Science.gov

Sample records for deciduous hardwood hybrid

  1. Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Joseph D; Bauerle, William L

    2008-11-01

    We investigated which parameters required by the MAESTRA model were most important in predicting leaf-area-based transpiration in 5-year-old trees of five deciduous hardwood species-yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis Matsum.), red maple (Acer rubrum L. 'Autumn Flame'), trident maple (Acer buergeranum Miq.), Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. 'Kwanzan') and London plane-tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.). Transpiration estimated from sap flow measured by the heat balance method in branches and trunks was compared with estimates predicted by the three-dimensional transpiration, photosynthesis and absorbed radiation model, MAESTRA. MAESTRA predicted species-specific transpiration from the interactions of leaf-level physiology and spatially explicit micro-scale weather patterns in a mixed deciduous hardwood plantation on a 15-min time step. The monthly differences between modeled mean daily transpiration estimates and measured mean daily sap flow ranged from a 35% underestimation for Acer buergeranum in June to a 25% overestimation for A. rubrum in July. The sensitivity of the modeled transpiration estimates was examined across a 30% error range for seven physiological input parameters. The minimum value of stomatal conductance as incident solar radiation tends to zero was determined to be eight times more influential than all other physiological model input parameters. This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis.

  2. The Central Hardwood Forest: Its Boundaries and Physiographic Provinces

    Treesearch

    James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions identify boundaries of the region. These regions are the Northern...

  3. The Central Hardwood Forest: its boundaries and physiographic provinces

    Treesearch

    James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions identify boundaries of the region. These regions are the Northern...

  4. Advances in fertilization for hardwood regeneration

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing fertilization programs in the nursery and field may help improve regeneration and restoration of temperate deciduous hardwoods. Our research program has demonstrated the applicability of nutrient loading in fine hardwood systems to promote seedling uptake and storage of nutrients during the nursery phase. We also have shown the benefits of nutrient loading...

  5. Targeting hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demand for hardwood seedlings has prompted research to identify target seedling characteristics that promote hardwood plantation establishment. Operational establishment of hardwood plantations has typically emphasized seed collection from non-improved genetic sources, bareroot nursery seedling production, and spring planting using machine planters. The...

  6. Hardwood planting

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood planting used to be most common on private land. Now more and more hardwoods are being planted on public land. Not much hardwood planting research is going on but recent summaries of earlier trials allow us to give you the following guidelines.

  7. A resource at the crossroads: a history of the central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1997-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest is an oak dominated deciduous forest that stretches from Massachusetts to Arkansas and occurs in hilly to mountainous terrain. It is the largest and most extensive temperate deciduous forest in the world. During the past 20 million years or so, angiosperms have been gradually replacing gymnosperms as the dominant plant form on earth, and...

  8. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  9. Hardwood Diseases

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1981-01-01

    Damping-off and root-rot continue to cause the most losses of young hardwood seedlings. We know how to control these losses but we gamble by not taking preventative methods. The most effective control is to use soil fumigation or solar soil sterilization.

  10. Planting Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1983-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests contain many species and grow on a wide range of sites. This diversity among species represents a challenge to managers whose primary tool in the natural forest is stand manipulation. Even-aged management has been applied to many natural stands during the past 25 years which led, in the 1960s, to clearcutting as the primary silvicultural...

  11. Forest management and nutrient cycling in eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James H. Patric; David W. Smith

    1975-01-01

    The literature was reviewed for reports on nutrient cycling in the eastern deciduous forest, particularly with respect to nitrogen, and for effects of forest management on the nutrient cycle. Although most such research has dealt with conifers, a considerable body of literature relates to hardwoods. Usually, only those references that dealt quantitatively with nutrient...

  12. Handling Hardwood Seed

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    The long-predicted surge in demand tor southern hardwoods is now being felt. Wood-using industries feel it in dwindling supplies of raw material; the forester feels it in increasing hardwood mill quotas, and you nurserymen feel it in increasing demands for hardwood seedling production. The hardwood boom has presented us with many problems. some of which we cannot yet...

  13. Interspecific and environmentally induced variation in foliar dark respiration among eighteen southeastern deciduous tree species

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. Mitchell; Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose

    1999-01-01

    We measured variations in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) and leaf nitrogen (N) across species, canopy light environment, and elevation for 18 co-occurring deciduous hardwood species in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina. Our overall objective was to estimate leaf...

  14. AmeriFlux US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Hardwoods site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate hardwoods site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  15. Hardwood Seedling Nutrition

    Treesearch

    C. B. Davey

    2005-01-01

    Hardwood seedling production presents several challenges that differ considerably from pine seedling production. Because of a nearly double water requirement, hardwoods need to be planted where they can be irrigated separately from pines. Nutrient requirements are generally higher for hardwoods, including especially nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and...

  16. The central hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceous plants, and a large number of animal species.

  17. Central hardwood notes

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark; Jay G. Hutchinson

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceaous plants, and a large number of animal species. This...

  18. Midsouth's Changing Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke; Robert L. Johnson

    1979-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in the Midsouth's hardwood resources over the past quarter century. Prime hardwood acreage has declined alarmingly in some areas due to expansion of soybean cropland. Selective cutting and lack of forest management have diminished the overall quality of available hardwood, too.

  19. What are northern hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The term "northern hardwoods" was used in the early 1900's to separate the hardwoods of the northern region from those growing in the South. With continued usage in the North the term now represents all dense hardwood species both in the Lake States and Northeast. Unfortunately, this has complicated describing and applying silvicultural practices for...

  20. AmeriFlux US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mature Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. The mature hardwood stand represents a typical naturally regenerated second-growth forest, free of anthropogenic disturbances for at least 70 years.

  1. Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt; William H. McWilliams

    2003-01-01

    Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade intolerant species are being replaced by more shade tolerant species....

  2. Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood Region

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt; William H. McWilliams

    2003-01-01

    Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade intolerant species are being replaced by more shade tolerant species....

  3. Litterfall in the hardwood forest of a minor alluvial-floodplain

    Treesearch

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    within mature deciduous forests, annual development of foliar biomass is a major component of aboveground net primary production and nutrient demand. As litterfall, this same foliage becomes a dominant annual transfer of biomass and nutrients to the detritus pathway. We report litterfall transfers of a mature bottomland hardwood forest in a minor alluvial-floodplain...

  4. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  5. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  6. Pruning central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Schlesinger; Alex L. Shigo

    1989-01-01

    Pruning, properly done, is one of the best ways to assure high quality wood. Although the overall volume of hardwood has been increasing during the last several years, the volume of high quality hardwood continues to be in short supply. So high quality logs will continue to be worth more at market time. Potentially, pruning can be an important silvicultural treatment...

  7. Hardwood sawyer trainer

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Eknarin Santitrakul; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    It is well understood by now that the initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber has a tremendous impact on the total lumber value and conversion efficiency. The focus of this research project is the development of a computer-aided sawing trainer tool for the primary breakdown of hardwood logs. Maximum lumber recovery is dependent on the proper log orientation as...

  8. Defects in hardwood timber

    Treesearch

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  9. Utilization of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1978-01-01

    During the rest of the century, hardwood supplies will likely be sufficient for the nation's rising needs for paper and for structural and architectural products; but sawlogs will be in short supply. Therefore, the products mix will incorportate increasing quantities of reconstituted and composite products. Using hardwoods on sites better suited to pine--the South...

  10. Planting bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Karl Tennant

    1989-01-01

    Diverse problems confront the forest manager when planting bottomland hardwoods. Bottomland vegetation types and sites are complex and differ markedly from uplands. There are different and more numerous hardwood species that grow faster in denser stands. Sites are subject to varying intensities and duration of flooding and the action of overflow river currents that...

  11. Grading hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  12. Container hardwood seedling production

    Treesearch

    John McRae

    2005-01-01

    Container production of hardwood seedlings requires larger cavities, more space, and the ability to easily sort seedlings (as compared to conifers) very early during the germination phase of production. This presentation demonstrates the most productive system, based upon past experience, to commercially produce container hardwoods. The container system of choice is...

  13. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  14. Upland hardwood silviculture DVD

    Treesearch

    Claire Payne; Donna Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management unit of the Southern Research Station offers a week-long course that provides practicing foresters with information about current silvicultural practices and emerging issues based on scientific research and applied techniques that affect managing upland hardwoods. This DVD captures the course that took place in July 2007....

  15. AmeriFlux US-Wi8 Young hardwood clearcut (YHW)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi8 Young hardwood clearcut (YHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Clearcut Young Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The young hardwood clearcut site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  16. Nursery Diseases of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    S. J. Rowan; T. H. Filer; W. R. Phelps

    1983-01-01

    Numerous diseases may be encountered in hardwood plantings in Southern nurseries. Although severe disease losses have been observed in only a few hardwood species, some loss occurs in nursery plantings of all species and can be expected to continue. The lack of an effective post-emergence herbicide to control weeds in hardwood nursery seedbeds and the high cost of hand...

  17. Genetic Improvement in Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Farmer

    1968-01-01

    Genetics research in southern hardwoods has moved during the past decade from a minor position in a few organizations to major status in most of the South's forest research establishments. This growing interest in tree improvement has stemmed from the increasing use of hardwoods for pulp and a decreasing supply of high-quality hardwood sawtimber. These two aspects...

  18. Hardwoods management options hold promise

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson; Dr. Roy C. Beltz

    1985-01-01

    Since the 1950s, dramatic changes have occurred in the hardwood resources of the Midsouth - Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Thousands of acres of upland hardwood forests have been converted to pasture for beef cattle. Clearing for agricultural crops, mainly soybeans, has removed more than 4 million acres of prime hardwoods in the bottomlands.

  19. Seeding and Planting Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1965-01-01

    I would like to start by giving a complete prescription for planting any hardwood species by a cheap and simple method that will insure excellent survival and good growth. Unfortunately, this is impossible, for we at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory are still several years away from such prescriptions with nearly all of our important hardwoods. With most species,...

  20. Hardwood Blanks Expand Export Opportunities

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Hansen; Philip A. Araman

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the latest statistics pertaining to the export of hardwood lumber to the Pacific Rim; discusses possible reasons for the emergence and growth of this market; offers alternatives to rough hardwood lumber (two forms of value-added, hardwood blanks); and develops estimates of prices needed at the mill to earn a 30% return on investment from the...

  1. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  2. Volume and Availability of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; William A. Bechtold

    1990-01-01

    In the Eastern United States, some 354 million acres of timberland are classified as a hardwood or pine-hardwood forest type. The inventory of hardwood growing stock totals 275 billion cubic feet, or 90 percent of the hardwood inventory in the United States. Whereas hardwood inventories have increased by 70 percent since 1952, the availability of this resource for use...

  3. Hardwoods of North America

    Treesearch

    H. A. Alden

    1995-01-01

    This report describes 53 taxa of hardwoods of North America, which are organized alphabetically by genus. Descriptions include scientific name, trade name, distribution, tree characteristics, wood characteristics (general, weight, mechanical properties, drying, shrinkage, working properties, durability, preservation, toxicity and uses) and additional sources for...

  4. Hardwood siding performance.

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper

    1967-01-01

    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  5. Look to the hardwoods!

    Treesearch

    W. E. McQuilken

    1957-01-01

    The northeast is hardwood country. To be sure, central and northern Maine and the higher elevations of the Green Mountains, White Mountains, and Adirondacks have their spruce-fir; cool, moist sites throughout the region typically support some hemlock; and white pine - the original foundation of the lumber industry in North America - is widely represented by scattered...

  6. Hardwood price reporting.

    Treesearch

    Brent L. Sohngen; Richard W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Prices for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  7. Site Evaluation for Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1985-01-01

    Foresters evaluate sites for an indication of potential growth and yield, for an ecological descriptor, and to correctly match the hardwood species to be planted with sites suitable for them. Site indexes measured directly from trees on the site are the preferable means of quantifying site. Because this method is not always possible, other means based on soil and...

  8. Computer Integrated Hardwood Processing

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1997-01-01

    The planning of how the hardwood log can be sawn to improve recovery of high-value lumber has always been hampered by the limited information provided by external defects, and whatever internal defects are eventually revealed on the cut log faces by the sawing pattern. With expanded export and domestic markets, low-quality logs, increased competition from non-wood...

  9. Wounding and hardwood diseases

    Treesearch

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Most hardwood diseases are spread by spores that are carried either by wind or insects. The spores enter into the host tree through natural wounds (fire scars, bark splits, sunscald, cankers, and branch stubs) or artificial wounds (bark carving, improper pruning, logging damage). Fresh wounds attract certain insects that can carry spores into the exposed part of the...

  10. Where to Plant Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Walter M. Broadfoot

    1978-01-01

    Before anyone invests in planting hardwoods, he wants to know that his trees are suited to the site and will grow well. That assurance is now available to those interested in green ash, cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, or Nuttall, water, willow or cherrybark oaks.

  11. Drying hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Joseph Denig; Eugene M. Wengert; William T. Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying quality, especially of oak lumber. Special attention is given to drying white...

  12. A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; David L. Sonderman; Glenn L. Gammon

    1973-01-01

    A guide to hardwood log grading (revised) was developed as a teaching aid and field reference in grading hardwood logs. Outlines basic principles and gives detailed practical applications, with illustrations, in grading hardwood logs. Includes standards for various use classes.

  13. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), makingmore » information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important

  14. Hardwood sawmill downtime costs

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell

    2003-01-01

    How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...

  15. Leaf-on canopy closure in broadleaf deciduous forests predicted during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Ayala, Andrea J.; Shickel, Madeline R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest canopy influences light transmittance, which in turn affects tree regeneration and survival, thereby having an impact on forest composition and habitat conditions for wildlife. Because leaf area is the primary impediment to light penetration, quantitative estimates of canopy closure are normally made during summer. Studies of forest structure and wildlife habitat that occur during winter, when deciduous trees have shed their leaves, may inaccurately estimate canopy closure. We estimated percent canopy closure during both summer (leaf-on) and winter (leaf-off) in broadleaf deciduous forests in Mississippi and Louisiana using gap light analysis of hemispherical photographs that were obtained during repeat visits to the same locations within bottomland and mesic upland hardwood forests and hardwood plantation forests. We used mixed-model linear regression to predict leaf-on canopy closure from measurements of leaf-off canopy closure, basal area, stem density, and tree height. Competing predictive models all included leaf-off canopy closure (relative importance = 0.93), whereas basal area and stem density, more traditional predictors of canopy closure, had relative model importance of ≤ 0.51.

  16. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  17. Studies in Site Evaluation for Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Nelson; William R. Beaufait

    1956-01-01

    SOUTHERN HARDWOODS, which supply more than half of the nation's hardwood lumber, are a complex and varied mixture of nearly 40 commercial species. On a good share of the 112 million acres of southern hardwood types the hardwoods are mixed with or have replaced southern pines. Faced with this profusion of species, the silviculturist's first problem is to know...

  18. The determinants of hardwood lumber price

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jennifer M. Jacobsen; Jennifer M. Jacobsen

    1985-01-01

    Econometric equations were estimated to determine the effects of domestic foreign hardwood lumber demands on oak and hardwood lumber prices. Oak price seemed to be more sensitive to changes in exports than overall hardwood lumber price. However, the main determinants of hardwood lumber and oak lumber prices were found to be domestic demand and millstock levels.

  19. Insects affecting hardwood tree plantings

    Treesearch

    Bradley D. Barnd; Paula M. Pijut; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2008-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Region (CHR) is one of the largest forested areas in the country, covering more than 100 million acres, and is dominated by oakhickory and mixed hardwoods. Although large areas of forest have been cleared to make way for agriculture and urban growth, the number of trees in the CHR is increasing as farm and pasture lands are reverting back to forest...

  20. Hardwood Seed Collection and Handling

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1970-01-01

    In a surprisingly few years a major proportion of the South's timber stands will be artificially regenerated with selected or genetically improved stock. Success with southern pines and high stumpage prices for certain species will spur efforts in hardwood stands. Intensive hardwood forestry will require better methods of seed production and handling than those...

  1. The Techniques of Growing Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. S. McKnight; Robert L. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    In the South, high-quality hardwoods grow on river and stream bottoms and other moist, rich sites in the Coastal Plains; true swamps; and the loess bluffs of the lower Mississippi Valley. Fine hardwoods are also produced in the mountains and the Piedmont, but these areas are not discussed in this article. Landowners and forest managers recognize that a considerable...

  2. Changing Markets for Hardwood Roundwood

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Albert Schuler

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hardwood roundwood has been used to produce lumber, cabinet plywood, and veneer. Hardwoods also have been a major part of the pulpwood consumption in the northern tier of the eastern United States since the early 1960?s, while southern pines have been the predominant species used in southern tier states. However, since the 1960's there has been a...

  3. Strontium-90 content of deciduous human incisors.

    PubMed

    ROSENTHAL, H L; GILSTER, J E; BIRD, J T

    1963-04-12

    The concentrations of strontium-90 in deciduous incisor teeth of children born in St. Louis between 1949 to 1957 are in accord with estimated bone levels, suggesting that human deciduous teeth are useful as an index of strontium-90 accumulation during the time the teeth are formed.

  4. Pregnancy immunology: decidual immune cells.

    PubMed

    Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip

    2008-01-01

    Human pregnancy is a complex process. Placental development depends on the function of secretory molecules produced by placental trophoblast cells as well as by maternal uterine immune cells within the decidua. These decidual immune cells are T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between the trophoblast cells and the maternal immune cells have an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Knowledge about the phenotypes and functions of the maternal immune cells in normal and pathological pregnancies including recurrent spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia and hydatidiform moles may improve our understanding of the immunobiology of the normal pregnancy as a whole and may provide approaches for improving the treatment of pathological pregnancies.

  5. U.S. hardwood product exports, hardwood exports to Korea, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Korea

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The exerpts from this seminar are intended to give an overview of U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Korea, the hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. hardwood exports to Korea. It includes 1) some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products, 2) information on hardwood exports to Korea from the U.S., 3) U.S. hardwood resources...

  6. Estimating cull in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W.M. Zillgitt; S.R. Gevorkiantz

    1946-01-01

    Cull in northern hardwood stands is often very heavy and is difficult to estimate. To help clarify this situation and aid the average cruiser to become more accurate in his estimates, the study reported here should prove very helpful.

  7. 1997 Hardwood Research Award Winner: "Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts"

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...

  8. Bottomland Hardwoods Research on Site Preparation, Planation Establishment, and Cultural Treatments, at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1980-01-01

    The South contains about 219 million acres of forests, 70 million acres of which are most productive when managed as hardwoods. Bottomland hardwoods cover about 22 million of this 70 million acres. Hardwood plantation management has been increasing during the last few years, but natural stand management still accounts for more than 99 percent of hardwood production in...

  9. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1211 Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information... Promotion, Research and Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed..., Research and Information Order (Order). Hardwood lumber and hardwood plywood are used in products like...

  10. New estimates of hardwood lumber exports from the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    W. Luppold; E. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Exports have become an increasingly important part of the overall hardwood lumber market. However, recent findings indicate that much of the reported growth of hardwood lumber exports in the 1980's was based on inflated volume data. This paper presents new estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Asia and Europe with emphasis on the central hardwood region of the...

  11. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...-11-0074; PR-B] RIN 0581-AD24 Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information... whether issuance of a proposed Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information... submitted on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.gov or to the Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit...

  12. Hardwood thinning opportunities in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1986-01-01

    The symposium presents and discusses new information on the hardwood resource, silviculture, harvesting, economics, and product potential from hardwood thinnings in the Lake States. Included are forest management perspectives from the logger, private industry, and state and federal forest managers.

  13. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Treesearch

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  14. Economics of herbicide application methods in hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Forest managers can use the data presented here to determine the least-cost herbicide application method for precommercial thinning treatments in hardwood sapling stands. Herbicides used in managing immature hardwood stands must be applied ustng individual-tree methods: broadcast applications in hardwoods are not selective and may result in signtficant damage to...

  15. Site-Species Relationships for Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1978-01-01

    The high cost of land and forest management make selection of sites suitable for planting hardwoods particularly important. Hardwoods have exacting soil requirements, and productivity can change significantly with small changes in conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the attempts to evaluate sites for southern hardwoods, with emphasis on an...

  16. Insect and Disease Pests of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    L. P. Abrahamson; F. I. McCracken

    1971-01-01

    Insects and diseases seldom kill southern hardwood trees in managed stands, but they cause major economic losses by lowering wood quality and reducing tree growth. In discussing the most important insects and diseases of southern hardwoods, let us consider first those that attack natural hardwood stands and then those associated with plantation culture.

  17. Thinning Guidelines For Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows

    1996-01-01

    Thinnings, improvement cuttings, and other partial cuttings in southern bottomland hardwood forests are generally designed to enhance the growth and development of those species favored for management objectives. Hardwood tree classes and stocking guides can be used as tools to aid in planning and conducting partial cuttings in hardwood forests. Two disadvantages...

  18. Use of hardwood flooring in mobile homes

    Treesearch

    David G. Martens; Leonard J. Koenick; Leonard J. Koenick

    1970-01-01

    The hardwood flooring industry is losing a new and vigorous market by default. The mobile-home industry produced over 250 million square feet of single-family housing space last year, and very little of this floor space was covered with hardwood flooring. A preliminary glance at this situation seems to uncover an industry that offers many opportunities for hardwood...

  19. Strategic plans for the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler; Keith E. Woeste

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University is to advance the science of hardwood tree improvement and genomics in the central hardwood region of the United States by: developing and disseminating knowledge on improving the genetic quality of hardwood tree species; conserving fine hardwood germplasm; developing...

  20. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  1. Inventory of Commercial Hardwoods in the High Sierra

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; George L. McCaskill

    1991-01-01

    A hardwood resources assessment was completed for the Sierra Economic Development District in the north central Sierra Nevada. The assessment included the development of a tree grading system for the major hardwood species in the area, an inventory of the hardwood resources, and recommendations for hardwood management. Hardwood volumes of total wood available for...

  2. Examination of regional hardwood roundwood markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman; William Luppold

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia's large and diverse hardwood resource ranges from oak-hickory forests in the southern and northwestern regions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia is home to a diverse group of primary hardwood processing industries including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  3. Native hardwood trees of the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2005-01-01

    Trees are planted for various reasons including, timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation (Indiana NRCS 2002). Establishment of hardwood plantings requires planning, a commitment of time and resources, proper planting, maintenance, and protection....

  4. DNA markers identify hybrids between butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) and Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carr.)

    Treesearch

    Peng ​Zhao; Keith E. Woeste

    2011-01-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a temperate deciduous hardwood native to the eastern USA and southern Canada valued for its nuts and wood. Butternut's survival is threatened by butternut canker, a disease caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignentijuglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz. Field...

  5. Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedders, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Current literature pertaining to habitat manipulation of deciduous fruit and nut orchards for pest control is reviewed. The hypothesis of pesticide-induced pest problems in deciduous orchards as well as the changing pest population dynamics of deciduous orchards is discussed An experimental habitat manipulation program for pecans, utilizing vetch cover crops to enhance lady beetle populations for pecan aphid control is presented

  6. Is hardwood nursery stock available?

    Treesearch

    Herschel G. Abbott; Frank E. Cunningham

    1957-01-01

    The amount of hardwood planting stock used in forest tree plantations in the United States is very small indeed. The great bulk of planting stock used is softwood. Wallihan (4) points out that there are several good reasons for this. First of all is the greater demand for softwood forest products. Another is the fact, often demonstrated in the past, that softwoods are...

  7. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  8. Ownership Patterns on Hardwood Lands

    Treesearch

    Sam C. Doak

    1991-01-01

    The pattern of land use and ownership—including sizes of ownerships, types of landowners, and their various management objectives—affects the level of benefits available from the California's hardwood resource. Geographic information system (GIS) databases of ownership and population characteristics were developed for two California counties using local assessors...

  9. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  10. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  11. Hardwood planting in southern Ontario

    Treesearch

    F. W. von Althen

    1977-01-01

    Successful hardwood afforestation is possible provided the following conditions can be met: (1) a deep, moist but well-drained soil; (2) intensive site preparation, preferably plowing and disking of the total plantation area; (3) careful planting of healthy, sturdy planting stock; (4) effective weed control for at least the first two and preferably three years after...

  12. Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    Do bottomland hardwood forests respond to improvement cuts? Do growth rate and stand quality increase enough to make up for the extra effort and, sometimes, outright expense of improvement cutting? Ten years of growth on some plots on the Delta Experimental Forest near Stoneville, Mississippi, indicates that the answer to both questions is "yes".

  13. Strip cutting in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Interest in clearcutting young northern hardwood stands in strips is running high, especially now that mechanical fellers and skidders have been developed to harvest these stands. Strip cutting has several advantages-no overstory to worry about when treating the site, no overstory to remove later, and the economic advantage of cutting the strip only once.

  14. Silvicultural systems for bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests normally regenerate with species found in the overstory. These species reflect the timing, duration, depth of water, and nature of the sediment in past flooding. The longer water stands during the growing season and the deeper the sediment, the fewer the species that are able to survive. Flooding patterns often change over the life of a...

  15. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  16. Grazing in central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin; Harold Scholten

    1989-01-01

    Woodland grazing is a major forestry and land management problem in parts of the central hardwood region. Most forest grazing is by cattle and, to a lesser extent, hogs in woodlands adjacent to pastures or feedlots. The practice is particularly common in the cattle producing areas of the Corn Belt where often 50 percent or more of the upland forest is grazed. Woodland...

  17. Bottomland hardwoods for structual flakeboards

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price; Chung-Yun Hse

    1983-01-01

    Seven species found growing in bottomland hardwood sites were evaluated for their potential in being utilized in a structural flakeboard. The evaluation process consisted of three phases of investigation. Phase I investigated properties of flakeboards fabricated with several flake lengths and thicknesses using all seven species. In Phase II, properties of panels made...

  18. Use Hardwoods for Building Components

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper; William W. Rice

    1968-01-01

    Describes a system for prefabricating structural units from hardwoods for use in floors, roofs, and walls of a-frame or post-and-beam type construction. The interior face of the unit is decorative paneling; the exterior face is sheathing. Use of the system could reduce prefabricated house construction costs compared to conventional construction costs.

  19. Sawlog weights for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson; Floyd G. Timson

    1972-01-01

    The tables are presented in this paper as reference material needed as a foundation for further work in the field of hardwood log weights. Such work may be undertaken by researchers, engineers, and equipment designers in the form of formal and informal studies, or by timbermen in the normal course of action to improve their operations.

  20. Herbicide practices in hardwood plantings

    Treesearch

    Brian D. Beheler; Charles H. Michler

    2013-01-01

    Control of competing vegetation is an important early cultural practice that can improve survival and vigor in hardwood tree plantings. The type of program used depends on landowner objectives, species of weeds present, equipment available, and types of herbicides available. Pre-planting planning can greatly increase effectiveness of an herbicide program for the first...

  1. Simulation of hardwood log sawing

    Treesearch

    D.B. Richards; W.K. Adkins; H. Hallock; E.H. Bulgrin

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modeling computer programs for several hardwood sawing systems have been developed and are described. One has judgment capabilities. Several of the subroutines are common to all of the models. These models are the basis for further research which examines the question of best-grade sawing method in terms of lumber value yield.

  2. Soil Management in Hardwood Plantations

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1978-01-01

    Several soil management techniques--fertilization, deep plowing, cover cropping, summer fallowing, Irrigation, and cultivation--can benefit hardwood plantations. The applicability of the treatments to plantations of cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, green ash, yellow-poplar, and oaks depends largely on site conditions.

  3. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Planting hardwood seedlings in the Central Hardwood Region.

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2003-01-01

    Forest tree planting in the United States on public and private land exceeded 2.6 million acres in 1999. Of that total, approximately 1.3 million acres (48 percent) were planted by private individuals (AF & PA 2001). In the Central Hardwood Region forest tree planting by private landowners exceeded 100,000 acres in 1999. Trees are planted for various reasons...

  4. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  5. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center: its strategic plans for sustaining the hardwood resource

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler; Michael J. Bosela; Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste

    2003-01-01

    A regional center for hardwood tree improvement, genomics, and regeneration research, development and technology transfer will focus on black walnut, black cherry, northern red oak and, in the future, on other fine hardwoods as the effort is expanded. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) will use molecular genetics and genomics along with...

  6. Growing high quality hardwoods: Plantation trials of mixed hardwood species in Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2011-01-01

    Hardwood plantations are becoming increasingly important in the United States. To date, many foresters have relied on a conifer plantation model as the basis of establishing and managing hardwood plantations. The monospecific approach suggested by the conifer plantation model does not appear to provide for the development of quality hardwood logs similar to those found...

  7. The state of hardwood lumber markets

    Treesearch

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; William G. Luppold

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1990-91 recession has temporarily dampened the demand for hardwood lumber, the decade of the 1980s was a period of strong growth in the hardwood market. After experiencing a flat market in 1980 and a decline in 1982, the demand for hardwood lumber by both the domestic industry and the export market increased strongly—from 8 billion board feet in 1982 to 11...

  8. Calculating competition in thinned northern hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    Sharon A. Winsauer; James A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Describes four methods of calculating competition to individual trees and compares their effectiveness in explaining the 3-year growth response of northern hardwoods after various mechanized thinning practices.

  9. Computer-Integrated Breakdown of Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress concerning the development of an integrated approach to hardwood processing. The motivation for this work, research direction, and research developments are presented.

  10. Hardwood Culture in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1978-01-01

    Many hardwood plantations are being established in the East. Populus deltoides, Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Juglans nigra are the species that have been planted and studied most.

  11. Canker Rots in Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    F.I. McCracken

    1978-01-01

    Canker-rot fungi cause serious degrade and cull in southern hardwoods, especially the red oaks. Heartwood decay is the most serious form of damage, but the fungi also kill the cambium and decay the sapwood for as much as 3 feet (.91 m) above and below the entrance point into the tree. The ability of these fungi to kill the cambium and cause cankers distinguishes them...

  12. Reproducing Southern Hardwoods is Easier Than You Think

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson; R. C. Biesterfeldt

    1971-01-01

    Throughout the South poor upland hardwood stands are being converted to pine, while bottom-land hardwood stands are largely ignored. Why are Southern foresters preoccupied with pines? Uncertainties about hardwood markets and gaps in available information about hardwood management are contributing causes, but fear is probably a key factor. Foresters much prefer the well...

  13. Hardwood supply in the Pacific Northwest-a policy perspective.

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton; Glenn R. Ahrens

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but...

  14. Forest survey results for higher grade hardwood sawtimber

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 Forest Survey of Mississippi shows a slight increase in forest area and a substantial gain in hardwood inventory. Hardwood gains, appearing in all diameter classes, suggest an increase in quality but hardwood users generally believe quality is declining. By our analysis, volume of top quality hardwood declined while volume in other grades increased. Forest...

  15. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Treesearch

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  16. Hardwoods are now being harvested at record levels

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann

    1991-01-01

    Recent canvasses by the USDA Forest Service of the sawmills and pulpmills in the central hardwood region show large increases in the harvests of hardwood species. In Kentucky, the production of hardwood sawlogs rose from 457 million board feet in 1974 to 775 million board feet in 1986, a 70 percent increase. In West Virginia, hardwood sawlog production also increased....

  17. Genetic Improvement of Southern hardwoods: The Current Status of Research

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Farmer

    1967-01-01

    Genetics research in southern hardwoods has moved, during the past decade, from a minor position in a few organizations to major status in most of the South's forest research establishments. This new interest in hardwood tree improvement has stemmed largely from (1) the increasing use of hardwoods for pulp and (2) a decreasing supply of high-quality hardwood...

  18. Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Sam C. Doak; Sharon Johnson; Marlyce Myers

    1991-01-01

    A logical framework is required to provide a focus for the implementation of a variety of landowner incentive techniques in accordance with existing goals to protect and enhance hardwood resources. A system is presented for identifying and prioritizing critical hardwood resources for site specific conservation purposes. Flexibility is built into this system so that...

  19. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Treesearch

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  20. Market shifts: assessing changes in hardwood demand

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production has trended downward nationally since 1999 as marginal mills have closed and others have consolidated in response to market conditions. Still, forests throughout Ohio continue to provide multiple benefits to landowners and all Ohioans. Important changes are taking place in hardwood markets, both domestically and abroad. With a knowledge of...

  1. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Treesearch

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  2. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Treesearch

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  3. Proceedings, 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Larry H. McCormick; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Two invited papers, forty-five volunteer papers, and twenty volunteer poster summaries presented at the 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentations were on economics, forest amenities, harvesting, utilization, physiology, genetics, ecology, regeneration, silviculture, protection, management, hydrology, soils, nutrient cycling, and hardwood markets of central...

  4. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Sandra L.C., eds. Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    Two invited papers, 57 volunteer papers, and 22 volunteer poster summaries presented at the 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included economics, forest amenities, harvesting, logging safety, utilization, physiology, genetics, ecology, regeneration, silviculture, protection, management, hydrology, soils, nutrient cycling, and hardwood markets...

  5. Automated computer grading of hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; R.W. Conners; H.A. Huber

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an improved computer program to grade hardwood lumber. The program was created as part of a system to automate various aspects of the hardwood manufacturing industry. It enhances previous efforts by considering both faces of the board and provides easy application of species dependent rules. The program can be readily interfaced with a computer...

  6. Stand density management of southern bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; J.S. Meadows

    1997-01-01

    We present tools to guide stand density management of southern bottomiand hardwoods and we provide guidance in their implementation. We present stocking guides for southern bottomland hardwoods and variants for associated forest types, water tupelo (Nyssa aquarica L.) and sweetgum (Liquidumbar styraciflua L.). The A-line...

  7. Proceedings: guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Arlyn W. Perkey; William E. Kidd

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We wanted a "state-of-the-art" proceedings for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We asked the authors to make recommendations based on the current literature, their knowledge, and experience. Though...

  8. The hardwood resource in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John H. Poppino; Donald R. Gedney

    1984-01-01

    The hardwood resource in western Oregon is described by species and ownership. Changes in the private hardwood resource between 1961-62 and 1973-76 are shown. Statistics of size, volume, and ownership by county are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh).

  9. Cutting hardwood cants can boost sawmill profits

    Treesearch

    George R. Niskala; Thomas W., Jr. Church

    1966-01-01

    The markets for hardwood lumber are now strong, and sawmill profits are increasing. But this favorable market-price situation is the exception rather than the rule. Usually hardwood sawmill operators are confronted with ever-decreasing profit margins. During the past decade, while lumber prices have remained relatively constant, most logging and sawmilling costs have...

  10. TREEGRAD: a grading program for eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.W. Stringer; D.W. Cremeans

    1991-01-01

    Assigning tree grades to eastern hardwoods is often a difficult task for neophyte graders. Recently several "dichotomous keys" have been developed for training graders in the USFS hardwood tree grading system. TREEGRAD uses the Tree Grading Algorithm (TGA) for determining grades from defect location data and is designed to be used as a teaching aid.

  11. Simplified Guidelines to Hardwood Lumber Grading

    Treesearch

    Walton R. Smith

    1967-01-01

    All native hardwood lumber is graded according to the rules established by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. The rules are complete and detailed so that they permit accurate lumber grading with a minimum of personal judgment. To the student lumber grader, the many fine points and exceptions by species are often confusing and hide the basic rules of standard...

  12. Hardwood timber supplies in the United States

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1991-01-01

    Long recognized for their wildlife, watershed, and aesthetic value, hardwoods are becoming increasingly important from the standpoint of timber production. The abundance of hardwood inventory volume, technological advances allowing greater substitution into softwood markets, and relatively low stumpage prices have generated a growing interest in increased utilization...

  13. Direct seeding of fine hardwood tree species

    Treesearch

    Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Direct seeding of fine hardwood trees has been practiced in the Central Hardwoods Region for decades, but results have been inconsistent. Direct seeding has been used for reforestation and afforestation based on perceived advantages over seedling planting, including cost and operational efficiencies, opportunities for rapid seedling establishment and early domination...

  14. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...)] Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair value... and subsidized imports of hardwood plywood from China. Accordingly, effective September 27, 2012, the...

  15. Hardwood Lumber Edger and Trimmer Training System

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computerized hardwood lumber edger and trimming training system. The purpose of the training system is to help edger and trimmer operators and sawmill managers better understand how hardwood lumber grade, surface measure, and price interact to affect lumber value. The training system can be used both as a training tool and as a testing tool. As a...

  16. Flexural Properties of Eastern Hardwood Pallet Parts

    Treesearch

    John A. McLeod; Marshall S. White; Paul A. Ifju; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the flexural properties of pallet parts are critical to the safe, yet efficient, design of wood pallets. To develop more accurate data for hardwood pallet parts, 840 stringers and 2,520 deckboards, representing 14 hardwood species, were sampled from 35 mills distributed throughout the Eastern United States. The parts were sorted by species,...

  17. Regeneration of southern hardwoods: some ecological concepts

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    1989-01-01

    Classical concepts of post-disturbance succession through well-defined seral stages to a well-defined ,climax stage( s) are not a useful conceptual framework for predicting species composition of regeneration resulting from the application of regeneration treatments in complex southern hardwood forests. Hardwood regeneration can be better understood, and more useful...

  18. Optimum Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Carmen Regalado; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Before the adoption of an automated system for optimizing edging and trimming in hardwood mills, the performance of present manual systems must be evaluated to provide a basis for comparison. a study was made in which lumber values recovered in actual hardwood operations were compared to the output of a computer-based procedure for edging and trimming optimization. The...

  19. Strip clearcutting to regenerate northern hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1980-01-01

    Describes results of strip clearcutting trials in mature northern hardwood and hemlock-hardwood stands in the Lake States. Two strip width and orientations were tested, with and without herbicide treatment of the advance regeneration. Establishment, growth, and species composition of the regeneration were assessed.

  20. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  1. The use of herbicides in hardwood forestery

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Herbicides can play an important role in hardwood management by providing foresters and landowners with a means to eliminate undesirable stand components. Although herbicide technology for hardwood management still needs much development, some methods are available and MU be used to enhance the value of the stand. With an emphasis on safety, detailed information about...

  2. A profile of Pennsylvania's hardwood sawmill industry

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Smith; Sudipta Dasmohapatra; William G. Luppold

    2004-01-01

    A mail survey of all identified hardwood sawmills in Pennsylvania was conducted in the fall of 2000 to better understand firm size, species used, origin of logs, processing technology employed, the hardwood lumber grades produced, and the value-added features performed by these sawmills in 1999. An adjusted response rate of 31 percent was obtained for the study's...

  3. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  4. Microcomputer Techniques for Developing Hardwood Conservation Strategies

    Treesearch

    Steve McNiel

    1991-01-01

    Hardwoods are disappearing from the California landscape at alarming rates. This is due to a variety of influences, both natural and man made. It is clear that conservation and rehabilitation of hardwood resources will require a large effort on the part of research institutes, universities, government agencies, special interest groups, private developers, maintenance...

  5. Wildlife response to stand structure of deciduous woodlands

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Raymond L. Linder

    1988-01-01

    Deciduous woodlands provide important habitat for wildlife but comprise Fraxinus pennsylvanica) woodlands in northwestern South Dakota. Closed-canopy stands were multilayered communities with dense...

  6. Deciduous tooth size standards for American blacks.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M D; Harris, E F

    1992-10-01

    Normative standards for tooth sizes are valuable for assessing a given patient's status, both clinically and for evaluating intrinsic (e.g., genetic, chromosomal aberrations) and acquired conditions. There are, however, very few published standards for American Blacks and none for the deciduous teeth. Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters are reported here for a series of 100 Black children. As with the permanent dentition, the primary teeth of Blacks are appreciably larger than Whites, though the amount differs by tooth type. In general, while all teeth are larger than norms for Whites, the posterior teeth (m1, m2) are preferentially larger. Applications of these standards are discussed.

  7. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Iltis, H.

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollenmore » of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.« less

  8. U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Japan, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Japan

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products as well as hardwood exports to Japan. It also discusses the U.S. hardwood resource situation and how we can best use the resource base to suppy Japanâs needs.

  9. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John A. Putnam; George M. Furnival; J.S. McKnight

    1960-01-01

    The valleys and uplands of the South outside the mountains and upper Piedmont have, since 1915, been responsible for about 45 percent of the national production of hardwood sawtimber. They are strong indications that this situation may continue indefinitely.

  10. Weight/volume ratios for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson

    1975-01-01

    Weight/volume relationships are presented in both English and metric systems for 15 commercial species of Appalachian hardwoods. Two ratios are presented: weight of wood volume alone, and weight of wood plus bark.

  11. Hardwood Veneer Timber Volume In Upper Michigan

    Treesearch

    E.W. Fobes; Gary R. Lindell

    1969-01-01

    Forests in Upper Michigan contain approximately 1.5 billion board feet of veneer logs of which three-fourths is hard maple and yellow birch. About 14 percent of the hardwood sawtimber is suitable for veneer logs.

  12. Tree grade distribution in Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Ernst; David A. Marquis

    1978-01-01

    Estimates of the distribution of tree grades by diameter class were developed for six hardwood species on the Allegheny Plateau. These estimates can be used to calculate present and projected stand values when actual tree grade measurements are not available.

  13. Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David M. Hix; Robert P. Long; P. Charles, eds. Goebel

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the 14th Central Hardwood Forest conference held 16-19 March in Wooster Ohio. Includes 102 papers and abstracts dealing with silviculture, wildlife, human dimensions, harvesting and utilization, physiology, genetics, soils, nutrient cycling, and biometrics.

  14. Mowing of northern hardwood reproduction not profitable

    Treesearch

    Victor S. Jensen; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1951-01-01

    Many northern hardwood stands in the Northeast contain a number of large, worthless trees that were left over from earlier logging jobs. The seedlings and saplings under such stands are usually misshapen by having been overtopped and suppressed for years.

  15. Innovative Harvesting Systems In Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Current and innovative machines and systems for harvesting bottomland hardwoods are described. Four systems are evaluated for production and costs: (1) grapple skidder, (2) clambunkskidder, (3) tree-length forwarder, and (4) shovel logging.

  16. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  17. North American Trading Outlook For Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    The United States has become a major player in the world market for hardwood logs, lumber, dimension stock, and veneer. For the last 10 years, U.S. exports of these products have been growing, and the future looks bright. The major hardwood species demanded on the export market are the select red and white oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry and...

  18. Volume growth of pine and hardwood in uneven-aged loblolly pine-upland hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Farrar; Paul A. Murphy; Daniel J. Leduc

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from an exploratory investigation of stand-level periodic volume growth of uneven-aged mixed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)-upland hardwood stands on good sites in southeastern Arkansas. A restricted set of replicated observations was extracted from an extensive CFI database involving varying pine-hardwood mixtures to form an array of plots with...

  19. California's hardwood resource: history and reasons for lack of a sustained hardwood industry

    Treesearch

    Dean W. Huber; Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Interest in utilizing California's forest-zone hardwoods for lumber and wood products has waxed and waned for more than 140 years. In spite of many unsuccessful ventures, strong interest is once again evident from landowners, processors, consumers, and policy makers. Their interest suggests a need to know past pitfalls, to recognize some realities of hardwood...

  20. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2003-01-01

    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...

  1. Hardwood lumber and stumpage prices in two eastern hardwood markets: The real story

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Paul S. DeBald; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    Current and real prices of hardwood lumber and stumpage prices are discussed. Results show that inflation wiped out most of the apparent price increases in two major hardwood lumber markets. Stumpage prices also failed to increase in real terms for most species in Ohio. Current and real prices trends for eight major eastern species are shown for the period 1964 through...

  2. Innovative and Coordinated Solutions for the Hardwood Industry: The Hardwood Utilization Consortium

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Cynthia West

    1996-01-01

    Many varied efforts have been underway to help the hardwood industry make more effective and efficient use of the hardwood resource while meeting market needs. The efforts range from training, extension, utilization and marketing research and development, to educational activities. The activities are disjointed and unorganized and individually struggling to maintain...

  3. Forage production after hardwood control in a southern pine-hardwood stand

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Blair

    1971-01-01

    After hardwoods were removed from an all-aged pine-hardwood stand in central Louisiana, herbage available in late summer increased for 2 to 4 years, then declined rapidly as the density and growth of pine seedlings increased. Browse production increased for 6 to 8 years, but together with herbage produciton returned to pretreatment levels within 10 years. Competition...

  4. AmeriFlux CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous. Site Description - The forest is approximately 90 years old. Naturally regenerated on sandy terrain and abandoned agricultural land. Predominantly hardwood species with a few scattered conifers. Site has been managed (thinned) in the past. It has a high biodiversity with 573 tree and plant species, 102 bird species, 23 mamal species and 22 reptile and amphibian species (SWALSREP Report, 1999). The dominant tree species is white oak (Quercus alba), with other scattered broadleaf Carolinian species including sugar and red maple (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black and red oak (Q. velutina, Q. rubra) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) . There are also scattered conifers, mostly white and red pine (Pinus strobes, P. resinosa), comprising about 5% of the trees. Average tree height is 25.7 m with a stand density of 504 ± 18 trees per hectare. Average tree diameter at breast height is 22.3 cm and basal area is 0.06 m2 or approximately 29 square meters per hectare.

  5. Deciduous tooth chronology in the mandible of the domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; McClure, R C

    1976-01-01

    Fetuses of known age, collected from 20 days' gestation to term, were used to characterize the chronology of deciduous tooth development within the right mandible of swine. Tooth development was first observed at 32 days' embryonic development, with the differentiation of the deciduous third molar. Bud stages for the remaining deciduous teeth differentiated within the period of 32 to 38 days of embryonic development. Although the initial histological appearance of these teeth covered a short period of time, it was apparent that each tooth continued to develop at its own rate. The deciduous second incisor and first molar reached a stage of enamel formation by the 80th and 86th day of fetal development. This is a much later stage than previously recorded for beginning enamel formation. The stages of tooth development and enamel formation for each tooth are summarized. A previous report on the distribution of the dental lamina and deciduous tooth development in the mandible of the domestic pig combined with the information presented in this report on tooth chronology provide much of the information required for future studies using the domestic pig in dental research. A fetus observed at the 74th day of development demonstrated a tooth bud for the deciduous first premolar. The development of this tooth was followed closely throughout the remainder of fetal development with the cap stage representing its most definitive form at 110 days' development. The suggested deciduous origin for this tooth could result in a reevaluation of the nomenclature for the dental formula of swine.

  6. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

    2014-10-10

    Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

  7. Carpenterworm Moths and Cerambycid Hardwood Borers Caught in Light Traps

    Treesearch

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin

    1972-01-01

    A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.

  8. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  9. Recovery of residue tops in selectively cut northern hardwood stands.

    Treesearch

    James A. Johnson; Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata

    1982-01-01

    Tests the feasibility and economics of compacting hardwood tops with a prototype shearing and bunching device prior to skidding. Presents productivity levels and costs associated with compacting, skidding, and chipping hardwood tops.

  10. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  11. U.S. hardwood lumber production: 1963 to 2003

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2003 northern hardwood lumber production more than doubled while production in the southern regions increased by less than 25 percent. In 1963 the major users of hardwood lumber were the furniture manufacturers located in the southeast region, and hardwood flooring producers located in the south central region. By contrast more than 60 percent of the...

  12. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  13. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; William H. Conner; Robert C. Kellison; David Van Lear

    2004-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests stretch from the Virginias to Florida and from the mid-Atlantic to Missouri. They can generally be grouped into upland forests and bottomland forests. The upland hardwood forests of the southern region are usually associated with the mountainous topography of the Appalachians and Ozarks. Bottomland hardwoods are found along the floodplains of...

  14. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  15. Economic and operational feasibility of short rotation hardwood inventory

    Treesearch

    Tom Gallagher; Robert Shaffer

    2002-01-01

    Procuring wood during the winter months for a pulpmill in the Southeast has some difficulties, especially in hardwood. Soft ground reduces the operational feasibility of many sites, forcing companies to store hardwood in woodyards for retrieval during wet weather. Intensively managed, short rotation hardwood grown on dry sites could economically supply a pulpmill...

  16. Soil Nutrients and pH in Southern Hardwood Nurseries

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner; W. M. Broadfoot

    1964-01-01

    The rapidly expanding interest in hardwoods in the South has caused many forest nurseries, to begin growing hardwood as well as pine seedlings. Apparently most nurserymen have been able to accomplish this change without great difficulty. Nursery sites and soil conditions suitable for pines should be basically satisfactory for hardwoods also.

  17. Supplying the Pacific Rim With U.S. Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. grows much more hardwood timber each year than is used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. We present a quick look at our Eastern hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability), and suggest necessary cooperation by our export customers in the Pacific Rim to help assure adequate supplies of hardwood products....

  18. Hardwood pulpwood stumpage price trends in the northeast.

    Treesearch

    Lloyd C. Irland; Paul E. Sendak; Richard H. Widmann

    2001-01-01

    Hardwood pulpwood consumption has increased in five leading Northeastern states from 1.2 million cords in 1963 to 4.6 million cords in 1997. A shift from the reliance on softwoods has occurred and by the mid-1970s hardwood use exceeded softwood. This increases the importance of the markets for hardwood pulpwood. These five states?Maine, New Hampshire, New York,...

  19. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  20. Pacific Rim and Midle East Markets for Hardwood Products

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic changes have taken place in the U.S. hardwood export market since 1975. World demand for U.S. hardwood logs, lumber, and veneer has quadrupled. Exports to Europe and particularly the Pacific Rim, have grown significantly. The focus of this presentation is on the Pacific Rim and Middle East markets. Reasons for overseas demand of U.S. hardwood products are...

  1. New estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Europe and Asia

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Explains how earlier estimates of hardwood-lumber exports were in error, discusses the procedures used to develop a new set of hardwood-lumber export estimates, and presents a detailed set of new hardwood-lumber export estimates for European and Asian markets.

  2. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  3. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  4. Primary detection of hardwood log defects using laser surface scanning

    Treesearch

    Ed Thomas; Liya Thomas; Lamine Mili; Roger Ehrich; A. Lynn Abbott; Clifford Shaffer; Clifford Shaffer

    2003-01-01

    The use of laser technology to scan hardwood log surfaces for defects holds great promise for improving processing efficiency and the value and volume of lumber produced. External and internal defect detection to optimize hardwood log and lumber processing is one of the top four technological needs in the nation's hardwood industry. The location, type, and...

  5. U.S. Hardwood Product Exports to Canada and a Look at U.S. Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Canada became the largest market for primary product hardwood exports in 1987 after slipping to No. 3 in 1986. Preferences for fine hardwoods and limited Canadian supplies of species such as oak should assure continued strong demands for U.S. hardwoods. Another reason for continued strong demand is that some Canadian firms process U.S. lumber and logs for export. This...

  6. A technique for predicting clear-wood production in hardwood stems: A model for evaluating hardwood plantation development and management

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Dave R. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    The management of artificial hardwood stands suffers from a paucity of information. As a result, many managers and scientists turn to conventional pine plantation management as a source for informing silvicultural decisions. Such an approach when managing hardwoods ignores the development occurring in natural hardwood stands, which produce stems prized for their growth...

  7. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Keeland, B.D.; Stanturf, J.A.; Clewell, A.F.; Kennedy, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    During the last century, a large amount of the original bottomland hardwood forest area in the United States has been lost, with losses greatest in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and East Texas. With a holistic approach in mind, this manual describes methods to restore bottomland hardwoods in the lower Midwest, including the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the southeastern United States. Bottomland hardwoods in this guide include not only the hardwood species that predominate in most forested floodplains of the area but also the softwood species such as baldcypress that often co-occur. General restoration planning considerations are discussed as well as more specific elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative options for revegetation. We recognize that most projects will probably fall more within the realm of reforestation or afforestation rather than a restoration, as some site preparation and the planting of seeds or trees may be the only actions taken. Practical information needed to restore an area is provided in the guide, and it is left up to the restorationist to decide how complete the restoration will be. Postplanting and monitoring considerations are also addressed. Restoration and management of existing forests are included because of the extensive areas of degraded natural forests in need of rehabilitation.

  8. Relative price trends for hardwood stumpage, sawlogs, and lumber in Ohio

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; William G. Luppold

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, the hardwood lumber industry experienced a rapidly changing domestic and international hardwood product market. These changes have significantly affected prices of hardwood lumber, and subsequently affected prices of hardwood sawlogs and stumpage. To illustrate these changes, this paper examines deflated prices and price trends for hardwood...

  9. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Diagnosing and controlling wildlife damage in hardwood plantations.

    Treesearch

    James McKenna; Keith Woeste

    2004-01-01

    Once trees are planted and begin growing, damage from wildlife can threaten their quality. In this publication we discuss how to identify and manage injury to hardwoods from wildlife to minimize losses.

  10. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  11. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Treesearch

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  12. Sprout Singling in North Alabama Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Kozma Naka; Philip G. Cannon

    2004-01-01

    Many commercial hardwood species grow quite well in northern Alabama and most regenerate by stump sprouts after harvest. The number of sprouts on a stump depends on several factors such as species and stump size. To determine if the practice of singling (removing all but the single best sprout from a stump) might be a means of accelerating the growth rate of one stem...

  13. Proceedings, 16th central hardwood forest conference

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Charles H., eds. Michler

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of the 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference held April 8-9, 2008, in West Lafayette, IN. Includes 64 papers pertaining to forest regeneration and propagation, forest products, ecology and forest dynamics, human dimensions and economics, forest biometrics and modeling, silviculture and genetics, forest health and protection, and soil and mineral nutrition...

  14. Diameter Growth of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Henry Bull

    1945-01-01

    There is very little published information on average rates of diameter growth of southern bottomland hardwoods. Probably the best information of this kind is given by Winters, Putnam, and Eldredge,2 who summarize forest survey data on average rates of diameter growth for 4 size classes and 20 species or species groups (including pine and cyress), and for all species...

  15. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  16. Can eastern hardwoods offset timber cutbacks?

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    Efforts to conserve habitat of the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest have placed softwood timber supplies under a great deal of pressure and driven up the price of softwood lumber. Hardwoods could meet some of the demand for products that previously have been made from softwood species. Research in this field has been under way for some time; more is needed...

  17. Compatible taper algorithms for California hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James W. Flewelling

    2007-01-01

    For 13 species of California hardwoods, cubic volume equations to three merchantability standards had been developed earlier. The equations predict cubic volume from the primary bole, forks, and branches, but do not differentiate between the sources of the wood. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program needed taper equations that are compatible with the volume...

  18. Development of Hardwood Seed Zones for

    Treesearch

    Lisa S. Post; Frank van Manen; R. A. Cecich; A. M. Saxton; J. F. Schneider

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have...

  19. Chapter 6:Engineered trusses from undervalued hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    A significant volume of softwood lumber is used in engineered truss assemblies. Metal plate connected (MPC) trusses are commonly used in residential construction for both roof and floor applications. Currently, there are no truss manufacturers producing MPC trusses with hardwood lumber, primarily as a consequence of a lack of technical data on the performance of...

  20. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  1. Forest Statistics for Minnesota's Central Hardwood Unit.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the fifth inventory of Minnesota's Central Hardwood Unit found 11.9 million acres of land, of which 2.4 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removal, mortality, and ownership.

  2. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  3. Hardwood Diseases in Plantations and Nurseries

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1979-01-01

    Root disease is the most important problem of hardwoods in nurseries with most mortality from damping-off occurring during the first 6 weeks of seedling emergence. The root rots can persist throughout the growing season and cause stunting that makes seedlings unsaleable. Chemical fumigation of nursery beds is the best control method available for root disease. Methyl...

  4. Mechanized systems for harvesting eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2010-01-01

    In the central Appalachian region, hardwoods traditionally have been harvested by chainsaw felling with trees and logs extracted from the forest to landings by rubber-tired skidders, bulldozers, and crawler tractors. In recent years, mechanized systems that include feller bunchers and cut-to-length (CTL) processors coupled with forwarders and clambunk and grapple...

  5. Stocking chart for upland central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; Donald E. Hilt

    1989-01-01

    The upland hardwoods stocking chart, introduced by Gingrich in 1967, has become one of the forest manager's most useful tools. The chart allows you to determine the condition of the present stand in relation to a stocking standard. The stocking of a stand is extremely helpful in prescribing various silvicultural treatments such as intermediate thinnings,...

  6. Eradicating Understory Hardwoods By Repeated Prescribed Burning

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    In a loblolly-shorleaf pine stand contained abundant litter, one winter fire killed 94 percent of the stems of understory hardwoods up to 3.5 inches in diameter at teh base. Prolific sprouting ensued. Eleven annual summer burns eliminated sprouting on 85 percent of the rootstocks, and seven biennial summer burns eliminated sprouting on 59 percent of them.

  7. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  8. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  9. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Treesearch

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  10. Interim hardwood tree grades for factory lumber

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Leland F. Hanks

    1971-01-01

    Hardwood trees have for many years been measured in such a way that tree volume could be estimated; and in recent years the prediction of tree quality by using tree grades has become of interest to owners, sellers, and buyers of timber. Several tree-grading systems have been developed, but none has been publicized and used on a widespread scale. The Forest Service...

  11. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Treesearch

    Randy Rentz

    2005-01-01

    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  12. Simulated yields for managed northern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    1986-01-01

    Board-foot and cubic-foot yields developed with the forest growth model SlMTlM are presented for northern hardwood stands grown with and without management. SIMTIM has been modified to include more accurate growth rates by species, a new stocking chart, and yields that reflect species values and quality classes. Treatments range from no thinning to intensive quality...

  13. SOLVE The performance analyst for hardwood sawmills

    Treesearch

    Jeff Palmer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth Porterfield

    2009-01-01

    Presents the users manual and CD-ROM for SOLVE, a computer program that helps sawmill managers improve efficiency and solve problems commonly found in hardwood sawmills. SOLVE provides information on key operational factors including log size distribution, lumber grade yields, lumber recovery factor and overrun, and break-even log costs. (Microsoft Windows? Edition)...

  14. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  15. Can Hardwoods Be Eradicated From Pine Sites?

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; D.A. Yaussy

    1984-01-01

    Intensive mechanical and chemical treatments were used annually for 12 years to eradicate hardwoods from a selectively managed loblolly (pinus taeda L.) shortleaf (P. echinata Mill.) pine stand in south Arkansas.Although temporarily effective, a succession of indigenous shrubs and trees followed the cessation of eradication...

  16. A Dynamic Model of California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Treesearch

    Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt

    1991-01-01

    Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...

  17. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  18. Dry Weight of Several Piedmont Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Bobby G. Blackmon; Charles W. Ralston

    1968-01-01

    Forty-four sample hardwood trees felled on 24 plots were separated into three above-ground components- stem, branches, and leaves--and weighed for dry matter content. Tree, stand, and site variables were tested for significant relationships with dry weight of tree parts. Weight increase of stems was a logarithmic function ,of both stem diameter and height, whereas for...

  19. Damage From Increment Borings in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    E. Richard Toole; John L. Gammage

    1959-01-01

    THIS PAPER REPORTS a study of the amount of stain and decay that developed from increment-borer holes in five species of bottomland hardwoods. Though the 0.2-inch holes made by conventional borers are often considered insignificant, it appears that they may result in serious defect.

  20. New ideas about regeneration of hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R.L. Johnson

    1980-01-01

    Hardwoods reproduce naturally through seedlings established in the understory, through sprouts that emerge from the stump or roots of cut trees, and through seedlings that start in new openings. Some species reproduce in all three ways. Understory reproduction is usually of shade-tolerant species with inherently slow early growth rates. Generally, the taller an...

  1. Yield table for hardwood bark residue

    Treesearch

    Jeffery L. Wartluft

    1974-01-01

    Bark residue weights are tabulated for eight species of hardwood sawlogs according to log volume by the Doyle, International 1/4-inch, and Scribner decimal C log rules. Factors are provided for converting from weight in pounds to volume in cubic yards.

  2. Nutrient Drain Associated with Hardwood Plantation Culture

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker

    1978-01-01

    Past research and a tentative evaluation indicate that nutrient drain and possible site degradation could occur in southern hardwood plantations. The extent of nutrient drain on a given site would depend on the species, length of the rotation, and harvesting system used. The evaluation for cottonwood plantations in Mississippi indicates that nutrient drain is most...

  3. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  4. Natural Regeneration of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; J. Steven Meadows

    1994-01-01

    Many mixed hardwood stands found in bottomlands have been degraded by past harvesting practices that resulted in high grading the stand, thereby leaving the forester few options other than regeneration. Economic considerations usually constrain the choices to some form of complete overstory removal if adequate advance regeneration or sprouting potential is available....

  5. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  6. 13th Central Hardwoods Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Jeffrey O. Dawson; Felix Jr Ponder; Edward F. Loewenstein; James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    This conference was the 13th in a series of biennial meetings that have been hosted by numerous universities and research stations of the USDA Forest Service in the Central Hardwood forest region in the eastern United States. The purpose of the Conference has remained the same since it's inception -- that is to provide a forum for the formal and informal exchange...

  7. Proceedings, 15th central hardwood forest conference

    Treesearch

    David S. Buckley; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; [Editors

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th central hardwood forest conference held February 27–March 1, 2006, in Knoxville, TN. Includes 86 papers and 30 posters pertaining to forest health and protection, ecology and forest dynamics, natural and artificial regeneration, forest products, wildlife, site classification, management and forest resources, mensuration and models, soil and...

  8. 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey W. Stringer; David L. Loftis; Michael Lacki; Thomas Barnes; Robert A. Muller

    1999-01-01

    There were 32 oral presentations, 11 abstracts, and 22 poster presentations presented at the 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included wildlife management, nutrient dynamics, stand structure, reforestation/reclamation, timber harvesting, modeling and inventory, silviculture, disturbance effects, and genetics/tree improvement.

  9. Bottomland hardwood afforestation: State of the art

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; Mark Oliver; Lamar C. Dorris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, land managers have implemented large-scale afforestation operations across the Southern United States to rehabilitate agricultural land historically converted from bottomland hardwood forest cover types. These afforestation efforts were initially concentrated on public land managed by State or Federal Government agencies, but have later shifted...

  10. Guide to Regeneration of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martha R. McKevlin

    1992-01-01

    This guide will help landowners, consulting foresters, and public service foresters regenerate bottomland hardwoods. It discusses (1) interpretation of site characteristics, (2) selection of species, and (3) selection of regeneration methods. A dichotomous key for selection of appropriate regeneration methods under various conditions is presented.

  11. Identifying Hardwoods Growing on Pine Sites

    Treesearch

    Clair A. Brown; Harold E. Grelen

    1977-01-01

    This publication illustrates and describes 26 hardwood species or varieties, including 16 oaks and hickories with photographs of leaves, bark, buds, flowers, and fruits. Line drawings feature the winter silhouette of each species and a key is included to assist in identification.

  12. What's Causing the Mortality in Southern Hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; E. R. Toole

    1958-01-01

    Widespread dieback and mortality of hardwoods has been noted in the South during recent years. In general, losses have been most severe in certain areas of cottonwood, sweetgum, and black willow. Some damage also has been noted in red oaks, especially Nuttall; and in elms, green ash, sycamore, and some less important species. On uplands, mortality has occurred in...

  13. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Treesearch

    J.A. Allen; B.D. Keeland; John A. Stanturf; A.F. Clewell; Harvey E.. Jr. Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this guide is to provide information for land managers and landowners who want to reestablish bottomland hardwood forest vegetation, particularly the trees, on lands where they formerly occurred. Restoration and reforestation are approached with the realization that hydrology, as the driving force of wetland ecosystems, must be explicitly...

  14. Silvics of North America: Volume 2. Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Russell M. Burns; Barbara H. Honkala; [Technical coordinators

    1990-01-01

    The silvical characteristics of about 200 forest tree species and varieties are described. Most are native to the 50 United States and Puerto Rico, but a few are introduced and naturalized. Information on habitat, life history, and genetics is given for 15 genera, 63 species, and 20 varieties of conifers and for 58 genera, 128 species, and 6 varieties of hardwoods....

  15. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  16. Snag longevity in managed northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Little information on standing snag and coarse woody debris longevity exists for New England forest types. Forest managers thus lack the information on changes over time of the habitat components influenced by the decay process. We examined the fate of 568 snags that occurred on a long-term hardwood growth study on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. Approximately...

  17. Relative Performance of Hardwood Sawing Machines

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Michael W. Wade; Steven H. Bullard; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Only limited information has been available to hardwood sawmillers on the performance of their sawing machines. This study analyzes a large database of individual machine studies to provide detailed information on 6 machine types. These machine types were band headrig, circular headrig, band linebar resaw, vertical band splitter resaw, single arbor gang resaw and...

  18. Selection Management in Southern Appalachian Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Lino Della-Bianca; Donald E. Beck

    1985-01-01

    A woodland tract of southern Appalachian cove hardwoods and mixed oak has been managed under the selection satem of silviculture since 1946.Simply cutting in all commercial diameter classes (i.e. 6.0 inches and larger), as was the practice during the first 24 years, failed to develop enough desirable saplings and poles to maintain the system.After 1970,...

  19. Stand development and silviculture in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. Steven Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Silviculture for the production of high-quality timber in southern bottomland hardwood forests involves the application of environmentally sound practices in order to enhance the growth and quality of both individual trees and stands. To accomplish this purpose, silvicultural practices are typically used to regulate stand density, species composition, and stem quality...

  20. Automation for Primary Processing of Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills critically need to incorporate automation and computer technology into their operations. Social constraints, forest biology constraints, forest product market changes, and financial necessity are forcing primary processors to boost their productivity and efficiency to higher levels. The locations, extent, and types of defects found in logs and on...

  1. Silvicultural systems for harvesting mixed hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Ivan L. Sander

    1989-01-01

    Mixed stands that include oaks, yellow-poplar, black cherry, maples, white ash, basswood, birches, American beech, and other species are commonly found in the central hardwood forest. Depending on site quality and past stand treatment, overstory composition may range from nearly pure stands of oak or yellow-poplar to mixtures of 20 or more species.

  2. The hardwood chip market in 2005

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2005-01-01

    The North American Pulp and Paper industry continues to experience challenges and changes much like most other business sectors of the hardwood industry. Marketing policies and the raw material supply chain of pulpwood and chips are being affected. The issues surrounding supply for pulpwood and chips have a broad reach in affecting timber and log purchases, logging...

  3. Chapter 2:Basic properties of undervalued hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe

    2005-01-01

    Among the most abundant of our undervalued hardwoods are the soft maples. However, other species that are also underutilized include some species of birch and some lower grades of the hard maples. This chapter covers physical, mechanical, and other important properties of different soft maples, hard maples, and yellow birch and compares them with the properties of...

  4. Extractives in eastern hardwoods : a review

    Treesearch

    John W. Rowe

    1979-01-01

    This report extensively reviews the chemistry of extractives from wood and bark of hardwoods from the eastern United States. While such extractives are not used to a great extent commercially, they may influence properties of the wood and performance of wood products. For example, extractives can protect wood from decay, add color and odor to wood, accent grain pattern...

  5. Sampling the quality of hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1959-01-01

    Anyone acquainted with the conversion of hardwood trees into wood products knows that timber has a wide range in quality. Some trees will yield better products than others. So, in addition to rate of growth and size, tree values are affected by the quality of products yielded.

  6. Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Any automatic hardwood grading system must have two components. The first of these is a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on rough lumber. The second is a system for automatically grading boards based on the output of the computer vision system. This paper presents research results aimed at developing the first of these components. The...

  7. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  8. Medium density fiberboard from mixed southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George E. Woodson

    1977-01-01

    Medium-density fiberboards of acceptable quality were made from a mixture of barky chips from 14 southern hardwoods. Boards made from fiber refined at three different plate clearances did not vary significantly in bending, internal bond (IB), or linear expansion. but, lack of replications and the fact that the refiner was not loaded to capacity caused these results to...

  9. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: extension and outreach

    Treesearch

    Brian J. MacGowan; Lenny D. Farlee; Robert N. Chapman

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts on plants and animals. Information from the HEE should and will be made available to a diverse group of potential users. This paper summarizes educational efforts during the pre-treatment period and highlights potential mechanisms and...

  10. Hardwood Fertilization: Research Progress in the Midsouth

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1974-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for wood and wood products, the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is investigating silvicultural techniques such as fertilization. Sweetgum, water oak, and willow oak have responded to N and NPK on clay soils of the Mississippi River floodplain. Yellow-poplar growth has been improved by NPK fertilizers on eroded sites in the Silty Uplands, and...

  11. Use of digital webcam images to track spring green-up in a deciduous broadleaf forest.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew D; Jenkins, Julian P; Braswell, Bobby H; Hollinger, David Y; Ollinger, Scott V; Smith, Marie-Louise

    2007-05-01

    Understanding relationships between canopy structure and the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic uptake of CO(2) by forest canopies requires improved knowledge of canopy phenology at eddy covariance flux tower sites. We investigated whether digital webcam images could be used to monitor the trajectory of spring green-up in a deciduous northern hardwood forest. A standard, commercially available webcam was mounted at the top of the eddy covariance tower at the Bartlett AmeriFlux site. Images were collected each day around midday. Red, green, and blue color channel brightness data for a 640 x 100-pixel region-of-interest were extracted from each image. We evaluated the green-up signal extracted from webcam images against changes in the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation that is absorbed by the canopy (f (APAR)), a broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the light-saturated rate of canopy photosynthesis (A(max)), inferred from eddy flux measurements. The relative brightness of the green channel (green %) was relatively stable through the winter months. A steady rising trend in green % began around day 120 and continued through day 160, at which point a stable plateau was reached. The relative brightness of the blue channel (blue %) also responded to spring green-up, although there was more day-to-day variation in the signal because blue % was more sensitive to changes in the quality (spectral distribution) of incident radiation. Seasonal changes in blue % were most similar to those in f (APAR) and broadband NDVI, whereas changes in green % proceeded more slowly, and were drawn out over a longer period of time. Changes in A(max) lagged green-up by at least a week. We conclude that webcams offer an inexpensive means by which phenological changes in the canopy state can be quantified. A network of cameras could offer a novel opportunity to implement a regional or national phenology monitoring program.

  12. Stocking, growth, and habitat relations in New Hampshire hardwoods

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1983-01-01

    Data from hardwood stands in New Hampshire substantiated the crown-width relationships used to develop the B-line (based on circular crowns) in the 1969 northern hardwood stocking guide, and produced an A-line slightly lower than the original line. Position of the A-line was unrelated to site or forest type. Diameter growth of hardwoods on moist and dry soils declined...

  13. Estimating the size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Smith; William G. Luppold; Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2003-01-01

    The size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania in 1999 is estimated at 1.311 BBF by 556 mills. Study results show an 11 percent higher estimate of the volume of hardwood lumber produced and a 60 percent greater number of Pennsylvania sawmills in 1999 as compared to the 1.186 BBF of hardwood lumber by 339 sawmills estimated by the USDC Census Bureau for the...

  14. Fire history in a southern Appalachian deciduous forest

    Treesearch

    Norman L., Jr. Christensen; Kurt Fesenmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Because there are few long-term dendrochronological and lake sediment data for the southern Appalachians, little is known regarding the history of fire in this region's forests through the Holocene. Radio-carbon ages for 82 soil charcoal samples collected from local depositional sites along a topographic gradient from mixed hardwood (Liriodendron...

  15. Winter-Deciduous versus Evergreen Habit in Mediterranean Regions: A Model

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Blumler

    1991-01-01

    Although winter-deciduous species are presumed to be "out-of-phase" with the mediterranean climate regime, distributional evidence suggests some taxa may be more tolerant of summer drought than evergreen sclerophylls. Deciduous species possess several features that confer advantage in extreme summer dry regions: drought-deciduousness, an efficient response to...

  16. Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) breeding in deciduous forests

    Treesearch

    Carl D. Marti

    1997-01-01

    The first studies of nesting Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) established the idea that the species needs ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests for breeding. In northern Utah, Flammulated Owls nested in montane deciduous forests dominated by quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). No pines were present but...

  17. Plant Identification Characteristics for Deciduous Trees & Shrubs. Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Kathy

    This manual contains a group of lesson plans designed for use with a slide series (not included here). Its purpose is to introduce students to the basic concepts and terminology used in the identification of deciduous trees and shrubs. The manual is composed of 12 lesson plans. The first lesson is an introduction to plant identification. The…

  18. Fire ecology and bird populations in eastern deciduous forests

    Treesearch

    Vanessa L. Artman; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jeffrey D. Brawn; Jeffrey D. Brawn

    2005-01-01

    Eastern deciduous forests are located across the central portion of eastern North America and provide habitat for a wide diversity of bird species. The occurrence of fi re in the region has been associated with the presence of humans for over 10,000 yr. While pre-European fire regimes are poorly understood, fire is widely thought to have promoted and maintained large...

  19. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Barton D. Clinton; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality...

  20. Estimating bottomland hardwood growth and yield

    Treesearch

    1989-01-01

    Most bottomland hardwoods grow on very productive sites-site index 70 or more. A fully stocked immature stand (table 1, fig. 1) requires tending throughout its life. The goal is to attain a stand of approximately 50 high quality trees of commercial species per acre at maturity. Releasing these crop trees can result in the cumulative yield of 2,000-4,000 board feet per...

  1. Glyphosate controls hardwoods in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel; J. N. Kochenderfer

    1982-01-01

    Applications of Roundup, a glyphosate, by mistblower were effective in controlling hay-scented fern, blackberries, and some tree, shrub, and herbaceous species on an experimental watershed in West Virginia. Damage to planted Norway spruce was slight at rates of 1, 2, and 3 qt/acre (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 lb/acre of the acid glyphosate). A variety of hardwood species were...

  2. Diameter growth of individual hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; G.R. Trimble

    1969-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1967 a study of d.b.h. growth rates was made on individual hardwood trees near Parsons, W. Va. From this study, we obtained information that will help foresters to predict growth. We learned that the correlation of the more easily used crown classification with d.b.h. growth is as good as or better than the correlation of vigor classes with d.b.h....

  3. Improving quality and value of future hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Larry R. Frye

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood area is highly regarded both in this country and abroad for the high quality timber grown on both public and private lands. Buyers of standing timber and logs for lumber and veneer often look to this region first to meet their needs for raw materials. And these buyers have traditionally paid a lot more for quality timber than the usual market price...

  4. Effect of the hardwood resource on the sawmill industry in the central and Appalachian regions

    Treesearch

    William Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The Central and Appalachian hardwood regions contain a diverse and valuable timber resource. The regions are important to the hardwood industry because they contain 68 percent of the eastern hardwood sawtimber. Furthermore, more than 70 percent of the hardwood lumber produced in the United States is manufactured at mills located in 16 of the states in the regions. This...

  5. Development of old-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 22-year record

    Treesearch

    Stanley M. Filip; David A. Marquis; William B. Leak

    1960-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests provide the industries of New England with their most valuable woods: yellow birch and sugar maple for veneer, paper birch for turning stock, and other hardwood species for a variety of specialty products. As a result of recent developments in hardwood pulping, these northern hardwood forests now represent a tremendous reservoir of raw...

  6. A national profile of the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry

    Treesearch

    Scott Bowe; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the hardwood sawmill industry was conducted in the fall of 1999. The objectives of the survey were to generate a current demographic profile of the hardwood sawmill industry and identify the preferred information sources for the hardwood sawmill industry. These objectives were chosen because timely information was not available for the hardwood...

  7. Volume, Weight, and Pulping Properties Of 5-Year-OId Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. M. Krinard; R. L. Johnson; H. E. Kennedy

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood plantation was established in an Arkansas small stream bottom at 10- by 100 foot spacing to obtain information on survival, growth, yield, and utilization possibilities on such Coastal Plain sites. The data are needed before the planting of hardwoods can be considered as an alternative to pine regeneration on these good hardwood sites. Seven hardwood species...

  8. The Legal Environment for Hardwood Lands in California

    Treesearch

    Sam Doak; Kass Green; Sally K. Fairfax; Sharon G. Johnson

    1991-01-01

    Intensified use of California's hardwood lands is evolving rapidly. With these changes come clashes over the appropriateness of various land uses and, in some cases, regulatory efforts to control some of these activities. The legal environment facing hardwood landowners is a confusing mix of state, Federal, and local measures. This paper first describes and...

  9. Monitoring California Hardwood Rangeland Resources: An Adaptive Approach

    Treesearch

    Raul Tuazon

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes monitoring hardwood rangelands in California within the context of an adaptive or anticipatory approach. A heuristic process of policy evolution under conditions of complexity and uncertainty is presented. Long-term, short-term and program effectiveness monitoring for hardwood rangelands are discussed relative to the process described. The...

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of incipient decay in hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    Decay can cause significant damage to high-value hardwood timber. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are urgently needed to effectively detect incipient decay in hardwood timber at the earliest possible stage. Currently, the primary means of inspecting timber relies on visual assessment criteria. When visual inspections are used exclusively, they provide...

  11. Researching effects of prescribed fire in hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Susan C. Loeb; David L. Loftis; W. Henry McNab; Joy M. O' Keefe; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Martin Spetich

    2012-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management Research Work Unit (RWU 4157) is a group of research teams located across the South, strategically placed to conduct research in physiographic sub-regions of the upland hardwood ecosystems including the southern Appalachian Mountains, the Cumberland Plateau, the Boston Mountains, and the Missouri Plateau. Our RWU is one of 16...

  12. Factors affecting regional changes in hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1994-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production increased by nearly 1.8 billion board feet between 1986 and 1990 and decreased sharply in 1991. However, not all areas of the country experienced the same growth in hardwood lumber production during the 1980s. While lumber production in inland regions of the eastern United States and the west increased during the 1980s, lumber output in...

  13. Hydromulch: a potential use for hardwood bark residue

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanual

    1976-01-01

    Hardwood bark fines and two hardwood bark fibers were compared with wood-cellulose fiber and paper fiber mulch to determine their effectiveness as hydromulches in revegetating disturbed soil. The results showed that either bark fines or bark fibers can be utilized as a hydromulch to aid in the revegetation of strip mines, highway construction sites, and similar earth-...

  14. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  15. U.S. Hardwood sawmill log procurement practices

    Treesearch

    Adrienn Andersch; Iris Montague; Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2015-01-01

    U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill...

  16. What to do with northern hardwood-aspen mixtures

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The aspen type covers the most area in the Lake States, followed by northern hardwoods. Both prefer good soil and are easy to regenerate. Because of past cutting practices, though, the types are now mixed over large areas. Usually there is an overstory of fast-growing aspen interspersed with an understory of dense hardwoods.

  17. A Method For Assessing Economic Thresholds of Hardwood Competition

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe

    2002-01-01

    A procedure was developed for computing economic thresholds for hardwood competition in pine plantations. The economic threshold represents the break-even level of competition above which hardwood control is a financially attractive treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the relative importance of biological and economic factors in determining...

  18. Hardwood Chip Export Mills in Arkansas - Implications for Sustainability

    Treesearch

    John L. Gray; James M. Guldin

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - Two new hardwood chip export mills (HCEM’s) recently began operating in west-central Arkansas,and a third is planned. Together,they will require 1.1 million tons of nonhickory hardwood roundwood annually, primarily from the nonindustrial private sector. Overall, total physical and operable growth surpluses could support the new sector, but...

  19. The Impact of Insects in the Northern Hardwoods Type

    Treesearch

    H. J. Macaloney

    1966-01-01

    The northern hardwoods type occupies about 16 percent -- 8.2 million acres -- of the commercial forest land in the Lake States. The timber has high unit values and represents about 42 percent of the total value of all the commercial forest in the region. Increasing values and markets for northern hardwoods in recent years have stressed the need for better quality in...

  20. A comparison of small tractors for thinning central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    N. Huyler; C.B. LeDoux

    1991-01-01

    Young-growth hardwood forests in the central hardwood region will require intensive management if they are to help meet the Nation's increasing demand for wood. Such management generally will require entries into the stands when the trees are small. Many small-scale machines are available for harvesting small wood. Time and motion studies were conducted on small-...

  1. Dimensional Characteristics of Hardwood Top and Limb Residue

    Treesearch

    Nels S. Christopherson

    1983-01-01

    Sawtimber harvesting in northern hardwood stands leaves behind a large amount of residue in the form of tops and limbs. This paper presents typical dimensional characteristics of residue for northern hardwood tops incluting data on lengths, widths, diameters, and complete branch details.

  2. The hardwoods of California's timberlands, woodlands, and savannas.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1988-01-01

    The results of a statewide inventory of California's hardwood resources are presented. This is the first comprehensive inventory with tree and stand measurements ever conducted in the extensive oak woodlands. In timberland areas where hardwoods had been previously inventoried, improved procedures and volume equations developed specifically for the major California...

  3. Changes in walnut and other hardwood markets: 1990-2010

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Scott Bowe

    2013-01-01

    After a decade of record demand in the 1990s, production and price of hardwood lumber declined moderately between 1999 and 2005 and then plummeted between 2005 and 2009. The decline in hardwood lumber price affected all species. However, walnut was the last species to decline in price, starting in 2007, and has had the largest price increase since hitting its low point...

  4. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  5. Spectral reflectance of five hardwood tree species in southern Indiana

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; J.C. Randolph

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to identify forest species has been ongoing since the launch of Landsat-1 using MSS imagery. The ability to separate hardwoods from conifers was accomplished by the 1980s. However, distinguishing individual hardwood species is more problematic due to similar spectral and phenological characteristics. With the launch of commercial satellites...

  6. Application of Advanced Technologies for Improvement of Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler

    1999-01-01

    Hardwood tree improvement in Indiana is on the brink of entering the 21st century with the recent initiation of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University. At a time when midwestern agriculture has enthusiastically embraced genetically modified insect and herbicide resistant corn and soybean crops and all the human genes are...

  7. Options for small-diameter hardwood utilization: past and present

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Bruce G. Hansen; Albert T. Schuler; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Effective and maximum value use of small-diameter hardwood timber has long been of interest to forest managers and researchers. In addition to being a significant component of the standing forest base, small-diameter hardwoods often are available after thinning or other tending operations. Although the use of this material is important to achieving healthy and...

  8. Silviculture of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods: 25 Years of Change

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes changes that have occurred in the silviculture of southern bottomland hardwood forests over the past 25 years, particularly in terms of modifications to existing silvicultural practices, abandonment of unsuitable practices, and development of new practices. Changes in the focus and objectives of hardwood silviculture and the emergence of new...

  9. A test of point-sampling in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon

    1975-01-01

    Plot- and point-sampling were compared with a complete inventory of two different stands of northern hardwoods. Prisms with basal-area factors of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 and a ¼-acre plot were used. Only the 5-factor prism gave a significantly different estimate. Therefore, a prism factor of 10 or greater is suggested for use in northern hardwoods.

  10. Forest fragmentation of southern U.S. bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1993-01-01

    The magnitude and character of forest fragmentation are evaluated for bottomland hardwoods in the southern United States.Fragment size class is significantly associated with the frequency of bottomland hardwood species, stand size and ownership classes, and land use attributes.Differences in the frequency of indicators of multiple values are apparent. Two diverse...

  11. On Tour... Primary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling Unit

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Housed within the Department of Wood Science and Forest Products at Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a three-person USDA Forest Service research work unit (with one vacancy) devoted to hardwood processing and recycling research. Phil Araman is the project leader of this truly unique and productive unit, titled ãPrimary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling.ä The...

  12. Economical and simple production of containerized hardwood seedlings

    Treesearch

    Merrill C. Hoyle

    1982-01-01

    An automatic mat-watering system for growing hardwood seedlings in containers was designed and tested. The system has only one moving part, and no electrical requirements. There is no need to calculate different watering schedules for different growth phases, different hardwood species, or different evapotranspiration conditions. Results were excellent with mat...

  13. A computerized bucking trainer for optimally bucking hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Scott Noble; Blair Orr; Philip A. Araman; John Baumgras; James B. Pickens

    2000-01-01

    The bucking of hardwood stems constitutes the initial manufacturing decision for hardwood lumber production. Each bucking cut creates a log of fixed grade and scale. The grade and scale of each log created by the bucker determines the quantity and quality of potential lumber, which determines the value of the log within a given market. As a result, bucking decisions...

  14. The U.S. Hardwood Situation Related to Exports

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; John Tansey

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. grows more hardwood timber each year than is being used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. In this paper, the authors present a quick look at our hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability). They also describe where the timber is growing for several species, talk about availability in the Southeast region, and...

  15. A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Jr. Skojac

    2008-01-01

    A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods is described. The new system is based on the Putnam tree classification system, originally developed by Putnam et al., 1960, Management ond inventory of southern hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 181, US For. Sew., Washington, DC, which consists of four tree classes: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) reserve growing...

  16. Growth and Yield of Appalachian Mixed Hardwoods After Thinning

    Treesearch

    Wade C. Harrison; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas E. Burk; Donald E. Beckand

    1986-01-01

    G-RAT (Growth of Hardwoods After Thinning) is a system of computer programs used to predict growth and yield of Appalachian mixed hardwoods after thinning. Given a tree list or stand table, along with inputs of stand age, site index, and stand basal area before thinning, G-RAT software uses species-specific individual tree equations to predict tree basal area...

  17. Rapid Growth Indicates Forestry Opportunities In Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. E. Bond; Henry. Bull

    1946-01-01

    Although the growth and yield figures cited in this paper are sketchy and far from complete, they indicate that management in bottomland hardwoods has a promising future. The data presented are based or stands grown without management. If management in bottomland hardwoods results 'in greatly increasing yields and incomes, and in reducing costs, as it has in pine...

  18. Options for Small-Diameter Hardwood Utilization: Past and Present

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Bruce G. Hansen; Albert T. Schuler; Philip A. Araman; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    Effective and maximum value use of small-diameter hardwood timber has long been of interest to forest managers and researchers. In addition to being a significant component of the standing forest base, small-diameter hardwoods often are available after thinning or other tending operations. Although the use of this material is important to achieving healthy and...

  19. Hardwood genetics and tree improvement - A Midwest USA perspective

    Treesearch

    C. H. Michler; R. Meilan; K. E. Woeste; P. M. Pijut; D. Jacobs; P. Aldrich; J. Glaubitz

    2005-01-01

    Fine hardwood trees in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States are an important resource for the furniture, cabinetry, flooring, modular home, and paneling manufacturing industries. Consumers find wood from these trees to be very desirable because of quality factors such as grain, strength and color. To enhance wood production, tree improvement programs can...

  20. Efficacy and nontarget impact of midstory injection in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James C. Rainer; Derek K. Alkire; Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Stephen Demarais; Bronson K. Strickland

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-documented need for midstory control in bottomland hardwood regeneration, little research has documented the efficacy of such efforts, or the potential negative effects on nontarget stems. More than 72,000 midstory stems located on 90 acres of northern Mississippi bottomland hardwood forest were injected with an imazapyr solution during August 2009....

  1. Domestic hardwood lumber consumption and exports, yesterday and today

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Domestic Hardwood lumber consumption has changed considerably in this century, but how do these changes differ from changes that have occurred over the last 50 years and how have they affected lumber price? In this article, we examine how changes in consumption have influenced aggregate Hardwood lumber prices as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusted...

  2. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  3. Tests for Long-Run Relationships in Hardwood Lumber Prices

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Hardwood lumber prices are unique because of the large number of marketable species and variability of prices across species. Previous research showed that long-run fashion decisions regarding species selection may be influenced by price, so the interaction between fashion and species price may act to keep prices (hence, demand) of different hardwood species together...

  4. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  5. Central hardwood forest resources: a social science perspective

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Herbert W. Schroeder; Paul H. Gobster

    1991-01-01

    People-forest interactions in the Central Hardwoods region are expanding in scope and importance and are generating increasing controversy. In order to manage Central Hardwoods in a manner that contributes most fully to the needs of people, it is important that we better understand the perceptions, goals, objectives, and values of forest users, owners, managers, and...

  6. Eastern United States Hardwood Sawtimber Resources and Export Potential

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1987-01-01

    To look at the export potential of the Eastern hardwood sawtimber resources, including the Southern and Northern regions, hardwood resource data were compiled from USDA Forest Service state resorce evaluation reports on a set of select export species. The species are the select oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry, and the ashes. These species...

  7. Market Definition For Hardwood Timber in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Karen Lee Abt; David N. Wear

    1999-01-01

    Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only...

  8. Hardwood chip market--was 2006 a "normal" year?

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2007-01-01

    In the context of other recent years, 2006 turned out to be a relatively "normal" year for the U.S. hardwood chip market in terms of factors that influence supply and demand; such as prevailing weather conditions, energy price trends, and pulp and paper production. Gulf Coast hurricanes and rising energy prices drove hardwood chip and pulpwood markets in 2005...

  9. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  10. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe

    2001-01-01

    The southern upland hardwoods include extensive areas in the southern Appalachians, Cumberland Plateau and Ozark/Ouachita regions. The majority of commercial hardwoods in the south occur in the region often referred to as the "Southern Appalachian Region". For purposes of this discussion, this region includes the hilly or mountainous area west and north of...

  11. Hardwood log defect photographic database, software and user's guide

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Computer software and user's guide for Hardwood Log Defect Photographic Database. The database contains photographs and information on external hardwood log defects and the corresponding internal characteristics. This database allows users to search for specific defect types, sizes, and locations by tree species. For every defect, the database contains photos of...

  12. Symposium reports progress in utilization of off-site hardwoods

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1975-01-01

    On March 10 of this year, 240 industrialists and researchers from both private and public sectors gathered for three and a half days in Alexandria, Louisiana, for intensive discussions aimed at increasing utilization of small hardwoods. The symposium, "Utilization of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites", was jointly sponsored by the Southern Forest...

  13. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  14. Exploring research priorities for the North American hardwood industry

    Treesearch

    David Brinberg; Earl Kline; Delton Alderman; Philip Araman; Ed Cesa; Steve Milauskas; Tom Walthousen; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2008-01-01

    With the increase of globalization, the North American hardwood industry is facing many challenges to remain competitive and sustainable, facing drastic changes in the areas of labor, land, manufacturing, markets and marketing, and supply chain. The hardwood industry is especially vulnerable, with the influx of foreign manufacturers and suppliers with greater natural...

  15. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  16. Issues affecting the interpretation of eastern hardwood resource statistics

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams

    2000-01-01

    Forest inventory statistics developed by the USDA Forest Service are used by customers ranging from forest industry to state and local economic development groups. In recent years, these statistics have been used increasingly to justify greater utilization of the eastem hardwood resource or to evaluate the sustainability of expanding demand for hardwood roundwood and...

  17. Southern hardwood forestry group going strong after 50 years

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Steve Meadows; Jeff Portwood

    2005-01-01

    On November 15,200 1, the Southern Hardwood Forestry Group (referred to as the Group) met at the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station's Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville, hlississippi to celebrate the Group's 50th anniversary. About 130 members and guests attended to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Group and to honor its charter...

  18. Late Cretaceous- Cenozoic history of deciduousness and the terminal Cretaceous event.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Deciduousness in mesic, broad-leaved plants occurred in disturbed, middle-latitude environments during the Late Cretaceous. Only in polar environments in the Late Cretaceous was the deciduous element dominant, although of low diversity. The terminal Cretaceous event resulted in wide-spread selection for plants of deciduous habit and diversification of deciduous taxa, thus leaving a lasting imprint on Northern Hemisphere vegetation. Various environmental factors have played important roles in subsequent diversification of mesic, broad-leaved deciduous taxa and in origination and decline of broad-leaved deciduous forests. Low diversity and rarity of mesic deciduous plants in the post-Cretaceous of the Southern Hemisphere indicate that the inferred 'impact winter' of the terminal Cretaceous event had little effect on Southern Hemisphere vegetation and climate. -Author

  19. Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Treesearch

    Leslie Brandt; Hong He; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Patricia Butler; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Matthew Albrecht; Richard Blume-Weaver; Paul Deizman; John DePuy; William D. Dijak; Gary Dinkel; Songlin Fei; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Michael Leahy; Stephen Matthews; Paul Nelson; Brad Oberle; Judi Perez; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; John Shuey; Adam B. Smith; Charles Studyvin; John M. Tirpak; Jeffery W. Walk; Wen J. Wang; Laura Watts; Dale Weigel; Steve Westin

    2014-01-01

    The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends,...

  20. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  1. Biomass of Four Hardwoods from Lower Piedmont Pine-Hardwood Stands in Alabama

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Sirois

    1983-01-01

    Biomass equations for complete tree, whole tree, and stemwood, with and without bark, both green and dry, are presented for four southern hardwoods - sweetgum (Liquidumbar styraciflua L.); hickory, both mockernut and pignut (Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. and C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet); red oak (Quercus...

  2. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  3. Panel discussion: Marketing hardwoods at the George O. White State Forest Nursery

    Treesearch

    Greg Hoss

    2011-01-01

    The George O. White State Forest Nursery is a hardwood nursery located in a state dominated by hardwood species. Marketing and selling our hardwoods is what we do. Depending on the year and seed availability, we grow about 65 species of hardwood trees and shrubs. During the last 5 years, we have grown about 60 hardwood species per year. We also grow about six species...

  4. Molecular Regulation of Parturition: The Role of the Decidual Clock.

    PubMed

    Norwitz, Errol R; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Snegovskikh, Victoria V; Williams, Michelle A; Phillippe, Mark; Park, Joong Shin; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2015-04-27

    The timing of birth is a critical determinant of perinatal outcome. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset of labor both at term and preterm remain unclear. It is likely that a "parturition cascade" exists that triggers labor at term, that preterm labor results from mechanisms that either prematurely stimulate or short-circuit this cascade, and that these mechanisms involve the activation of proinflammatory pathways within the uterus. It has long been postulated that the fetoplacental unit is in control of the timing of birth through a "placental clock." We suggest that it is not a placental clock that regulates the timing of birth, but rather a "decidual clock." Here, we review the evidence in support of the endometrium/decidua as the organ primarily responsible for the timing of birth and discuss the molecular mechanisms that prime this decidual clock. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Regulation of Parturition: The Role of the Decidual Clock

    PubMed Central

    Norwitz, Errol R.; Bonney, Elizabeth A.; Snegovskikh, Victoria V.; Williams, Michelle A.; Phillippe, Mark; Park, Joong Shin; Abrahams, Vikki M.

    2015-01-01

    The timing of birth is a critical determinant of perinatal outcome. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset of labor both at term and preterm remain unclear. It is likely that a “parturition cascade” exists that triggers labor at term, that preterm labor results from mechanisms that either prematurely stimulate or short-circuit this cascade, and that these mechanisms involve the activation of proinflammatory pathways within the uterus. It has long been postulated that the fetoplacental unit is in control of the timing of birth through a “placental clock.” We suggest that it is not a placental clock that regulates the timing of birth, but rather a “decidual clock.” Here, we review the evidence in support of the endometrium/decidua as the organ primarily responsible for the timing of birth and discuss the molecular mechanisms that prime this decidual clock. PMID:25918180

  6. Management of unerupted maxillary deciduous central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shakra, Karam Abu

    2014-01-01

    Failure of eruption of primary teeth can be considered rare, especially in maxillary anterior teeth. The problem can be either mechanical obstruction of eruption or a failure of the eruption mechanism. This case report presents failure of eruption of the maxillary right deciduous central incisor in a 4-year-old girl. The unerupted primary tooth was removed surgically. The histological finding revealed fibroma with reactive giant cells. Periodic follow-up visits were advised to monitor the developing dentition and to ensure enough space for the permanent incisor. How to cite this article: Shakra KA. Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):58-60.

  7. Performance analysis of deciduous morphology for detecting biological siblings.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-08-01

    Family-centered burial practices influence cemetery structure and can represent social group composition in both modern and ancient contexts. In ancient sites dental phenotypic data are often used as proxies for underlying genotypes to identify potential biological relatives. Here, we test the performance of deciduous dental morphological traits for differentiating sibling pairs from unrelated individuals from the same population. We collected 46 deciduous morphological traits for 69 sibling pairs from the Burlington Growth Centre's long term Family Study. Deciduous crown features were recorded following published standards. After variable winnowing, inter-individual Euclidean distances were generated using 20 morphological traits. To determine whether sibling pairs are more phenotypically similar than expected by chance we used bootstrap resampling of distances to generate P values. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots were used to evaluate the degree of clustering among sibling pairs. Results indicate an average distance between siblings of 0.252, which is significantly less than 9,999 replicated averages of 69 resampled pseudo-distances generated from: 1) a sample of non-relative pairs (P < 0.001), and 2) a sample of relative and non-relative pairs (P < 0.001). MDS plots indicate moderate to strong clustering among siblings; families occupied 3.83% of the multidimensional space on average (versus 63.10% for the total sample). Deciduous crown morphology performed well in identifying related sibling pairs. However, there was considerable variation in the extent to which different families exhibited similarly low levels of phenotypic divergence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Estimates of ion sources in deciduous and coniferous throughfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of external and internal sources of ions in net throughfall deposition were derived for a deciduous and coniferous canopy by use of multiple regression. The externel source component appears to be dominated by dry deposition of Ca2+, SO2 and NO3- during dormant and growing seasons for the two canopy types. Increases in the leaching rates of K+ and Mg2+ during the growing season reflect the presence of leaves in the deciduous canopy and increased physiological activity in both canopies. Internal leaching rates for SO42- doubled during the growing season presumably caused by increased physiological activity and uptake of SO2 through stomates. Net deposition of SO42- in throughfall during the growing season appears highly dependent on stomatal uptake of SO2. Estimates of SO2 deposition velocities were 0.06 cm s-1 and 0.13 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the dormant season, and 0.30 cm s-1 and 0.43 cm s-1 for the deciduous and coniferous canopies, respectively, during the growing season. For the ions of major interest with respect to ecosystem effects, namely H+, NO3- and SO42-, precipitation inputs generally outweighed estimates of dry deposition input. However, net throughfall deposition of NO3- and SO42- accounted for 20-47 and 34-50 per cent, respectively, of total deposition of those ions. Error estimates of ion sources were at least 50-100 per cent and the method is subject to several assumptions and limitations.

  9. miRNA Signature and Dicer Requirement during Human Endometrial Stromal Decidualization In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Estella, Carlos; Herrer, Isabel; Moreno-Moya, Juan Manuel; Quiñonero, Alicia; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Decidualization is a morphological and biochemical transformation of endometrial stromal fibroblast into differentiated decidual cells, which is critical for embryo implantation and pregnancy establishment. The complex regulatory networks have been elucidated at both the transcriptome and the proteome levels, however very little is known about the post-transcriptional regulation of this process. miRNAs regulate multiple physiological pathways and their de-regulation is associated with human disorders including gynaecological conditions such as endometriosis and preeclampsia. In this study we profile the miRNAs expression throughout human endometrial stromal (hESCs) decidualization and analyze the requirement of the miRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer during this process. A total of 26 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 miRNAs downregulated in decidualized hESCs compared to non-decidualized hESCs. Three miRNAs families, miR-181, miR-183 and miR-200, are down-regulated during the decidualization process. Using miRNAs target prediction algorithms we have identified the potential targets and pathways regulated by these miRNAs. The knockdown of Dicer has a minor effect on hESCs during in vitro decidualization. We have analyzed a battery of decidualization markers such as cell morphology, Prolactin, IGFBP-1, MPIF-1 and TIMP-3 secretion as well as HOXA10, COX2, SP1, C/EBPß and FOXO1 expression in decidualized hESCs with decreased Dicer function. We found decreased levels of HOXA10 and altered intracellular organization of actin filaments in Dicer knockdown decidualized hESCs compared to control. Our results provide the miRNA signature of hESC during the decidualization process in vitro. We also provide the first functional characterization of Dicer during human endometrial decidualization although surprisingly we found that Dicer plays a minor role regulating this process suggesting that alternative biogenesis miRNAs pathways must be involved in human endometrial decidualization

  10. Modulation of Decidual Macrophage Polarization by Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Derived from First-Trimester Decidual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Piao, Longzhu; Chen, Chie-Pein; Wu, Xianqing; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Masch, Rachel; Chang, Chi-Chang; Huang, S. Joseph

    2017-01-01

    During human pregnancy, immune tolerance of the fetal semiallograft occurs in the presence of abundant maternal leukocytes. At the implantation site, macrophages comprise approximately 20% of the leukocyte population and act as primary mediators of tissue remodeling. Decidual macrophages display a balance between anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory phenotypes. However, a shift to an M1 subtype is reported in preeclampsia. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are major differentiating factors that mediate M1 and M2 polarization, respectively. Previously, we observed the following: i) the preeclamptic decidua contains an excess of both macrophages and GM-CSF, ii) the preeclampsia-associated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, markedly enhance GM-CSF and M-CSF expression in cultured leukocyte-free first-trimester decidual cells (FTDCs), iii) FTDC-secreted GM-CSF polarizes macrophages toward an M1 subtype. The microenvironment is a key determinant of macrophage phenotype. Thus, we examined proinflammatory stimulation of FTDC-secreted M-CSF and its role in macrophage development. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated elevated M-CSF–positive decidual cell numbers in preeclamptic decidua. In FTDCs, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α signal through the NF-κB pathway to induce M-CSF production, which does the following: i) enhances differentiation of and elevates CD163 expression in macrophages, ii) increases macrophage phagocytic capacity, and iii) inhibits signal-regulatory protein α expression by macrophages. These findings suggest that FTDC-secreted M-CSF modulates the decidual immune balance by inducing M2 macrophage polarization and phagocytic capacity in response to proinflammatory stimuli. PMID:26970370

  11. Ground-based imaging spectrometry of canopy phenology and chemistry in a deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, M. P.; Friedl, M. A.; Frolking, S. E.; Hilker, T.; O'Keefe, J.; Richardson, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Phenology, annual life cycles of plants and animals, is a dynamic ecosystem attribute and an important feedback to climate change. Vegetation phenology is commonly monitored at canopy to continental scales using ground based digital repeat photography and satellite remote sensing, respectively. Existing systems which provide sufficient temporal resolution for phenological monitoring, however, lack the spectral resolution necessary to investigate the coupling of phenology with canopy chemistry (e.g. chlorophyll, nitrogen, lignin-cellulose content). Some researchers have used narrowband (<10 nm resolution) spectrometers at phenology monitoring sites, yielding new insights into seasonal changes in leaf biochemistry. Such instruments integrate the spectral characteristics of the entire canopy, however, masking considerable variability between species and plant functional types. There is an opportunity, then, for exploring the potential of imaging spectrometers to investigate the coupling of canopy phenology and the leaf biochemistry of individual trees. During the growing season of April-October 2013 we deployed an imaging spectrometer with a spectral range of 371-1042 nm and resolution of ~5 nm (Surface Optics Corporation 710; San Diego, CA) on a 35 m tall tower at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts. The image resolution was ~0.25 megapixels and the field of view encompassed approximately 20 individual tree crowns at a distance of 20-40 m. The instrument was focused on a mixed hardwoods canopy composed of 4 deciduous tree species and one coniferous tree species. Scanning was performed daily with an acquisition frequency of 30 minutes during daylight hours. Derived imagery were used to calculate a suite of published spectral indices used to estimate foliar content of key pigments: cholorophyll, carotenoids and anthocyanins. Additionally, we calculated the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) as well as the position and slope of the red edge as indicators of mid- to

  12. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  13. Vegetative Propagation and the Genetic Improvement of North American Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. E. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    Progress and problems in vegetative propagation of important North American hardwoods are reviewed with emphasis on rooting cuttings and the application of propagation techniques in breeding research. Some problems in rooting physiology are discussed.

  14. Summaries of some silvical characteristics of several appalachian hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    A number of Appalachian hardwood trees are ranked according to the following silvical characteristics: shade tolerands, development of epicormic branching, susceptibility to frost damage, diameter growth rate, and seed dormancy.

  15. Predicting crown weight and bole volume of five Western hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    J.A. Kendall Snell; Susan N. Little

    1983-01-01

    Regression equations are presented for estimating biomass of five western hardwoods: red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), giant chinkapin (Castanopsis chrysophylla (Dougl.) A. DC.), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh), Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), and tanoak (...

  16. A comparison of site index curves for northern hardwood species.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1979-01-01

    Gives an inventory and compares site index curves for 13 northern hardwood species. Differences illustrate the need for more precise site index curves that are applicable to local soil and site conditions.

  17. Epicormic branching on eight species of Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith

    1966-01-01

    Epicormic branches and associated defects are leading causes of degrade and value loss in lumber sawed from hardwood logs. The degrade may be in the form of small knots, ingrown bark, wood blemishes, and/or rot.

  18. Fence Posts From Delta Hardwoods Give Good Service

    Treesearch

    J. S. McKnight; J. W. Johnson

    1953-01-01

    Do bottomland hardwoods make durable fence posts? To answer this question, the Southern Forest Experiment Station and the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station have been carrying on two tests of the life of fence pasts in actual service in the Delta.

  19. Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Horsley; David A. Marquis

    1983-01-01

    Deer browsing and interference from forest weeds, particularly hayscented fem (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore), New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis L.), and short husk grass (Brachyelytrnm erectum Schreb.), influence the establishment of Allegheny hardwood reproduction. We determined the...

  20. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwood types in the Northeast (revised)

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    A practical guide to the management of northern hardwoods for timber production in New England and New York. Both even-aged management are considered, and specific treatments are prescribed for a range of stand conditions and management objectives.

  1. Planning for natural regeneration of hardwoods in the Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1978-01-01

    Hardwood species reproduce through seeding and sprouting. Frequent selective cuttings and small, incomplete openings favor tolerant species; the opposite conditions favor intolerants. Factors to be considered in evaluating and predicting reproduction before harvest are listed.

  2. Proceedings: workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Contains 18 papers and 16 poster abstracts on the history of fire, fire ecology, fire and ecosystem management, and fire and the future presented at the workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape.

  3. How second-growth northern hardwoods develop after thinning

    Treesearch

    Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1953-01-01

    In the northern hardwood region, second-growth stands occupy thousands of acres. These stands are of all ages, in all conditions. They were brought about by fire, charcoal and fuelwood cuttings, land abandonment, or a combination of these causes.

  4. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  5. Two eras of globalization and hardwood sawtimber demand

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the adoption of floating exchange rates resulted in more fluid transfers between international currencies and spurred increased international demand for hardwood lumber produced in the United States.

  6. Regeneration after clear-cutting second-growth northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Wilson; Victor S. Jensen

    1954-01-01

    Regeneration after clear-cutting second-growth northern hardwoods is often unsatisfactory, in both quantity and species composition. A small area on the Bartlett Experimental Forest near Bartlett, N.H., provides a good example.

  7. 15-year Results of Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. R. Beaufait; R. L. Johnson

    1956-01-01

    That severely depleted bottomland stands can be returned to quality hardwood production is being demonstrated on a representative tract in the Delta Experimental Forest which was given an improvement cutting about 15 years ago.

  8. Picloram in Spaced Stem Injections to Control Lake States Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Kenneth A. Brinkman

    1970-01-01

    Picloram (4 amino-3, 5, 6-tri-chloropicolinic acid), manufactured under the name of Tordon, controls most pole-size and smaller hardwoods in the Lake States by stem injections spaced up to 6 incest apart.

  9. Soil spot herbicides for single-stem hardwood control

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Soil spot treatments of undiluted Velpar® L and a concentrated mixture of Spike® 80W were applied aorund test trees of five hardwood species. The test rates were 2, 4, and 6 ml of herbicidelin, of dbh applied to the soil within 3ft of each tree. Hardwood topkill was assessed after two growing seasons. The 4-ml rate of Velpar L was required to achieve...

  10. The presence and nature of ellipticity in Appalachian hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; John S. Stanovick; Deborah Conner

    2017-01-01

    The ellipticity of hardwood logs is most often observed and measured from either end of a log. However, due to the nature of hardwood tree growth and bucking practices, the assessment of ellipticity in thir manner may not be accurate. Trees grown on hillsides often develop supporting wood that gives the first few feet of the  log butt a significant degree of...

  11. Eastern U.S. Select Export Species Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1987-01-01

    The United States has become a major player in the export side of the world marketplace for hardwood logs, lumber, and veneer. For the last 10 years, U.S. exports of these products have been growing, and the future looks bright. The major hardwood species demanded on the export market are the select red and white oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black...

  12. How low are hardwood lumber prices in real terms?

    Treesearch

    William Luppold

    2012-01-01

    Prices for grade hardwood lumber have remained stubbornly low for several years. But, just how low are lumber prices? While prices reported by Hardwood Market Report for #1C lumber in most Appalachian species have increased since the summer of 2009 low point, with the exception of yellow-poplar, they are 3 to 50 percent lower than they were in the fall of 2005. The...

  13. Measuring site index in the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1989-01-01

    Site index is the average height of dominant and codominant trees growing in well-stocked, even-aged stands at a given age called ?index age.? Fifty years is the most commonly used index age in upland hardwoods. Sometimes 25 or 30 years are used for short-rotation bottomland hardwoods. Site index is widely used to indicate site quality because it correlates well with...

  14. Hardwood Regrowth and Yields on Bottomland Clay Soil Following Clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Krinard; Robert L. Johnson

    1986-01-01

    Five years of regrowth of a clearcut hardwood stand on the Delta Experimental Forest in Mississippi were evaluated to determine growth and development and biomass yields. Dry weight mean annual increments for years 1 through 5 following harvesting of an 1 l-year-old hardwood stand on Sharkey clay soil were 0.6, 1.9, 2.4, 3.5, and 3.2 tons per acre per year,...

  15. Rapid Leaf Deployment Strategies in a Deciduous Savanna

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Deciduous plants avoid the costs of maintaining leaves in the unfavourable season, but carry the costs of constructing new leaves every year. Deciduousness is therefore expected in ecological situations with pronounced seasonality and low costs of leaf construction. In our study system, a seasonally dry tropical savanna, many trees are deciduous, suggesting that leaf construction costs must be low. Previous studies have, however, shown that nitrogen is limiting in this system, suggesting that leaf construction costs are high. Here we examine this conundrum using a time series of soil moisture availability, leaf phenology and nitrogen distribution in the tree canopy to illustrate how trees resorb nitrogen before leaf abscission and use stored reserves of nitrogen and carbon to construct new leaves at the onset of the growing season. Our results show that trees deployed leaves shortly before and in anticipation of the first rains with its associated pulse of nitrogen mineralisation. Our results also show that trees rapidly constructed a full canopy of leaves within two weeks of the first rains. We detected an increase in leaf nitrogen content that corresponded with the first rains and with the movement of nitrogen to more distal branches, suggesting that stored nitrogen reserves are used to construct leaves. Furthermore the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of these leaves suggest the use of stored carbon for leaf construction. Our findings suggest that the early deployment of leaves using stored nitrogen and carbon reserves is a strategy that is integrally linked with the onset of the first rains. This strategy may confer a competitive advantage over species that deploy leaves at or after the onset of the rains. PMID:27310398

  16. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yue; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Jing

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Decidually produced PRL plays a key role during pregnancy. {yields} Overexpression of Nur77 increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter activity. {yields} Knockdown of Nur77 decreased decidual PRL secretion induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. {yields} Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression. -- Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized and released by several extrapituitary tissues, including decidualized stromal cells. Despite the important role of decidual PRL during pregnancy, little is understood about the factors involved in the proper regulation of decidual PRL expression. Here we present evidence thatmore » the transcription factor Nur77 plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs). Nur77 mRNA expression in hESCs was significantly increased after decidualization stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 in hESCs markedly increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter (dPRL/-332Luc) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nur77 in hESCs significantly decreased decidual PRL promoter activation and substantially attenuated PRL mRNA expression and PRL secretion (P < 0.01) induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. These results demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that contributes significantly to the regulation of prolactin gene expression in human endometrial stromal cells.« less

  17. Relating the temporal change observed by AIRSAR to surface and canopy properties of mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northern Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Mcdonald, Kyle; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

    1991-01-01

    The mixed hardwood and conifer forests of northern Michigan were overflown by a 3-frequency airborne imaging radar in Apr. and Jul. 1990. A set of 10 x 10 km test sites near the University of Michigan Biological Station at Douglas Lake and within the Hiawatha National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan contained training stands representing the various forest species typical of forest communities across the ecotone between the coniferous boreal forest and mid-latitude hardwood and coniferous forests. The polarimetric radar data were externally calibrated to allow interdate comparisons. The Apr. flight was prior to bud-break of deciduous species and patchy snowcover was present. The Jul. flights occurred during and 2 days after heavy rain showers, and provide a unique opportunity to examine the differences in radar backscatter attributable to intercepted precipitation. Analyses show that there are significant changes in backscattering between biophysically dissimilar forest stands on any given date and also between dates for a given forest stand. These differences in backscattering can be related to moisture properties of the forest floor and the overlying canopy and also to the quantity and organizational structure of the above-ground biomass.

  18. Movements, cover-type selection, and survival of fledgling Ovenbirds in managed deciduous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor movements, cover-type selection, and survival for fledglings of the mature-forest nesting Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) at two managed forest sites in north-central Minnesota. Both sites contained forested wetlands, regenerating clearcut stands of various ages, and logging roads, but differed in mature forest composition; one deciduous with open understory, and the other mixed coniferous-deciduous with dense understory. We used compositional analysis, modified to incorporate age-specific limitations in fledgling movements, to assess cover-type selection by fledglings throughout the dependent (on adult care) post-fledging period. Compared to those that were depredated, fledglings from nests in deciduous forest that survived the early post-fledging period had more older (sapling-dominated) clearcut available, directed movements toward older clearcuts and forested wetlands, and used older clearcuts more than other cover types relative to availability. Fledglings that were depredated had more young (shrub-dominated) clearcut and unpaved logging road available, and used mature forest and roads more than expected based on availability. For birds from nests in mixed mature forest with dense understory, movements and cover-type selection were similar between fledglings that survived and those that were depredated. However, fledglings that were depredated at that site also had more young clearcut available than fledglings that survived. We conclude that Ovenbird fledgling survival is influenced by distance of their nest to various non-nesting cover types, and by the subsequent selection among those cover types, but that the influence of non-nesting cover types varies depending on the availability of dense understory vegetation in mature forest.

  19. Common allometric response of open-grown leader shoots to tree height in co-occurring deciduous broadleaved trees

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Rie; Kubo, Takuya; Nabeshima, Eri; Kohyama, Takashi S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphology of crown shoots changes with tree height. The height of forest trees is usually correlated with the light environment and this makes it difficult to separate the effects of tree size and of light conditions on the morphological plasticity of crown shoots. This paper addresses the tree-height dependence of shoot traits under full-light conditions where a tree crown is not shaded by other crowns. Methods Focus is given to relationships between tree height and top-shoot traits, which include the shoot's leaf-blades and non-leafy mass, its total leaf-blade area and the length and basal diameter of the shoot's stem. We examine the allometric characteristics of open-grown current-year leader shoots at the tops of forest tree crowns up to 24 m high and quantify their responses to tree height in 13 co-occurring deciduous hardwood species in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan. Key Results Dry mass allocated to leaf blades in a leader shoot increased with tree height in all 13 species. Specific leaf area decreased with tree height. Stem basal area was almost proportional to total leaf area in a leader shoot, where the proportionality constant did not depend on tree height, irrespective of species. Stem length for a given stem diameter decreased with tree height. Conclusions In the 13 species observed, height-dependent changes in allometry of leader shoots were convergent. This finding suggests that there is a common functional constraint in tree-height development. Under full-light conditions, leader shoots of tall trees naturally experience more severe water stress than those of short trees. We hypothesize that the height dependence of shoot allometry detected reflects an integrated response to height-associated water stress, which contributes to successful crown expansion and height gain. PMID:21914698

  20. Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility in PCOS patients were explored. In our study, ovulation problem also causes sterility in PCOS mice. After blastocysts from normal mice are transferred into uterine lumen of pseudopregnant PCOS mice, the rate of embryo implantation was reduced. In PCOS mouse uteri, the implantation-related genes are also dysregulated. Additionally, artificial decidualization is severely impaired in PCOS mice. The serum estrogen level is significantly higher in PCOS mice than vehicle control. The high level of estrogen and potentially impaired LIF-STAT3 pathway may lead to embryo implantation failure in PCOS mice. Although there are many studies about effects of PCOS on endometrium, both embryo transfer and artificial decidualization are applied to exclude the effects from ovulation and embryos in our study. PMID:27924832

  1. Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2016-12-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility in PCOS patients were explored. In our study, ovulation problem also causes sterility in PCOS mice. After blastocysts from normal mice are transferred into uterine lumen of pseudopregnant PCOS mice, the rate of embryo implantation was reduced. In PCOS mouse uteri, the implantation-related genes are also dysregulated. Additionally, artificial decidualization is severely impaired in PCOS mice. The serum estrogen level is significantly higher in PCOS mice than vehicle control. The high level of estrogen and potentially impaired LIF-STAT3 pathway may lead to embryo implantation failure in PCOS mice. Although there are many studies about effects of PCOS on endometrium, both embryo transfer and artificial decidualization are applied to exclude the effects from ovulation and embryos in our study.

  2. [Deciduous dentition: anatomical study by μ-CT].

    PubMed

    Bossù, Maurizio; Valletta, Alessandra; Fiore, Roberto; Riccitiello, Francesco; D'Amora, Marilina; Coppolino, Francesco; Simeone, Michele; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Endodontics is the branch of deciduous teeth pediatric dentistry that deals with the treatment of the root canal system. The goal of therapy is to maintain as long as possible the element in the dental arch to prevent alterations of orthognathodontic, infectious, and functional history and eruptive sequence. Although manual instrumentation has been widely used and still preferred by some practitioners, has limitations that affect the actual ability to clean the channel, the ability to create steps, perforations, dentinal plugs and fractures of the instrument. On the other hand, the disadvantages are the high cost of the instruments in nickel-titanium, which must be frequently replaced, and the risk of compromising the stability of the tooth due to an excessive consumption of dentinal tissue. The use of computed microtomography (μCT) of extracted elements has a considerable advantage in the study of dental hard tissues. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anatomy of the endodontic system of the elements deciduous.

  3. The Wood and Bark of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites - A Pictorial Atlas

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1980-01-01

    Provides a pictorial description of the structure and appearance of 23 pine-site hardwoods, an overview of hardwood anatomy, and data on the resource and certain important physical properties of stemwood and bark.

  4. Guide to the measurement of tree characteristics important to the quality classification for young hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    David L. Sonderman

    1979-01-01

    A procedure is shown for measuring external tree characteristics that are important in determining the current and future quality of young hardwood trees. This guide supplements a precious study which describes the quality classification system for young hardwood trees

  5. Proceedings of the 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL.

    Treesearch

    George Rink; Carl A. Budelsky

    1989-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh central hardwood forest conference, March 5-8, 1989 at Carbondale, Illinois. Includes 48 manuscripts dealing with silviculture, biology, management, protection, regeneration, utilization, structure, hydrology, and research policy in the central hardwood forest.

  6. Changes in global gene expression during in vitro decidualization of rat endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Griselda; Maschi, Darío; Citrinovitz, Ana Cecilia Mestre; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Maronna, Ricardo; Yohai, Victor; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Beato, Miguel; Saragüeta, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    During the preimplantation phase of pregnancy the endometrial stroma differentiates into decidua, a process that implies numerous morphological changes and is an example of physiological transdifferentiation. Here we show that UIII rat endometrial stromal cells cultured in the presence of calf serum acquired morphological features of decidual cells and expressed decidual markers. To identify genes involved in decidualization we compared gene expression patterns of control and decidualized UIII cells using cDNA microarray. We found 322 annotated genes exhibiting significant differences in expression (>3 fold, FDR > 0.005), of which 312 have not been previously related to decidualization. Analysis of overrepresented functions revealed that protein synthesis, gene expression and chromatin architecture and remodeling are the most relevant modified functions during decidualization. Relevant genes are also found in the functional terms differentiation, cell proliferation, signal transduction, and matrix/structural proteins. Several of these new genes involved in decidualization (Csdc2, Trim27, Eef1a1, Bmp1, Wt1, Aes, Gna12, and Men1) are shown to be also regulated in uterine decidua during normal pregnancy. Thus, the UIII cell culture model will allow future mechanistic studies to define the transcriptional network regulating reprogramming of stromal cells into decidual cells. PMID:19780023

  7. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans.

  8. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans. PMID:25892397

  9. Involvement of human decidual cell-expressed tissue factor in uterine hemostasis and abruption.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, C J; Paidas, M; Murk, W K; Kayisli, U A; Gopinath, A; Huang, S J; Krikun, G; Schatz, F

    2009-11-01

    Vascular injury increases access and binding of plasma-derived factor VII to perivascular cell membrane-bound tissue factor (TF). The resulting TF/VIIa complex promotes hemostasis by cleaving pro-thrombin to thrombin leading to the fibrin clot. In human pregnancy, decidual cell-expressed TF prevents decidual hemorrhage (abruption). During placentation, trophoblasts remodel decidual spiral arteries into high conductance vessels. Shallow trophoblast invasion impedes decidual vascular conversion, producing an inadequate uteroplacental blood flow that elicits abruption-related placental ischemia. Thrombin induces several biological effects via cell surface protease activated receptors. In first trimester human DCs thrombin increases synthesis of sFlt-1, which elicits placental ischemia by impeding angiogenesis-related decidual vascular remodeling. During pregnacy, the fibrillar collagen-rich amnion and choriodecidua extracellular matrix (ECM) provides greater than additive tensile strength and structural integrity. Thrombin acts as an autocrine/paracrine mediator that degrades these ECMs by augmenting decidual cell expression of: 1) matrix metalloproteinases and 2) interleukin-8, a key mediator of abruption-associated decidual infiltration of neutrophils, which express several ECM degrading proteases. Among the cell types at the maternal fetal interface at term, TF expression is highest in decidual cells indicating that this TF meets the hemostatic demands of labor and delivery. TF expression in cultured term decidual cells is enhanced by progestin and thrombin suggesting that the maintenance of elevated circulating progesterone provides hemostatic protection and that abruption-generated thrombin acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion on decidual cells to promote hemostasis via enhanced TF expression.

  10. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  11. Early Stump Sprout Development after Two Levels of Harvest in a Midwestern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Matthew G. Olson; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    Sprouting is an important source of regeneration for hardwood trees but has not been studied extensively in bottomland hardwood forests. We quantified the sprouting responses of 11 bottomland hardwood species or species groups after two levels of overstory harvest, including clearcutting with reserves (CCR) (residual basal area ∼2.0 m2/ha) and...

  12. Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree improvement including breeding and molecular marker applications

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...

  13. Determinant Product and Supplier Attributes in Domestic Markets for Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Product and supplier attributes that are critical in hardwood lumber purchase decisions (i.e., determinant) were investigated in four segments of the domestic market for hardwood lumber: millwork producers (Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2431), hardwood dimension and flooring producers (SIC 2426), wood household furniture producers (SIC 2511), and wood...

  14. Marketing low-grade hardwoods for furniture stock - a new approach

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...

  15. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  16. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the Eastern Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Many markets for hardwood lumber have experienced growth in recent years. Eastern and Central hardwood lumber production reached an estimated 11.2 billion board feet in 1988, a twenty year high. Wood furniture, flooring, and exports have also experienced growth in the last ten years. During the same period, annual growth on eastern hardwood forests has exceeded annual...

  17. Silvicultural Alternatives in Bottomland Hardwoods and Their Impact on Stand Quality

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy; Robert L. Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods occur on some 35 million acres of forest land in swamps, creek margins, river bottoms, and brown loam bluffs from Virginia to Texas. These hardwood types are very important because the wood has great value and is in demand by forest industries. This article discusses silvicultural alternatives such as site-species relationships, how hardwood timber...

  18. Thinning northern hardwoods in New England by dominant-tree removal — early results

    Treesearch

    William Leak

    2007-01-01

    Commercial thinning is a widely accepted practice in northern hardwood stands of New England. Commercial thinning guidelines for eastern hardwoods generally recommend releasing selected crop trees or the removal of trees in less-than-dominant crown classes unless they are of poor health or quality. However, many northern hardwood stands in New England have a dominant...

  19. Chemical control of hardwoods on pine sites of Maryland's eastern shore

    Treesearch

    S. Little; J. J. Mohr

    1956-01-01

    Relatively worthless hardwoods often take over space that should be growing loblolly pine on Maryland's Eastern Shore. In many cut-over areas, hardwoods are suppressing small pines that would become a part of the next crop if released. One way of controlling these hardwoods is with chemicals such as ammate and 2,4,5-T.

  20. Changes in Tennessee's secondary hardwood processing and sawmill industries from 2005 to 2009

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Delton Alderman; Doug. Schnabel

    2012-01-01

    Tennessee is in the center of the Eastern hardwood region and has experienced large declines in employment by primary and secondary hardwood processors since 2005 in a pattern similar to the one these processors have experienced nationally. The objective of this article is to examine changes in national hardwood processing industries between 2005 and 2009 and compare...

  1. Understanding chain-of-custody certification in the Appalachian hardwood region: Primary manufacturers' practices and perceptions

    Treesearch

    Iris B. Montague

    2011-01-01

    Many obstacles may deter hardwood manufacturers from obtaining chain-of-custody certification. Because the hardwood and softwood forest products industries have many differences between them, current certification systems may not fit the unique demographics of the hardwood industry. For this reason, it is important to understand chain-of-custody certification as it...

  2. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  3. Partial harvesting of hardwood sawtimber in Kentucky and Tennessee, 2002–2014

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2017-01-01

    Partial harvesting is the predominant but not exclusive cutting treatment applied to the hardwood forests of Kentucky and Tennessee. Hardwood harvest in Kentucky showed a slight downward trend from 2006 to 2014, with most of the volume harvested in partial logging operations. Tennessee did not show this same downward trend, and the amount of hardwood volume harvested...

  4. Southern hardwood growth-use gap closing fast as inventories peak

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold

    1989-01-01

    The use of hardwood for pulp and paper furnish and other fiber products is steadily increasing in the U.S. Pulpwood now accounts for half of all hardwood roundwood currently harvested for industrial timber products in the Southeast. In addition to domestic consumption, hardwood exports to Europe and Asia are also expanding, and good portion of these are shipped from...

  5. Converting hardwoods on poor sites to white pine by planting and direct seeding

    Treesearch

    G.W. Wendel; G.W. Wendel

    1971-01-01

    Until recently, conversion of hardwood stands on poor sites to white pine (Pinus strobus L.) was limited mostly to natural white pine reproduction released from a hardwood overstory, either by killing the hardwoods or by removing them through a timber sale. However, in our effort to increase the returns from poor sites in West Virginia (oak site index 45 to 60) we have...

  6. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  7. Genetic improvement of hardwood fiber production in the north-central region: potentials and breeding alternatives

    Treesearch

    R.E., Jr. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    In the Lake States, aspens are now growing towards senility Faster than they are being harvested (Groff 1966). In the Central States, wood processing residues have recently supplied about one-half of the area's hardwood fiber requirement (Blyth 1970), thus allowing hardwood growing stock to continue its recuperation. In fact, the national hardwood fiber supply...

  8. U.S. Has Plenty of Hardwood, but Much of It's Not For Sale

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; John Tansey

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the hardwood timber resource situation in the U.S. and reasons why less than 40% of the timber is available for cutting. It also discusses the U.S. hardwoods which are in the greatest demand as well as characteristics of U.S. hardwoods.

  9. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bowe Bergman

    2008-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the US. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using life-cycle inventory methodology. Material flow and energy use were identified for hardwood sawmills in northeastern US. A hardwood log volume conversion of 43.7% to planed dry lumber was found. Values of 608 MJ/m3 of electrical and...

  10. Manufacturers and distributors in the U.S. hardwood lumber supply chain: Perceptions of industry trends

    Treesearch

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob Smith

    2011-01-01

    Global competition, a slowing housing market, and shifts in the customer base have contributed to reduced demand for hardwood lumber and have increased the need for specialized services by suppliers of hardwood lumber such as sawmills or distributors. Customers of hardwood lumber suppliers also have started initiatives to reduce internal costs dramatically, frequently...

  11. Introducing white pine into poor-site hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Poor hardwood land presents a problem that is only too well known: what to do with areas in hardwood country that support only stunted, slow-growing trees? This is a question that vexes foresters and landowners in many parts of West Virginia and neighboring mountainous areas of Maryland and Virginia. On these poor sites, it is doubtful whether the hardwoods can pay the...

  12. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Treesearch

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  13. An analysis of declines in hardwood lumber price of the past 40 years

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, hardwood lumber prices have fluctuated as a result of overall economic activity and periodic inventory adjustment. Still, the decline in price for major hardwood species that began in the spring of 2004 and continued until the summer of 2009 is by far the most significant. In this article, we will examine just how much hardwood lumber prices...

  14. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  15. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  16. Aerial spraying of low-grade hardwood stands with 2,4,5-T in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    George W. Wendel

    1966-01-01

    Aerial application of herbicides to poor hardwood stands shows promise of being an effective aid in converting stands of low-grade hardwoods to conifers in West Virginia. Many of the sites now occupied by low-grade hardwoods are incapable of producing quality hardwoods - even under good management - and are generally much better suited to certain conifers, particularly...

  17. Case history development of a hybrid poplar nursery at Reynolds Metals Company, Massena, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    Intensive cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods, such as hybrid poplars, is a promising method of assuring adequate supplies of biomass for energy purposes. This report details the establishment of a hybrid poplar nursery on formerly unused land at the Reynolds Metals Company's reduction plant in Massena, NY and presents the results obtained during the first growing season. Cuttings from the nursery replanted during the Spring of 1982 are the first phase of a 600-acre hybrid poplar plantation at the Reynolds site.

  18. Comparison of throughfall chemistry in a mature hemlock forest and an early-successional deciduous forest resulting from salvage logging in Whately, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukswert, J. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Dwyer, C. H.; Sweezy, T.

    2012-12-01

    Removal of foundation species as a result of disturbance events such as exotic species invasions can alter community composition and ecosystem function. The current hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation in eastern North America that threatens the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a foundation species, has motivated salvage logging efforts. Ecological succession resulting from salvage logging of hemlock would eventually produce a deciduous hardwood forest. The chemistry of throughfall beneath a mature hemlock forest canopy is expected to be more acidic than throughfall from a mature deciduous forest canopy because hemlock foliage releases more organic acids and fewer base cations. The chemical composition of throughfall during the early successional transition from hemlock to deciduous is less understood. We hypothesize that throughfall chemistry in a deciduous forest consisting primarily of juvenile trees may be more similar to direct precipitation because leaf area index is smaller. Differences between hemlock throughfall and direct precipitation may be larger due to the denser canopy of these mature trees. We compared the chemical composition of precipitation, hemlock throughfall, and black birch throughfall for 26 precipitation events from 4 March to 30 July 2012. The black birch (Betula lenta) forest patch resulted from salvage logging of hemlocks twenty years ago at the MacLeish Field Station in Whately, MA. From the three plots we measured the volume of water collected and pH, acid neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and concentrations of cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+), anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), and dissolved silica. Precipitation totaled 405 mm during the course of the study. Throughfall totaled 347 mm in the black birch plot and 315 mm in the hemlock plot. The proportion of precipitation passing through the forest canopy was smaller in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall during small precipitation events

  19. Sustained Endocannabinoid Signaling Compromises Decidual Function and Promotes Inflammation-induced Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofei; Deng, Wenbo; Li, Yingju; Tang, Shuang; Leishman, Emma; Bradshaw, Heather B; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2016-04-08

    Recent studies provide evidence that premature maternal decidual senescence resulting from heightened mTORC1 signaling is a cause of preterm birth (PTB). We show here that mice devoid of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) with elevated levels ofN-arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide), a major endocannabinoid lipid mediator, were more susceptible to PTB upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Anandamide is degraded by FAAH and primarily works by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors CB1 and CB2, encoded by Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively. We found thatFaah(-/-)decidual cells progressively underwent premature senescence as marked by increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining and γH2AX-positive decidual cells. Interestingly, increased endocannabinoid signaling activated MAPK p38, but not p42/44 or mTORC1 signaling, inFaah(-/-)deciduae, and inhibition of p38 halted premature decidual senescence. We further showed that treatment of a long-acting anandamide in wild-type mice at midgestation triggered premature decidual senescence utilizing CB1, since administration of a CB1 antagonist greatly reduced the rate of PTB inFaah(-/-)females exposed to LPS. These results provide evidence that endocannabinoid signaling is critical in regulating decidual senescence and parturition timing. This study identifies a previously unidentified pathway in decidual senescence, which is independent of mTORC1 signaling. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Decidual activin: its role in the apoptotic process and its regulation by prolactin.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Christian; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Bao, Lei; Telleria, Carlos M; Ferguson-Gottschall, Susan; Gibori, Gil B; Gu, Yan; Bowen-Shauver, Jennifer M; Horseman, Nelson D; Gibori, Geula

    2003-05-01

    Successful pregnancy requires profound differentiation and reorganization of the uterine tissues including, as pregnancy progresses, extensive apoptosis of decidual tissue to accommodate the developing conceptus. We have previously shown a positive correlation between expression of activin A and apoptosis in the decidua and have also shown that expression of activin A occurs at the time when prolactin (PRL) receptors disappear from decidual cells. The goals of this study were to examine whether activin A plays a role in decidual apoptosis and whether expression of activin A in the decidua is regulated by PRL and placental lactogens. Studies were carried out using primary rat decidual cells, a decidual cell line (GG-AD), and PRL null mice. Treatment of decidual cells with activin A significantly increased DNA degradation, caspase 3 activity, and caspase 3 mRNA expression. However, this effect was observed only in the absence of endogenous activin production by these cells. Addition of follistatin to decidual cells that were producing activin A decreased both caspase 3 activity and mRNA expression. Similarly, addition of activin-blocking antibodies to cultures of GG-AD cells, which also produce activin A, caused a reduction in both DNA degradation and caspase 3 activity. PRL and placental lactogens caused an inhibition of activin A mRNA expression in primary decidual cells. Even more convincingly, decidua of PRL null mice expressed abundant activin A at a time when no expression of this hormone is detected in wild-type mice and treatment of PRL null mice with PRL caused a profound inhibition of activin A mRNA expression. In summary, our investigations into the role and regulation of decidual activin have revealed that activin A can induce cell death in the decidua and that its expression is under tight regulation by PRL and placental lactogens.

  1. Involvement of human decidual cell-expressed tissue factor in uterine hemostasis and abruption

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, C.J.; Paidas, M.; Murk, W.K.; Kayisli, U.A.; Gopinath, A.; Krikun, G.; Huang, S.J.; Schatz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular injury increases access and binding of plasma-derived factor VII to perivascular cell membrane-bound tissue factor (TF). The resulting TF/VIIa complex promotes hemostasis by cleaving pro-thrombin to thrombin leading to the fibrin clot. In human pregnancy, decidual cell-expressed TF prevents decidual hemorrhage (abruption). During placentation, trophoblasts remodel decidual spiral arteries into high conductance vessels. Shallow trophoblast invasion impedes decidual vascular conversion, producing an inadequate uteroplacental blood flow that elicits abruption-related placental ischemia. Thrombin induces several biological effects via cell surface protease activated receptors. In first trimester human DCs thrombin increases synthesis of sFlt-1, which elicits placental ischemia by impeding angiogenesis-related decidual vascular remodeling. During pregnacy, the fibrillar collagen-rich amnion and choriodecidua extracellular matrix (ECM) provides greater than additive tensile strength and structural integrity. Thrombin acts as an autocrine/paracrine mediator that degrades these ECMs by augmenting decidual cell expression of: 1) matrix metalloproteinases and 2) interleukin-8, a key mediator of abruption-associated decidual infiltration of neutrophils, which express several ECM degrading proteases. Our recent observations that: 1) among the cell types at the maternal fetal interface at term TF expression is highest in decidual cells indicates that this TF meets the hemostatic demands of labor and delivery; 2) TF expression in cultured term decidual cells is enhanced by progestin and thrombin suggest that maintenance of elevated circulating progesterone at term provides hemostatic protection, whereas abruption-generated thrombin can act in autocrine/paracrine fashion on DCs to promote hemostasis via enhanced TF expression. PMID:19720393

  2. Roles of Estrogen Receptor-α and the Coactivator MED1 During Human Endometrial Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Kaya Okur, Hatice S.; Das, Amrita; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    The steroid hormones 17β-estradiol and progesterone are critical regulators of endometrial stromal cell differentiation, known as decidualization, which is a prerequisite for successful establishment of pregnancy. The present study using primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) addressed the role of estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) in decidualization. Knockdown of ESR1 transcripts by RNA interference led to a marked reduction in decidualization of HESCs. Gene expression profiling at an early stage of decidualization indicated that ESR1 negatively regulates several cell cycle regulatory factors, thereby suppressing the proliferation of HESCs as these cells enter the differentiation program. ESR1 also controls the expression of WNT4, FOXO1, and progesterone receptor (PGR), well-known mediators of decidualization. Whereas ESR1 knockdown strongly inhibited the expression of FOXO1 and WNT4 transcripts within 24 hours of the initiation of decidualization, PGR expression remained unaffected at this early time point. Our study also revealed a major role of cAMP signaling in influencing the function of ESR1 during decidualization. Using a proteomic approach, we discovered that the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates Mediator 1 (MED1), a subunit of the mediator coactivator complex, during HESC differentiation. Using immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that PKA-phosphorylated MED1 interacts with ESR1. The PKA-dependent phosphorylation of MED1 was also correlated with its enhanced recruitment to estrogen-responsive elements in the WNT4 gene. Knockdown of MED1 transcripts impaired the expression of ESR1-induced WNT4 and FOXO1 transcripts and blocked decidualization. Based on these findings, we conclude that modulation of ESR1-MED1 interactions by cAMP signaling plays a critical role in human decidualization. PMID:26849466

  3. Expression of NK cell receptors on decidual T cells in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Mast, Barbara J; Nagtzaam, Nicole M A; Roelen, Dave L; Scherjon, Sicco A; Claas, Frans H J

    2009-06-01

    Specific receptors enable NK cells to discriminate between cells with normal expression of MHC class I and cells that have low or absent expression of MHC class I molecules. In addition to NK cells, these receptors can be expressed on T cell subsets, mainly on CD8+ T cells but also on gammadeltaTCR+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. Although the function of NK cell receptor expression on T cells is not completely understood, various studies have shown that they are involved in down regulation of T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation and influence effector functions, like cytotoxicity and cytokine production. The aim of this study was to analyze expression of NK cell receptors on peripheral blood and decidual T cells during human pregnancy using flow cytometry. We demonstrate that a proportion of decidual T cells express HLA-C specific killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Furthermore, a small proportion of decidual T cells express the HLA-E specific CD94-NKG2A inhibitory and CD94-NKG2C activating receptors. Decidual KIR+ and CD94-NKG2+ T cells mainly display a CD3+CD4-CD8- phenotype. However, decidual tissue also contains higher percentages of KIR and CD94-NKG2 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared to peripheral blood. So far, the functional capacities of decidual T cells expressing the NK cell receptors are unknown but NK cell receptor expression on decidual T cells may provide an alternative means by which decidual T cells distinguish self (maternal) cells from allogeneic fetal cells, and act to modulate the decidual immune response.

  4. Similar variation in carbon storage between deciduous and evergreen treeline species across elevational gradients.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I; Hoch, Günter

    2013-08-01

    The most plausible explanation for treeline formation so far is provided by the growth limitation hypothesis (GLH), which proposes that carbon sinks are more restricted by low temperatures than by carbon sources. Evidence supporting the GLH has been strong in evergreen, but less and weaker in deciduous treeline species. Here a test is made of the GLH in deciduous-evergreen mixed species forests across elevational gradients, with the hypothesis that deciduous treeline species show a different carbon storage trend from that shown by evergreen species across elevations. Tree growth and concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in foliage, branch sapwood and stem sapwood tissues were measured at four elevations in six deciduous-evergreen treeline ecotones (including treeline) in the southern Andes of Chile (40°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Nothofagus betuloides; 46°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Pinus sylvestris) and in the Swiss Alps (46°N, Larix decidua and Pinus cembra). Tree growth (basal area increment) decreased with elevation for all species. Regardless of foliar habit, NSCs did not deplete across elevations, indicating no shortage of carbon storage in any of the investigated tissues. Rather, NSCs increased significantly with elevation in leaves (P < 0·001) and branch sapwood (P = 0·012) tissues. Deciduous species showed significantly higher NSCs than evergreens for all tissues; on average, the former had 11 % (leaves), 158 % (branch) and 103 % (sapwood) significantly (P < 0·001) higher NSCs than the latter. Finally, deciduous species had higher NSC (particularly starch) increases with elevation than evergreens for stem sapwood, but the opposite was true for leaves and branch sapwood. Considering the observed decrease in tree growth and increase in NSCs with elevation, it is concluded that both deciduous and evergreen treeline species are sink limited when faced with decreasing temperatures. Despite the overall higher requirements of deciduous tree

  5. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Strontium-90 in deciduous teeth in Finland. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, L; Rytömaa, I

    1975-01-01

    Deciduous teeth of Finnish children born in 1958-1967 were analysed for strontium-90 by means of Cerenkov radiation. The strontium-90 content was about 9 pCi/gCa in children born in 1963--1964; the values decreased strongly in the subsequent cohorts of children. The strontium-90 content of the deciduous teeth varied in perfect unison with that of cow's milk (r=+0.99). The results confirm that deciduous teeth provide a practical and accurate indicator of the total body burden of bone-seeking environmental pollutants.

  7. Bottomland Hardwood Forests along the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Y.; Nelson, J.C.; Lubinski, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests along the United States' Upper Mississippi River have been drastically reduced in acreage and repeatedly logged during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Conversion to agricultural land, timber harvesting, and river modifications for flood prevention and for navigation were the primary factors that caused the changes. Navigation structures and flood-prevention levees have altered the fluvial geomorphic dynamics of the river and floodplain system. Restoration and maintenance of the diversity, productivity, and natural regeneration dynamics of the bottomland hardwood forests under the modified river environment represent a major management challenge.

  8. Alkaline phosphatases contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, decidualization and defense against bacterial endotoxin in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Nguyen, Heidi; Brown, Naoko; Ni, Hua; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Reese, Jeff; Millán, José Luis; Paria, Bibhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity has been demonstrated in the uterus of several species, but its importance in the uterus, in general and during pregnancy, is yet to be revealed. In this study, we focused on identifying AP isozyme types, and their hormonal regulation, cell-type and event-specific expression and possible functions in the hamster uterus during the cycle and early pregnancy. Our RT-PCR and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated that among the known Akp2, Akp3, Akp5 and Akp6 murine AP isozyme genes, hamster uteri express only Akp2 and Akp6; and both genes are co-expressed in luminal epithelial cells. Studies in cyclic and ovariectomized hamsters established that while progesterone is the major uterine Akp2 inducer, both progesterone and estrogen are strong Akp6 regulators. Studies in preimplantation uteri showed induction of both genes and the activity of their encoded isozymes in luminal epithelial cells during uterine receptivity. However, at the beginning of implantation, Akp2 showed reduced expression in luminal epithelial cells surrounding the implanted embryo. In contrast, expression of Akp6 and its isozyme was maintained in luminal epithelial cells adjacent to, but not away from, the implanted embryo. Following implantation, stromal transformation to decidua was associated with induced expressions of only Akp2 and its isozyme. We next demonstrated that uterine APs dephosphorylate and detoxify endotoxin lipopolysaccharide at their sites of production and activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that uterine APs contribute to uterine receptivity, implantation, and decidualization in addition to their role in protection of the uterus and pregnancy against bacterial infection. PMID:23929901

  9. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zook, B C; Spiro, I; Hertz, R

    1987-08-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls, uterine lymphatics, and in 4 of 13 (31%) rabbits that survived 2 years of treatment, the tumors metastasized to the lungs. Several deciduosarcomas appeared to arise within the spleen or other abdominal organs. Other drug-related lesions included uterine or vaginal polyps, endometrial atrophy, and focal necrosis and mineralization of the uterine wall. Cells from several deciduosarcomas failed to produce tumors in nude mice or to colonize on soft agar. No decidualization or decidual neoplasms were seen in the controls.

  10. Aboveground biomass and nitrogen allocation of ten deciduous southern Appalachian tree species

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Martin; Brian D. Kloeppel; Tara L. Schaefer; Darrin L. Kimbler; Steven G. McNulty

    1998-01-01

    Allometric equations were developed for mature trees of 10 deciduous species (Acer rubrum L.; Betula lenta L.; Carya spp.; Cornus florida L.; Liriodendron tulipifera L.; Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC.; Quercus alba L.; Quercus...

  11. Effects of Excess Copper Ions on Decidualization of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kang, Zhen-Long; Qiao, Na; Hu, Lian-Mei; Ma, Yong-Jiang; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper ions on decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) cultured in vitro. Firstly, non-toxic concentrations of copper D-gluconate were screened in HESCs based on cell activity. Then, the effects of non-toxic concentrations of copper ions (0~250 μM) were examined on decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Our data demonstrated that the mRNA expressions of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-1), prolactin (PRL), Mn-SOD, and FOXO1were down-regulated during decidualization following the treatments with 100 or 250 μM copper ions. Meanwhile, the amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) in the supernatant of HESCs was increased. These results showed that in vitro decidualization of HESCs was impaired by copper treatment.

  12. Localised enamel hypoplasia of human deciduous canines: genotype or environment?

    PubMed

    Taji, S; Hughes, T; Rogers, J; Townsend, G

    2000-06-01

    A discrete area of defective enamel formation that appears on the labial surface of the crowns of deciduous canine teeth has been described in both recent and prehistoric human populations, with reported frequencies varying from 1 to 45 per cent. Suggestions about the aetiology of this localized hypoplasia range from genotypic factors to environmental conditions and systemic effects. The major aims of this study were to describe the frequency of occurrence and pattern of expression of the lesion in Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian ethnic groups, and to clarify the role of genetic factors by examining a sample of twins. The study sample consisted of dental casts of 181 pairs of Australian Caucasian twins, 215 Aborigines and 122 Caucasian singletons, together with 253 extracted deciduous canines. Examination of dental casts and extracted teeth was undertaken under 2x magnification with emphasis being placed upon location and expression of the lesion. The defect was observed in 49 per cent of twins and 44 per cent of Aborigines, but only 36 per cent of singletons. The percentages of affected teeth in each group were: 18 per cent in twins, 17 per cent in Aborigines and 13 per cent in Caucasians. A significant proportion of the defects occurred on the mesial aspect of the labial surface, in the middle area incisocervically, with the majority in the lower jaw. A number of significant differences in frequency were observed between groups, sexes, arches and sides. The results confirm some of the findings of previous studies, but also suggest that none of environmental, genetic or systemic factors can be ruled out as being involved in aetiology of the defect. The higher incidence of the lesion occurring on the mesial aspect of the labial surface is suggestive of physical trauma. Also, the vulnerability of the prominent developing mandibular canine, with its thin or missing labial covering of bone, would be expected to lead to higher prevalence of the lesion in the lower

  13. Relative growth rate in phylogenetically related deciduous and evergreen woody species.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Isabel; Retamosa, Emilio C; Villar, Rafael

    2001-07-01

    Relative growth rate (RGR) and other growth parameters were studied in eight pairs of closely related deciduous and evergreen species (within the same genus or family). The main objective of this study was to test the association between leaf turnover rate and RGR, specific leaf area (SLA, leaf area/leaf dry weight) and other growth variables. Plants were grown for 6 months in a greenhouse under favourable water and nutrient conditions. Variation in RGR among the 16 woody species was due mainly to differences in morphological parameters such as leaf area ratio (LAR, whole plant area/whole plant dry weight) and SLA). However, temporal variation in RGR within species was due mainly to variation in net assimilation rate. When phylogeny was not taken into account, analyses showed that deciduous species grew faster than evergreens. In contrast, when phylogeny was taken into account, the data analysis showed that a faster RGR is not consistently associated with the deciduous habit (in five pairs it was, but in the other three it was not). The faster growth of the deciduous trees (in the five positive contrasts) could be explained by their higher LAR and higher SLA relative to evergreens. The lack of differences in RGR between deciduous and evergreens (in three pairs) was due to the higher leaf mass ratio (LMR, leaf dry biomass/total dry biomass) for the evergreens, which offset the higher SLA of the deciduous species, resulting in a similar LAR in both functional groups (LAR=LMR×SLA). Deciduous species had consistently higher SLA than evergreens. We suggest that SLA, more than RGR, could be an important parameter in determining adaptive advantages of deciduous and evergreen species.

  14. Oak woodlands and other hardwood forests of California, 1990s.

    Treesearch

    K.L. Waddell; T.M. Barrett

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a multiownership assessment of oak woodlands and other hardwood forests in California, excluding only reserved lands outside of national forests. Because sampling intensity on woodlands was doubled from the previous 1981-84 inventory, and because national forests were inventoried, this is the most complete assessment to date for California...

  15. Sediment dynamics and sources in a grazed hardwood rangeland watershed

    Treesearch

    Melvin R. George; Neil K. McDougald; Kenneth W. Tate; Royce Larsen

    2002-01-01

    From 1994 to 1998 we documented sediment transport dynamics and sources in a 137 ha grazed hardwood rangeland watershed on granitic soils at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County. Sediment transport for this watershed was determined by measuring total suspended solids, bedload and flow at an H-flume installed in 1994. Sediment movement as bedload is the...

  16. Planting Bottomland Hardwoods for Wildlife in the Delta

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf

    2000-01-01

    Tree season soon will be upon us. No, not cottontrees! The best time for planting dormant hardwood seedlings in the Delta is from December through February. All trees native to the Delta have some value as wildlife habitat. While some tree species produce mast, foliage, nectar, or fiber that are eaten by animals, others provide cover, vertical structure for nesting...

  17. Timber resource of Minnesota's Central Hardwood Unit, 1977.

    Treesearch

    Alexander Vasilevsky; Ronald L. Hackett

    1980-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Central Hardwood Unit shows large gains in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes but a 17% decline in commercial forest area between 1962 and 1977. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area as well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  18. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System Technology for the Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    For the last few years the authors have been extolling the virtues of a multiple sensor approach to hardwood defect detection. Since 1989 the authors have actively been trying to develop such a system. This paper details some of the successes and failures that have been experienced to date. It also discusses what remains to be done and gives time lines for the...

  19. Robust Spatial Autoregressive Modeling for Hardwood Log Inspection

    Treesearch

    Dongping Zhu; A.A. Beex

    1994-01-01

    We explore the application of a stochastic texture modeling method toward a machine vision system for log inspection in the forest products industry. This machine vision system uses computerized tomography (CT) imaging to locate and identify internal defects in hardwood logs. The application of CT to such industrial vision problems requires efficient and robust image...

  20. Soil Conditions Affect Growth of Hardwoods in Shelterbelts

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1976-01-01

    Large growth differences were found for hardwoods in shelterbelts on three contrasting soils of western Minnesota. Fiver years after planting, height growth was outstanding for green ash and Russian olive planted on a moderately fine-textured, somewhat poorly drained soil. Growth was much poorer on coarse-textured or shallow soils. Size of planting stock was not...

  1. Bark thermal properties of selected central hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Gretel E. Hengst; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1993-01-01

    Some physical, thermal, and chemical properties of bark of eleven tree species native to the central hardwood region were measured to determine their potential to protect the vascular cambium from damage by fire. The relationship between dbh and bark thickness for each of sixteen species was determined. For purposes of monitoring seasonal trends, two species (Quercus...

  2. Marking guides for northern hardwoods under the selection system

    Treesearch

    Carl, Jr. Arbogast

    1957-01-01

    The preparation of these guides has been a joint undertaking of research and national forest administration. Reviews and suggestions of other members of the Station who are active in northern hardwood research were helpful, especially those from men working at the Upper Peninsula Research Center in Marquette, Mich., and the Northern Lakes Research Center in Wausau, Wis...

  3. Feasibility of harvesting southern hardwood trees by extraction

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Sirois

    1977-01-01

    A Rome TXH Tree Extractor was used to explore the harvesting of four species of southern hardwoods by extraction. The test indicate that harvesting by extraction is feasible for harvestang, if tree size is limited to 9 inches DBH or less. Stump and below ground biomass averaged 18 percent of total tree biomass.

  4. Sawtooth forces in cutting tropical hardwoods native to South America

    Treesearch

    S. P. Loehnertz; I. V. Cooz

    As a result of design, operation, and maintenance, sawblades used in tropical sawmills can cause many problems. Improvements in these areas are needed to reduce the waste associated with sawing of tropical species that are regarded as difficult to cut. In this study, cutting experiments that simulated bandsawing of tropical hardwoods showed the effect of chip...

  5. Gypsy moth impacts in pine-hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery

    1989-01-01

    Gypsy moth has affected pine-hardwood mixtures, especially oak-pine stands, since the late 1800's. Several old and new studies on impacts in mixed stands are reviewed. When pines are heavily defoliated, considerable growth loss and mortality can occur. Mortality is heaviest in understory white pine trees, Impact information is used to suggest silvicultural...

  6. Integrating walnut and other hardwoods into agroforestry practices

    Treesearch

    Shibu. Jose

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry systems have been proposed as alternative, environmentally benign systems for agricultural production in temperate North America. Walnut and other hardwoods have been successfully integrated in most agroforestry practices include alley cropping, silvopastural, windbreaks, and riparian buffers. Because of walnuts relatively thin crowns and nut production,...

  7. Thinning southern bottomland hardwoods stands: Insect and disease consideratons

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker; Theodor D. Leininger; James S. Meadows; Michael D. Warriner

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thinning on insects and diseases have not been thoroughly examined in southern bottomland hardwood forests. To adress this issue, a study was initiated at sites in Mississippi and Alabama. These study sites allowed us to make observations concerning insect and disease activity 1-5 years following thinning. On all sites there was an unthinned control and...

  8. Competition and climate affects US hardwood-forest tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Individual-tree measurements have been collected periodically on sites established in Kentucky, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania to investigate the effects of thinning on the growth and yield of valuable hardwood species. These plots were installed between 1959 and 1985. The long-term characteristics of this data set of 47,853 trees allowed us to investigate potential...

  9. 78 FR 76857 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-490 and 731-TA-1204 (Final)] Hardwood..., the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to sections 705(b.... International Trade Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on June 19...

  10. A New Technique of Site Selection for Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; W. M. Broadfoot

    1978-01-01

    A problem foresters often face in establishing hardwood plantations is selecting proper sites for various species. Before planting, a forest manager should have confidence that a site is suitable for a particular species, and for investment planning he would like to have some idea of the site's potential productivity. This paper describes how to use a new...

  11. Grazing and Land Management Strategies for Hardwood Rangelands

    Treesearch

    Melvin R. George

    1991-01-01

    Annual rangelands produce 84 percent of California's range forage which are used all year by sedentary ranching operations and seasonally by migratory operations. Environmental policy, energy and water costs may reduce traditional summer forage sources, resulting in increased grazing pressure on hardwood and annual rangelands. However, the landowner's...

  12. Central hardwood forests: recent trends in a robust resource

    Treesearch

    T. W. Birch; D. A. Gansner; W. H. McWilliams

    1993-01-01

    Re-inventories completed for each of four Central Hardwood States (Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) show that forest area is increasing and stocking hit new highs; there is 27 percent more growing-stock volume than a decade ago. Large increases in volume have been recorded for all but the smallest diameter classes. Volume in trees 15 inches in diameter...

  13. An Old-Growth Definition for Western Hardwood Gallery Forests

    Treesearch

    Kelly Kindscher; Jenny Holah

    1998-01-01

    Western hardwood gallery forests are found across an extremely large, diverse geographical area that encompasses the Great Plains in the United States and Canada. Remnant forests of this type still exist in the "Prairie Peninsula," which historically projected an eastern finger into Ohio. The forests are restricted to floodplains of major rivers and are in...

  14. Bulk densities of materials from selected pine-site hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Clyde Vidrine; George E. Woodson

    1982-01-01

    Bulk densities of hardwood materials from low and high density species were determined for green and air-dry conditions. Materials consisted of whole-tree chips, bark-free chips, bark as collected from three types of debarkers (ring, rosser head, and drum debarkers) sawdust, planer shavings, flakes, logging residues, baled branchwood, steel-strapped firewood, and...

  15. Deriving fair incentives for management of hardwood timber stands

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; W. Herrick Owen; David N. Larsen; David N. Larsen

    1973-01-01

    The authors present a practical method for deriving timber-management incentive payments and demonstrate its application in forest stands of upland hardwoods. The suggested incentive payment is based on the differences between discounted costs and returns of deliberate forest management and the "harvest and let grow" option.

  16. Influence of restoration and succession on bottomland hardwood hydrology

    Treesearch

    Randy K. Kolka; J. H. Singer; C. R. Coppock; W. P. Casey; C. C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    The hydrologic pathways of four bottomland hardwood wetland sites were investigated with transects consisting of nests of shallow wells and piezometers. Sites included a disturbed but recently restored system, two disturbed systems that are recovering naturally and a relatively undisturbed reference site. Water table elevations in both uplands and bottomlands were...

  17. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  18. Proceedings: guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H Clay Smith; Maxine C. Eye

    1986-01-01

    How to do it, that is what this workshop is all about. This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands. We all have dozens of questions and concerns and though several of these will be answered, some will not. Basically, guidelines are "guides" and...

  19. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  20. Comparing partial cutttng practices in central Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G.W. Miller; H.C. Smith

    1991-01-01

    Variations of diameter-limit and perhaps single-tree selection harvesting are used to regenerate and manage central Appalachian hardwood sawtimber stands. In practice, these methods differ in terms of cut rules, control of stand structure, and cultural treatment of immature stems. Preliminary information is provided to compare the effect of two differing harvest...

  1. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  2. Utilizing hardwood logging residue: a case study in the Appalachians

    Treesearch

    E. Paul Craft

    1976-01-01

    An Appalachian hardwood timber stand that contained 6,700 board feet per acre of sawtimber was harvested by clearcutting. After the merchantable sawlogs were removed, this stand contained 69.3 tons per acre of green wood residue. Thirty-three and one-third tons of residue were from tops of merchantable sawtimber; 36 tons were from residual trees. Treetop residue...

  3. Properties of flakeboards from hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Treesearch

    C. -Y. Hse

    1975-01-01

    Boards 0.5 inch thick were made from 3-inch-long flakes of 9 species of southern hardwoods commonly found on pine sites. The main effects of species were due to variation in wood density; low-density species compacted readily when pressed, and the resulting good flake contact improved bonding and gave boards of high strength. With species having specific gravities...

  4. Study Cold-Soaking Treatment of Posts of Delta Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G. M. Furnival

    1954-01-01

    In 1953, a study was begun at the Delta Branch of the Southern Forest Experiment Station to determine whether fence posts cut from Delta hardwoods can be treated satisfactorily by cold-soaking in pentacholorophenol. Species included in the test were overcup oak, red oak (water oaks) sweetgum, tupelo, privet, boxelder, hackberry, hickory, cedar elm, American elm, and...

  5. Hardwoods in North Mississippi: Resource information from two forest surveys

    Treesearch

    Steven H. Bullard; Clay Robertson; Joshua Idassi; Joanne L. Faulkner

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service periodically conducts forest surveys for Mississippi and other states. Survey results for a 26-county area desiginated as "North Mississippi" were recently published in late 1993. We compare the hardwood acreages, volume, growth, removals, and other values to the survey results published in 1987 for this region.

  6. Wetlands can produce excellent hardwoods and shelter for game

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1985-01-01

    From Virginia to Texas, there are about 30 million acres of forests in swamps, creek margins, and river bottoms. These bottomland areas can be efficient producers of high-quality hardwoods, and they are unexcelled as habitat for many species of game and nongame birds and animals. In fact, the southern bottomlands are extremely diverse in species, sites, wood qualities...

  7. Water Quality Effects of Forest Roads in Bottomland Hardwood Stands

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer

    1999-01-01

    Management of bottomland hardwood sites requires adequate access to support forest operations. A study conducted in a bottomland forest in central Georgia has evaluated the effect of forest road design on sediment movement and water quality. Five years of measurement indicate that a conventional crowned road design is a net sink for sediment, primarily due to settling...

  8. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Treesearch

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  9. Foliar Nutrient Concentrations and Hardwood Growth Influenced by Cultural Treatments

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1981-01-01

    Six species of hardwoods were planted at a 3 by 3 m spacing on a slackwater clay soil (Vertic Haplaquept) in western Mississippi and subjected to three intensities of cultural treatments. Periodic disking- significantly increased heights, diameters, and survival of trees. Cultural treatments during the 4 years of the study did not cause any significant changes in soil...

  10. CT Imaging of Hardwood Logs for Lumber Production

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; A. Lynn Abbott

    1996-01-01

    Hardwood sawmill operators need to improve the conversion of raw material (logs) into lumber. Internal log scanning provides detailed information that can aid log processors in improving lumber recovery. However, scanner data (i.e. tomographic images) need to be analyzed prior to presentation to saw operators. Automatic labeling of computer tomography (CT) images is...

  11. Growth and Survival of Northern Hardwood Sprouts After Burning

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Root collar sprouting of nine hardwoods was measured annually after a prescribed burn. Basswood, red oak, and paper birch were the most vigorous sprouters; sugar maple and yellow birch the least; and American elm, bur oak, ironwood and red maple were intermediate. Parent tree diameter influenced spreading.

  12. An investigation of hardwood plywood markets. Part 2. Fixture manufacturers

    Treesearch

    Craig L. Forbes; Larry G. Jahn; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part study investigating markets for hardwood plywood. Part 1 dealt with architectural woodworkers. North American fixture manufacturers were surveyed to better understand the structure and use of wood-based panels in the industry. A questionnaire was mailed to a sample of U.S. and Canadian fixture manufacturers. The sample consisted of...

  13. Why hardwoods do not grow naturally in the west

    Treesearch

    J. A. Larsen

    1924-01-01

    Unfortunately the beautiful hardwood trees which are native to the Eastern States do not grow naturally in the West. We have here only aspen, cottonwood, small birch, hawthorns, cherry, and alder. On the Pacific coast are oak and maple, but limited largely to lower moist sites such as streams bed and canyons. The general absence of broad leaf trees in the West is most...

  14. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  15. The economic potential of CT scanners for hardwood sawmills

    Treesearch

    Donald G. Hodges; Walter C. Anderson; Charles W. McMillin

    1990-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a knowledge of internal log defects prior to sawing could improve lumber value yields significantly. This study evaluated the potential economic returns from investments in computerized tomographic (CT) scanners to detect internal defects in hardwood logs at southern sawmills. The results indicate that such investments would be profitable...

  16. Survey of Root and Shoot Cultural Practices for Hardwood Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Harry L. Vanderveer

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of selected forest seedling nursery managers was conducted in early 2004. About 2 dozen managers were contacted and asked to respond during a brief (15 to 30 minute) conversation about the current practices they employ to manage root and shoot growth of hardwood seedlings. The participants involved were evenly split between public agencies (...

  17. Simulation of hydrology of short rotation hardwood plantations

    Treesearch

    John E. Parsons; Carl C. Trettin

    2001-01-01

    A 76 ha hardwood plantation at Trice Research Forest near Sumter, SC is being usedto study forest hydrology on an operational scale. The overall objective of this project is to develop tools to enable forest managers to assess and manage sustainable short rotation woody crop production systems. This paper reports on the use of the water management model, WATRCOM, as a...

  18. Private forest owners of the Central Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A recently completed survey of woodland owners provides insight into the owners of private forest lands in the Central Hardwood Region. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the numbers of nonindustrial private forest-land owners. Over half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some time in the past, they...

  19. Response of northern hardwood forests to nutrient perturbation

    Treesearch

    Christopher Eagar; Scott Bailey; Amey Bailey

    1999-01-01

    Substantial amounts of calcium have been depleted from the soils of northern hardwood forests in northern New Engtand over the past 50 years. Portions of this depleted calcium have been incorporated into the biomass of the aggrading forests; however, significant amounts have been leached into drainage waters and lost from the ecosystem.

  20. From defective hardwood stand to multiple use opportunity

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee

    1972-01-01

    A 40-year old clearcutting, originally made as an example of destructive logging, now supports one of the best mixed hardwood stands on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest. Such desirable intolerants as yellow-poplar provide potential for timber; some high- and low-quality oaks provide timber and wildlife values; and the entire young stand has a pleasing appearance....

  1. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  2. Western hardwoods : value-added research and demonstration program

    Treesearch

    D. W. Green; W. W. Von Segen; S. A. Willits

    1995-01-01

    Research results from the value-added research and demonstration program for western hardwoods are summarized in this report. The intent of the program was to enhance the economy of the Pacific Northwest by helping local communities and forest industries produce wood products more efficiently. Emphasis was given to value-added products and barriers to increased...

  3. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  4. Properties of flakeboards from hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse

    1975-01-01

    Boards 0.5 inch thick were made from 3-inch-long flakes of 9 species of southern hardwoods commonly found on pine sites. The main effects of species were doe to variation in wood density; low-density species compacted readily when pressed, and the resulting good flake contact improved bonding and gave boards of high strength. With species having specific gravities...

  5. Deferment cutting in central Appalachian hardwoods: an update

    Treesearch

    Gary w. Miller; James E. Johnson; John E. Baumgras

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes research results on deferment cutting, a silvicultural practice that promotes a two-age stand structure, as it has been applied in central Appalachian hardwoods on the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) since 1979. Ten-year results from experimental cuts that were applied from 1979 to 1983 indicated that 89% of residual trees survived, 76 to 100%...

  6. Collecting dormant hardwood cuttings for western riparian restoration projects

    Treesearch

    Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2006-01-01

    Dormant hardwood cuttings are sections of woody stems that can develop into new plants complete with stems, leaves, and roots. Cuttings differ from seedlings because all new daughter plants that arise from cuttings are genetically identical to the parent plant. Cuttings can be long or short, depending on how they are used.

  7. Deferment cutting in central Appalachian hardwoods: an update

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; James E. Johnson; John E. Baumgras

    1997-01-01

    Deferment cutting is designed to regenerate a variety of high-quality hardwood species and promote a two-age stand structure for aesthetic, wildlife habitat, and other non-timber binefits. Basal area is reduced enough so that it resembles a seedtree or shelterwood practice in that some overstory trees are retained while all other trees are cut (Figure 1). However, in...

  8. Predicting diameters inside bark for 10 important hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Hilt; Everette D. Rast; Herman J. Bailey

    1983-01-01

    General models for predicting DIB/DOB ratios up the stem, applicable over wide geographic areas, have been developed for 10 important hardwood species. Results indicate that the ratios either decrease or remain constant up the stem. Methods for adjusting the general models to local conditions are presented. The prediction models can be used in conjunction with optical...

  9. A procedure for selection on marking in hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Joseph J. Mendel; Richard A. Kennell

    1974-01-01

    This method of applying individual-tree selection silviculture to hardwood stands combines silvicultural considerations with financial maturity guidelines into a tree-marking system. To develop this system it was necessary to determine rates of return based on 4/4 lumber, for many of the important Appalachian species. Trees were viewed as capital investments that...

  10. Financial aspects of partial cutting practices in central Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Gary W. Miller

    1993-01-01

    Uneven-aged silvicultural practices can be used to regenerate and manage many eastern hardwood stands. Single-tree selection methods are feasible in stands where a desirable shade-tolerant commercial species can be regenerated following periodic harvests. A variety of partial cutting practices, including single-tree selection and diameter-limit cutting have been used...

  11. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species

    Treesearch

    A. Jeff Martin

    1981-01-01

    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  12. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: goals, design, and implementation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca A. Kalb; Cortney J. Mycroft

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) is a long-term, landscape-level field experiment initiated in 2006 by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources-Division of Forestry. The HEE is a multi-disciplinary, collaborative research project involving researchers from Purdue University, Indiana State University, Ball State University, Indiana University of Pennsylvania,...

  13. Technical guide to crop tree release in hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Jeffrey W. Stringer; David C. Mercker

    2007-01-01

    Crop tree release (CTR) is a widely applicable silvicultural technique used to enhance the performance of individual trees. It offers flexibility in that it can be applied on small or large properties, and with certain modifications, it can be applied as a precommercial or commercial operation. By favoring the development of selected crop trees within a hardwood stand...

  14. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  15. Economics of hardwood silviculture using skyline and conventional logging

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Gary W. Miller; Chris B. LeDoux

    1995-01-01

    Managing Appalachian hardwood forests to satisfy the growing and diverse demands on this resource will require alternatives to traditional silvicultural methods and harvesting systems. Determining the relative economic efficiency of these alternative methods and systems with respect to harvest cash flows is essential. The effects of silvicultural methods and roundwood...

  16. Erosion and sedimentation concerns related to hardwood management in California

    Treesearch

    Theodore E. Jr. Adams; Raymond M. Rice

    1989-01-01

    Lack of information on the status of hardwoods, particularly oaks (Quercus sp.), is creating concern in California that continued fuelwood harvest will aggravate erosion and sedimentation (Pillsbury et al. 1983). This concern is unsupported by data from the West Coast because few data exist, a fact ackowledged by Pillsbury et al. (1983).

  17. The impact of deer browsing on Allegheny hardwood regeneration

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of deer browsing on Allegheny hardwood regeneration, surveys were made of vegetation inside and outside deer exclosures in 13 stands that had been clearcut 5 to 16 years earlier. The surveys showed that browsing by white-tailed deer has resulted in regeneration failures in 25 to 40 percent of the areas studied. Pin cherry and sugar maple were the...

  18. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Treesearch

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  19. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  20. Perceived impacts of disturbance in central hardwood ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John Hetherington; John Burde

    1997-01-01

    The intent of this research was to empirically identify and estimate the relationship between perceived scenic beauty and biophysical resources of hardwood stands in southeast Missouri under various disturbance regimes. The scenic effects of different harvest methods, wind, and fire were systematically investigated using a psychophysical approach. Ratings of scenic...

  1. Achieving restoration success: myths in bottomland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Callie Jo Schweitzer; James P. Shepard

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of bottomland hardwood forests is the subject of considerable interest in the Southern United States, but restoration success is elusive. Techniques for establishing bottomland tree species are well developed, yet problems have occurred in operational programs. Current plans for restoration on public and private land suggest that as many as 200,000 ha could...

  2. Delayed mortality of eastern hardwoods after prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2010-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountain and the Ohio Hills sites of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study are located in hardwood dominated forests. Mortality of trees was anticipated the first year after burning but it continued for up to 4 years after burning, which was not expected. Survival analysis showed that the likelihood of mortality was related to prior tree...

  3. Modeling the regeneration of northern hardwoods with FOREGEN

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stochastic model FOREGEN that simulates regeneration in openings in northern hardwood stands that range in size from clearcuts of 2,000 by 2,000 feet to single-tree openings of 25 by 25 feet. The model incorporates the effects of seed development, dispersal, germination, seedbed conditions, advanced regeneration, and weather. Users can specify options on...

  4. Influence of residual stand density on regeneration of northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon

    1975-01-01

    In a study of hardwood regeneration, experimental plots were treated to produce residual densities of 40, 60, 80, and 100 square feet of basal area per acre with 30, 45, and 60 percent sawtimber. After 9 years, numbers of stems and percent stocking were estimated for each species and they were rated for reproductive potential under different residual densities. Data...

  5. Reliability of tree-height measurements in northern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; Richard J. Nolet

    1968-01-01

    No significant differences were found between the heights of standing hardwood trees estimated with a Haga altimeter and actual heights measured after the trees had been felled. Differences ranged from +10 feet to -12 feet, and the mean difference for all trees was 0.1 foot.

  6. A silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon; Stanley M. Filip; Stanley M. Filip

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a practical guide to the management of northern hardwoods - principally beech, birch, and maple-in the Northeast. The guide was designed to provide the kind of information that is needed not only for long-term management planning, but also for short-term silvicultural prescriptions for specific timber stand conditions. The guide...

  7. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  8. Allegheny hardwood regeneration response to even-age harvesting methods

    Treesearch

    John C. Bjorkbom; Russell S. Walters; Russell S. Walters

    1986-01-01

    Allegheny hardwood regeneration response to block clearcutting, alternate strip clearcutting, and two-cut shelterwood, and in an uncut control was compared. Stand regeneration success was evaluated 5 years after harvest. Clearcutting resulted in high mortality of advance regeneration. Thus, regeneration by block clearcutting was not successful, though both alternate...

  9. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  10. Hardwood timber resources of the Douglas-fir subregion.

    Treesearch

    Melvin E. Metcalf

    1965-01-01

    The statistics on hardwood timber volume and type area presented here are being made available in response to the increasing interest in this resource in western Oregon and western Washington. These estimates are based on data obtained by the U.S. Forest Service in the course of timber inventories carried out by National Forest Administration on National Forest lands...

  11. Effects of repeated precommercial thinnings in central hardwood sapling stands

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale

    1982-01-01

    Precommercial thinnings were repeated four times in a central hardwood sapling stand beginning at age 8 and ending at age 22. Treated plots were thinned on an area-wide basis to specified density levels of 30-, 50-, and 70-percent stocking. The species composition of all stems in the stand was altered somewhat by thinning, but similar trends occurred on control plots....

  12. Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of the Alleghenies. (Revised)

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; Richard L. Ernst; Susan L. Stout

    1992-01-01

    This publication brings together the results of 20 years of research and experience in the silviculture of hardwood forests in the Allegheny region. It provides a summary of silvicultural knowledge, and guidelines, decision tables, and step-by-step instructions for determining silviculutural prescriptions in individual stands.

  13. A numerical rating system for crown classes of southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; E.C. Burkhardt; Robert L. Johnson; John D. Hodges

    2001-01-01

    A numerical rating system to delineate crown classes of southern hardwoods is described. The system is based on four criteria: (1) amount of direct sunlight from above, (2) amount of direct sunlight from the sides, (3) crown balance, and (4) relative crown size. The total point value assigned places the tree within one of the four crown classes. The rating system can...

  14. TRSys: A hardwood lumber grading training and remanufacturing system

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; R. Kothari; R. Annavajjhala; Charles W. McMillin

    1994-01-01

    The Training and Remanufacturing System (TRSys) is a new training tool for teaching both hardwood lumber grading and remanufacturing of lower grade boards into smaller boards of higher total value. TRSys is based on the HaLT2, ReGS, and enhanced HaRem computer programs. The most important feature of this new program is its ablilty to evaluate remanufacturing beyond...

  15. TRSys: a hardwood lumber grading training and remanufacturing system

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; R. Kotharl; R. annavajjhala; Charles W. McMilling

    1994-01-01

    The training and remanufacturing system( TRsys) is a new training tool for teaching both hardwood lumber and grading and remanufacturing of lower grade boards into smaller boards of higher total value. TRSys is based on HaLT2. REGS, and enhanced HARem computer programs. The mosti mportant feature of this new program is its ability to evaluate remanufacturing beyond...

  16. Timing and Planning for Hardwood Regeneration in the Coastal Plains

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1971-01-01

    Foresters generally do a good job of managing hardwood overstories; they upgrade the stand by deadening or cutting decadent and undesirable trees. But eventually they have to cut the overstory,and if they wait until after final harvesting to plan for reproduction, it is too late. Where the overstory has been removed and reproduction is unacceptable, as it is on many...

  17. Epicormic branching on hardwood trees bordering forest openings

    Treesearch

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; Donald W. Seegrist; Donald W. Seegrist

    1973-01-01

    Epicormic branching in hardwoods can degrade logs and reduce the dollar returns from growing trees. A study made around clearcut openings of various sizes showed that the following variables were related to the degree of epicormic branching on trees bordering the openings: size of opening, species, tree dominance class, exposure of tree bole, and position on tree bole...

  18. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith

    1976-01-01

    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  19. Hardwoods on pine sites: competition or antagonistic symbiosis

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain

    1990-01-01

    Early development of natural loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration was monitored in two research studies and two research demonstrations between 1980 and I989 in southern Arkansas. Site preparation and hardwood control incorporated the use of herbicides, mechanical treatments, or...

  20. Seasonal influence on Ohio hardwood stumpage price trends

    Treesearch

    T. Eric McConnell

    2014-01-01

    The average annual percentage rates of change in real sawtimber stumpage prices from 1978 through 2012 (dollars per thousand board feet, Doyle) for the 10 commercial hardwood species of Ohio were determined. Each species was then further examined for differing trend lines between the spring and fall reporting periods. Annual real rates of change ranged from -1.10...