; Macke, B

    1978-04-01

    A spectrometer has been built to perform Doppler-free saturated absorption experiments in the millimeter range (30-300 GHz); a plane-cylindrical resonator between Stark plates has been used. With that device, inverted Lamb-dips have been observed at 115 GHz with a width 25 times below the Doppler width. However, the essential feature of this apparatus is to allow the application of Stark field typically of 2500 V/cm, leading to such specific uses as the Stark tuned Lamb-dip, level-crossing, and mode-crossing experiments. Typical examples are given and other applications are proposed.

  15. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  16. Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

  17. The Berkeley EUV spectrometer for ORFEUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel EUV spectrometer is presented for the ORFEUS-SPAS mission. It uses a set of four varied line-space spherical diffraction gratings to obtain high-resolution spectra of point sources at wavelengths between 390 and 1200 A. The spectra are recorded with two detector units, each containing curved-surface microchannel plates and a delay-line anode-readout system. An independent optical system detects the image of the source in the entrance aperture and tracks the source as it drifts during an observation, enabling a reconstruction of the spectra postflight. The overall system performance is discussed and illustrated by synthetic spectra.

  18. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  19. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, M; Springston, S; Koontz, A; Aiken, A

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  20. Experiment S-191 visible and infrared spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnell, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication test, and utilization of the visible and infrared spectrometer portion of the S-191 experiment, part of the Earth Resources Experiment Package, on board Skylab is discussed. The S-191 program is described, as well as conclusions and recommendations for improvement of this type of instrument for future applications. Design requirements, instrument design approaches, and the test verification program are presented along with test results, including flight hardware calibration data. A brief discussion of operation during the Skylab mission is included. Documentation associated with the program is listed.

  1. Verifying the HETG spectrometer Rowland design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stage, Michael D.; Dewey, Daniel

    1998-11-01

    The HETGS on AXAF is the coordinated operation of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), the high-energy transmission grating (HETG), and the grating-readout array of the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S). XRCF calibration data are analyzed to verify the Rowland geometry design of the HETGS. In particular, ACIS-S imaging of quadrant shutter focus test is used to probe the focus, alignment, and astigmatism of the spectra produced by diffraction through the high and medium energy gratings of the HETG. The experimental results are compared to expected values and to results obtained with the AXAF simulator, MARX.

  2. Neutron Detection with a Cryogenic Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Lamberti, V.E.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.

    2003-06-23

    Cryogenic calorimeters are used for x-ray detection because of their exquisite energy resolution and have found application in x-ray astronomy, and the search for dark matter. These devices operate by detecting the heat pulse produced by ionization in an absorber cooled to temperatures below 1 K. Such temperatures are needed to lower the absorber's heat capacity to the point that the deposition of even a few eV results in a measurable temperature excursion. Typical absorbers for dark matter measurements are massive Si or Ge crystals, and, with Ge, have achieved a resolution of 650 eV at 10 keV. Chow, et al., report the measurement of the 60 keV emission from {sup 241}Am with 230 eV resolution using a superconducting tin absorber. Cunningham, et al., also using a superconducting tin absorber, have recently reported a four-fold improvement over Chow. With such results being reported from the x- and gamma-ray world it is natural to examine the possibilities for cryogenic neutron spectroscopy. Such a detector would operate by detecting the heat pulses caused by neutron capture and scattering. To date, {sup 6}LiF has been the absorber of choice because relatively large crystals can be grown, and it is an insulating material with low heat capacity. Silver reports the fabrication of a {sup 6}LiF spectrometer operating at 328 mK and achieving a resolution of 39 keV. De Marcillac reports the fabrication of a spectrometer operating at 80 mK and achieving 16 keV resolution when bombarded with 5 MeV alpha particles. In this paper, we report preliminary results with a TiB{sub 2} absorber exposed to thermal neutrons. In contrast to lithium, whose chemistry selects for LiF as the absorber, boron offers a rich chemistry from which to select materials with high boron content. We will discuss the considerations governing the choice of absorber material as well as the basic considerations needed to understand a cryogenic spectrometer. The capture and scattering reactions in boron and

  3. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  4. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  5. The ion mass spectrometer on Giotto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Benson, J.; Hemmerich, P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer (IMS) system, its calibration, and the initial flight performance are discussed. The IMS system consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer coma, the other for the inner coma, with each sensor obtaining complementary information in the region for which it was not optimized. Both sensors feature mass-imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by means of multi-detector arrays, with resultant mass per charge resolution of not less than 20. In addition to mass per charge, the energy per charge and the elevation and azimuth of the incident ions were measured during the Giotto flight.

  6. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, S. F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments. PMID:28053458

  7. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Trevino, S F

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  8. The 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, and accuracy of an 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer, an FM-CW system which employs a dual antenna system, is described. The antennas, transmitter, and a portion of the receiver are mounted at the top of a 26 meter hydraulic boom which is in turn mounted on a truck for system mobility. HH and VV polarized measurements are possible at incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 80 deg. Calibration is accomplished by referencing the measurements against a Luneberg lens of known radar cross section.

  9. Compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer utilizing reflective grating

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-27

    An imaging spectrometer apparatus comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a light means for receiving the light and directing the light, a grating that receives the light from the light means and defracts the light back onto the light means which focuses the light, and a detector that receives the focused light. In one embodiment the light means is a rotationally symmetric ZNSE aspheric lens. In another embodiment the light means comprises two ZNSE aspheric lenses that are coaxial. In another embodiment the light means comprises an aspheric mirror and a ZNSE aspheric lens.

  10. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  11. Fermi's β-DECAY Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Throughout his lifetime Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) had considered his 1934 β-decay theory as his most important contribution to theoretical physics. E. Segrè (1905-1989) had vividly written about an episode at the inception of that paper:1...

  12. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1990-09-30

    This report discusses the nuclear structure of the following isotopes as a result of radioactive decays: neutron-deficient iridium isotopes; neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; neutron-deficient gold isotopes; neutron-deficient mercury isotopes; neutron-deficient thallium isotopes; neutron-deficient lead isotopes; neutron-deficient promethium isotopes; and neutron-deficient samarium isotopes.

  13. Rare B decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, Sinead M.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-10-01

    The confidence level limits of the CDF search for the B{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rare decays and the branching ratio measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -} are presented.

  14. Review of tau lepton decays

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of the {tau} decay modes are reviewed and compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. While the agreement is generally good, the status of the 1-prong puzzle'' remains controversial and a discrepancy between the measured leptonic branching fractions and the {tau} lifetime persists. Prospects for precision measurements at a Tau-Charm Factory are also reviewed. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Family symmetries and proton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi |; Kaplan, D.B.

    1994-08-01

    The proton decay modes p {yields} K{sup 0}e{sup +} and p {yields} K{sup 0}{mu}{sup +} may be visible in certain supersymmetric theories, and if seen would provide evidence for new flavor physics at extremely short distances. These decay modes can arise from the dimension five operator (Q{sub 1}Q{sub 1}Q{sub 2}L{sub 1,2}), where Q{sub i} and L{sub i} are i{sup th} generation quark and lepton superfields respectively. Such an operator is not generated at observable levels due to gauge or Higgs boson exchange in a minimal GUT. However in theories that explain the fermion mass hierarchy, it may be generated at the Planck scale with a strength such that the decays p {yields} K{sup 0}{ell}{sup +} are both compatible with the proton lifetime and visible at Super-Kamiokande. Observable proton decay can even occur in theories without unification.

  16. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-10-03

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers.

  17. The rotating spectrometer: Biotechnology for cell separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1991-01-01

    An instrument for biochemical studies, called the rotating spectrometer, separates previously inseparable cell cultures. The rotating spectrometer is intended for use in pharmacological studies which require fractional splitting of heterogeneous cell cultures based on cell morphology and swimming behavior. As a method to separate and concentrate cells in free solution, the rotating method requires active organism participation and can effectively split the large class of organisms known to form spontaneous patterns. Examples include the biochemical star, an organism called Tetrahymena pyriformis. Following focusing in a rotating frame, the separation is accomplished using different radial dependencies of concentrated algal and protozoan species. The focusing itself appears as concentric rings and arises from the coupling between swimming direction and Coriolis forces. A dense cut is taken at varying radii, and extraction is replenished at an inlet. Unlike standard separation and concentrating techniques such as filtration or centrifugation, the instrument is able to separate motile from immotile fractions. For a single pass, typical split efficiencies can reach 200 to 300 percent compared to the inlet concentration.

  18. Electro-optic Phase Grating Streak Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, F. J.

    2012-08-02

    The electro-optic phase grating streak spectrometer (EOPGSS) generates a time-resolved spectra equivalent to that obtained with a conventional spectrometer/streak camera combination, but without using a streak camera (by far the more expensive and problematic component of the conventional system). The EOPGSS is based on a phase, rather than an amplitude grating. Further, this grating is fabricated of electro-optic material such as, for example, KD*P, by either etching grooves into an E-O slab, or by depositing lines of the E-O material onto an optical flat. An electric field normal to the grating alters the material’s index of refraction and thus affects a shift (in angle) of the output spectrum. Ramping the voltage streaks the spectrum correspondingly. The streak and dispersion directions are the same, so a second (static, conventional) grating disperses the spectrum in the orthogonal direction to prevent different wavelengths from “overwriting” each other. Because the streaking is done by the grating, the streaked output spectrum is recorded with a time-integrating device, such as a CCD. System model, typical design, and performance expectations will be presented.

  19. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  20. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers.

  1. A Wide Field of View Plasma Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Moebius, Eberhard; Harper, Ron W.; Kihara, Keith H.; Bower, Jonathan S.

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a fundamentally new type of space plasma spectrometer, the wide field of view plasma spectrometer, whose field of view is >1.25π ster using fewer resources than traditional methods. The enabling component is analogous to a pinhole camera with an electrostatic energy-angle filter at the image plane. Particle energy-per-charge is selected with a tunable bias voltage applied to the filter plate relative to the pinhole aperture plate. For a given bias voltage, charged particles from different directions are focused by different angles to different locations. Particles with appropriate locations and angles can transit the filter plate and are measured using a microchannel plate detector with a position-sensitive anode. Full energy and angle coverage are obtained using a single high-voltage power supply, resulting in considerable resource savings and allowing measurements at fast timescales. Lastly, we present laboratory prototype measurements and simulations demonstrating the instrument concept and discuss optimizations of the instrument design for application to space measurements.

  2. A wide field of view plasma spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Möbius, E.; Harper, R. W.; Kihara, K. H.; Bower, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a fundamentally new type of space plasma spectrometer, the wide field of view plasma spectrometer, whose field of view is > 1.25π ster using fewer resources than traditional methods. The enabling component is analogous to a pinhole camera with an electrostatic energy-angle filter at the image plane. Particle energy-per-charge is selected with a tunable bias voltage applied to the filter plate relative to the pinhole aperture plate. For a given bias voltage, charged particles from different directions are focused by different angles to different locations. Particles with appropriate locations and angles can transit the filter plate and are measured using a microchannel plate detector with a position-sensitive anode. Full energy and angle coverage are obtained using a single high-voltage power supply, resulting in considerable resource savings and allowing measurements at fast timescales. We present laboratory prototype measurements and simulations demonstrating the instrument concept and discuss optimizations of the instrument design for application to space measurements.

  3. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10-11 cm-1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10-23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  4. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-06

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm(2), which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10(-11) cm(-1) absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10(-23) cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  5. Calculations for Calibration of a Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations to calibrate a quadrupole mass spectrometer in an instrumentation system for identifying trace amounts of organic chemicals in air. In the operation of the mass spectrometer, the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of ions being counted at a given instant of time is a function of the instantaneous value of a repeating ramp voltage waveform applied to electrodes. The count rate as a function of time can be converted to an m/z spectrum (equivalent to a mass spectrum for singly charged ions), provided that a calibration of m/z is available. The present computer program can perform the calibration in either or both of two ways: (1) Following a data-based approach, it can utilize the count-rate peaks and the times thereof measured when fed with air containing known organic compounds. (2) It can utilize a theoretical proportionality between the instantaneous m/z and the instantaneous value of an oscillating applied voltage. The program can also estimate the error of the calibration performed by the data-based approach. If calibrations are performed in both ways, then the results can be compared to obtain further estimates of errors.

  6. A novel Sagnac imaging polarization spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Ai, Jingjing; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Chunmin

    2017-06-01

    A novel Sagnac imaging polarization spectrometer based on a modified Sagnac interferometer (MSI) with a moving wedge prism is proposed in this paper, and it is a framing instrument with the advantages of miniaturization, variable optical path difference (OPD) and large field of view. The construction and split-beam principle of the system are described detailedly, and the exact expressions of the OPD and lateral displacement changing with different parameters are obtained. The variations of the OPD and lateral displacement as a function of the wedge angle and moving displacement are simulated, and the influences of the wedge angle on the OPD and lateral displacement are very small, while most effects come from the moving displacement. In order to obtain a larger OPD and lateral displacement, the wedge angle is controlled in a range of [ 45 ° , 50 ° ] . In addition, the influences of the dispersion effect of the glass plate on the OPD and lateral displacement are analyzed and discussed, and the suitable material choice for the MSI can reduce the influence of the dispersion effect on the OPD, which also allows the system construction spanning the spectral range of [480 nm, 960 nm]. In comparison with the conventional Sagnac interferometer with a large optical path difference (LOPDSI), the spectral resolution of the MSI can be made much higher if choosing suitable parameters. This study provides a theoretical and practical guidance for the design and engineering of the Sagnac imaging polarization spectrometer.

  7. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10−11 cm−1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10−23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed. PMID:27263858

  8. Compact Two-Dimensional Spectrometer Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John

    2008-01-01

    The figure is a simplified depiction of a proposed spectrometer optical unit that would be suitable for incorporation into a remote-sensing instrumentation system. Relative to prior spectrometer optical assemblies, this unit would be compact and simple, largely by virtue of its predominantly two-dimensional character. The proposed unit would be a combination of two optical components. One component would be an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) an integrated-optics device, developed for use in wavelength multiplexing in telecommunications. The other component would be a diffraction grating superimposed on part of the AWG. The function of an AWG is conceptually simple. Input light propagates along a single-mode optical waveguide to a point where it is split to propagate along some number (N) of side-by-side waveguides. The lengths of the optical paths along these waveguides differ such that, considering the paths in a sequence proceeding across the array of waveguides, the path length increases linearly. These waveguides launch quasi-free-space waves into a planar waveguide-coupling region. The waves propagate through this region to interfere onto an array of output waveguides. Through proper choice of key design parameters (waveguide lengths, size and shape of the waveguide coupling region, and lateral distances between waveguides), one can cause the input light to be channeled into wavelength bins nominally corresponding to the output waveguides.

  9. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers. PMID:27694981

  10. Multi-GeV electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, R.; Anelli, F.; Bacci, A.; Batani, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Benocci, R.; Benedetti, C.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Clozza, A.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Drenska, N.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fioravanti, S.; Gallo, A.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Lollo, V.; Londrillo, P.; Martellotti, S.; Pace, E.; Patack, N.; Rossi, A.; Tani, F.; Serafini, L.; Turchetti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.; Valente, P.

    2010-11-01

    The advance in laser-plasma acceleration techniques pushes the regime of the resulting accelerated particles to higher energies and intensities. In particular the upcoming experiments with the FLAME laser at LNF will enter the GeV regime with almost 1nC of electrons. From the current status of understanding of the acceleration mechanism, relatively large angular and energy spreads are expected. There is therefore the need to develop a device capable to measure the energy of electrons over three orders of magnitude (few MeV to few GeV) under still unknown angular divergences. Within the PlasmonX experiment at LNF a spectrometer is being constructed to perform these measurements. It is made of an electro-magnet and a screen made of scintillating fibers for the measurement of the trajectories of the particles. The large range of operation, the huge number of particles and the need to focus the divergence present unprecedented challenges in the design and construction of such a device. We will present the design considerations for this spectrometer and the first results from a prototype.

  11. A Wide Field of View Plasma Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Moebius, Eberhard; ...

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a fundamentally new type of space plasma spectrometer, the wide field of view plasma spectrometer, whose field of view is >1.25π ster using fewer resources than traditional methods. The enabling component is analogous to a pinhole camera with an electrostatic energy-angle filter at the image plane. Particle energy-per-charge is selected with a tunable bias voltage applied to the filter plate relative to the pinhole aperture plate. For a given bias voltage, charged particles from different directions are focused by different angles to different locations. Particles with appropriate locations and angles can transit the filter plate and aremore » measured using a microchannel plate detector with a position-sensitive anode. Full energy and angle coverage are obtained using a single high-voltage power supply, resulting in considerable resource savings and allowing measurements at fast timescales. Lastly, we present laboratory prototype measurements and simulations demonstrating the instrument concept and discuss optimizations of the instrument design for application to space measurements.« less

  12. Dedicated monolithic infrared spectrometer for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Kyle, William; Bolduc, Roy A.; Curtiss, Lawrence E.

    1999-12-01

    Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in IR fiber- optic probes and the recent development of a miniature spectrometer to build a novel IR sensor system for process applications. The developed sensor systems is a low-cost alternative to process FTIR and filter based systems. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3- 12 micrometers with resolution at 8 cm-1 or better and high overall optical throughput. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating uniquely bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning 'wedge'. The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The miniature spectrometer coupled to flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. Currently, we are investigating process applications for the petroleum and dairy markets. The sensor system eliminates the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth/resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches for low-cost process applications.

  13. Glucose determination with fiber optic spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Eva; Kemper, Ulf; Barschdorff, Dieter

    1999-05-01

    Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring is the aim of research activities concerning the detection of small glucose concentrations dissolved in water and blood plasma. One approach for these measurements is the exploitation of absorption bands in the near infrared. However, the strong absorption of water represents a major difficulty. Transmission measurements of glucose dissolved in water and in blood plasma in the spectral region around 1600 nm with one- beam spectrometers and a FT-IR spectrometer are discussed. The evaluation of the data is carried out using a two-layer Lambert-Beer model and neural networks. In order to reduce the dimensions of a potential measuring device, an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with an Erbium doped fiber amplifier as a radiation source is used. The fiber optic components are examined concerning their suitability. The smallest concentrations of glucose dissolved in water that can be separated are approximately 50 mg/dl. In the range of 50 mg/dl to 1000 mg/dl a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between real and estimated glucose concentrations is achieved using neural networks. In blood plasma so far glucose concentrations of about 100 mg/dl can be distinguished with good accuracy.

  14. Decay of COSAC and Ptolemy mass spectra at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred; Giri, Chaitanya; Wright, Ian; Morse, Andrew; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Ulamec, Stephan; Cozzoni, Barbara; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Gautier, Thomas; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Raulin, Francois; Steininger, Harald; Szopa, Cyril

    2017-03-01

    Context. The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae is equipped with two gas analysers: The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) and the gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer Ptolemy. Aims: COSAC is designed for in situ analysis of organic molecules on 67P while Ptolemy is optimised to measure ratios of stable isotopes. Methods: On 12 to 14 November 2014, both instruments measured the organic composition of the comet nucleus material through seven measurements in sniffing mode during Philae's hopping and at its final landing site Abydos. We compare the temporal evolution of intensities of several ion species identified by both mass spectrometers. For COSAC, this is the first analysis of the temporal behaviour of the measured ion species. Results: All ion species showed the highest intensities in the first spectra measured by both instruments approximately 20 to 30 min after Philae's first touchdown at Agilkia, and a decay during the six consecutive measurements at Abydos. Both instruments measured an almost identical decay of the water peak (m/z 18), and CO (m/z 28) behaved similarly. In the COSAC measurements, the peak at m/z 44 decays much slower than all the other ion species, including the water peak. In particular, the m/z 44 peak decays much slower in the COSAC measurements than in the Ptolemy data. This supports our earlier interpretation that COSAC analysed, for the first time, a regolith sample from a cometary nucleus in situ, while Ptolemy measured cometary gas from the ambient coma. The m/z 44 peak measured by COSAC was likely dominated by organic species, whereas the peak measured by Ptolemy was interpreted to be mostly due to CO2. Ion species heavier than m/z 30 tend to decay somewhat slower in the COSAC measurements than in the Ptolemy data, which may be related to differences in the exhaust designs between both instruments.

  15. Crystal ball studies of giant resonance gamma decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Halbert, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    We have carried out coincidence experiments to investigate the photon and neutron emission from the giant resonance region in 208Pb and 90Zr using the ORNL Spin Spectrometer, a 72-segment NaI detector system. States in 208Pb and 90Zr were excited by inelastic scattering of 380-MeV 17O. We have determined the total gamma-decay probability, the ground-state gamma branching ratio, and the branching ratios to a number of low-lying stats as a function of excitation energy in 208Pb to ˜15 MeV. Especially interesting observations include the absence of a significant branch from the giant quadrupole resonance to the 3- state at 2.6 MeV, a strong branch from this resonance to a 3- state at 4.9 MeV, and the dominance of decays to various 1- states at 5-7 MeV from the region around 14 MeV of excitation (E0 resonances). Comparable but less complete data were also obtained on 90Zr.

  16. High-Statistics β+ / EC -Decay Study of 122Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigmeddorj, Badamsambuu; S1292 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Xe isotopes are centrally located in the Z > 50 , N < 82 region that displays an extraordinarily smooth evolution of simple collective signatures. However, the collectivity of excited states in this region is very poorly characterized. There are spectroscopic hints to unusual structures in this region. The 03+ states in 124-132Xe are very strongly populated in (3He , n) reactions, suggesting a pairing vibrational structure influenced by proton subshell gaps, perhaps leading to shape-coexistence that could give rise to strong E 0 transitions. Recent work on 124Xe has established nearly identical quadrupole collectivity for the pairing vibrational 03+ band and the ground state band. However, in 122Xe, the 03+ state has not been firmly identified. A high-statistics 122Cs β+ / EC decay experiment to obtain detailed spectroscopic data for low-spin states was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility using the 8 π γ-ray spectrometer and its auxiliary detectors including PACES, an array of five Si(Li) detectors, for conversion electron spectroscopy. The decay scheme has been considerably extended through a γ- γ coincidence analysis, and 0+ states have been identified via γ- γ angular correlations. This work supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.

  17. Fission decay of N=Z nuclei at high angular momentum: {sup 60}Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Oertzen, W. von; Zherebchevsky, V.; Gebauer, B.; Schulz, Ch.; Thummerer, S.; Wilpert, Th.; Kamanin, D.; Royer, G.

    2008-10-15

    Using a unique two-arm detector system for heavy ions (the BRS, binary reaction spectrometer), coincident fission events have been measured from the decay of {sup 60}Zn compound nuclei formed at 88 MeV excitation energy in the reactions with {sup 36}Ar beams on a {sup 24}Mg target at E{sub lab}({sup 36}Ar)=195 MeV. The detectors consisted of two large-area position-sensitive (x,y) gas telescopes with Bragg-ionization chambers. From the binary coincidences in the two detectors, inclusive and exclusive cross sections for fission channels with differing losses of charge were obtained. Narrow out-of-plane correlations corresponding to coplanar decay are observed for two fragments emitted in binary events, and in the data for ternary decay with missing charges from 4 up to 8. After subtraction of broad components, these narrow correlations are interpreted as a ternary fission process at high angular momentum through an elongated shape. The lighter mass in the neck region consists dominantly of two or three {alpha} particles. Differential cross sections for the different mass splits for binary and ternary fission are presented. The relative yields of the binary and ternary events are explained using the statistical model based on the extended Hauser-Feshbach formalism for compound nucleus decay. The ternary fission process can be described by the decay of hyper-deformed states with angular momenta around 4552({Dirac_h}/2{pi})

  18. Gamma Ray/neutron Spectrometers for Planetary Elemental Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Auchampaugh, G. F.; Barraclough, B. L.; Burt, W. W.; Byrd, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Edwards, B. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Martin, R. A.; Moss, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos has designed gamma ray and neutron spectrometers for Lunar Scout, two robotic missions to map the Moon from 100 km polar orbits. Knowledge of the elemental composition is desirable in identifying resources and for geochemical studies and can be obtained using gamma ray and neutron spectrometers. Measurements with gamma ray and neutron spectrometers complement each other in determining elemental abundances in a planet's surface. Various aspects of the instruments are discussed.

  19. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  20. High-Resolution, Low-Cost Spectrometer-on-Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    aligned and glued to an input optical fiber and to a CMOS sensor. VI – Novel concept of transmission on-chip spectrometer (CONFIDENTIAL) A...prototype to detect single wavelengths was assembled (Figure 11). Our “ transmission ” spectrometer doesn’t require any input optical fibers ; it works...computer. Figure 1 - DPH spectrometer connected to a SM fiber and mini-USB cable 6. Allow some time for the driver installation . 7. Start “Waves

  1. {phi} decay: A relevant source for K{sup -} production at energies available at the GSI Schwerionen-Synchrotron (SIS)?

    SciTech Connect

    Agakishiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Cavalcanti, T. Perez; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.

    2009-08-15

    We present phase space distributions and multiplicities of K{sup +}, K{sup -}, and {phi} mesons produced in Ar+KCl reactions at a kinetic beam energy of 1.756 GeV/nucleon and measured with the HADES spectrometer. The inverse slope parameters and yields of kaons supplement the systematics of previous measurements. The percentage of K{sup -} mesons coming from {phi} decay is found to be 18{+-}7%.

  2. New decay branches of the radiative capture reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Lebhertz, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Beck, C.; Michalon, A.; Rousseau, M.; Marley, P. L.; Glover, R. G.; Kent, P. E.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Davis, C.; Pearson, J. E.

    2009-01-28

    Resonances in the {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si radiative capture process at energies around the Coulomb barrier have been probed using the very selective 0 deg. Dragon spectrometer at Triumf and its associated BGO {gamma}-array. For the first time the full level scheme involved in this process has been measured and shows previously unobserved {gamma}-decay to doorway states around 11 MeV in {sup 28}Si.

  3. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd in the TGV-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Kouba, P.; Piquemal, F.; Rozov, S. V.; Rukhadze, E.; Salamatin, A. V.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu A.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Yakushev, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    A new experimental run of searching for double beta decay of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.) using the TGV-2 spectrometer, consisting of 32 planar type HPGe detectors with a total sensitive volume of ~400 cm3. 16 foils of 106Cd with an enrichment of 99.57% and a total mass of ~ 23.2 g were inserted between the entrance windows of face-to-face detectors. The limit on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd - T1/2 > 3.7 × 1020 y at 90% C.F was obtained from the preliminary calculation of experimental data accumulated for 8198 h of measurement. The limits on the resonance OvEC/EC decay of 106Cd were obtained from the measurement of ~23.2 g of 106Cd with the low-background HPGe spectrometer Obelix lasted 395 h -T1/2 (KF, 2741 keV) > 0.9 × 1020 y and T1/2 (KK, 2718 keV) > 1.4 × 1020 y at 90% C.L.

  4. Development of a temporally and spatially resolved grazing incidence spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, D.D.; Fortner, R.J.; Price, D.F.; Stewart, R.E.; Gilman, C.; Helava, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design considerations are presented for a grazing incidence spectrometer which will resolve both temporally and spatially the emission from a wide variety of plasmas. The basis of the design involves use of microchannel plates (MCPs) which are curved to conform to the Rowland circle of the spectrometer. The spectra are obtained when the anode is properly biased. The use of multiple anodes allows gating and with appropriate delays results in sequential time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Simultaneous gating of the anodes with spatial resolution of < 100..mu.. for any given time frame can also be obtained. The efficiency of this spectrometer is also compared with conventional grazing incidence spectrometers.

  5. Standoff gas identification and application with FTIR imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Sun, Wei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Zhijie; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Tang, Wei; Yu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    FTIR imaging spectrometer has significant meaning in the fields like industrial plume emission monitoring and public security monitoring. In this paper, a LWIR FTIR imaging spectrometer is applied to realize the field gas identification experiment. First, the structure and design of this spectrometer is indicated and discussed. Based on the algorithms research, the related gas identification software is developed. To verify this design, both lab and field experiments are realized. The lab experiment is applied to verify the spectral identification algorithm. The field trial is applied to analyze the gas components, and the results show that this spectrometer can realize the gas elements identification in real time.

  6. Search for hadronic b-->u decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Gläser, R.; Harder, G.; Krüger, A.; Nilsson, A. W.; Nippe, A.; Oest, T.; Reidenbach, M.; Schäfer, M.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Drescher, A.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Scheck, H.; Schweda, G.; Spaan, B.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Volland, U.; Wegener, H.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ball, S.; Gabriel, J. C.; Geyer, C.; Hölscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Khan, S.; Spengler, J.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Frisken, W. R.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; Macfarlene, D. B.; McLean, K. W.; Orr, R. S.; Parsons, J. A.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Swain, J. D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Yoon, T.-S.; Ruf, T.; Schael, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Boštjančič, B.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Babaev, A.; Danilo, M.; Fominykh, B.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Semenov, A.; Semenov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tchistilin, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Childers, R.; Darden, C. W.; Argus Collaboration

    1990-05-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we searched for b→u transitions in exclusive hadronic B meson decays. A systematic analysis of B decays into pions has been performed for decay modes with 2-7 pions in the final state. In none of the decays a positive signal was observed. The upper limits obtained on various branching ratios are consistent with the current model predictions.

  7. Search for right-handed currents in muon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Jodidio, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Limits are reported on charged right-handed currents, based on precise measurement of the endpoint e/sup +/ spectrum in ..mu../sup +/ decay. Highly polarized ..mu../sup +/ from the TRIUMF ''surface'' muon beam were stopped in high purity metal foils and liquid He targets selected to minimize depolarization effects. Decay e/sup +/ emitted within 160 mrad of the beam direction were momentum-analyzed to 0.15%. Muons were stopped within either a spin-processing transverse field (70-G or 110-G) or a spin-holding longitudinal field (0.3-T or 1.1-T). Data collected with the spin-precessing field were used for the momentum calibration of the spectrometer. The spin-held data were used to measure the relative e/sup +/ rate at the endpoint. An extrapolation was made to extract the endpoint rate opposite to the ..mu../sup +/ spin. In terms of the standard muon decay parameters this rate is given by (1-xi P/sub ..mu../delta/rho) where P/sub ..mu../ is muon polarization. The result for xi P/sub ..mu../delta was consistent with the V-A prediction of 1. It is quoted as a 90% confidence lower limit xi P/sub ..mu../delta/rho > 0.9975 since we are unable to correct for all possible sources of muon depolarization. For the model with manifest left-right symmetry and massless neutrinos the result implies 90% confidence limits m(W/sub 2/) > 432 GeV/c/sup 2/ and -0.050 < xi < 0.035, where W/sub 2/ is the predominantly right-handed boson and xi is the left-right mixing angle. With the assumption of no left-right mixing an equivalent 90% confidence upper limit of 0.025 is obtained on the absolute value of the ratio of a possible V+A amplitude to the dominant V-A amplitude in muon and pion decays. Limits are also deduced on the nu/sub ..mu..L/ mass and helicity in ..pi../sup +/ decay, non-(V-A) couplings in helicity projection form, the mass scale of composite leptons, and the branching ratio for ..-->.. e+f where f (familon) is the neutral massless Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with

  8. Penguin and rare decays in BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar, Simon; Babar Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present recent results from the BABAR Collaboration on radiative decays. These include searches for new physics via measurements of several observables such as the time- dependent CP asymmetry in B0 → K0Sπ-π+γ exclusive decays, as well as direct CP asymmetries and branching fractions in B → Xsγ and B → Xsl+l- inclusive decays.

  9. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-11-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B{yields}B{sub 1}B{sub 2}-bar{gamma} are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  10. Rare Z decays and new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, E.W.N.

    1990-04-01

    Although the signatures for rare Z decays are often spectacular, the predicted standard model rates are usually extremely small. In many cases, however, rare decays are very sensitive to new phenomena and may lead to an observable rate. In this talk, I select some interesting rare decays and discuss how new physics might be identified. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Beauty baryon decays: a theoretical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2014-11-01

    I overview the theoretical status and recent progress on the calculations of beauty baryon decays focusing on the QCD aspects of the exclusive semi-leptonic Λb → plμ decay at large recoil and theoretical challenges of radiative and electro-weak penguin decays Λb → Λγ,Λl+l-.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE AGR-1 CAPSULE TO FPMS SPECTROMETER TRANSPORT VOLUMES FROM LEADOUT FLOW TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; J. B. Walter; D. M. Scates; M. W. Drigert

    2007-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A flow experiment conducted during the AGR-1 irradiation provided data that included the effect of flow rate changes on the decay of a short-lived radionuclide (23Ne). This data has been analyzed to determine the capsule-specific downstream transport volume through which the capsule effluents must pass before arrival at the fission product monitoring system spectrometers. These resultant transport volumes when coupled with capsule outlet flow rates determine the transport times from capsule-to-detector. In this work an analysis protocol is developed and applied in order to determine capsule-specific transport volumes to precisions of better than +/- 7%.

  13. MONSTER: a time of flight spectrometer for β-delayed neutron emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A. R.; Martínez, T.; Cano-Ott, D.; Castilla, J.; Guerrero, C.; Marín, J.; Martínez, G.; Mendoza, E.; Ovejero, M. C.; Reillo, E. M.; Santos, C.; Tera, F. J.; Villamarín, D.; Nolte, R.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Pentillä, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Gorelov, D.

    2012-05-01

    The knowledge of the β-decay properties of nuclei contributes decisively to our understanding of nuclear phenomena: the β-delayed neutron emission of neutron rich nuclei plays an important role in the nucleosynthesis r-process and constitutes a probe for nuclear structure of very neutron rich nuclei providing information about the high energy part of the full beta strength (Sβ) function. In addition, β-delayed neutrons are essential for the control and safety of nuclear reactors. In order to determine the neutron energy spectra and emission probabilities from neutron precursors a MOdular Neutron time-of-flight SpectromeTER (MONSTER) has been proposed for the DESPEC experiment at the future FAIR facility. The design of MONSTER and status of its construction are reported in this work.

  14. Observations with the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer - The impulsive solar flares of 1980 March 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Cherry, M. L.; Reppin, C.; Rieger, E.; Pinkau, K.; Kanbach, G.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Gamma-ray continuum emission from 0.3 to 1 MeV was observed with the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite during two impulsive solar flares on 1980 March 29, from active region 2363 at 0918 UT and from active region 2357 at 0955 UT. Evidence is presented for a hardening of the spectrum during the impulsive phase of the flares. The photon intensity greater than 100 keV appears to decay at a slower rate than that at lower energies. Time-integrated photon spectra for both flares are incompatible with a single-temperature thermal-bremsstrahlung model. Upper limits for prompt and delayed gamma-ray lines are presented.

  15. A revised thermospheric model based on mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter data - MSIS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that the model presented here extends the previous description of neutral parameters to the base of the thermosphere in a continuous manner while maintaining the basic structure of the MSIS model at higher altitudes. As the altitude decreases, the composition approaches lower atmosphere values, whereas yearly, and to a lesser extent daily, variations in temperature and density are in reasonable agreement with earlier results for the lower thermosphere. An alternate description is given of magnetic storm variations on the basis of the three hour ap indices and an 8- to 10-hour exponential decay in thermospheric density and temperature response after a heating event. Additional coefficients are included for the time independent and magnetic activity terms, among them a longitudinally dependent seasonal magnetic activity effect. The description of molecular oxygen derives from mass spectrometer and EUV absorption measurements rather than ion chemistry.

  16. COSIMA Mass Spectrometer for the ROSETTA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, H.; Höfner, H.; Kissel, J.; Koch, A.

    2003-04-01

    The eries COmetary eries Secondary eries Ion eries Mass eries Analyzer (COSIMA) is a german contribution to ESA's ROSETTA mission. The COSIMA instrument has been built by vH&S as prime contractor, with contributions by the MPE in Garching and various institutes from Germany and abroad. COSIMA's principal investigator is Dr. Jochen Kissel, MPE. COSIMA will extend our knowledge about comets by analyzing the chemical composition of the dust from comet Wirtanen, which it will visit in 2011. COSIMA is a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer system. The cometary dust is collected on metal black surfaces of targets, which are exposed to space. There are 24 such targets stored in a manipulation unit. A target is moved by a miniaturized robotic arm either to exposure or into one of three analyze positions: In one position, a microscopic camera localizes dust grains on the target and calculates their coordinates. In another position, the chemistry station, targets are thermally treated to later analyze modifications by heat. The third, main position is the analyzing spot of the TOF spectrometer; here a pulsed primary ion beam with energy 8 keV partially ionizes the dust grain. The secondary ions are extracted by an electrostatic lens and accelerated to an energy of 1 keV. The ions travel through a drift tube free of electrical fields; they are reflected at its end by an electrostatic reflector, travel back through the same tube, and finally hit an ion detector (microsphere plate with discriminating amplifier). From the individual flight times of the secondary ions a time-of-flight spectrum is assembled, which corresponds to the mass spectrum of the analyzed grain. The primary ions are generated by a liquid-metal Indium source. An ion-optical system, consisting of a beam switch, lenses, chopper, buncher stages, and deflection plates, forms the focused primary ion pulse. An auxiliary Indium source is used for sputtering/cleaning the targets and serves for redundancy by a

  17. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-06-11

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last few years. This technique uses H₃Oþ as a chemical ionization (CI) reagent to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. Mass spectra acquired with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are simple because proton transfer chemical ionization is ‘soft’ and results in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, peak identification can still be difficult due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). The use of an ITMS is appealing because of its ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates are possible that will allow for detection of multiple compounds. Here we present the first results from a proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype instrument in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second-generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low-ppbv to high-pptv range. Furthermore, the applicability of MS/MS in differentiating between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making differentiation possible, even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. However, MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular masses but with different intensity ratios

  18. Musett: A segmented Si array for Recoil-Decay-Tagging studies at VAMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Ch.; Jeanneau, F.; Sulignano, B.; Druillole, F.; Ljungvall, J.; Paul, B.; Virique, E.; Baron, P.; Bervas, H.; Clément, E.; Delagnes, E.; Dijon, A.; Dossat, E.; Drouart, A.; Farget, F.; Flouzat, Ch.; De France, G.; Görgen, A.; Houarner, Ch.; Jacquot, B.; Korten, W.; Lebertre, G.; Lecornu, B.; Legeard, L.; Lermitage, A.; Lhenoret, S.; Marry, C.; Maugeais, C.; Menager, L.; Meunier, O.; Navin, A.; Nizery, F.; Obertelli, A.; Rauly, E.; Raine, B.; Rejmund, M.; Ropert, J.; Saillant, F.; Savajols, H.; Schmitt, Ch.; Tripon, M.; Wanlin, E.; Wittwer, G.

    2014-05-01

    A new segmented silicon-array called MUSETT has been built for the study of heavy elements using the Recoil-Decay-Tagging technique. MUSETT is located at the focal plane of the VAMOS spectrometer at GANIL and is used in conjunction with a γ-ray array at the target position. This paper describes the device, which consists of four 10×10 cm2 Si detectors and its associated front-end electronics based on highly integrated ASICs electronics. The triggerless readout electronics, the data acquisition and the analysis tools developed for its characterization are presented. This device was commissioned at GANIL with the EXOGAM γ-ray spectrometer using the fusion-evaporation reaction 197Au(22Ne,5n)214Ac. Additionally, the performance of the VAMOS Wien filter used during the in-beam commissioning is also reported.

  19. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.

    1985-03-07

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Sequential Decays of the Υ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, H.; Kaarsberg, T.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lovelock, D. M. J.; Narain, M.; Schamberger, R. D.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Franzini, P.; Tuts, P. M.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q.-W.

    1991-03-01

    We have studied the decay chain Υ''-->χ'b(χb)γ-->Υ'(Υ)γγ-->μμ(ee)γγwith the CUSB II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. For a sample of 1.33×106 Υ'''s we find ~400 events. We measure branching ratios forχ'bJ-->Υ'(Υ)γ and, using calculated E1 rates, we derive total and hadronic widths of theχ'b states. From these widths we obtain values of as in the range between 0.13 and 0.21, in agreement with other determinations. We observe the suppressed decay Υ''-->χbγ. The measured branching ratio suggests that relativistic effects are important. We also determine the branching ratios for Υ''-->Υ'π0π0 to be (1.3+/-0.4+/-0.2)% andΥ''-->Υπ0π0 to be (1.8+/-0.3+/-0.2)%.

  1. Status of Pion Decay Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numao, T.

    2016-11-01

    The branching ratio of pion decays, {Re/}_μ = Γ ({{{π }}^ + } \\to {e^ + }ν + {e^ + }{{ν γ }})/Γ ({{{π }}^ + } \\to {{{μ }}^ + }ν + {{{μ }}^ + }ν {{γ }}), has provided a sensitive test of electron-muon universality in weak interactions. The uncertainty of the Standard Model prediction is at a 0.01% level. Although a recent measurement, Re /μ = (1.2344 ± 0.0023(stat) ± 0.0019(syst)) × 10-4, reduced the experimental uncertainty by a factor of two, there is room for improvement by more than an order of magnitude. The status of two {{{π }}^ + } \\to {e^ + }ν experiments at TRIUMF and PSI as well as related pion decay experiments is presented.

  2. Nuclear Decay Data: On-going Studies to Address and Improve Radionuclide Decay Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Alan L.

    2005-05-01

    Representative decay data studies are described and reviewed, ranging from various measurement programmes to the maintenance of evaluated decay-data libraries. Gross beta-decay measurements are essential to address the decay-data requirements for short-lived fission products, well-defined half-lives are required in assessments of the storage of long-lived radionuclides in waste depositories, and improved decay data continue to be demanded in safeguards, to improve detector-calibration standards, and for medical and analytical applications. Such needs require the measurement of good quality decay data, along with multinational evaluations of decay schemes by means of agreed procedures.

  3. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  4. Spectrometer system for optical reflectance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Phillipps, Patrick G. (Inventor); Parker, Michael S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A spectrometer system includes a thermal light source for illuminating a sample, where the thermal light source includes a filament that emits light when heated. The system additionally includes a spectrograph for measuring a light spectrum from the sample and an electrical circuit for supplying electrical current to the filament to heat the filament and for controlling a resistance of the filament. The electrical circuit includes a power supply that supplies current to the filament, first electrical components that sense a current through the filament, second electrical components that sense a voltage drop across the filament, third electrical components that compare a ratio of the sensed voltage drop and the sensed current with a predetermined value, and fourth electrical components that control the current through the filament or the voltage drop across the filament to cause the ratio to equal substantially the predetermined value.

  5. Laser wavemeter/spectrometer operating manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotnoir, Leo J.

    1986-01-01

    The Laser Wavemeter/Spectrometer is a compact, rugged instrument using a unique combination of an uncoated (Snyder) wedge interferometer and a coated (Fizeau) wedge interferometer to simultaneously measure the wavelength centroid and spectral characteristics of pulsed or CW lasers. Wavelength centroid measurement accuracies are in the range of 1 part in 1,000,000 using the Snyder stage alone. The Fizeau wedge section is capable of resolving spectral details to 0.002/cm and of locating the position of a fringe to 0.0005/cm. Because the Snyder wedge is uncoated, wavelength centroid measurements are possible over the entire detector range of from about 300 nm to greater than 1.0 micron. The coatings of the Fizeau wedge limit spectral analysis to a 200 nm interval in that range. The instrument is currently configured to operate from 600 nm to 800 nm.

  6. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  7. Spectrometer system for diffuse extreme ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, Simon E.

    1989-01-01

    A unique grazing incidence spectrometer system has been designed to study diffuse line emission between 80 and 650 A with 10-30 A resolution. The minimum detectable emission line strength during a 5-min observation ranges from 100-2000 ph/sq cm sec str. The instrument uses mechanically ruled reflection gratings placed in front of a linear array of mirrors. These mirrors focus the spectral image on microchannel plate detectors located behind thin filters. The field of view is 40 min of arc by 15 deg, and there is no spatial imaging. This instrument has been fabricated, calibrated, and successfully flown on a sounding rocket to observe the astronomical background radiation.

  8. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1987-10-27

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal is disclosed. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch. 5 figs.

  9. 140 GHz pulsed fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Kolbe, William F.; Leskovar, Branko

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer (10), including means (11, 19) for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means (12) for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator (20) and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch (23) to the modulator. When the pulse switch (23) is on, the modulator (20) will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device (31) is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device (31) is controlled by the pulse switch (23).

  10. Laser wavemeter/spectrometer operating manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotnoir, Leo J.

    1986-02-01

    The Laser Wavemeter/Spectrometer is a compact, rugged instrument using a unique combination of an uncoated (Snyder) wedge interferometer and a coated (Fizeau) wedge interferometer to simultaneously measure the wavelength centroid and spectral characteristics of pulsed or CW lasers. Wavelength centroid measurement accuracies are in the range of 1 part in 1,000,000 using the Snyder stage alone. The Fizeau wedge section is capable of resolving spectral details to 0.002/cm and of locating the position of a fringe to 0.0005/cm. Because the Snyder wedge is uncoated, wavelength centroid measurements are possible over the entire detector range of from about 300 nm to greater than 1.0 micron. The coatings of the Fizeau wedge limit spectral analysis to a 200 nm interval in that range. The instrument is currently configured to operate from 600 nm to 800 nm.

  11. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, W. J.

    1999-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5m2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight.

  12. CHIPS: The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, W. V.; Hurwitz, M.; Jelinsky, P.; Welsh, B. Y.; Edelstein, J. E.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; McKee, C. F.; Malina, R. F.; Hawkins, I.; Vallerga, J. V.; Breitschwerdt, D.; Slavin, J.

    1998-12-01

    The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS), a University-Class Explorer (UNEX) mission, will carry out all-sky spectroscopy of the diffuse background at wavelengths from 90 to 260 Angstroms with a peak resolution of lambda / 150 (about 0.5 eV). CHIPS data will help determine the electron temperature, ionization conditions, and cooling mechanisms of the million-degree plasma believed to fill the local interstellar bubble. The majority of the luminosity from diffuse million-degree plasma is expected to emerge in the poorly-explored CHIPS band, making CHIPS data of relevance in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical environments. The compact CHIPS instrument will be accommodated aboard a commercial FAISAT communications spacecraft currently scheduled for launch in mid to late 2001.

  13. ORFEUS-SPAS - The Berkeley EUV spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart; Hurwitz, Mark

    1990-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV spectrometer of ORFEUS-SPAS, a joint project of NASA and the BMFT, incorporates a set of four novel spherically figured, varied line-space gratings used in a geometry that is similar to that of the classic Rowland mount to span an interval of 390 and 1200 A. Two spectral detector units containing curved microchannel plates and delay-line anodes encode the arriving photons in digital format for telemetry. An additional optic directs the image of the source in the entrance aperture onto a sealed FUV detector which is used to track the source as it drifts during an observation, enabling a postflight reconstruction of the spacecraft pointing vector. This in turn makes it possible to define with precision the wavelength of each recorded photon.

  14. The Coronal Ultraviolet Berkeley Spectrometer (CUBS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Brett C.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    1992-01-01

    We describe an instrument package to remotely measure thermospheric, exospheric, and plasmaspheric structure and composition. This instrument was flown aboard the second test flight of the Black Brant XII sounding rocket on December 5, 1989, which attained an apogee of 1460 km. The experiment package consisted of a spectrophotometer to measure He I 584 A, O II 834 A, O I 989 A, hydrogen Lyman beta (1025 A), hydrogen Lyman alpha (1216 A), and O I 1304 A transitions, and a photometer to measure the He II 304 A emission. The optical design of the spectrophotometer was identical to that of the Berkeley Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Airglow Rocket Spectrometer payload, flown on September 30, 1988 aboard the maiden flight of the Black Brant XII rocket. We present the initial data analysis and describe directions we will go toward the completion of our study.

  15. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  16. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  17. Low-energy neutral-atom spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1982-04-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of a low energy neutral atom spectrometer are described. Time-of-flight analysis is used to measure the energy spectrum of charge-exchange deuterium atoms emitted from the PLT tokamak plasma in the energy range from 20 to 1000 eV. The neutral outflux is gated on a 1 ..mu..sec time scale by a slotted rotating chopper disc, supported against gravity in vacuum by magnetic levitation, and is detected by secondary electron emission from a Cu-Be plate. The energy dependent detection efficiency has been measured in particle beam experiments and on the tokamak so that the diagnostic is absolutely calibrated, allowing quantitative particle fluxes to be determined with 200 ..mu..sec time resolution. In addition to its present application as a plasma diagnostic, the instrument is capable of making a wide variety of measurements relevant to atomic and surface physics.

  18. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  19. The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment - Instrument description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Hillis, D. A.; Jung, G. V.; Cameron, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment on the Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory satellite uses four actively shielded NaI (Tl)-CsI(Na) phoswich detectors to provide gamma-ray line and continuum detection capability in the 0.05-10 MeV energy range. The instrument includes secondary capabilities for gamma-ray and neutron detection between 10 and 250 MeV. The detectors have 3.8 deg x 11.04 deg (FWHM) fields of view defined by tungsten collimators. Each detector has an independent, single-axis orientation system which permits offset pointing from the spacecraft Z-axis for background measurements and multitarget observations. The instrument, and its calibration and performance, are described.

  20. A Bonner Sphere Spectrometer for pulsed fields

    PubMed Central

    Aza, E.; Dinar, N.; Manessi, G. P.; Silari, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) in pulsed neutron fields (PNF) is limited by the fact that proportional counters, usually employed as the thermal neutron detectors, suffer from dead time losses and show severe underestimation of the neutron interaction rate, which leads to strong distortion of the calculated spectrum. In order to avoid these limitations, an innovative BSS, called BSS-LUPIN, has been developed for measuring in PNF. This paper describes the physical characteristics of the device and its working principle, together with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of its response matrix. The BSS-LUPIN has been tested in the stray neutron field at the CERN Proton Synchrotron, by comparing the spectra obtained with the new device, the conventional CERN BSS and via Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25948828