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Sample records for deciduous hardwood hybrid

  1. Induction of cambial reactivation by localized heating in a deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata).

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahanara; Nakaba, Satoshi; Oribe, Yuichiro; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2007-09-01

    The timing of cambial reactivation plays an important role in the control of both the quantity and the quality of wood. The effect of localized heating on cambial reactivation in the main stem of a deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata) was investigated. Electric heating tape (20-22 degrees C) was wrapped at one side of the main stem of cloned hybrid poplar trees at breast height in winter. Small blocks were collected from both heated and non-heated control portions of the stem for sequential observations of cambial activity and for studies of the localization of storage starch around the cambium from dormancy to reactivation by light microscopy. Cell division in phloem began earlier than cambial reactivation in locally heated portions of stems. Moreover, the cambial reactivation induced by localized heating occurred earlier than natural cambial reactivation. In heated stems, well-developed secondary xylem was produced that had almost the same structure as the natural xylem. When cambial reactivation was induced by heating, the buds of trees had not yet burst, indicating that there was no close temporal relationship between bud burst and cambial reactivation. In heated stems, the amount of storage starch decreased near the cambium upon reactivation of the cambium. After cambial reactivation, storage starch disappeared completely. Storage starch appeared again, near the cambium, during xylem differentiation in heated stems. The results suggest that, in deciduous diffuse-porous hardwood poplar growing in a temperate zone, the temperature in the stem is a limiting factor for reactivation of phloem and cambium. An increase in temperature might induce the conversion of storage starch to sucrose for the activation of cambial cell division and secondary xylem. Localized heating in poplar stems provides a useful experimental system for studies of cambial biology.

  2. Directional scattering properties of a winter deciduous hardwood canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Newcomb, W. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The unique directional scattering properties of a deciduous hardwood forest without leaves during the winter period was measured in a visible and near-infrared band. A radiative transfer model was used to explore the scattering properties of such a forest. The reflectance distributions look similar to sparse homogeneous vegetation canopies. The overall reflectance distribution is a combination of the extreme azimuthal scattering behavior of tree limbs and the more typical scattering behavior of understory litter.

  3. Directional scattering properties of a winter deciduous hardwood canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Newcomb, W. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The unique directional scattering properties of a deciduous hardwood forest without leaves during the winter period was measured in a visible and near-infrared band. A radiative transfer model was used to explore the scattering properties of such a forest. The reflectance distributions look similar to sparse homogeneous vegetation canopies. The overall reflectance distribution is a combination of the extreme azimuthal scattering behavior of tree limbs and the more typical scattering behavior of understory litter.

  4. Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Joseph D; Bauerle, William L

    2008-11-01

    We investigated which parameters required by the MAESTRA model were most important in predicting leaf-area-based transpiration in 5-year-old trees of five deciduous hardwood species-yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis Matsum.), red maple (Acer rubrum L. 'Autumn Flame'), trident maple (Acer buergeranum Miq.), Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. 'Kwanzan') and London plane-tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.). Transpiration estimated from sap flow measured by the heat balance method in branches and trunks was compared with estimates predicted by the three-dimensional transpiration, photosynthesis and absorbed radiation model, MAESTRA. MAESTRA predicted species-specific transpiration from the interactions of leaf-level physiology and spatially explicit micro-scale weather patterns in a mixed deciduous hardwood plantation on a 15-min time step. The monthly differences between modeled mean daily transpiration estimates and measured mean daily sap flow ranged from a 35% underestimation for Acer buergeranum in June to a 25% overestimation for A. rubrum in July. The sensitivity of the modeled transpiration estimates was examined across a 30% error range for seven physiological input parameters. The minimum value of stomatal conductance as incident solar radiation tends to zero was determined to be eight times more influential than all other physiological model input parameters. This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis.

  5. Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Schmid, Hans Peter; Rahman, Abdullah F; Sims, Daniel; Wayson, Craig A; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    Predicted decreases in water availability across the temperate forest biome have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2 , and nitrogen deposition. While it is well established that severe droughts reduce the C sink of forests by inducing tree mortality, the impacts of mild but chronic water stress on forest phenology and physiology are largely unknown. We quantified the C consequences of chronic water stress using a 13-year record of tree growth (n = 200 trees), soil moisture, and ecosystem C balance at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana, and a regional 11-year record of tree growth (n > 300 000 trees) and water availability for the 20 most dominant deciduous broadleaf tree species across the eastern and midwestern USA. We show that despite ~26 more days of C assimilation by trees at the MMSF, increasing water stress decreased the number of days of wood production by ~42 days over the same period, reducing the annual accrual of C in woody biomass by 41%. Across the deciduous forest region, water stress induced similar declines in tree growth, particularly for water-demanding 'mesophytic' tree species. Given the current replacement of water-stress adapted 'xerophytic' tree species by mesophytic tree species, we estimate that chronic water stress has the potential to decrease the C sink of deciduous forests by up to 17% (0.04 Pg C yr(-1) ) in the coming decades. This reduction in the C sink due to mesophication and chronic water stress is equivalent to an additional 1-3 days of global C emissions from fossil fuel burning each year. Collectively, our results indicate that regional declines in water availability may offset the growth-enhancing effects of other global changes and reduce the extent to which forests ameliorate climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effects of localized heating and disbudding on cambial reactivation and formation of earlywood vessels in seedlings of the deciduous ring-porous hardwood, Quercus serrata

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kayo; Nabeshima, Eri; Begum, Shahanara; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Oribe, Yuichiro; Yasue, Koh; Funada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The networks of vessel elements play a vital role in the transport of water from roots to leaves, and the continuous formation of earlywood vessels is crucial for the growth of ring-porous hardwoods. The differentiation of earlywood vessels is controlled by external and internal factors. The present study was designed to identify the limiting factors in the induction of cambial reactivation and the differentiation of earlywood vessels, using localized heating and disbudding of dormant stems of seedlings of a deciduous ring-porous hardwood, Quercus serrata. Methods Localized heating was achieved by wrapping an electric heating ribbon around stems. Disbudding involved removal of all buds. Three treatments were initiated on 1 February 2012, namely heating, disbudding and a combination of heating and disbudding, with untreated dormant stems as controls. Cambial reactivation and differentiation of vessel elements were monitored by light and polarized-light microscopy, and the growth of buds was followed. Key Results Cambial reactivation and differentiation of vessel elements occurred sooner in heated seedlings than in non-heated seedlings before bud break. The combination of heating and disbudding of seedlings also resulted in earlier cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements than in non-heated seedlings. A few narrow vessel elements were formed during heating after disbudding, while many large earlywood vessel elements were formed in heated seedlings with buds. Conclusions The results suggested that, in seedlings of the deciduous ring-porous hardwood Quercus serrata, elevated temperature was a direct trigger for cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements. Bud growth was not essential for cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements, but might be important for the continuous formation of wide vessel elements. PMID:24685716

  7. The effects of localized heating and disbudding on cambial reactivation and formation of earlywood vessels in seedlings of the deciduous ring-porous hardwood, Quercus serrata.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kayo; Nabeshima, Eri; Begum, Shahanara; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Oribe, Yuichiro; Yasue, Koh; Funada, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    The networks of vessel elements play a vital role in the transport of water from roots to leaves, and the continuous formation of earlywood vessels is crucial for the growth of ring-porous hardwoods. The differentiation of earlywood vessels is controlled by external and internal factors. The present study was designed to identify the limiting factors in the induction of cambial reactivation and the differentiation of earlywood vessels, using localized heating and disbudding of dormant stems of seedlings of a deciduous ring-porous hardwood, Quercus serrata. Localized heating was achieved by wrapping an electric heating ribbon around stems. Disbudding involved removal of all buds. Three treatments were initiated on 1 February 2012, namely heating, disbudding and a combination of heating and disbudding, with untreated dormant stems as controls. Cambial reactivation and differentiation of vessel elements were monitored by light and polarized-light microscopy, and the growth of buds was followed. Cambial reactivation and differentiation of vessel elements occurred sooner in heated seedlings than in non-heated seedlings before bud break. The combination of heating and disbudding of seedlings also resulted in earlier cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements than in non-heated seedlings. A few narrow vessel elements were formed during heating after disbudding, while many large earlywood vessel elements were formed in heated seedlings with buds. The results suggested that, in seedlings of the deciduous ring-porous hardwood Quercus serrata, elevated temperature was a direct trigger for cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements. Bud growth was not essential for cambial reactivation and differentiation of first vessel elements, but might be important for the continuous formation of wide vessel elements.

  8. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  9. Expression of anatomical leaf traits in homoploid hybrids between deciduous and evergreen species of Vaccinium.

    PubMed

    Piwczyński, M; Ponikierska, A; Puchałka, R; Corral, J M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the anatomical expression of leaf traits in hybrids between evergreen Vaccinium vitis-idaea and deciduous V. myrtillus. We compared parents from four populations with their respective F1 hybrids and tested whether (i) transgression can be the source of novel anatomical traits in hybrids; (ii) expression of transgressive traits is more probable for traits with similar values in parents and intermediate for more distinct values, as predicted by theory; and (iii) independent origin of hybrids leads to identical trait expression profiles among populations. We found that anatomical leaf traits can be divided into four categories based on their similarity to parents: intermediate, parental-like, transgressive and non-significant. Contrary to the common view, parental-like trait values were equally important in shaping the hybrid profile, as were intermediate traits. Transgression was revealed in 17/144 cases and concerned mainly cell and tissue sizes. As predicted by theory, we observed transgressive segregation more often when there was little phenotypic divergence, but intermediate values when parental traits were differentiated. It is likely that cell and tissue sizes are phylogenetically more conserved due to stabilising selection, whereas traits such as leaf thickness and volume fraction of the intercellular spaces, showing a consistent intermediate pattern across populations, are more susceptible to directional selection. Hybrid populations showed little similarity in expression profile, with only three traits identically expressed across all populations. Thus local adaptation of parental species and specific genetic background may be of importance.

  10. The Central Hardwood Forest: its boundaries and physiographic provinces

    Treesearch

    James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions identify boundaries of the region. These regions are the Northern...

  11. The Central Hardwood Forest: Its Boundaries and Physiographic Provinces

    Treesearch

    James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) refers to the area where deciduous hardwood species overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, dominate the stands and cover types that occur as repeating units across the landscape. Transition zones where Central Hardwood species mix with species from adjacent regions identify boundaries of the region. These regions are the Northern...

  12. Advances in fertilization for hardwood regeneration

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing fertilization programs in the nursery and field may help improve regeneration and restoration of temperate deciduous hardwoods. Our research program has demonstrated the applicability of nutrient loading in fine hardwood systems to promote seedling uptake and storage of nutrients during the nursery phase. We also have shown the benefits of nutrient loading...

  13. Targeting hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demand for hardwood seedlings has prompted research to identify target seedling characteristics that promote hardwood plantation establishment. Operational establishment of hardwood plantations has typically emphasized seed collection from non-improved genetic sources, bareroot nursery seedling production, and spring planting using machine planters. The...

  14. Hardwood planting

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood planting used to be most common on private land. Now more and more hardwoods are being planted on public land. Not much hardwood planting research is going on but recent summaries of earlier trials allow us to give you the following guidelines.

  15. Hardwood Diseases

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1981-01-01

    Damping-off and root-rot continue to cause the most losses of young hardwood seedlings. We know how to control these losses but we gamble by not taking preventative methods. The most effective control is to use soil fumigation or solar soil sterilization.

  16. Planting Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1983-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests contain many species and grow on a wide range of sites. This diversity among species represents a challenge to managers whose primary tool in the natural forest is stand manipulation. Even-aged management has been applied to many natural stands during the past 25 years which led, in the 1960s, to clearcutting as the primary silvicultural...

  17. A resource at the crossroads: a history of the central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1997-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest is an oak dominated deciduous forest that stretches from Massachusetts to Arkansas and occurs in hilly to mountainous terrain. It is the largest and most extensive temperate deciduous forest in the world. During the past 20 million years or so, angiosperms have been gradually replacing gymnosperms as the dominant plant form on earth, and...

  18. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  19. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  20. Handling Hardwood Seed

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    The long-predicted surge in demand tor southern hardwoods is now being felt. Wood-using industries feel it in dwindling supplies of raw material; the forester feels it in increasing hardwood mill quotas, and you nurserymen feel it in increasing demands for hardwood seedling production. The hardwood boom has presented us with many problems. some of which we cannot yet...

  1. Forest management and nutrient cycling in eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James H. Patric; David W. Smith

    1975-01-01

    The literature was reviewed for reports on nutrient cycling in the eastern deciduous forest, particularly with respect to nitrogen, and for effects of forest management on the nutrient cycle. Although most such research has dealt with conifers, a considerable body of literature relates to hardwoods. Usually, only those references that dealt quantitatively with nutrient...

  2. AmeriFlux US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Hardwoods site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate hardwoods site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  3. Midsouth's Changing Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke; Robert L. Johnson

    1979-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in the Midsouth's hardwood resources over the past quarter century. Prime hardwood acreage has declined alarmingly in some areas due to expansion of soybean cropland. Selective cutting and lack of forest management have diminished the overall quality of available hardwood, too.

  4. Hardwood Seedling Nutrition

    Treesearch

    C. B. Davey

    2005-01-01

    Hardwood seedling production presents several challenges that differ considerably from pine seedling production. Because of a nearly double water requirement, hardwoods need to be planted where they can be irrigated separately from pines. Nutrient requirements are generally higher for hardwoods, including especially nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and...

  5. The central hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceous plants, and a large number of animal species.

  6. Central hardwood notes

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark; Jay G. Hutchinson

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood forest covers a vast area of the United States where the dominant native vegetation is hardwood trees. It is one of the largest forest areas in the country and contains about 100 million acres. The forests include more than 70 hardwood tree species, several conifers, many shrubs and herbaceaous plants, and a large number of animal species. This...

  7. What are northern hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The term "northern hardwoods" was used in the early 1900's to separate the hardwoods of the northern region from those growing in the South. With continued usage in the North the term now represents all dense hardwood species both in the Lake States and Northeast. Unfortunately, this has complicated describing and applying silvicultural practices for...

  8. Interspecific and environmentally induced variation in foliar dark respiration among eighteen southeastern deciduous tree species

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. Mitchell; Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose

    1999-01-01

    We measured variations in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) and leaf nitrogen (N) across species, canopy light environment, and elevation for 18 co-occurring deciduous hardwood species in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina. Our overall objective was to estimate leaf...

  9. AmeriFlux US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mature Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. The mature hardwood stand represents a typical naturally regenerated second-growth forest, free of anthropogenic disturbances for at least 70 years.

  10. Hardwood sawyer trainer

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Eknarin Santitrakul; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    It is well understood by now that the initial breakdown of hardwood logs into lumber has a tremendous impact on the total lumber value and conversion efficiency. The focus of this research project is the development of a computer-aided sawing trainer tool for the primary breakdown of hardwood logs. Maximum lumber recovery is dependent on the proper log orientation as...

  11. Utilization of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1978-01-01

    During the rest of the century, hardwood supplies will likely be sufficient for the nation's rising needs for paper and for structural and architectural products; but sawlogs will be in short supply. Therefore, the products mix will incorportate increasing quantities of reconstituted and composite products. Using hardwoods on sites better suited to pine--the South...

  12. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  13. Container hardwood seedling production

    Treesearch

    John McRae

    2005-01-01

    Container production of hardwood seedlings requires larger cavities, more space, and the ability to easily sort seedlings (as compared to conifers) very early during the germination phase of production. This presentation demonstrates the most productive system, based upon past experience, to commercially produce container hardwoods. The container system of choice is...

  14. Defects in hardwood timber

    Treesearch

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  15. Planting bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Karl Tennant

    1989-01-01

    Diverse problems confront the forest manager when planting bottomland hardwoods. Bottomland vegetation types and sites are complex and differ markedly from uplands. There are different and more numerous hardwood species that grow faster in denser stands. Sites are subject to varying intensities and duration of flooding and the action of overflow river currents that...

  16. Grading hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  17. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  18. Pruning central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Schlesinger; Alex L. Shigo

    1989-01-01

    Pruning, properly done, is one of the best ways to assure high quality wood. Although the overall volume of hardwood has been increasing during the last several years, the volume of high quality hardwood continues to be in short supply. So high quality logs will continue to be worth more at market time. Potentially, pruning can be an important silvicultural treatment...

  19. Upland hardwood silviculture DVD

    Treesearch

    Claire Payne; Donna Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management unit of the Southern Research Station offers a week-long course that provides practicing foresters with information about current silvicultural practices and emerging issues based on scientific research and applied techniques that affect managing upland hardwoods. This DVD captures the course that took place in July 2007....

  20. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  1. Litterfall in the hardwood forest of a minor alluvial-floodplain

    Treesearch

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    within mature deciduous forests, annual development of foliar biomass is a major component of aboveground net primary production and nutrient demand. As litterfall, this same foliage becomes a dominant annual transfer of biomass and nutrients to the detritus pathway. We report litterfall transfers of a mature bottomland hardwood forest in a minor alluvial-floodplain...

  2. Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt; William H. McWilliams

    2003-01-01

    Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade intolerant species are being replaced by more shade tolerant species....

  3. Shifts and future trends in the forest resources of the Central Hardwood Region

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt; William H. McWilliams

    2003-01-01

    Forests in the Central Hardwood region are undergoing change in terms of area, volume, species composition, and forest structure. These forests are dominated by deciduous species; are increasing their average stand size, volume, and age; and, are experiencing woody plant species replacement as shade intolerant species are being replaced by more shade tolerant species....

  4. AmeriFlux US-Wi8 Young hardwood clearcut (YHW)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi8 Young hardwood clearcut (YHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Clearcut Young Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The young hardwood clearcut site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  5. Taurodontism in deciduous molars

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Yash; Kambalimath, H V; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Taurodont teeth are characterised by large pulp chambers at the expense of roots. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor and no constriction at the level of the cement-enamel junction are the characteristic features of taurodont tooth. It appears more frequently as an isolated anomaly but its association with syndromes and other abnormalities have also been reported. Permanent dentition is more commonly affected than deciduous dentition. This paper presents a case report of taurodontism in relation to mandibular deciduous second molars. PMID:23737594

  6. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  7. Hardwood Blanks Expand Export Opportunities

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Hansen; Philip A. Araman

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the latest statistics pertaining to the export of hardwood lumber to the Pacific Rim; discusses possible reasons for the emergence and growth of this market; offers alternatives to rough hardwood lumber (two forms of value-added, hardwood blanks); and develops estimates of prices needed at the mill to earn a 30% return on investment from the...

  8. Nursery Diseases of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    S. J. Rowan; T. H. Filer; W. R. Phelps

    1983-01-01

    Numerous diseases may be encountered in hardwood plantings in Southern nurseries. Although severe disease losses have been observed in only a few hardwood species, some loss occurs in nursery plantings of all species and can be expected to continue. The lack of an effective post-emergence herbicide to control weeds in hardwood nursery seedbeds and the high cost of hand...

  9. Seeding and Planting Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1965-01-01

    I would like to start by giving a complete prescription for planting any hardwood species by a cheap and simple method that will insure excellent survival and good growth. Unfortunately, this is impossible, for we at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory are still several years away from such prescriptions with nearly all of our important hardwoods. With most species,...

  10. Hardwoods management options hold promise

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson; Dr. Roy C. Beltz

    1985-01-01

    Since the 1950s, dramatic changes have occurred in the hardwood resources of the Midsouth - Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Thousands of acres of upland hardwood forests have been converted to pasture for beef cattle. Clearing for agricultural crops, mainly soybeans, has removed more than 4 million acres of prime hardwoods in the bottomlands.

  11. Volume and Availability of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield; William A. Bechtold

    1990-01-01

    In the Eastern United States, some 354 million acres of timberland are classified as a hardwood or pine-hardwood forest type. The inventory of hardwood growing stock totals 275 billion cubic feet, or 90 percent of the hardwood inventory in the United States. Whereas hardwood inventories have increased by 70 percent since 1952, the availability of this resource for use...

  12. Wounding and hardwood diseases

    Treesearch

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Most hardwood diseases are spread by spores that are carried either by wind or insects. The spores enter into the host tree through natural wounds (fire scars, bark splits, sunscald, cankers, and branch stubs) or artificial wounds (bark carving, improper pruning, logging damage). Fresh wounds attract certain insects that can carry spores into the exposed part of the...

  13. Computer Integrated Hardwood Processing

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1997-01-01

    The planning of how the hardwood log can be sawn to improve recovery of high-value lumber has always been hampered by the limited information provided by external defects, and whatever internal defects are eventually revealed on the cut log faces by the sawing pattern. With expanded export and domestic markets, low-quality logs, increased competition from non-wood...

  14. Look to the hardwoods!

    Treesearch

    W. E. McQuilken

    1957-01-01

    The northeast is hardwood country. To be sure, central and northern Maine and the higher elevations of the Green Mountains, White Mountains, and Adirondacks have their spruce-fir; cool, moist sites throughout the region typically support some hemlock; and white pine - the original foundation of the lumber industry in North America - is widely represented by scattered...

  15. Hardwoods of North America

    Treesearch

    H. A. Alden

    1995-01-01

    This report describes 53 taxa of hardwoods of North America, which are organized alphabetically by genus. Descriptions include scientific name, trade name, distribution, tree characteristics, wood characteristics (general, weight, mechanical properties, drying, shrinkage, working properties, durability, preservation, toxicity and uses) and additional sources for...

  16. Hardwood price reporting.

    Treesearch

    Brent L. Sohngen; Richard W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Prices for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  17. Drying hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    Joseph. Denig; Eugene M. Wengert; William T. Simpson

    2000-01-01

    Drying Hardwood Lumber focuses on common methods for drying lumber of different thickness, with minimal drying defects, for high quality applications. This manual also includes predrying treatments that, when part of an overall quality-oriented drying system, reduce defects and improve drying quality, especially of oak lumber. Special attention is given to drying white...

  18. Site Evaluation for Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1985-01-01

    Foresters evaluate sites for an indication of potential growth and yield, for an ecological descriptor, and to correctly match the hardwood species to be planted with sites suitable for them. Site indexes measured directly from trees on the site are the preferable means of quantifying site. Because this method is not always possible, other means based on soil and...

  19. Where to Plant Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Walter M. Broadfoot

    1978-01-01

    Before anyone invests in planting hardwoods, he wants to know that his trees are suited to the site and will grow well. That assurance is now available to those interested in green ash, cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, or Nuttall, water, willow or cherrybark oaks.

  20. Hardwood siding performance.

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper

    1967-01-01

    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  1. Orthodontic movement in deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Deciduous teeth exfoliate as a result of apoptosis induced by cementoblasts, a process that reveals the mineralized portion of the root while attracting clasts. Root resorption in deciduous teeth is slow due to lack of mediators necessary to speed it up; however, it accelerates and spreads in one single direction whenever a permanent tooth pericoronal follicle, rich in epithelial growth factor (EGF), or other bone resorption mediators come near. The latter are responsible for bone resorption during eruption, and deciduous teeth root resorption and exfoliation. Should deciduous teeth be subjected to orthodontic movement or anchorage, mediators local levels will increase. Thus, one should be fully aware that root resorption in deciduous teeth will speed up and exfoliation will early occur. Treatment planning involving deciduous teeth orthodontic movement and/or anchorage should consider: Are clinical benefits relevant enough as to be worth the risk of undergoing early inconvenient root resorption?

  2. A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; David L. Sonderman; Glenn L. Gammon

    1973-01-01

    A guide to hardwood log grading (revised) was developed as a teaching aid and field reference in grading hardwood logs. Outlines basic principles and gives detailed practical applications, with illustrations, in grading hardwood logs. Includes standards for various use classes.

  3. Butt Rot of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    F. I. McCracken

    1977-01-01

    Butt rot is the most serious cause of cull throughout the South, and affects all hardwood species. Defined as any decay at the base of a living tree, butt rot accounts for the loss of millions of board feet of southern hardwood timber annually. In one study of loess and alluvial hardwood sites in the Midsouth, butt rot was found in 40 percent of the trees being...

  4. Hardwood sawmill downtime costs

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Kyle Blackwell

    2003-01-01

    How time flies when you don't pay attention to it. With hardwood sawmill operating costs ranging from $4 to $25 per operating minute ($95/MBF to $335/MBF) and gross profit margins ranging from $0.10/BF to $0.35/BF, five extra minutes of downtime per day will cost a sawmill that produces an average of 20,000 BF per day (5 MMBF annually) between $21 and $73 per day...

  5. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  6. The Techniques of Growing Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. S. McKnight; Robert L. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    In the South, high-quality hardwoods grow on river and stream bottoms and other moist, rich sites in the Coastal Plains; true swamps; and the loess bluffs of the lower Mississippi Valley. Fine hardwoods are also produced in the mountains and the Piedmont, but these areas are not discussed in this article. Landowners and forest managers recognize that a considerable...

  7. Hardwood Seed Collection and Handling

    Treesearch

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1970-01-01

    In a surprisingly few years a major proportion of the South's timber stands will be artificially regenerated with selected or genetically improved stock. Success with southern pines and high stumpage prices for certain species will spur efforts in hardwood stands. Intensive hardwood forestry will require better methods of seed production and handling than those...

  8. Changing Markets for Hardwood Roundwood

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Albert Schuler

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hardwood roundwood has been used to produce lumber, cabinet plywood, and veneer. Hardwoods also have been a major part of the pulpwood consumption in the northern tier of the eastern United States since the early 1960?s, while southern pines have been the predominant species used in southern tier states. However, since the 1960's there has been a...

  9. Insects affecting hardwood tree plantings

    Treesearch

    Bradley D. Barnd; Paula M. Pijut; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2008-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Region (CHR) is one of the largest forested areas in the country, covering more than 100 million acres, and is dominated by oakhickory and mixed hardwoods. Although large areas of forest have been cleared to make way for agriculture and urban growth, the number of trees in the CHR is increasing as farm and pasture lands are reverting back to forest...

  10. The determinants of hardwood lumber price

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jennifer M. Jacobsen; Jennifer M. Jacobsen

    1985-01-01

    Econometric equations were estimated to determine the effects of domestic foreign hardwood lumber demands on oak and hardwood lumber prices. Oak price seemed to be more sensitive to changes in exports than overall hardwood lumber price. However, the main determinants of hardwood lumber and oak lumber prices were found to be domestic demand and millstock levels.

  11. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  12. Studies in Site Evaluation for Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Nelson; William R. Beaufait

    1956-01-01

    SOUTHERN HARDWOODS, which supply more than half of the nation's hardwood lumber, are a complex and varied mixture of nearly 40 commercial species. On a good share of the 112 million acres of southern hardwood types the hardwoods are mixed with or have replaced southern pines. Faced with this profusion of species, the silviculturist's first problem is to know...

  13. Estimating cull in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W.M. Zillgitt; S.R. Gevorkiantz

    1946-01-01

    Cull in northern hardwood stands is often very heavy and is difficult to estimate. To help clarify this situation and aid the average cruiser to become more accurate in his estimates, the study reported here should prove very helpful.

  14. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O(3) under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Wei, C; Skelly, J M; Pennypacker, S P; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D

    2004-07-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O(3)) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O(3) concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O(3) concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Ambient O(3) exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001 growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O(3) exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(wv)). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g(wv), which resulted in greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O(3) uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O(3) exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions.

  15. U.S. hardwood product exports, hardwood exports to Korea, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Korea

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The exerpts from this seminar are intended to give an overview of U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Korea, the hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. hardwood exports to Korea. It includes 1) some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products, 2) information on hardwood exports to Korea from the U.S., 3) U.S. hardwood resources...

  16. 78 FR 68297 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ..., Research and Information Order (Order). Hardwood lumber and hardwood plywood are used in products like... varies according to the product manufactured. The purpose of the program would be to strengthen the... hardwood plywood. Hardwood lumber products are used in residential and commercial construction...

  17. 1997 Hardwood Research Award Winner: "Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts"

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The National Hardwood Lumber Association's 1997 Hardwood Research Award was presented to D. Earl Kline, Richard Conners, Qiang Lu and Philip Araman at the 25th Annual Hardwood Symposium for developing an automatic system for color sorting hardwood edge-glued panel parts. The researchers comprise a team from Virginia Tech University and the USDA Forest Service in...

  18. Bottomland Hardwoods Research on Site Preparation, Planation Establishment, and Cultural Treatments, at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1980-01-01

    The South contains about 219 million acres of forests, 70 million acres of which are most productive when managed as hardwoods. Bottomland hardwoods cover about 22 million of this 70 million acres. Hardwood plantation management has been increasing during the last few years, but natural stand management still accounts for more than 99 percent of hardwood production in...

  19. New estimates of hardwood lumber exports from the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    W. Luppold; E. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Exports have become an increasingly important part of the overall hardwood lumber market. However, recent findings indicate that much of the reported growth of hardwood lumber exports in the 1980's was based on inflated volume data. This paper presents new estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Asia and Europe with emphasis on the central hardwood region of the...

  20. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1211 RIN 0581-AD24 Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... determine whether issuance of a proposed Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and...

  1. Hardwood thinning opportunities in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1986-01-01

    The symposium presents and discusses new information on the hardwood resource, silviculture, harvesting, economics, and product potential from hardwood thinnings in the Lake States. Included are forest management perspectives from the logger, private industry, and state and federal forest managers.

  2. Economics of herbicide application methods in hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Forest managers can use the data presented here to determine the least-cost herbicide application method for precommercial thinning treatments in hardwood sapling stands. Herbicides used in managing immature hardwood stands must be applied ustng individual-tree methods: broadcast applications in hardwoods are not selective and may result in signtficant damage to...

  3. Insect and Disease Pests of Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    L. P. Abrahamson; F. I. McCracken

    1971-01-01

    Insects and diseases seldom kill southern hardwood trees in managed stands, but they cause major economic losses by lowering wood quality and reducing tree growth. In discussing the most important insects and diseases of southern hardwoods, let us consider first those that attack natural hardwood stands and then those associated with plantation culture.

  4. Use of hardwood flooring in mobile homes

    Treesearch

    David G. Martens; Leonard J. Koenick; Leonard J. Koenick

    1970-01-01

    The hardwood flooring industry is losing a new and vigorous market by default. The mobile-home industry produced over 250 million square feet of single-family housing space last year, and very little of this floor space was covered with hardwood flooring. A preliminary glance at this situation seems to uncover an industry that offers many opportunities for hardwood...

  5. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Treesearch

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  6. Native hardwood trees of the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2005-01-01

    Trees are planted for various reasons including, timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation (Indiana NRCS 2002). Establishment of hardwood plantings requires planning, a commitment of time and resources, proper planting, maintenance, and protection....

  7. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  8. Strategic plans for the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler; Keith E. Woeste

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University is to advance the science of hardwood tree improvement and genomics in the central hardwood region of the United States by: developing and disseminating knowledge on improving the genetic quality of hardwood tree species; conserving fine hardwood germplasm; developing...

  9. Examination of regional hardwood roundwood markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman; William Luppold

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia's large and diverse hardwood resource ranges from oak-hickory forests in the southern and northwestern regions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia is home to a diverse group of primary hardwood processing industries including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  10. Inventory of Commercial Hardwoods in the High Sierra

    Treesearch

    Norman H. Pillsbury; George L. McCaskill

    1991-01-01

    A hardwood resources assessment was completed for the Sierra Economic Development District in the north central Sierra Nevada. The assessment included the development of a tree grading system for the major hardwood species in the area, an inventory of the hardwood resources, and recommendations for hardwood management. Hardwood volumes of total wood available for...

  11. Leaf-on canopy closure in broadleaf deciduous forests predicted during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Ayala, Andrea J.; Shickel, Madeline R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest canopy influences light transmittance, which in turn affects tree regeneration and survival, thereby having an impact on forest composition and habitat conditions for wildlife. Because leaf area is the primary impediment to light penetration, quantitative estimates of canopy closure are normally made during summer. Studies of forest structure and wildlife habitat that occur during winter, when deciduous trees have shed their leaves, may inaccurately estimate canopy closure. We estimated percent canopy closure during both summer (leaf-on) and winter (leaf-off) in broadleaf deciduous forests in Mississippi and Louisiana using gap light analysis of hemispherical photographs that were obtained during repeat visits to the same locations within bottomland and mesic upland hardwood forests and hardwood plantation forests. We used mixed-model linear regression to predict leaf-on canopy closure from measurements of leaf-off canopy closure, basal area, stem density, and tree height. Competing predictive models all included leaf-off canopy closure (relative importance = 0.93), whereas basal area and stem density, more traditional predictors of canopy closure, had relative model importance of ≤ 0.51.

  12. Sawlog weights for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson; Floyd G. Timson

    1972-01-01

    The tables are presented in this paper as reference material needed as a foundation for further work in the field of hardwood log weights. Such work may be undertaken by researchers, engineers, and equipment designers in the form of formal and informal studies, or by timbermen in the normal course of action to improve their operations.

  13. Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    Do bottomland hardwood forests respond to improvement cuts? Do growth rate and stand quality increase enough to make up for the extra effort and, sometimes, outright expense of improvement cutting? Ten years of growth on some plots on the Delta Experimental Forest near Stoneville, Mississippi, indicates that the answer to both questions is "yes".

  14. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  15. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  16. Silvicultural systems for bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests normally regenerate with species found in the overstory. These species reflect the timing, duration, depth of water, and nature of the sediment in past flooding. The longer water stands during the growing season and the deeper the sediment, the fewer the species that are able to survive. Flooding patterns often change over the life of a...

  17. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  18. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Marianne K. Burke; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  19. Use Hardwoods for Building Components

    Treesearch

    Glenn A. Cooper; William W. Rice

    1968-01-01

    Describes a system for prefabricating structural units from hardwoods for use in floors, roofs, and walls of a-frame or post-and-beam type construction. The interior face of the unit is decorative paneling; the exterior face is sheathing. Use of the system could reduce prefabricated house construction costs compared to conventional construction costs.

  20. Simulation of hardwood log sawing

    Treesearch

    D.B. Richards; W.K. Adkins; H. Hallock; E.H. Bulgrin

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modeling computer programs for several hardwood sawing systems have been developed and are described. One has judgment capabilities. Several of the subroutines are common to all of the models. These models are the basis for further research which examines the question of best-grade sawing method in terms of lumber value yield.

  1. Ownership Patterns on Hardwood Lands

    Treesearch

    Sam C. Doak

    1991-01-01

    The pattern of land use and ownership—including sizes of ownerships, types of landowners, and their various management objectives—affects the level of benefits available from the California's hardwood resource. Geographic information system (GIS) databases of ownership and population characteristics were developed for two California counties using local assessors...

  2. Hardwood planting in southern Ontario

    Treesearch

    F. W. von Althen

    1977-01-01

    Successful hardwood afforestation is possible provided the following conditions can be met: (1) a deep, moist but well-drained soil; (2) intensive site preparation, preferably plowing and disking of the total plantation area; (3) careful planting of healthy, sturdy planting stock; (4) effective weed control for at least the first two and preferably three years after...

  3. Soil Management in Hardwood Plantations

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1978-01-01

    Several soil management techniques--fertilization, deep plowing, cover cropping, summer fallowing, Irrigation, and cultivation--can benefit hardwood plantations. The applicability of the treatments to plantations of cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, green ash, yellow-poplar, and oaks depends largely on site conditions.

  4. Grazing in central hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin; Harold Scholten

    1989-01-01

    Woodland grazing is a major forestry and land management problem in parts of the central hardwood region. Most forest grazing is by cattle and, to a lesser extent, hogs in woodlands adjacent to pastures or feedlots. The practice is particularly common in the cattle producing areas of the Corn Belt where often 50 percent or more of the upland forest is grazed. Woodland...

  5. Bottomland hardwoods for structual flakeboards

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price; Chung-Yun Hse

    1983-01-01

    Seven species found growing in bottomland hardwood sites were evaluated for their potential in being utilized in a structural flakeboard. The evaluation process consisted of three phases of investigation. Phase I investigated properties of flakeboards fabricated with several flake lengths and thicknesses using all seven species. In Phase II, properties of panels made...

  6. Herbicide practices in hardwood plantings

    Treesearch

    Brian D. Beheler; Charles H. Michler

    2013-01-01

    Control of competing vegetation is an important early cultural practice that can improve survival and vigor in hardwood tree plantings. The type of program used depends on landowner objectives, species of weeds present, equipment available, and types of herbicides available. Pre-planting planning can greatly increase effectiveness of an herbicide program for the first...

  7. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Planting hardwood seedlings in the Central Hardwood Region.

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2003-01-01

    Forest tree planting in the United States on public and private land exceeded 2.6 million acres in 1999. Of that total, approximately 1.3 million acres (48 percent) were planted by private individuals (AF & PA 2001). In the Central Hardwood Region forest tree planting by private landowners exceeded 100,000 acres in 1999. Trees are planted for various reasons...

  8. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. . Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  10. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center: its strategic plans for sustaining the hardwood resource

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler; Michael J. Bosela; Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste

    2003-01-01

    A regional center for hardwood tree improvement, genomics, and regeneration research, development and technology transfer will focus on black walnut, black cherry, northern red oak and, in the future, on other fine hardwoods as the effort is expanded. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) will use molecular genetics and genomics along with...

  11. Hardwood Culture in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson

    1978-01-01

    Many hardwood plantations are being established in the East. Populus deltoides, Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Juglans nigra are the species that have been planted and studied most.

  12. Computer-Integrated Breakdown of Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress concerning the development of an integrated approach to hardwood processing. The motivation for this work, research direction, and research developments are presented.

  13. [Traumatic injuries of deciduous teeth].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, G

    2001-06-01

    Review of literature regarding frequency of traumatic injuries of primary teeth, types of injuries, therapy and possible consequences in permanent dentition. The diagram of prevalence shows no direct correlation to age, whereas according to diagram of incidence 70% of injuries occur in the second and third years of life. Injuries without dislocation of the deciduous tooth: fractura coronae dentis decidui, contusio seu concussio dentis decidui, fractura radicis decidui. Injuries with dislocation: luxatio totalis dentis decidui, luxatio partialis dentis decidui, intrusio dentis decidui. Consequences of traumas can be detected in disturbances of second dentition, in developmental anomalies of enamel and in considerable deformities of homologous permanent tooth.

  14. Canker Rots in Southern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    F.I. McCracken

    1978-01-01

    Canker-rot fungi cause serious degrade and cull in southern hardwoods, especially the red oaks. Heartwood decay is the most serious form of damage, but the fungi also kill the cambium and decay the sapwood for as much as 3 feet (.91 m) above and below the entrance point into the tree. The ability of these fungi to kill the cambium and cause cankers distinguishes them...

  15. Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene expression in rat decidual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Rauscher, F J; Bondy, C

    1993-09-01

    The Wilm's tumor suppressor gene (WT1) encodes a zinc-finger containing transcription factor that is selectively expressed in the developing urogenital tract, where it is thought to play a role in the differentiation of these tissues. We have used immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization to study WT1 expression in the rat uterus during normal development and pregnancy from 0 to 20 days post coitum (p.c.). WT1 mRNA was abundant in uterine stroma from juvenile rats, but was much less abundant in uterine tissue from sexually mature rats; WT1 expression is not affected by ovariectomy or by treatment with estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone. WT1 gene was highly expressed, however, in the endometrial cells of early pregnancy. On day 6 p.c. WT1 mRNA was detected in anti-mesometrial decidual cells, and WT1 immunoreactivity was concentrated in the nuclei of these cells. All cells of fully-developed deciduoma at 7-8 days p.c. demonstrated WT1 expression. WT1 was not detected in trophoblast/placental tissues but remained abundant in the decidua basalis until parturition. The expression of WT1 was compared with insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) and its receptor in the decidual since it has been shown that IGF-II gene transcription is repressed by WT1 in vitro. However, no spatiotemporal correlation in the expression of these three genes was found in differentiation of the rat decidua. In summary, these data suggest a role for WT1 in decidualization, since its expression is activated during the differentiation of uterine stromal cells into decidual cells.

  16. Sulfur nutrition of deciduous trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschbach, Cornelia; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur in its reduced form (-II) is an essential nutrient for growth and development, but is mainly available to plants in its oxidised form as sulfate. Deciduous trees take up sulfate by the roots from the soil solution and reduce sulfate to sulfide via assimilatory sulfate reduction in both roots and leaves. For reduction in the leaves, sulfate is loaded into the xylem and transported to the shoot. The surplus of sulfate not reduced in the chloroplast or stored in the vacuole and the surplus of reduced S not used for protein synthesis in the leaves is loaded into the phloem and transported back to the roots. Along the transport path, sulfate and glutathione (GSH) is unloaded from the phloem for storage in xylem and phloem parenchyma as well as in pit and ray cells. Re-mobilised S from storage tissues is loaded into the xylem during spring, but a phloem to xylem exchange does not appear to exist later in the season. As a consequence, a cycling pool of S was only found during the change of the seasons. The sulfate:glutathione ratio in the phloem seems to be involved in the regulation of S nutrition. This picture of S nutrition is discussed in relation to the different growth patterns of deciduous trees from the temperate climate zone, i.e. (1) terminated, (2) periodic and (3) indeterminate growth patterns, and in relation to environmental changes.

  17. Are hardwood species sensitive for reconstructing landslide movements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Dorothée; Schmaltz, Elmar; Glade, Thomas; Gärtner, Holger

    2017-04-01

    The kinetic energy of landslides highly influences the growth structure of tree stems and thus causes the development of reaction wood in the xylem. Most studies focus on assessing the reaction wood development in conifers. However, the response of hardwood species (e.g. beech - Fagus sylvatica L. and birch - Betula pendula L.) on external mechanical stresses caused by landslides were rarely addressed so far. In this study, we intend to assess the reaction wood development in (i) soft- and hardwood species and (ii) depending on the location and the specific mechanical influence causing deformation of the tree stems. Therefore, 103 trees, consisting of beeches, birches , and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) were sampled with an increment corer on 3 different positions in a landslide-prone area in the Walgau valley (Vorarlberg, Austria). Two positions were located on the area of a shallow landslide, whereas the third position is on a stable slope, where the mechanical stresses are most likely caused by snow pressure. Cross-referencing was performed with 50 trees in CDendro-software. To identify reaction wood, thin sectioning and staining of the samples was conducted. The reaction wood found in the samples was recorded and compared to the reference chronology of all sampled tree species, also used for dating purposes. Further analyses will focus on the structural differences of the reaction wood between the sampled conifers and deciduous trees and their distribution within the investigated area. Therefore, it is expected that reaction wood development is comparable throughout the observed species and might be used to date the occurrence of mechanical stresses.

  18. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  19. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Treesearch

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  20. The use of herbicides in hardwood forestery

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Herbicides can play an important role in hardwood management by providing foresters and landowners with a means to eliminate undesirable stand components. Although herbicide technology for hardwood management still needs much development, some methods are available and MU be used to enhance the value of the stand. With an emphasis on safety, detailed information about...

  1. Market shifts: assessing changes in hardwood demand

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production has trended downward nationally since 1999 as marginal mills have closed and others have consolidated in response to market conditions. Still, forests throughout Ohio continue to provide multiple benefits to landowners and all Ohioans. Important changes are taking place in hardwood markets, both domestically and abroad. With a knowledge of...

  2. Simplified Guidelines to Hardwood Lumber Grading

    Treesearch

    Walton R. Smith

    1967-01-01

    All native hardwood lumber is graded according to the rules established by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. The rules are complete and detailed so that they permit accurate lumber grading with a minimum of personal judgment. To the student lumber grader, the many fine points and exceptions by species are often confusing and hide the basic rules of standard...

  3. Proceedings: guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Arlyn W. Perkey; William E. Kidd

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We wanted a "state-of-the-art" proceedings for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands. We asked the authors to make recommendations based on the current literature, their knowledge, and experience. Though...

  4. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Sandra L.C., eds. Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    Two invited papers, 57 volunteer papers, and 22 volunteer poster summaries presented at the 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included economics, forest amenities, harvesting, logging safety, utilization, physiology, genetics, ecology, regeneration, silviculture, protection, management, hydrology, soils, nutrient cycling, and hardwood markets...

  5. TREEGRAD: a grading program for eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.W. Stringer; D.W. Cremeans

    1991-01-01

    Assigning tree grades to eastern hardwoods is often a difficult task for neophyte graders. Recently several "dichotomous keys" have been developed for training graders in the USFS hardwood tree grading system. TREEGRAD uses the Tree Grading Algorithm (TGA) for determining grades from defect location data and is designed to be used as a teaching aid.

  6. Cutting hardwood cants can boost sawmill profits

    Treesearch

    George R. Niskala; Thomas W., Jr. Church

    1966-01-01

    The markets for hardwood lumber are now strong, and sawmill profits are increasing. But this favorable market-price situation is the exception rather than the rule. Usually hardwood sawmill operators are confronted with ever-decreasing profit margins. During the past decade, while lumber prices have remained relatively constant, most logging and sawmilling costs have...

  7. Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Sam C. Doak; Sharon Johnson; Marlyce Myers

    1991-01-01

    A logical framework is required to provide a focus for the implementation of a variety of landowner incentive techniques in accordance with existing goals to protect and enhance hardwood resources. A system is presented for identifying and prioritizing critical hardwood resources for site specific conservation purposes. Flexibility is built into this system so that...

  8. Regeneration of southern hardwoods: some ecological concepts

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    1989-01-01

    Classical concepts of post-disturbance succession through well-defined seral stages to a well-defined ,climax stage( s) are not a useful conceptual framework for predicting species composition of regeneration resulting from the application of regeneration treatments in complex southern hardwood forests. Hardwood regeneration can be better understood, and more useful...

  9. Optimum Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Carmen Regalado; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Before the adoption of an automated system for optimizing edging and trimming in hardwood mills, the performance of present manual systems must be evaluated to provide a basis for comparison. a study was made in which lumber values recovered in actual hardwood operations were compared to the output of a computer-based procedure for edging and trimming optimization. The...

  10. Automated computer grading of hardwood lumber

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; R.W. Conners; H.A. Huber

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an improved computer program to grade hardwood lumber. The program was created as part of a system to automate various aspects of the hardwood manufacturing industry. It enhances previous efforts by considering both faces of the board and provides easy application of species dependent rules. The program can be readily interfaced with a computer...

  11. The hardwood resource in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John H. Poppino; Donald R. Gedney

    1984-01-01

    The hardwood resource in western Oregon is described by species and ownership. Changes in the private hardwood resource between 1961-62 and 1973-76 are shown. Statistics of size, volume, and ownership by county are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh).

  12. Hardwood Lumber Edger and Trimmer Training System

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computerized hardwood lumber edger and trimming training system. The purpose of the training system is to help edger and trimmer operators and sawmill managers better understand how hardwood lumber grade, surface measure, and price interact to affect lumber value. The training system can be used both as a training tool and as a testing tool. As a...

  13. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  14. Proceedings, 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Larry H. McCormick; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Two invited papers, forty-five volunteer papers, and twenty volunteer poster summaries presented at the 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentations were on economics, forest amenities, harvesting, utilization, physiology, genetics, ecology, regeneration, silviculture, protection, management, hydrology, soils, nutrient cycling, and hardwood markets of central...

  15. Stand density management of southern bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; J.S. Meadows

    1997-01-01

    We present tools to guide stand density management of southern bottomiand hardwoods and we provide guidance in their implementation. We present stocking guides for southern bottomland hardwoods and variants for associated forest types, water tupelo (Nyssa aquarica L.) and sweetgum (Liquidumbar styraciflua L.). The A-line...

  16. Direct seeding of fine hardwood tree species

    Treesearch

    Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Direct seeding of fine hardwood trees has been practiced in the Central Hardwoods Region for decades, but results have been inconsistent. Direct seeding has been used for reforestation and afforestation based on perceived advantages over seedling planting, including cost and operational efficiencies, opportunities for rapid seedling establishment and early domination...

  17. A profile of Pennsylvania's hardwood sawmill industry

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Smith; Sudipta Dasmohapatra; William G. Luppold

    2004-01-01

    A mail survey of all identified hardwood sawmills in Pennsylvania was conducted in the fall of 2000 to better understand firm size, species used, origin of logs, processing technology employed, the hardwood lumber grades produced, and the value-added features performed by these sawmills in 1999. An adjusted response rate of 31 percent was obtained for the study's...

  18. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Treesearch

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  19. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Treesearch

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  20. Microcomputer Techniques for Developing Hardwood Conservation Strategies

    Treesearch

    Steve McNiel

    1991-01-01

    Hardwoods are disappearing from the California landscape at alarming rates. This is due to a variety of influences, both natural and man made. It is clear that conservation and rehabilitation of hardwood resources will require a large effort on the part of research institutes, universities, government agencies, special interest groups, private developers, maintenance...

  1. Flexural Properties of Eastern Hardwood Pallet Parts

    Treesearch

    John A. McLeod; Marshall S. White; Paul A. Ifju; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the flexural properties of pallet parts are critical to the safe, yet efficient, design of wood pallets. To develop more accurate data for hardwood pallet parts, 840 stringers and 2,520 deckboards, representing 14 hardwood species, were sampled from 35 mills distributed throughout the Eastern United States. The parts were sorted by species,...

  2. Hardwood timber supplies in the United States

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1991-01-01

    Long recognized for their wildlife, watershed, and aesthetic value, hardwoods are becoming increasingly important from the standpoint of timber production. The abundance of hardwood inventory volume, technological advances allowing greater substitution into softwood markets, and relatively low stumpage prices have generated a growing interest in increased utilization...

  3. Low-grade hardwood lumber production, markets, and issues

    Treesearch

    Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...

  4. Hardwoods are now being harvested at record levels

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann

    1991-01-01

    Recent canvasses by the USDA Forest Service of the sawmills and pulpmills in the central hardwood region show large increases in the harvests of hardwood species. In Kentucky, the production of hardwood sawlogs rose from 457 million board feet in 1974 to 775 million board feet in 1986, a 70 percent increase. In West Virginia, hardwood sawlog production also increased....

  5. Forest survey results for higher grade hardwood sawtimber

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 Forest Survey of Mississippi shows a slight increase in forest area and a substantial gain in hardwood inventory. Hardwood gains, appearing in all diameter classes, suggest an increase in quality but hardwood users generally believe quality is declining. By our analysis, volume of top quality hardwood declined while volume in other grades increased. Forest...

  6. Hardwood supply in the Pacific Northwest-a policy perspective.

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton; Glenn R. Ahrens

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but...

  7. Reproducing Southern Hardwoods is Easier Than You Think

    Treesearch

    R. L. Johnson; R. C. Biesterfeldt

    1971-01-01

    Throughout the South poor upland hardwood stands are being converted to pine, while bottom-land hardwood stands are largely ignored. Why are Southern foresters preoccupied with pines? Uncertainties about hardwood markets and gaps in available information about hardwood management are contributing causes, but fear is probably a key factor. Foresters much prefer the well...

  8. Human Extravillous Trophoblasts Penetrate Decidual Veins and Lymphatics before Remodeling Spiral Arteries during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    He, Nannan; van Iperen, Liesbeth; de Jong, Danielle; Szuhai, Karoly; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A. J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the defective invasion of the maternal endometrium by fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) can lead to insufficient perfusion of the placenta, resulting in pregnancy complications that can put both mother and baby at risk. To study the invasion of maternal endometrium between (W)5.5–12 weeks of gestation by EVTs, we combined fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to determine the presence of (male) EVTs in the vasculature of the maternal decidua. We observed that interstitial mononuclear EVTs directly entered decidual veins and lymphatics from W5.5. This invasion of decidual veins and lymphatics occurred long before endovascular EVTs remodelled decidual spiral arteries. This unexpected early entrance of interstitial mononuclear EVTs in the maternal circulation does not seem to contribute to the materno-placental vascular connection directly, but rather to establish (and expand) the materno-fetal interface through an alternative vascular route. PMID:28081266

  9. Input-output budgets for a mature hardwood deciduous forest on Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.L.; Weller, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    For 13 years the authors measured bulk precipitation inputs and stream discharges of major inorganic ions, nitrate, ammonium, organic-N, ortho-phosphate, and organic-P. The study site was a 6.3 ha forested water shed on the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain that has never been clear-cut. The forest is underlaid by a clay aquiclude and the stream discharge was gauged by a V-notch weir. Continuous, composited, volume-integrated samples assured that measurements of discharge fluxes were representative of total discharge fluxes. Spot samples of stream discharge were also taken at known discharge rates between zero and 29.4 1 ha{sup {minus}1}sec{sup {minus}1} to determine the relationship of discharge composition to discharge rate. Bulk precipitation was sampled by event at a station only 0.5 km away. Bulk precipitation was primarily a dilute solution of nitric and sulfuric acids with lower levels of ammonium, chloride and metallic cations, while stream discharge was primary a solution of metallic sulfates and chlorides. The differences indicate the nearly complete retention of ammonium, hydronium, and nitrate ions; the partial retention of sulfate; and a net loss of metallic cations from the watershed. Forest discharges of organic-C, P, and N per unit area were substantially less than for other land uses on nearby watersheds, and the organic matter discharged from the forest contained less N and P.

  10. Sapling biomass allocation and growth in the understory of a deciduous hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Delucia, E; Sipe, T; Herrick, J; Maherali, H

    1998-07-01

    Above- and belowground tissues of co-occurring saplings (0.1-1 m height) of Acer saccharum Marsh. (very shade tolerant), Acer rubrum L. (shade tolerant), Fraxinus americana L. (intermediate shade tolerant), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (shade intolerant) were harvested from a forest understory to test the hypothesis that the pattern of biomass allocation varied predictably with shade-tolerance rank. The placement and length of branches along the main axis were consistent with the formation of a monolayer of foliage for the tolerant and intermediate species. Other morphological characteristics did not vary predictably with shade-tolerance rank. The maintenance of high specific leaf area (SLA; leaf area/leaf mass) and leaf area ratio (LAR; leaf area/sapling mass) is considered important for growth under extreme shade, yet these traits were not clearly related to the shade-tolerance rank of these species. Fraxinus americana, an intermediate species, had the highest LAR and growth rate in the understory, and with the exception of P. serotina, the very shade-tolerant A. saccharum had the lowest LAR. Prunus serotina maintained a large starch-rich tap root and shoot dieback was common, yielding the largest root/shoot ratio for these species. The observed allocation patterns were not similar to the long-standing expectation for the phenotypic response of juvenile trees to shade, but were consistent with three hypothetical "growth strategies" in the understory: (1) the low SLA and LAR of A. saccharum may provide a measure of defense against herbivores and pathogens and thus promote persistence in the understory, (2) the high SLA for F. americana and high LAR for F. americana and A. rubrum may enable these species to achieve high growth rates in shade, and (3) the large carbohydrate stores of P. serotina may poise this species for opportunistic growth following disturbance. The relative importance of resistance to herbivores and pathogens vs. the maintenance of high growth rates may be important in evaluating the patterns of biomass allocation in the understory.

  11. DNA markers identify hybrids between butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) and Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carr.)

    Treesearch

    Peng ​Zhao; Keith E. Woeste

    2011-01-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a temperate deciduous hardwood native to the eastern USA and southern Canada valued for its nuts and wood. Butternut's survival is threatened by butternut canker, a disease caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignentijuglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz. Field...

  12. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  13. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene impairs decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in mice during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyan; Shen, Cha; Liu, Xueqing; He, Junlin; Ding, Yubin; Gao, Rufei; Mu, Xinyi; Geng, Yanqing; Wang, Yingxiong; Chen, Xuemei

    2017-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental persistent organic pollutant and a well-known endocrine disruptor. BaP exposure could alter the steroid balance in females. Endometrium decidualization and decidual angiogenesis are critical events for embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance during early pregnancy and are modulated by steroids. However, the effect of BaP on decidualization is not clear. This study aimed to explore the effects of BaP on decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in pregnant mice. The result showed that the uteri in the BaP-treated groups were smaller and exhibited an uneven size compared with those in the control group. Artificial decidualization was detected in the uteri of the controls, but weakened decidualization response was observed in the BaP-treated groups. BaP significantly reduced the levels of estradiol, progesterone, and their cognate receptors ER and PR, respectively. The expression of several decidualization-related factors, including FOXO1, HoxA10, and BMP2, were altered after BaP treatment. BaP reduced the expression of cluster designation 34 (CD34), which indicated that the decidual angiogenesis was inhibited by BaP treatment. In addition, BaP induced the downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A. These data suggest that oral BaP ingestion compromised decidualization and decidual angiogenesis. Our results provide experimental data for the maternal reproductive toxicity of BaP during early pregnancy, which is very important for a comprehensive risk assessment of BaP on human reproductive health.

  14. Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Maynard, C.A. . Research Foundation)

    1989-07-01

    Hybrid poplar have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of products. Their fast growth and ease in maintaining desirable genetic character make hybrid poplar highly suited to intensive culture systems. This study was initiated to evaluate a genetic selection trail consisting of 54 hybrid poplar clones and to locate and sample eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees for obtainment of scion material to be included in a poplar germplasm archive for future breeding purposes. Because the basis of an effective and cost efficient fast-growing hardwood plantation program is a gene pool with a broad genetic base, the quality and diversity of the genetic resource are of prime concern to the long-term success of biotechnology, agroforestry programs. Additionally, tests of the captured gene pool in site-specific genetic selection and clone-site trials are the necessary successive steps to establish a viable woody crop biomass program. The current project sought to address both of these basic issues so as to improve management opportunities for short-rotation hybrid poplar energy plantations in New York State. Results of the studies showed that short rotation intensive culture hybrid poplar systems are feasible in New York State, and can be successfully used if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used.

  15. U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Japan, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Japan

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products as well as hardwood exports to Japan. It also discusses the U.S. hardwood resource situation and how we can best use the resource base to suppy Japanâs needs.

  16. Mowing of northern hardwood reproduction not profitable

    Treesearch

    Victor S. Jensen; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1951-01-01

    Many northern hardwood stands in the Northeast contain a number of large, worthless trees that were left over from earlier logging jobs. The seedlings and saplings under such stands are usually misshapen by having been overtopped and suppressed for years.

  17. Innovative Harvesting Systems In Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Current and innovative machines and systems for harvesting bottomland hardwoods are described. Four systems are evaluated for production and costs: (1) grapple skidder, (2) clambunkskidder, (3) tree-length forwarder, and (4) shovel logging.

  18. Weight/volume ratios for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Timson

    1975-01-01

    Weight/volume relationships are presented in both English and metric systems for 15 commercial species of Appalachian hardwoods. Two ratios are presented: weight of wood volume alone, and weight of wood plus bark.

  19. Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David M. Hix; Robert P. Long; P. Charles, eds. Goebel

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the 14th Central Hardwood Forest conference held 16-19 March in Wooster Ohio. Includes 102 papers and abstracts dealing with silviculture, wildlife, human dimensions, harvesting and utilization, physiology, genetics, soils, nutrient cycling, and biometrics.

  20. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John A. Putnam; George M. Furnival; J.S. McKnight

    1960-01-01

    The valleys and uplands of the South outside the mountains and upper Piedmont have, since 1915, been responsible for about 45 percent of the national production of hardwood sawtimber. They are strong indications that this situation may continue indefinitely.

  1. North American Trading Outlook For Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    The United States has become a major player in the world market for hardwood logs, lumber, dimension stock, and veneer. For the last 10 years, U.S. exports of these products have been growing, and the future looks bright. The major hardwood species demanded on the export market are the select red and white oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry and...

  2. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  3. The role of fire during climate change in an eastern deciduous forest at Devil`s Bathtub, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.; Royall, P.D.; Chumbley, C.

    1996-10-01

    Annual record of charcoal and sedimentation rate were compared with fossil pollen to investigate the role of fire in eastern deciduous forest around Devil`s Bathtub, New York, USA. Changes in peak and background charcoal suggest that changes in fire regime have accompanied the principal vegetation and climatic changes of the last 10 400 yr. A distribution of return times (50-200-yr intervals) similar to parts of modern boreal Canada prevailed when late-Glacial spruce woodland dominated the site. Expansion of Pinus banksiana appears to have altered the fire regime to one of crown fires with high particulate emissions, but return intervals similar to those of the preceding Picea forest. Expansion of Pinus strobus might be linked to change in fire occurrence, but the broad dispersal of Pinus pollen makes interpretation difficult. If Pinus strobus expansion around the site is reflected in its pollen curve, then that expansion coincides with a time of frequent fire. Alternatively, if increasing pollen abundance precedes the local expansion of trees, as has been observed elsewhere, then local expansion might correspond to an abrupt decline in fire frequency and in regional importance of fire. An abrupt decline in background charcoal follows a fire and coincides ({+-} 100 yr) with the expansion of hardwood taxa such as Fagus. The decline in background charcoal occurs over several years, suggesting that it may be linked to effects of hardwood expansion on fuels. Fires do not appear to have occurred during the time of hardwood dominance, suggesting that fire may not be an explanation for maintenance of species diversity in this deciduous forest. However, frequent occurrence of thick varves during the latter half of the Holocene suggests that the frequency of other types of disturbance may have increased. 85 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. California's hardwood resource: history and reasons for lack of a sustained hardwood industry

    Treesearch

    Dean W. Huber; Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Interest in utilizing California's forest-zone hardwoods for lumber and wood products has waxed and waned for more than 140 years. In spite of many unsuccessful ventures, strong interest is once again evident from landowners, processors, consumers, and policy makers. Their interest suggests a need to know past pitfalls, to recognize some realities of hardwood...

  5. Hardwood lumber and stumpage prices in two eastern hardwood markets: The real story

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Paul S. DeBald; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    Current and real prices of hardwood lumber and stumpage prices are discussed. Results show that inflation wiped out most of the apparent price increases in two major hardwood lumber markets. Stumpage prices also failed to increase in real terms for most species in Ohio. Current and real prices trends for eight major eastern species are shown for the period 1964 through...

  6. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2003-01-01

    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...

  7. Volume growth of pine and hardwood in uneven-aged loblolly pine-upland hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Farrar; Paul A. Murphy; Daniel J. Leduc

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from an exploratory investigation of stand-level periodic volume growth of uneven-aged mixed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)-upland hardwood stands on good sites in southeastern Arkansas. A restricted set of replicated observations was extracted from an extensive CFI database involving varying pine-hardwood mixtures to form an array of plots with...

  8. Innovative and Coordinated Solutions for the Hardwood Industry: The Hardwood Utilization Consortium

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Cynthia West

    1996-01-01

    Many varied efforts have been underway to help the hardwood industry make more effective and efficient use of the hardwood resource while meeting market needs. The efforts range from training, extension, utilization and marketing research and development, to educational activities. The activities are disjointed and unorganized and individually struggling to maintain...

  9. Hardwood Lumber Scaling [and] Hardwood Log Scaling and Grading. Slide Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, D. E.; Touse, Robert D.

    These two slide scripts, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deal with scaling and grading hardwood logs and lumber. The first script includes narrations for use with 39 slides, which explain the techniques of scaling and grading hardwood logs, and the second script contains the narrations to…

  10. Methane Emissions from Deciduous Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. L.; Teama, D.; Khalil, M. K.; Shearer, M. J.; Rosenstiel, T. N.

    2008-12-01

    There is some disagreement today over whether terrestrial plants present a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. Even if the plants are recognized as a source, there is no clear method to extrapolate plant emissions to the global atmospheric budget of methane and estimates vary widely. There is also no consensus on a mechanism for methane production and/or plant-mediated transport to the atmosphere. Here, we present preliminary data showing a significant flux of methane to the atmosphere from three wetland deciduous tree species. Ash (Fraxinus latifolia), cottonwood (Populus deltoides L.), and willow (Salix fluviatillis) were grown in a greenhouse under inundated rice-cultivation conditions using a rice straw amendment equivalent to 3 t/ha to enhance below ground anaerobic methane production. Results of measurements of redox potential and methane concentrations in soil pore water show significant methane production similar to that observed in rice plots (Oryza sative L. 'M-103') and controls of the same treatment. Measurements of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of methane dissolved in soil pore water show no significant difference from rice plots showing no discernable difference in bulk carbon substrate. Methane flux from trees, measured using static flux chamber and bag-tree enclosures, was found to be significantly higher than control treatments (i.e., no plants) but lower than rice plants overall. The carbon isotopic composition of emitted methane from tree species was found to be approximately 8‰ enriched in δ13C compared with methane emitted from rice. This difference in δ13C of emitted methane observed between rice and trees suggests the mechanisms contributing to regulating plant-mediated methane transport (e.g. transport, oxidation, carbon sources) may be quite distinct between diverse plant functional types. Identifying the mechanistic basis of this response will be a key development towards developing more accurate estimates

  11. Carpenterworm Moths and Cerambycid Hardwood Borers Caught in Light Traps

    Treesearch

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin

    1972-01-01

    A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.

  12. Recovery of residue tops in selectively cut northern hardwood stands.

    Treesearch

    James A. Johnson; Rodger A. Arola; Edwin S. Miyata

    1982-01-01

    Tests the feasibility and economics of compacting hardwood tops with a prototype shearing and bunching device prior to skidding. Presents productivity levels and costs associated with compacting, skidding, and chipping hardwood tops.

  13. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  14. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  15. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  16. [Ectopic Decidualization: A Forgotten Entity].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Joana; Costa, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Apesar da decidualização ectópica ser uma entidade frequentemente subdiagnosticada, pode ter impacto clínico adverso na morbimortalidade materno-fetal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi rever a evidência científica relativa a etiopatogenia, clínica, abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica sobre esta temática. Material e Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na PubMed, Web of Science e Scopus, através da query ('deciduosis' OR 'ectopic decidualization' OR 'ectopic decidua' OR 'ectopic decidua reaction'), incluindo-se artigos publicados até 31/6/2014 e de todos os níveis de evidência. Resultados: A decidualização ectópica, geralmente, representa uma condição benigna, assintomática e sem necessidade de intervenção terapêutica. Encontra-se, maioritariamente, associada à gravidez, com regressão completa no período pós-parto. A frequência do seu diagnóstico depende da suspeição clínica, bem como do local onde surge, sendo o omento e o ovário os locais mais comuns. Quando sintomática, as principais manifestações clínicas são quadros hemorrágicos, nomeadamente hemorragia genital e hemoperitoneu. Os diagnósticos diferenciais incluem patologia maligna, sendo essencial, nestas situações, a confirmação histopatológica. O baixo índice de suspeição clínica pode levar à realização de biópsia, que pode acarretar impacto adverso grave devido à elevada friabilidade destas lesões. Discussão e Conclusão: O reconhecimento desta entidade e das suas características clínicas torna-se essencial na conduta destas doentes. Tal permite por um lado a abordagem médica precoce e adequada nos casos graves, e por outro lado (na maioria dos casos) manter a atitude expectante minimizando a iatrogenia, mantendo o desfecho favorável da decidualização ectópica.

  17. Hardwood pulpwood stumpage price trends in the northeast.

    Treesearch

    Lloyd C. Irland; Paul E. Sendak; Richard H. Widmann

    2001-01-01

    Hardwood pulpwood consumption has increased in five leading Northeastern states from 1.2 million cords in 1963 to 4.6 million cords in 1997. A shift from the reliance on softwoods has occurred and by the mid-1970s hardwood use exceeded softwood. This increases the importance of the markets for hardwood pulpwood. These five states?Maine, New Hampshire, New York,...

  18. Pacific Rim and Midle East Markets for Hardwood Products

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic changes have taken place in the U.S. hardwood export market since 1975. World demand for U.S. hardwood logs, lumber, and veneer has quadrupled. Exports to Europe and particularly the Pacific Rim, have grown significantly. The focus of this presentation is on the Pacific Rim and Middle East markets. Reasons for overseas demand of U.S. hardwood products are...

  19. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; William H. Conner; Robert C. Kellison; David Van Lear

    2004-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests stretch from the Virginias to Florida and from the mid-Atlantic to Missouri. They can generally be grouped into upland forests and bottomland forests. The upland hardwood forests of the southern region are usually associated with the mountainous topography of the Appalachians and Ozarks. Bottomland hardwoods are found along the floodplains of...

  20. Primary detection of hardwood log defects using laser surface scanning

    Treesearch

    Ed Thomas; Liya Thomas; Lamine Mili; Roger Ehrich; A. Lynn Abbott; Clifford Shaffer; Clifford Shaffer

    2003-01-01

    The use of laser technology to scan hardwood log surfaces for defects holds great promise for improving processing efficiency and the value and volume of lumber produced. External and internal defect detection to optimize hardwood log and lumber processing is one of the top four technological needs in the nation's hardwood industry. The location, type, and...

  1. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  2. Economic and operational feasibility of short rotation hardwood inventory

    Treesearch

    Tom Gallagher; Robert Shaffer

    2002-01-01

    Procuring wood during the winter months for a pulpmill in the Southeast has some difficulties, especially in hardwood. Soft ground reduces the operational feasibility of many sites, forcing companies to store hardwood in woodyards for retrieval during wet weather. Intensively managed, short rotation hardwood grown on dry sites could economically supply a pulpmill...

  3. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  4. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  5. U.S. hardwood lumber production: 1963 to 2003

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2003 northern hardwood lumber production more than doubled while production in the southern regions increased by less than 25 percent. In 1963 the major users of hardwood lumber were the furniture manufacturers located in the southeast region, and hardwood flooring producers located in the south central region. By contrast more than 60 percent of the...

  6. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  7. Supplying the Pacific Rim With U.S. Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. grows much more hardwood timber each year than is used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. We present a quick look at our Eastern hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability), and suggest necessary cooperation by our export customers in the Pacific Rim to help assure adequate supplies of hardwood products....

  8. Soil Nutrients and pH in Southern Hardwood Nurseries

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner; W. M. Broadfoot

    1964-01-01

    The rapidly expanding interest in hardwoods in the South has caused many forest nurseries, to begin growing hardwood as well as pine seedlings. Apparently most nurserymen have been able to accomplish this change without great difficulty. Nursery sites and soil conditions suitable for pines should be basically satisfactory for hardwoods also.

  9. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  10. Adam12 plays a role during uterine decidualization in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Weixiang; Chen, Qi; Fan, Xiujun; Zhang, Ying; Duan, Enkui

    2009-12-01

    In mouse, decidualization is characterized by the proliferation of stromal cells and their differentiation into specialized type of cells (decidual cells) with polyploidy, surrounding the implanting blastocyst. However, the mechanisms involved in these processes remain poorly understood. Using multiple approaches, we have examined the role of Adam12 in decidualization during early pregnancy in mice. Adam12 is spatiotemporally expressed in decidualizing stromal cells in intact pregnant females and in pseudopregnant mice undergoing artificially induced decidualization. In the ovariectomized mouse uterus, the expression of Adam12 is upregulated after progesterone treatment, which is primarily mediated by nuclear progesterone receptor. In a stromal cell culture model, the expression of Adam12 gradually rises with the progression of stromal decidualization, whereas the attenuated expression of Adam12 after siRNA knockdown significantly blocks the progression of decidualization. Our study suggests that Adam12 is involved in promoting uterine decidualization during pregnancy.

  11. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Keeland, B.D.; Stanturf, J.A.; Clewell, A.F.; Kennedy, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    During the last century, a large amount of the original bottomland hardwood forest area in the United States has been lost, with losses greatest in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and East Texas. With a holistic approach in mind, this manual describes methods to restore bottomland hardwoods in the lower Midwest, including the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the southeastern United States. Bottomland hardwoods in this guide include not only the hardwood species that predominate in most forested floodplains of the area but also the softwood species such as baldcypress that often co-occur. General restoration planning considerations are discussed as well as more specific elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative options for revegetation. We recognize that most projects will probably fall more within the realm of reforestation or afforestation rather than a restoration, as some site preparation and the planting of seeds or trees may be the only actions taken. Practical information needed to restore an area is provided in the guide, and it is left up to the restorationist to decide how complete the restoration will be. Postplanting and monitoring considerations are also addressed. Restoration and management of existing forests are included because of the extensive areas of degraded natural forests in need of rehabilitation.

  12. A technique for predicting clear-wood production in hardwood stems: A model for evaluating hardwood plantation development and management

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Dave R. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    The management of artificial hardwood stands suffers from a paucity of information. As a result, many managers and scientists turn to conventional pine plantation management as a source for informing silvicultural decisions. Such an approach when managing hardwoods ignores the development occurring in natural hardwood stands, which produce stems prized for their growth...

  13. U.S. Hardwood Product Exports to Canada and a Look at U.S. Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    Canada became the largest market for primary product hardwood exports in 1987 after slipping to No. 3 in 1986. Preferences for fine hardwoods and limited Canadian supplies of species such as oak should assure continued strong demands for U.S. hardwoods. Another reason for continued strong demand is that some Canadian firms process U.S. lumber and logs for export. This...

  14. Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedders, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Current literature pertaining to habitat manipulation of deciduous fruit and nut orchards for pest control is reviewed. The hypothesis of pesticide-induced pest problems in deciduous orchards as well as the changing pest population dynamics of deciduous orchards is discussed An experimental habitat manipulation program for pecans, utilizing vetch cover crops to enhance lady beetle populations for pecan aphid control is presented

  15. Electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of hardwoods

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.R.

    1986-08-01

    This project explored the low-temperature, electrochemically assisted pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material to low-molecular-weight organic chemicals. Through the agency of low temperature AlCl{sub 3}-based molten salts, aspen hardwood flour was reacted in AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl, AlCl{sub 3}:NaCl:KCl, and AlCl{sub 3}:BPC (n-butylpyridinium chloride) media at temperatures from 30-220 C. A wide variety of water soluble products were formed comprising CO, CO{sub 2}, keto-alcohols and low molecular weight phenolic compounds as determined by GC and FTIR spectroscopy. The compounds represented about 32% by weight of the aspen wood flour. Owing to the narrow (2 volt) electrochemical window versus an Al reference electrode, neither the wood flour nor the reaction products manifested any electro-activity. Authentic samples of cellulose, hemicellulose, and Klason lignin were also subjected to low temperature pyrolysis. Only the hemicellulose reacted to give CO{sub 2} and keto-alcohols.

  16. Long Term Isoprene Flux Measurements Above a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Hatten, G.; Flaherty, J.

    2002-12-01

    Canopy scale emissions of isoprene from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan were measured using the eddy covariance technique during the summer growing periods from 1999 through 2001. The goal of this work was to improve our understanding of isoprene emissions from forest ecosystems to better describe the role of isoprene in local and regional atmospheric chemical cycles. A second objective of this work was to contribute to the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) goal of characterizing the role of biogenic emissions in processing atmospheric nitrogen. Isoprene is one of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, and it is very reactive in the atmosphere. Long-term flux measurements are important for investigating the interannual variability in emissions due to interannual variability in climate. In addition, continuous flux data are useful for verifying canopy scale models that are used to generate emission inventories for regional photochemical models. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) and the (PROPHET) site located within 100 m of the AmeriFlux Tower. The site is a 90-year old stand classified as mid-aged conifer and deciduous, with aspen and oak two of the dominant species. Fluxes of isoprene, CO2, H2O, and sensible heat were measured using a fast response isoprene sensor (FIS), an open-path infrared gas analyzer, and a 3-D sonic anemometer. Concurrent measurements of these canopy scale fluxes are useful for understanding the physiological controls on isoprene emissions and potential links between isoprene emissions and other forest ecosystem dynamics. The multi-year data set will be presented and year-to-year variations in isoprene emissions will be explored in the context of interannual variations among the other canopy scale parameters.

  17. Relative price trends for hardwood stumpage, sawlogs, and lumber in Ohio

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; William G. Luppold

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, the hardwood lumber industry experienced a rapidly changing domestic and international hardwood product market. These changes have significantly affected prices of hardwood lumber, and subsequently affected prices of hardwood sawlogs and stumpage. To illustrate these changes, this paper examines deflated prices and price trends for hardwood...

  18. Chapter 6:Engineered trusses from undervalued hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    A significant volume of softwood lumber is used in engineered truss assemblies. Metal plate connected (MPC) trusses are commonly used in residential construction for both roof and floor applications. Currently, there are no truss manufacturers producing MPC trusses with hardwood lumber, primarily as a consequence of a lack of technical data on the performance of...

  19. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  20. Chapter 2:Basic properties of undervalued hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe

    2005-01-01

    Among the most abundant of our undervalued hardwoods are the soft maples. However, other species that are also underutilized include some species of birch and some lower grades of the hard maples. This chapter covers physical, mechanical, and other important properties of different soft maples, hard maples, and yellow birch and compares them with the properties of...

  1. Hardwood Diseases in Plantations and Nurseries

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer

    1979-01-01

    Root disease is the most important problem of hardwoods in nurseries with most mortality from damping-off occurring during the first 6 weeks of seedling emergence. The root rots can persist throughout the growing season and cause stunting that makes seedlings unsaleable. Chemical fumigation of nursery beds is the best control method available for root disease. Methyl...

  2. Release Speeds Growth of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. W. Johnson

    1951-01-01

    This article reports early changes in growth rate brought about by partial cutting in two bottomland hardwood stands. Better information will be forthcoming as re-measurements are made over longer periods. Indications are, however, that the acceleration of growth caused by release is large enough to be a vital factor in planning future cuts.

  3. New ideas about regeneration of hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R.L. Johnson

    1980-01-01

    Hardwoods reproduce naturally through seedlings established in the understory, through sprouts that emerge from the stump or roots of cut trees, and through seedlings that start in new openings. Some species reproduce in all three ways. Understory reproduction is usually of shade-tolerant species with inherently slow early growth rates. Generally, the taller an...

  4. Silvics of North America: Volume 2. Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Russell M. Burns; Barbara H. Honkala; [Technical coordinators

    1990-01-01

    The silvical characteristics of about 200 forest tree species and varieties are described. Most are native to the 50 United States and Puerto Rico, but a few are introduced and naturalized. Information on habitat, life history, and genetics is given for 15 genera, 63 species, and 20 varieties of conifers and for 58 genera, 128 species, and 6 varieties of hardwoods....

  5. Selection Management in Southern Appalachian Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Lino Della-Bianca; Donald E. Beck

    1985-01-01

    A woodland tract of southern Appalachian cove hardwoods and mixed oak has been managed under the selection satem of silviculture since 1946.Simply cutting in all commercial diameter classes (i.e. 6.0 inches and larger), as was the practice during the first 24 years, failed to develop enough desirable saplings and poles to maintain the system.After 1970,...

  6. Nutrient Drain Associated with Hardwood Plantation Culture

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker

    1978-01-01

    Past research and a tentative evaluation indicate that nutrient drain and possible site degradation could occur in southern hardwood plantations. The extent of nutrient drain on a given site would depend on the species, length of the rotation, and harvesting system used. The evaluation for cottonwood plantations in Mississippi indicates that nutrient drain is most...

  7. Can eastern hardwoods offset timber cutbacks?

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    Efforts to conserve habitat of the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest have placed softwood timber supplies under a great deal of pressure and driven up the price of softwood lumber. Hardwoods could meet some of the demand for products that previously have been made from softwood species. Research in this field has been under way for some time; more is needed...

  8. Relative Performance of Hardwood Sawing Machines

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Michael W. Wade; Steven H. Bullard; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Only limited information has been available to hardwood sawmillers on the performance of their sawing machines. This study analyzes a large database of individual machine studies to provide detailed information on 6 machine types. These machine types were band headrig, circular headrig, band linebar resaw, vertical band splitter resaw, single arbor gang resaw and...

  9. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  10. Proceedings, 16th central hardwood forest conference

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Charles H., eds. Michler

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of the 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference held April 8-9, 2008, in West Lafayette, IN. Includes 64 papers pertaining to forest regeneration and propagation, forest products, ecology and forest dynamics, human dimensions and economics, forest biometrics and modeling, silviculture and genetics, forest health and protection, and soil and mineral nutrition...

  11. Identifying Hardwoods Growing on Pine Sites

    Treesearch

    Clair A. Brown; Harold E. Grelen

    1977-01-01

    This publication illustrates and describes 26 hardwood species or varieties, including 16 oaks and hickories with photographs of leaves, bark, buds, flowers, and fruits. Line drawings feature the winter silhouette of each species and a key is included to assist in identification.

  12. Mechanized systems for harvesting eastern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2010-01-01

    In the central Appalachian region, hardwoods traditionally have been harvested by chainsaw felling with trees and logs extracted from the forest to landings by rubber-tired skidders, bulldozers, and crawler tractors. In recent years, mechanized systems that include feller bunchers and cut-to-length (CTL) processors coupled with forwarders and clambunk and grapple...

  13. Natural Regeneration of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; J. Steven Meadows

    1994-01-01

    Many mixed hardwood stands found in bottomlands have been degraded by past harvesting practices that resulted in high grading the stand, thereby leaving the forester few options other than regeneration. Economic considerations usually constrain the choices to some form of complete overstory removal if adequate advance regeneration or sprouting potential is available....

  14. Damage From Increment Borings in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    E. Richard Toole; John L. Gammage

    1959-01-01

    THIS PAPER REPORTS a study of the amount of stain and decay that developed from increment-borer holes in five species of bottomland hardwoods. Though the 0.2-inch holes made by conventional borers are often considered insignificant, it appears that they may result in serious defect.

  15. Compatible taper algorithms for California hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James W. Flewelling

    2007-01-01

    For 13 species of California hardwoods, cubic volume equations to three merchantability standards had been developed earlier. The equations predict cubic volume from the primary bole, forks, and branches, but do not differentiate between the sources of the wood. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program needed taper equations that are compatible with the volume...

  16. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: extension and outreach

    Treesearch

    Brian J. MacGowan; Lenny D. Farlee; Robert N. Chapman

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts on plants and animals. Information from the HEE should and will be made available to a diverse group of potential users. This paper summarizes educational efforts during the pre-treatment period and highlights potential mechanisms and...

  17. Development of Hardwood Seed Zones for

    Treesearch

    Lisa S. Post; Frank van Manen; R. A. Cecich; A. M. Saxton; J. F. Schneider

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have...

  18. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Treesearch

    J.A. Allen; B.D. Keeland; John A. Stanturf; A.F. Clewell; Harvey E.. Jr. Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this guide is to provide information for land managers and landowners who want to reestablish bottomland hardwood forest vegetation, particularly the trees, on lands where they formerly occurred. Restoration and reforestation are approached with the realization that hydrology, as the driving force of wetland ecosystems, must be explicitly...

  19. SOLVE The performance analyst for hardwood sawmills

    Treesearch

    Jeff Palmer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth Porterfield

    2009-01-01

    Presents the users manual and CD-ROM for SOLVE, a computer program that helps sawmill managers improve efficiency and solve problems commonly found in hardwood sawmills. SOLVE provides information on key operational factors including log size distribution, lumber grade yields, lumber recovery factor and overrun, and break-even log costs. (Microsoft Windows? Edition)...

  20. A Dynamic Model of California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Treesearch

    Richard B. Standiford; Richard E. Howitt

    1991-01-01

    Low profitability of hardwood rangeland management, and oak tree harvesting for firewood markets and forage enhancement has led to concern about the long-term sustainability of the oak resource on rangelands. New markets for recreational hunting may give value to oaks for the habitat they provide for game species, and broaden the economic base for managers. A ranch...

  1. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  2. Stocking chart for upland central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; Donald E. Hilt

    1989-01-01

    The upland hardwoods stocking chart, introduced by Gingrich in 1967, has become one of the forest manager's most useful tools. The chart allows you to determine the condition of the present stand in relation to a stocking standard. The stocking of a stand is extremely helpful in prescribing various silvicultural treatments such as intermediate thinnings,...

  3. Guide to Regeneration of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Martha R. McKevlin

    1992-01-01

    This guide will help landowners, consulting foresters, and public service foresters regenerate bottomland hardwoods. It discusses (1) interpretation of site characteristics, (2) selection of species, and (3) selection of regeneration methods. A dichotomous key for selection of appropriate regeneration methods under various conditions is presented.

  4. Eradicating Understory Hardwoods By Repeated Prescribed Burning

    Treesearch

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    In a loblolly-shorleaf pine stand contained abundant litter, one winter fire killed 94 percent of the stems of understory hardwoods up to 3.5 inches in diameter at teh base. Prolific sprouting ensued. Eleven annual summer burns eliminated sprouting on 85 percent of the rootstocks, and seven biennial summer burns eliminated sprouting on 59 percent of them.

  5. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  6. Interim hardwood tree grades for factory lumber

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Leland F. Hanks

    1971-01-01

    Hardwood trees have for many years been measured in such a way that tree volume could be estimated; and in recent years the prediction of tree quality by using tree grades has become of interest to owners, sellers, and buyers of timber. Several tree-grading systems have been developed, but none has been publicized and used on a widespread scale. The Forest Service...

  7. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  8. Snag longevity in managed northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Little information on standing snag and coarse woody debris longevity exists for New England forest types. Forest managers thus lack the information on changes over time of the habitat components influenced by the decay process. We examined the fate of 568 snags that occurred on a long-term hardwood growth study on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. Approximately...

  9. Automation for Primary Processing of Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills critically need to incorporate automation and computer technology into their operations. Social constraints, forest biology constraints, forest product market changes, and financial necessity are forcing primary processors to boost their productivity and efficiency to higher levels. The locations, extent, and types of defects found in logs and on...

  10. Stand development and silviculture in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. Steven Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Silviculture for the production of high-quality timber in southern bottomland hardwood forests involves the application of environmentally sound practices in order to enhance the growth and quality of both individual trees and stands. To accomplish this purpose, silvicultural practices are typically used to regulate stand density, species composition, and stem quality...

  11. 13th Central Hardwoods Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Jeffrey O. Dawson; Felix Jr Ponder; Edward F. Loewenstein; James S. Fralish

    2003-01-01

    This conference was the 13th in a series of biennial meetings that have been hosted by numerous universities and research stations of the USDA Forest Service in the Central Hardwood forest region in the eastern United States. The purpose of the Conference has remained the same since it's inception -- that is to provide a forum for the formal and informal exchange...

  12. 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey W. Stringer; David L. Loftis; Michael Lacki; Thomas Barnes; Robert A. Muller

    1999-01-01

    There were 32 oral presentations, 11 abstracts, and 22 poster presentations presented at the 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included wildlife management, nutrient dynamics, stand structure, reforestation/reclamation, timber harvesting, modeling and inventory, silviculture, disturbance effects, and genetics/tree improvement.

  13. Medium density fiberboard from mixed southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George E. Woodson

    1977-01-01

    Medium-density fiberboards of acceptable quality were made from a mixture of barky chips from 14 southern hardwoods. Boards made from fiber refined at three different plate clearances did not vary significantly in bending, internal bond (IB), or linear expansion. but, lack of replications and the fact that the refiner was not loaded to capacity caused these results to...

  14. Sampling the quality of hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1959-01-01

    Anyone acquainted with the conversion of hardwood trees into wood products knows that timber has a wide range in quality. Some trees will yield better products than others. So, in addition to rate of growth and size, tree values are affected by the quality of products yielded.

  15. Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Any automatic hardwood grading system must have two components. The first of these is a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on rough lumber. The second is a system for automatically grading boards based on the output of the computer vision system. This paper presents research results aimed at developing the first of these components. The...

  16. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  17. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  18. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  19. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Treesearch

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  20. Hardwood price reporting. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sohngen, B.L.; Haynes, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The prices for red alder (Alnus rubra) hardwood logs are published and analyzed for reliability, consistency, and robustness. Timberland managers can use these prices to make decisions about land management. They show that values for red alder logs have been increasing steadily for the last 11 years.

  1. Simulated yields for managed northern hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    1986-01-01

    Board-foot and cubic-foot yields developed with the forest growth model SlMTlM are presented for northern hardwood stands grown with and without management. SIMTIM has been modified to include more accurate growth rates by species, a new stocking chart, and yields that reflect species values and quality classes. Treatments range from no thinning to intensive quality...

  2. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Treesearch

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  3. Hardwood Fertilization: Research Progress in the Midsouth

    Treesearch

    B. G. Blackmon

    1974-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for wood and wood products, the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is investigating silvicultural techniques such as fertilization. Sweetgum, water oak, and willow oak have responded to N and NPK on clay soils of the Mississippi River floodplain. Yellow-poplar growth has been improved by NPK fertilizers on eroded sites in the Silty Uplands, and...

  4. Can Hardwoods Be Eradicated From Pine Sites?

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; D.A. Yaussy

    1984-01-01

    Intensive mechanical and chemical treatments were used annually for 12 years to eradicate hardwoods from a selectively managed loblolly (pinus taeda L.) shortleaf (P. echinata Mill.) pine stand in south Arkansas.Although temporarily effective, a succession of indigenous shrubs and trees followed the cessation of eradication...

  5. Extractives in eastern hardwoods : a review

    Treesearch

    John W. Rowe

    1979-01-01

    This report extensively reviews the chemistry of extractives from wood and bark of hardwoods from the eastern United States. While such extractives are not used to a great extent commercially, they may influence properties of the wood and performance of wood products. For example, extractives can protect wood from decay, add color and odor to wood, accent grain pattern...

  6. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  7. Bottomland hardwood afforestation: State of the art

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; Mark Oliver; Lamar C. Dorris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, land managers have implemented large-scale afforestation operations across the Southern United States to rehabilitate agricultural land historically converted from bottomland hardwood forest cover types. These afforestation efforts were initially concentrated on public land managed by State or Federal Government agencies, but have later shifted...

  8. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  9. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Treesearch

    Randy Rentz

    2005-01-01

    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  10. Forest Statistics for Minnesota's Central Hardwood Unit.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the fifth inventory of Minnesota's Central Hardwood Unit found 11.9 million acres of land, of which 2.4 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removal, mortality, and ownership.

  11. What's Causing the Mortality in Southern Hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; E. R. Toole

    1958-01-01

    Widespread dieback and mortality of hardwoods has been noted in the South during recent years. In general, losses have been most severe in certain areas of cottonwood, sweetgum, and black willow. Some damage also has been noted in red oaks, especially Nuttall; and in elms, green ash, sycamore, and some less important species. On uplands, mortality has occurred in...

  12. Dry Weight of Several Piedmont Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Bobby G. Blackmon; Charles W. Ralston

    1968-01-01

    Forty-four sample hardwood trees felled on 24 plots were separated into three above-ground components- stem, branches, and leaves--and weighed for dry matter content. Tree, stand, and site variables were tested for significant relationships with dry weight of tree parts. Weight increase of stems was a logarithmic function ,of both stem diameter and height, whereas for...

  13. Diameter Growth of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Henry Bull

    1945-01-01

    There is very little published information on average rates of diameter growth of southern bottomland hardwoods. Probably the best information of this kind is given by Winters, Putnam, and Eldredge,2 who summarize forest survey data on average rates of diameter growth for 4 size classes and 20 species or species groups (including pine and cyress), and for all species...

  14. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Treesearch

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  15. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  16. The hardwood chip market in 2005

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2005-01-01

    The North American Pulp and Paper industry continues to experience challenges and changes much like most other business sectors of the hardwood industry. Marketing policies and the raw material supply chain of pulpwood and chips are being affected. The issues surrounding supply for pulpwood and chips have a broad reach in affecting timber and log purchases, logging...

  17. Drought-deciduous behavior reduces nutrient losses from temperate deciduous trees under severe drought.

    PubMed

    Marchin, Renée; Zeng, Hainian; Hoffmann, William

    2010-08-01

    Nutrient resorption from senescing leaves is an important mechanism of nutrient conservation in temperate deciduous forests. Resorption, however, may be curtailed by climatic events that cause rapid leaf death, such as severe drought, which has been projected to double by the year 2100 in the eastern United States. During a record drought in the southeastern US, we studied 18 common temperate winter-deciduous trees and shrubs to understand how extreme drought affects nutrient resorption of the macronutrients N, P, K, and Ca. Four species exhibited drought-induced leaf senescence and maintained higher leaf water potentials than the remaining 14 species (here called drought-evergreen species). This strategy prevented extensive leaf desiccation during the drought and successfully averted large nutrient losses caused by leaf desiccation. These four drought-deciduous species were also able to resorb N, P, and K from drought-senesced leaves, whereas drought-evergreen species did not resorb any nutrients from leaves lost to desiccation during the drought. For Oxydendrum arboreum, the species most severely affected by the drought, our results indicate that trees lost 50% more N and P due to desiccation than would have been lost from fall senescence alone. For all drought-deciduous species, resorption of N and P in fall-senesced leaves was highly proficient, whereas resorption was incomplete for drought-evergreen species. The lower seasonal nutrient losses of drought-deciduous species may give them a competitive advantage over drought-evergreen species in the years following the drought, thereby impacting species composition in temperate deciduous forests in the future.

  18. Regional Development of Uterine Decidualization: Molecular Signaling by Hoxa-10

    PubMed Central

    DAS, SANJOY K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Uterine decidualization, a key event in implantation, is critically controlled by stromal cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the molecular mechanism that controls this event is not well understood, the general consensus is that the factors derived locally at the site of implantation influence aspects of decidualization. Hoxa-10, a developmentally regulated homeobox transcription factor, is highly expressed in decidualizing stromal cells, and targeted deletion of Hoxa-10 in mice shows severe decidualization defects, primarily due to the reduced stromal cell responsiveness to progesterone (P4). While the increased stromal cell proliferation is considered to be an initiator of decidualization, the establishment of a full-grown functional decidua appears to depend on the aspects of regional proliferation and differentiation. In this regard, this article provides an overview of potential signaling mechanisms mediated by Hoxa-10 that can influence a host of genes and cell functions necessary for propagating regional decidual development. PMID:19921737

  19. Regional development of uterine decidualization: molecular signaling by Hoxa-10.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy K

    2010-05-01

    Uterine decidualization, a key event in implantation, is critically controlled by stromal cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the molecular mechanism that controls this event is not well understood, the general consensus is that the factors derived locally at the site of implantation influence aspects of decidualization. Hoxa-10, a developmentally regulated homeobox transcription factor, is highly expressed in decidualizing stromal cells, and targeted deletion of Hoxa-10 in mice shows severe decidualization defects, primarily due to the reduced stromal cell responsiveness to progesterone (P(4)). While the increased stromal cell proliferation is considered to be an initiator of decidualization, the establishment of a full-grown functional decidua appears to depend on the aspects of regional proliferation and differentiation. In this regard, this article provides an overview of potential signaling mechanisms mediated by Hoxa-10 that can influence a host of genes and cell functions necessary for propagating regional decidual development.

  20. Estimating the size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Paul M. Smith; William G. Luppold; Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2003-01-01

    The size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania in 1999 is estimated at 1.311 BBF by 556 mills. Study results show an 11 percent higher estimate of the volume of hardwood lumber produced and a 60 percent greater number of Pennsylvania sawmills in 1999 as compared to the 1.186 BBF of hardwood lumber by 339 sawmills estimated by the USDC Census Bureau for the...

  1. Properties of recycled polypropylene based composites incorporating treated hardwood sawdust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulga, Galia; Jaunslavietis, Jevgenijs; Ozolins, Jurijs; Neiberte, Brigita; Verovkins, Anrijs; Vitolina, Sanita; Shakels, Vadims

    2016-05-01

    The effect of different treatment of hardwood sawdust under mild conditions on contact angles, adhesion energy and water sorption was studied. A comparison of these indices for the hardwood treated sawdust and the composites filled with them was performed. The treatment promoted the compatibility between the recycled polypropylene and the hardwood filler. The inclusion of the lignin-based compatibiliser in the composite, containing the ammoxidised wood filler, essentially improved its mechanical properties.

  2. Stocking, growth, and habitat relations in New Hampshire hardwoods

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1983-01-01

    Data from hardwood stands in New Hampshire substantiated the crown-width relationships used to develop the B-line (based on circular crowns) in the 1969 northern hardwood stocking guide, and produced an A-line slightly lower than the original line. Position of the A-line was unrelated to site or forest type. Diameter growth of hardwoods on moist and dry soils declined...

  3. Wildlife response to stand structure of deciduous woodlands

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Raymond L. Linder

    1988-01-01

    Deciduous woodlands provide important habitat for wildlife but comprise Fraxinus pennsylvanica) woodlands in northwestern South Dakota. Closed-canopy stands were multilayered communities with dense...

  4. Estimating bottomland hardwood growth and yield

    Treesearch

    Charles C. Myers

    1989-01-01

    Most bottomland hardwoods grow on very productive sites-site index 70 or more. A fully stocked immature stand (table 1, fig. 1) requires tending throughout its life. The goal is to attain a stand of approximately 50 high quality trees of commercial species per acre at maturity. Releasing these crop trees can result in the cumulative yield of 2,000-4,000 board feet per...

  5. Glyphosate controls hardwoods in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    G. W. Wendel; J. N. Kochenderfer

    1982-01-01

    Applications of Roundup, a glyphosate, by mistblower were effective in controlling hay-scented fern, blackberries, and some tree, shrub, and herbaceous species on an experimental watershed in West Virginia. Damage to planted Norway spruce was slight at rates of 1, 2, and 3 qt/acre (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 lb/acre of the acid glyphosate). A variety of hardwood species were...

  6. Improving quality and value of future hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Larry R. Frye

    1989-01-01

    The central hardwood area is highly regarded both in this country and abroad for the high quality timber grown on both public and private lands. Buyers of standing timber and logs for lumber and veneer often look to this region first to meet their needs for raw materials. And these buyers have traditionally paid a lot more for quality timber than the usual market price...

  7. Diameter growth of individual hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; G.R. Trimble

    1969-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1967 a study of d.b.h. growth rates was made on individual hardwood trees near Parsons, W. Va. From this study, we obtained information that will help foresters to predict growth. We learned that the correlation of the more easily used crown classification with d.b.h. growth is as good as or better than the correlation of vigor classes with d.b.h....

  8. Characteristics of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) from intact cryopreserved deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Seol; Jeon, Mijeong; Jeon, Mi Jung; Kim, Seong-Oh; Kim, Seung-Hye; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jea-Ho; Ahn, Su-Jin; Shin, Yooseok; Song, Je Seon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) from cryopreserved intact deciduous teeth with those of fresh SHED. In total, 20 exfoliated deciduous teeth were randomly divided into a fresh group (f-SHED; n = 11) and cryopreserved group (c-SHED; n = 9; stored for 1-8 months). Following thawing and separation of the pulp, the SHED cells were cultured, and the characteristics as mesenchymal stem cells were investigated using proliferation assays, cell-cycle analysis, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assays, and flow cytometry analyses. Furthermore, differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was investigated in vitro as well as in vivo via transplantation in mice. We found no significant differences between the two groups in the proliferation analyses, in the expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers, or in the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the in vivo transplantation results showed no significant differences in the quantity of bone tissue that formed or in histochemistry performance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, cryopreservation of intact exfoliated deciduous teeth appears to be a useful method for preserving SHED.

  9. Human deciduous mandibular molar incremental enamel development.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative studies of incremental markings retained within human enamel have reconstructed the duration and rate (crown and cusp formation times, initiation and completion, daily enamel secretion rates) of permanent tooth development. This approach has provided one way of estimating human age-at-death, and facilitated comparative dental studies of primate evolution. Similar applications from deciduous enamel are inhibited because developmental reconstructions from incremental markings for these teeth are less frequently reported in the literature. This study quantified the duration and rate of enamel development for mesial (protoconid, metaconid) and distal cusps (hypoconid, entoconid) for first (dm1) and second (dm2) deciduous mandibular molars from an archaeological sample of modern human juveniles. Crown formation time can be calculated from the dm1 protoconid because growth initiates and completes in this cusp, and from the dm2 protoconid combined with the final period of hypoconid growth. The dm1 postnatal crown formation time included the time taken for the tubercle of Zuckerkandl to develop, and differed slightly compared to radiographic methods. The majority of dm1 protoconid cuspal (occlusal region) enamel formed before birth. The dm2 entoconid enamel formed mainly after birth. Birth reduced daily enamel secretion rates, changed the visibility of incremental markings, and disrupted enamel growth for 3 to 8 days. Findings presented here can contribute to age-at-death estimates for human infants aged 13-postnatal months or less, and should facilitate comparisons of primate deciduous incremental enamel development in an evolutionary context. Regression equations are included so that cuspal formation time can be estimated from enamel thickness. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Iltis, H.

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  11. Hardwood tree growth after eight years on brown and gray mine soils in west virginia.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Kokes, L; Emerson, P; Delong, C; Thomas, C; Skousen, J

    2013-09-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year with the removal of valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. After the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, coal mine operators began planting a variety of grasses and legumes as a fast and economical way to reestablish a permanent vegetative cover to meet erosion and site stabilization requirements. However, soil compaction and competitive forage species have arrested the recolonization of native hardwood tree species on these reclaimed sites. Three 2.8-ha demonstration plots were established at Catenary Coal's Samples Mine in Kanawha County, West Virginia, of weathered brown sandstone and unweathered gray sandstone. Half of each plot was compacted. Each plot was hydroseeded with a low-competition herbaceous cover and planted with 11 hardwood tree species. After eight growing seasons, average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in the brown sandstone treatments, 3853 cm, compared with 407 cm in gray sandstone. Trees growing on compacted treatments had a lower mean volume index, 2281 cm, than trees growing on uncompacted treatments, 3899 cm. Average pH of brown sandstone was 5.2 to 5.7, while gray sandstone was 7.9. The gray sandstone had much lower fine soil fraction (<2-mm) content (40%) than brown sandstone (70%), which influenced nutrient- and water-holding capacity. Brown sandstone showed significantly greater tree growth and survival and at this stage is a more suitable topsoil substitute than gray sandstone on this site. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Expression and Function of Kisspeptin during Mouse Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Zong, Teng; Zhong, Chengxue; Zhang, BaoPing; Ren, Min; Kuang, HaiBin

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma kisspeptin levels dramatically increased during the first trimester of human pregnancy, which is similar to pregnancy specific glycoprotein-human chorionic gonadotropin. However, its particular role in the implantation and decidualization has not been fully unraveled. Here, the study was conducted to investigate the expression and function of kisspeptin in mouse uterus during early pregnancy and decidualization. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative PCR results demonstrated that Kiss1 and GPR54 mRNA levels showed dynamic increase in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy and artificially induced decidualization in vivo. KISS-1 and GPR54 proteins were spatiotemporally expressed in decidualizing stromal cells in intact pregnant females, as well as in pseudopregnant mice undergoing artificially induced decidualization. In the ovariectomized mouse uterus, the expression of Kiss1 mRNA was upregulated after progesterone or/and estradiol treatment. Moreover, in a stromal cell culture model, the expression of Kiss1 and GPR54 mRNA gradually rise with the progression of stromal cell decidualization, whereas the attenuated expression of Kiss1 using small interfering RNA approaches significantly blocked the progression of stromal cell decidualization. Conclusion our results demonstrated that Kiss1/GPR54 system was involved in promoting uterine decidualization during early pregnancy in mice. PMID:24830702

  13. Cusp expression of protostylid in deciduous and permanent molars.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sandra; Reyes, María Paula; Moreno, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The present article is a case report on the cusp expression of protostylid in the deciduous inferior molars and in the first permanent inferior molar, in which the correspondence and bilateral symmetry of the mentioned expression can be evidenced, as well as the their relation with the foramen cecum of the mesiobuccal furrows of the deciduous and of the permanent inferior molars.

  14. Cusp expression of protostylid in deciduous and permanent molars

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Sandra; Reyes, María Paula; Moreno, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The present article is a case report on the cusp expression of protostylid in the deciduous inferior molars and in the first permanent inferior molar, in which the correspondence and bilateral symmetry of the mentioned expression can be evidenced, as well as the their relation with the foramen cecum of the mesiobuccal furrows of the deciduous and of the permanent inferior molars. PMID:28123270

  15. Case of idiopathic loss of deciduous teeth and associated alveolus.

    PubMed

    Koshal, Sonita; Chaudhry, Shahid I; Johnson, Adele; Porter, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    We describe exfoliation of the lower left deciduous canine and deciduous first molar (CD) and associated alveolus of unknown cause in a 5-year-old healthy boy. Extraction of the teeth and removal of local bone led to healing without complication.

  16. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    PubMed

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  17. AmeriFlux CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous. Site Description - The forest is approximately 90 years old. Naturally regenerated on sandy terrain and abandoned agricultural land. Predominantly hardwood species with a few scattered conifers. Site has been managed (thinned) in the past. It has a high biodiversity with 573 tree and plant species, 102 bird species, 23 mamal species and 22 reptile and amphibian species (SWALSREP Report, 1999). The dominant tree species is white oak (Quercus alba), with other scattered broadleaf Carolinian species including sugar and red maple (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black and red oak (Q. velutina, Q. rubra) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) . There are also scattered conifers, mostly white and red pine (Pinus strobes, P. resinosa), comprising about 5% of the trees. Average tree height is 25.7 m with a stand density of 504 ± 18 trees per hectare. Average tree diameter at breast height is 22.3 cm and basal area is 0.06 m2 or approximately 29 square meters per hectare.

  18. Tests for Long-Run Relationships in Hardwood Lumber Prices

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Hardwood lumber prices are unique because of the large number of marketable species and variability of prices across species. Previous research showed that long-run fashion decisions regarding species selection may be influenced by price, so the interaction between fashion and species price may act to keep prices (hence, demand) of different hardwood species together...

  19. Hydromulch: a potential use for hardwood bark residue

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanual

    1976-01-01

    Hardwood bark fines and two hardwood bark fibers were compared with wood-cellulose fiber and paper fiber mulch to determine their effectiveness as hydromulches in revegetating disturbed soil. The results showed that either bark fines or bark fibers can be utilized as a hydromulch to aid in the revegetation of strip mines, highway construction sites, and similar earth-...

  20. Hardwood Chip Export Mills in Arkansas - Implications for Sustainability

    Treesearch

    John L. Gray; James M. Guldin

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - Two new hardwood chip export mills (HCEM’s) recently began operating in west-central Arkansas,and a third is planned. Together,they will require 1.1 million tons of nonhickory hardwood roundwood annually, primarily from the nonindustrial private sector. Overall, total physical and operable growth surpluses could support the new sector, but...

  1. Changes in walnut and other hardwood markets: 1990-2010

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Scott. Bowe

    2013-01-01

    After a decade of record demand in the 1990s, production and price of hardwood lumber declined moderately between 1999 and 2005 and then plummeted between 2005 and 2009. The decline in hardwood lumber price affected all species. However, walnut was the last species to decline in price, starting in 2007, and has had the largest price increase since hitting its low point...

  2. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  3. What to do with northern hardwood-aspen mixtures

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The aspen type covers the most area in the Lake States, followed by northern hardwoods. Both prefer good soil and are easy to regenerate. Because of past cutting practices, though, the types are now mixed over large areas. Usually there is an overstory of fast-growing aspen interspersed with an understory of dense hardwoods.

  4. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  5. A test of point-sampling in northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon

    1975-01-01

    Plot- and point-sampling were compared with a complete inventory of two different stands of northern hardwoods. Prisms with basal-area factors of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 and a ¼-acre plot were used. Only the 5-factor prism gave a significantly different estimate. Therefore, a prism factor of 10 or greater is suggested for use in northern hardwoods.

  6. Monitoring California Hardwood Rangeland Resources: An Adaptive Approach

    Treesearch

    Raul Tuazon

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes monitoring hardwood rangelands in California within the context of an adaptive or anticipatory approach. A heuristic process of policy evolution under conditions of complexity and uncertainty is presented. Long-term, short-term and program effectiveness monitoring for hardwood rangelands are discussed relative to the process described. The...

  7. The Legal Environment for Hardwood Lands in California

    Treesearch

    Sam Doak; Kass Green; Sally K. Fairfax; Sharon G. Johnson

    1991-01-01

    Intensified use of California's hardwood lands is evolving rapidly. With these changes come clashes over the appropriateness of various land uses and, in some cases, regulatory efforts to control some of these activities. The legal environment facing hardwood landowners is a confusing mix of state, Federal, and local measures. This paper first describes and...

  8. Hardwood chip market--was 2006 a "normal" year?

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2007-01-01

    In the context of other recent years, 2006 turned out to be a relatively "normal" year for the U.S. hardwood chip market in terms of factors that influence supply and demand; such as prevailing weather conditions, energy price trends, and pulp and paper production. Gulf Coast hurricanes and rising energy prices drove hardwood chip and pulpwood markets in 2005...

  9. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  10. Economical and simple production of containerized hardwood seedlings

    Treesearch

    Merrill C. Hoyle

    1982-01-01

    An automatic mat-watering system for growing hardwood seedlings in containers was designed and tested. The system has only one moving part, and no electrical requirements. There is no need to calculate different watering schedules for different growth phases, different hardwood species, or different evapotranspiration conditions. Results were excellent with mat...

  11. Efficacy and nontarget impact of midstory injection in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James C. Rainer; Derek K. Alkire; Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Stephen Demarais; Bronson K. Strickland

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-documented need for midstory control in bottomland hardwood regeneration, little research has documented the efficacy of such efforts, or the potential negative effects on nontarget stems. More than 72,000 midstory stems located on 90 acres of northern Mississippi bottomland hardwood forest were injected with an imazapyr solution during August 2009....

  12. The U.S. Hardwood Situation Related to Exports

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; John Tansey

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. grows more hardwood timber each year than is being used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. In this paper, the authors present a quick look at our hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability). They also describe where the timber is growing for several species, talk about availability in the Southeast region, and...

  13. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  14. Domestic hardwood lumber consumption and exports, yesterday and today

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Domestic Hardwood lumber consumption has changed considerably in this century, but how do these changes differ from changes that have occurred over the last 50 years and how have they affected lumber price? In this article, we examine how changes in consumption have influenced aggregate Hardwood lumber prices as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusted...

  15. Factors affecting regional changes in hardwood lumber production

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1994-01-01

    Hardwood lumber production increased by nearly 1.8 billion board feet between 1986 and 1990 and decreased sharply in 1991. However, not all areas of the country experienced the same growth in hardwood lumber production during the 1980s. While lumber production in inland regions of the eastern United States and the west increased during the 1980s, lumber output in...

  16. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  17. A Method For Assessing Economic Thresholds of Hardwood Competition

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe

    2002-01-01

    A procedure was developed for computing economic thresholds for hardwood competition in pine plantations. The economic threshold represents the break-even level of competition above which hardwood control is a financially attractive treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the relative importance of biological and economic factors in determining...

  18. Hardwood log defect photographic database, software and user's guide

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Computer software and user's guide for Hardwood Log Defect Photographic Database. The database contains photographs and information on external hardwood log defects and the corresponding internal characteristics. This database allows users to search for specific defect types, sizes, and locations by tree species. For every defect, the database contains photos of...

  19. On Tour... Primary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling Unit

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Housed within the Department of Wood Science and Forest Products at Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a three-person USDA Forest Service research work unit (with one vacancy) devoted to hardwood processing and recycling research. Phil Araman is the project leader of this truly unique and productive unit, titled ãPrimary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling.ä The...

  20. A comparison of small tractors for thinning central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    N. Huyler; C.B. LeDoux

    1991-01-01

    Young-growth hardwood forests in the central hardwood region will require intensive management if they are to help meet the Nation's increasing demand for wood. Such management generally will require entries into the stands when the trees are small. Many small-scale machines are available for harvesting small wood. Time and motion studies were conducted on small-...

  1. Growth and Yield of Appalachian Mixed Hardwoods After Thinning

    Treesearch

    Wade C. Harrison; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas E. Burk; Donald E. Beckand

    1986-01-01

    G-RAT (Growth of Hardwoods After Thinning) is a system of computer programs used to predict growth and yield of Appalachian mixed hardwoods after thinning. Given a tree list or stand table, along with inputs of stand age, site index, and stand basal area before thinning, G-RAT software uses species-specific individual tree equations to predict tree basal area...

  2. Nondestructive evaluation of incipient decay in hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    Decay can cause significant damage to high-value hardwood timber. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are urgently needed to effectively detect incipient decay in hardwood timber at the earliest possible stage. Currently, the primary means of inspecting timber relies on visual assessment criteria. When visual inspections are used exclusively, they provide...

  3. Exploring research priorities for the North American hardwood industry

    Treesearch

    David Brinberg; Earl Kline; Delton Alderman; Philip Araman; Ed Cesa; Steve Milauskas; Tom Walthousen; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2008-01-01

    With the increase of globalization, the North American hardwood industry is facing many challenges to remain competitive and sustainable, facing drastic changes in the areas of labor, land, manufacturing, markets and marketing, and supply chain. The hardwood industry is especially vulnerable, with the influx of foreign manufacturers and suppliers with greater natural...

  4. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  5. Silviculture of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods: 25 Years of Change

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes changes that have occurred in the silviculture of southern bottomland hardwood forests over the past 25 years, particularly in terms of modifications to existing silvicultural practices, abandonment of unsuitable practices, and development of new practices. Changes in the focus and objectives of hardwood silviculture and the emergence of new...

  6. A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Jr. Skojac

    2008-01-01

    A new tree classification system for southern hardwoods is described. The new system is based on the Putnam tree classification system, originally developed by Putnam et al., 1960, Management ond inventory of southern hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 181, US For. Sew., Washington, DC, which consists of four tree classes: (1) preferred growing stock, (2) reserve growing...

  7. The hardwoods of California's timberlands, woodlands, and savannas.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1988-01-01

    The results of a statewide inventory of California's hardwood resources are presented. This is the first comprehensive inventory with tree and stand measurements ever conducted in the extensive oak woodlands. In timberland areas where hardwoods had been previously inventoried, improved procedures and volume equations developed specifically for the major California...

  8. Southern hardwood forestry group going strong after 50 years

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Steve Meadows; Jeff Portwood

    2005-01-01

    On November 15,200 1, the Southern Hardwood Forestry Group (referred to as the Group) met at the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station's Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville, hlississippi to celebrate the Group's 50th anniversary. About 130 members and guests attended to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Group and to honor its charter...

  9. Eastern United States Hardwood Sawtimber Resources and Export Potential

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1987-01-01

    To look at the export potential of the Eastern hardwood sawtimber resources, including the Southern and Northern regions, hardwood resource data were compiled from USDA Forest Service state resorce evaluation reports on a set of select export species. The species are the select oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry, and the ashes. These species...

  10. Central hardwood forest resources: a social science perspective

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Herbert W. Schroeder; Paul H. Gobster

    1991-01-01

    People-forest interactions in the Central Hardwoods region are expanding in scope and importance and are generating increasing controversy. In order to manage Central Hardwoods in a manner that contributes most fully to the needs of people, it is important that we better understand the perceptions, goals, objectives, and values of forest users, owners, managers, and...

  11. Application of Advanced Technologies for Improvement of Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Michler

    1999-01-01

    Hardwood tree improvement in Indiana is on the brink of entering the 21st century with the recent initiation of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University. At a time when midwestern agriculture has enthusiastically embraced genetically modified insect and herbicide resistant corn and soybean crops and all the human genes are...

  12. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe

    2001-01-01

    The southern upland hardwoods include extensive areas in the southern Appalachians, Cumberland Plateau and Ozark/Ouachita regions. The majority of commercial hardwoods in the south occur in the region often referred to as the "Southern Appalachian Region". For purposes of this discussion, this region includes the hilly or mountainous area west and north of...

  13. A computerized bucking trainer for optimally bucking hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Scott Noble; Blair Orr; Philip A. Araman; John Baumgras; James B. Pickens

    2000-01-01

    The bucking of hardwood stems constitutes the initial manufacturing decision for hardwood lumber production. Each bucking cut creates a log of fixed grade and scale. The grade and scale of each log created by the bucker determines the quantity and quality of potential lumber, which determines the value of the log within a given market. As a result, bucking decisions...

  14. Market Definition For Hardwood Timber in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Karen Lee Abt; David N. Wear

    1999-01-01

    Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only...

  15. Researching effects of prescribed fire in hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Susan C. Loeb; David L. Loftis; W. Henry McNab; Joy M. O' Keefe; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Martin Spetich

    2012-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management Research Work Unit (RWU 4157) is a group of research teams located across the South, strategically placed to conduct research in physiographic sub-regions of the upland hardwood ecosystems including the southern Appalachian Mountains, the Cumberland Plateau, the Boston Mountains, and the Missouri Plateau. Our RWU is one of 16...

  16. The Impact of Insects in the Northern Hardwoods Type

    Treesearch

    H. J. Macaloney

    1966-01-01

    The northern hardwoods type occupies about 16 percent -- 8.2 million acres -- of the commercial forest land in the Lake States. The timber has high unit values and represents about 42 percent of the total value of all the commercial forest in the region. Increasing values and markets for northern hardwoods in recent years have stressed the need for better quality in...

  17. Hardwood genetics and tree improvement - A Midwest USA perspective

    Treesearch

    C. H. Michler; R. Meilan; K. E. Woeste; P. M. Pijut; D. Jacobs; P. Aldrich; J. Glaubitz

    2005-01-01

    Fine hardwood trees in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States are an important resource for the furniture, cabinetry, flooring, modular home, and paneling manufacturing industries. Consumers find wood from these trees to be very desirable because of quality factors such as grain, strength and color. To enhance wood production, tree improvement programs can...

  18. Symposium reports progress in utilization of off-site hardwoods

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1975-01-01

    On March 10 of this year, 240 industrialists and researchers from both private and public sectors gathered for three and a half days in Alexandria, Louisiana, for intensive discussions aimed at increasing utilization of small hardwoods. The symposium, "Utilization of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites", was jointly sponsored by the Southern Forest...

  19. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  20. Decay in oak in the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton; John A. Beaton

    1972-01-01

    Because oak is the leading timber species in the central hardwood region, it is necessary to manage these stands to provide the best possible utilization of this valuable hardwood resource. One of the most critical problems is loss from heartwood decay. More information is needed about this kind of loss.

  1. Forest fragmentation of southern U.S. bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1993-01-01

    The magnitude and character of forest fragmentation are evaluated for bottomland hardwoods in the southern United States.Fragment size class is significantly associated with the frequency of bottomland hardwood species, stand size and ownership classes, and land use attributes.Differences in the frequency of indicators of multiple values are apparent. Two diverse...

  2. Rapid Growth Indicates Forestry Opportunities In Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. E. Bond; Henry. Bull

    1946-01-01

    Although the growth and yield figures cited in this paper are sketchy and far from complete, they indicate that management in bottomland hardwoods has a promising future. The data presented are based or stands grown without management. If management in bottomland hardwoods results 'in greatly increasing yields and incomes, and in reducing costs, as it has in pine...

  3. Spectral reflectance of five hardwood tree species in southern Indiana

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; J.C. Randolph

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to identify forest species has been ongoing since the launch of Landsat-1 using MSS imagery. The ability to separate hardwoods from conifers was accomplished by the 1980s. However, distinguishing individual hardwood species is more problematic due to similar spectral and phenological characteristics. With the launch of commercial satellites...

  4. Options for Small-Diameter Hardwood Utilization: Past and Present

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Bruce G. Hansen; Albert T. Schuler; Philip A. Araman; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    Effective and maximum value use of small-diameter hardwood timber has long been of interest to forest managers and researchers. In addition to being a significant component of the standing forest base, small-diameter hardwoods often are available after thinning or other tending operations. Although the use of this material is important to achieving healthy and...

  5. U.S. Hardwood sawmill log procurement practices

    Treesearch

    Adrienn Andersch; Iris Montague; Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2015-01-01

    U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill...

  6. Options for small-diameter hardwood utilization: past and present

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Bruce G. Hansen; Albert T. Schuler; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Effective and maximum value use of small-diameter hardwood timber has long been of interest to forest managers and researchers. In addition to being a significant component of the standing forest base, small-diameter hardwoods often are available after thinning or other tending operations. Although the use of this material is important to achieving healthy and...

  7. Volume, Weight, and Pulping Properties Of 5-Year-OId Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. M. Krinard; R. L. Johnson; H. E. Kennedy

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood plantation was established in an Arkansas small stream bottom at 10- by 100 foot spacing to obtain information on survival, growth, yield, and utilization possibilities on such Coastal Plain sites. The data are needed before the planting of hardwoods can be considered as an alternative to pine regeneration on these good hardwood sites. Seven hardwood species...

  8. A national profile of the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry

    Treesearch

    Scott Bowe; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the hardwood sawmill industry was conducted in the fall of 1999. The objectives of the survey were to generate a current demographic profile of the hardwood sawmill industry and identify the preferred information sources for the hardwood sawmill industry. These objectives were chosen because timely information was not available for the hardwood...

  9. Effect of the hardwood resource on the sawmill industry in the central and Appalachian regions

    Treesearch

    William Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The Central and Appalachian hardwood regions contain a diverse and valuable timber resource. The regions are important to the hardwood industry because they contain 68 percent of the eastern hardwood sawtimber. Furthermore, more than 70 percent of the hardwood lumber produced in the United States is manufactured at mills located in 16 of the states in the regions. This...

  10. Development of old-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 22-year record

    Treesearch

    Stanley M. Filip; David A. Marquis; William B. Leak

    1960-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests provide the industries of New England with their most valuable woods: yellow birch and sugar maple for veneer, paper birch for turning stock, and other hardwood species for a variety of specialty products. As a result of recent developments in hardwood pulping, these northern hardwood forests now represent a tremendous reservoir of raw...

  11. Cutaneous decidualized endometriosis in a nonpregnant female: a potential pseudomalignancy.

    PubMed

    DeClerck, Brittney K; Post, Miriam D; Wisell, Joshua A

    2012-07-01

    Endometriosis is a disease process characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue. Involvement most commonly occurs in the lower pelvis, outside the uterine cavity, but can occur elsewhere, including the skin. Cutaneous endometriosis is a rare manifestation of this disease, with decidualization occurring in a very small minority of cases, almost always seen in pregnant females. Cutaneous involvement of endometriosis may present a diagnostic problem for the pathologist, particularly in the event of decidualization. Decidualization may mimic a malignancy and as a result may result in unnecessary diagnostic studies for the patient. We present a case of a nonpregnant patient with decidualized cutaneous endometriosis, discuss the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of this entity, and review the pertinent literature on this subject. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of cutaneous decidualized endometriosis in a nonpregnant female.

  12. Biomass of Four Hardwoods from Lower Piedmont Pine-Hardwood Stands in Alabama

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Sirois

    1983-01-01

    Biomass equations for complete tree, whole tree, and stemwood, with and without bark, both green and dry, are presented for four southern hardwoods - sweetgum (Liquidumbar styraciflua L.); hickory, both mockernut and pignut (Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. and C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet); red oak (Quercus...

  13. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  14. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  15. Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Treesearch

    Leslie Brandt; Hong He; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Patricia Butler; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Matthew Albrecht; Richard Blume-Weaver; Paul Deizman; John DePuy; William D. Dijak; Gary Dinkel; Songlin Fei; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Michael Leahy; Stephen Matthews; Paul Nelson; Brad Oberle; Judi Perez; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; John Shuey; Adam B. Smith; Charles Studyvin; John M. Tirpak; Jeffery W. Walk; Wen J. Wang; Laura Watts; Dale Weigel; Steve. Westin

    2014-01-01

    The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends,...

  16. Hardwood supply in the Pacific northwest: A policy perspective. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Raettig, T.L.; Connaughton, K.P.; Ahrens, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but in the long term, the supply is uncertain and cause for concern. Hardwoods need to be recognized in forest management in the Pacific Northwest.

  17. Panel discussion: Marketing hardwoods at the George O. White State Forest Nursery

    Treesearch

    Greg Hoss

    2011-01-01

    The George O. White State Forest Nursery is a hardwood nursery located in a state dominated by hardwood species. Marketing and selling our hardwoods is what we do. Depending on the year and seed availability, we grow about 65 species of hardwood trees and shrubs. During the last 5 years, we have grown about 60 hardwood species per year. We also grow about six species...

  18. Kinetic model for kraft pulping of hardwood

    SciTech Connect

    Giudici, R.; Park, S.W.

    1996-03-01

    A comprehensive model for the kraft pulping kinetics of Eucalyptus saligna hardwood is presented. Kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the model to available experimental data taken from the literature over a range of process variables. The model takes into account the effect of hydroxide and sulfide concentration in the liquor as well as the temperature-time history of the cooking. Model predictions were successfully compared with an independent set of bench-scale plant data for lignin and carbohydrate dissolution. The model is able to predict quite well the trends of the process variables.

  19. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

    2014-10-10

    Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

  20. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  1. Seasonal variation of biogenic VOC emissions above a mixed hardwood forest in northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Spirig, C.; Hansel, A.; Fall, R.

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at a hardwood forest in northern Michigan (UMBS, Prophet research site) over the course of the growing and senescing season. Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone and isoprene were found to be the most abundant biogenic VOCs with maximum fluxes (mixing ratios in ppbv) of 2.0 mg m-2 h-1 (21.0), 1.0 mg m-2 h-1 (2.7), 1.6 mg m-2 h-1 (5.6) and 7.6 mg m-2 h-1 (6), respectively. The emission patterns show distinct seasonal changes and indicate a spring peak for methanol due to rapid leaf expansion and a fall peak for acetone and acetaldehyde most likely attributed to senescing and decaying biomass; isoprene emissions peaked as expected in the summer. We estimate potential source strengths of 8.9 Tg (C) y-1 methanol, 2.7 Tg (C) y-1 acetaldehyde and 7.0 Tg (C) y-1 acetone for deciduous temperate forests, which is a substantial contribution to the global atmospheric VOC budget.

  2. Decidual-Secreted Factors Alter Invasive Trophoblast Membrane and Secreted Proteins Implying a Role for Decidual Cell Regulation of Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Menkhorst, Ellen Melaleuca; Lane, Natalie; Winship, Amy Louise; Li, Priscilla; Yap, Joanne; Meehan, Katie; Rainczuk, Adam; Stephens, Andrew; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the ‘extravillous trophoblast’ (EVT) invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua) to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by altering the production of EVT membrane and secreted factors. We used a proteomics approach to identify EVT membrane and secreted proteins regulated by decidual cell factors. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized in vitro by treatment with estradiol (10−8 M), medroxyprogesterone acetate (10−7 M) and cAMP (0.5 mM) for 14 days. Conditioned media (CM) was collected on day 2 (non-decidualized CM) and 14 (decidualized CM) of treatment. Isolated primary EVT cultured on Matrigel™ were treated with media control, non-decidualized or decidualized CM for 16 h. EVT CM was fractionated for proteins <30 kDa using size-exclusion affinity nanoparticles (SEAN) before trypsin digestion and HPLC-MS/MS. 43 proteins produced by EVT were identified; 14 not previously known to be expressed in the placenta and 12 which had previously been associated with diseases of pregnancy including preeclampsia. Profilin 1, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1), dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1/cathepsin C) and annexin A2 expression by interstitial EVT in vivo was validated by immunhistochemistry. Decidual CM regulation in vitro was validated by western blotting: decidualized CM upregulated profilin 1 in EVT CM and non-decidualized CM upregulated annexin A2 in EVT CM and pro-DPP1 in EVT cell lysate. Here, non-decidualized factors induced protease expression by EVT suggesting that non-decidualized factors may induce a pro-inflammatory cascade. Preeclampsia is a pro-inflammatory condition

  3. Epicormic branching on eight species of Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith

    1966-01-01

    Epicormic branches and associated defects are leading causes of degrade and value loss in lumber sawed from hardwood logs. The degrade may be in the form of small knots, ingrown bark, wood blemishes, and/or rot.

  4. 78 FR 76857 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Products Company, Springfield, OR combined as The Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood. The final... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... subject investigations, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant...

  5. Planning for natural regeneration of hardwoods in the Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1978-01-01

    Hardwood species reproduce through seeding and sprouting. Frequent selective cuttings and small, incomplete openings favor tolerant species; the opposite conditions favor intolerants. Factors to be considered in evaluating and predicting reproduction before harvest are listed.

  6. Predicting crown weight and bole volume of five Western hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    J.A. Kendall Snell; Susan N. Little

    1983-01-01

    Regression equations are presented for estimating biomass of five western hardwoods: red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), giant chinkapin (Castanopsis chrysophylla (Dougl.) A. DC.), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh), Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), and tanoak (...

  7. Regeneration after clear-cutting second-growth northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Wilson; Victor S. Jensen

    1954-01-01

    Regeneration after clear-cutting second-growth northern hardwoods is often unsatisfactory, in both quantity and species composition. A small area on the Bartlett Experimental Forest near Bartlett, N.H., provides a good example.

  8. Picloram in Spaced Stem Injections to Control Lake States Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Kenneth A. Brinkman

    1970-01-01

    Picloram (4 amino-3, 5, 6-tri-chloropicolinic acid), manufactured under the name of Tordon, controls most pole-size and smaller hardwoods in the Lake States by stem injections spaced up to 6 incest apart.

  9. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwood types in the Northeast (revised)

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    A practical guide to the management of northern hardwoods for timber production in New England and New York. Both even-aged management are considered, and specific treatments are prescribed for a range of stand conditions and management objectives.

  10. How second-growth northern hardwoods develop after thinning

    Treesearch

    Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1953-01-01

    In the northern hardwood region, second-growth stands occupy thousands of acres. These stands are of all ages, in all conditions. They were brought about by fire, charcoal and fuelwood cuttings, land abandonment, or a combination of these causes.

  11. Room 204, a classroom with hardwood floors, slate blackboard, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 204, a classroom with hardwood floors, slate blackboard, and original clock. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. A comparison of site index curves for northern hardwood species.

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1979-01-01

    Gives an inventory and compares site index curves for 13 northern hardwood species. Differences illustrate the need for more precise site index curves that are applicable to local soil and site conditions.

  13. Two eras of globalization and hardwood sawtimber demand

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the adoption of floating exchange rates resulted in more fluid transfers between international currencies and spurred increased international demand for hardwood lumber produced in the United States.

  14. Proceedings: workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Contains 18 papers and 16 poster abstracts on the history of fire, fire ecology, fire and ecosystem management, and fire and the future presented at the workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape.

  15. Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Horsley; David A. Marquis

    1983-01-01

    Deer browsing and interference from forest weeds, particularly hayscented fem (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore), New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis L.), and short husk grass (Brachyelytrnm erectum Schreb.), influence the establishment of Allegheny hardwood reproduction. We determined the...

  16. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  17. Summaries of some silvical characteristics of several appalachian hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    A number of Appalachian hardwood trees are ranked according to the following silvical characteristics: shade tolerands, development of epicormic branching, susceptibility to frost damage, diameter growth rate, and seed dormancy.

  18. Vegetative Propagation and the Genetic Improvement of North American Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. E. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    Progress and problems in vegetative propagation of important North American hardwoods are reviewed with emphasis on rooting cuttings and the application of propagation techniques in breeding research. Some problems in rooting physiology are discussed.

  19. 15-year Results of Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. R. Beaufait; R. L. Johnson

    1956-01-01

    That severely depleted bottomland stands can be returned to quality hardwood production is being demonstrated on a representative tract in the Delta Experimental Forest which was given an improvement cutting about 15 years ago.

  20. Differential expression and regulation of Tdo2 during mouse decidualization.

    PubMed

    Li, Dang-Dang; Gao, Ying-Jie; Tian, Xue-Chao; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Cao, Hang; Zhang, Qiao-Ling; Guo, Bin; Yue, Zhan-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2) is a rate-limiting enzyme which directs the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of Tdo2 in mouse uterus during decidualization. Tdo2 mRNA was mainly expressed in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. By real-time PCR, a high level of Tdo2 expression was observed in the uteri from days 6 to 8 of pregnancy, although Tdo2 expression was observed on days 1-8. Simultaneously, Tdo2 mRNA was also detected under in vivo and in vitro artificial decidualization. Estrogen, progesterone, and 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP could induce the expression of Tdo2 in the ovariectomized mouse uterus and uterine stromal cells. Tdo2 could regulate cell proliferation and stimulate the expression of decidual marker Dtprp in the uterine stromal cells and decidual cells. Overexpression of Tdo2 could upregulate the expression of Ahr, Cox2, and Vegf genes in uterine stromal cells, while Tdo2 inhibitor 680C91 could downregulate the expression of Cox2 and Vegf genes in uterine decidual cells. These data indicate that Tdo2 may play an important role during mouse decidualization and be regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and cAMP.

  1. Convergence, Consilience, and the Evolution of Temperate Deciduous Forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erika J; Chatelet, David S; Chen, Bo-Chang; Ong, Jin Yao; Tagane, Shuichiro; Kanemitsu, Hironobu; Tagawa, Kazuki; Teramoto, Kentaro; Park, Brian; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Hu, Jer-Ming; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Donoghue, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    The deciduous habit of northern temperate trees and shrubs provides one of the most obvious examples of convergent evolution, but how did it evolve? Hypotheses based on the fossil record posit that deciduousness evolved first in response to drought or darkness and preadapted certain lineages as cold climates spread. An alternative is that evergreens first established in freezing environments and later evolved the deciduous habit. We monitored phenological patterns of 20 species of Viburnum spanning tropical, lucidophyllous (subtropical montane and warm temperate), and cool temperate Asian forests. In lucidophyllous forests, all viburnums were evergreen plants that exhibited coordinated leaf flushes with the onset of the rainy season but varied greatly in the timing of leaf senescence. In contrast, deciduous species exhibited tight coordination of both flushing and senescence, and we found a perfect correlation between the deciduous habit and prolonged annual freezing. In contrast to previous stepwise hypotheses, a consilience of independent lines of evidence supports a lockstep model in which deciduousness evolved in situ, in parallel, and concurrent with a gradual cooling climate. A pervasive selective force combined with the elevated evolutionary accessibility of a particular response may explain the massive convergence of adaptive strategies that characterizes the world's biomes.

  2. Soil spot herbicides for single-stem hardwood control

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Soil spot treatments of undiluted Velpar® L and a concentrated mixture of Spike® 80W were applied aorund test trees of five hardwood species. The test rates were 2, 4, and 6 ml of herbicidelin, of dbh applied to the soil within 3ft of each tree. Hardwood topkill was assessed after two growing seasons. The 4-ml rate of Velpar L was required to achieve...

  3. Measuring site index in the central hardwood region

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1989-01-01

    Site index is the average height of dominant and codominant trees growing in well-stocked, even-aged stands at a given age called ?index age.? Fifty years is the most commonly used index age in upland hardwoods. Sometimes 25 or 30 years are used for short-rotation bottomland hardwoods. Site index is widely used to indicate site quality because it correlates well with...

  4. Eastern U.S. Select Export Species Hardwood Resources

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1987-01-01

    The United States has become a major player in the export side of the world marketplace for hardwood logs, lumber, and veneer. For the last 10 years, U.S. exports of these products have been growing, and the future looks bright. The major hardwood species demanded on the export market are the select red and white oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black...

  5. The presence and nature of ellipticity in Appalachian hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; John S. Stanovick; Deborah. Conner

    2017-01-01

    The ellipticity of hardwood logs is most often observed and measured from either end of a log. However, due to the nature of hardwood tree growth and bucking practices, the assessment of ellipticity in thir manner may not be accurate. Trees grown on hillsides often develop supporting wood that gives the first few feet of the  log butt a significant degree of...

  6. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; ten Cate, J M; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2012-06-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop during a period similar to that of second primary molars, with possible comparable risk factors for hypomineralization. Children with DMH have a greater risk of developing MIH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6,161 children (49.8% girls; mean age 74.3 mos, SD ± 5.8). First permanent molars and second primary molars were scored with respect to DMH or MIH. The prevalence of DMH and MIH was 9.0% and 8.7% at child level, and 4.0% and 5.4% at tooth level. The Odds Ratio for MIH based on DMH was 4.4 (95% CI, 3.1-6.4). The relationship between the occurrence of DMH and MIH suggests a shared cause and indicates that, clinically, DMH can be used as a predictor for MIH.

  7. Photodegradation of heat treated hardwood veneers.

    PubMed

    Denes, Levente; Lang, Elemer M

    2013-01-05

    This paper outlines an investigation pertaining to color changes of hardwood veneers exposed to elevated temperature. The effects of convection and contact type heat applications on the different species were separately evaluated. The experimental analyses included two-factor, three-level randomized block designs, where the factors were the temperature and the duration of the exposure. Examined species included: Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated major overall effects with significant interactions between the factors for all species/heat-treatment combinations. However, pair wise comparisons (Tukey tests) revealed lack of significant differences within factors for certain levels. The gained information might be useful for adjusting drying or pressing time/temperature relations. Setting the desired colors by necessary processing operations has certain technological, economical and environmental advantages. The use of additional chemicals to create dark surfaces may be reduced or eliminated.

  8. Use of digital webcam images to track spring green-up in a deciduous broadleaf forest.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew D; Jenkins, Julian P; Braswell, Bobby H; Hollinger, David Y; Ollinger, Scott V; Smith, Marie-Louise

    2007-05-01

    Understanding relationships between canopy structure and the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic uptake of CO(2) by forest canopies requires improved knowledge of canopy phenology at eddy covariance flux tower sites. We investigated whether digital webcam images could be used to monitor the trajectory of spring green-up in a deciduous northern hardwood forest. A standard, commercially available webcam was mounted at the top of the eddy covariance tower at the Bartlett AmeriFlux site. Images were collected each day around midday. Red, green, and blue color channel brightness data for a 640 x 100-pixel region-of-interest were extracted from each image. We evaluated the green-up signal extracted from webcam images against changes in the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation that is absorbed by the canopy (f (APAR)), a broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the light-saturated rate of canopy photosynthesis (A(max)), inferred from eddy flux measurements. The relative brightness of the green channel (green %) was relatively stable through the winter months. A steady rising trend in green % began around day 120 and continued through day 160, at which point a stable plateau was reached. The relative brightness of the blue channel (blue %) also responded to spring green-up, although there was more day-to-day variation in the signal because blue % was more sensitive to changes in the quality (spectral distribution) of incident radiation. Seasonal changes in blue % were most similar to those in f (APAR) and broadband NDVI, whereas changes in green % proceeded more slowly, and were drawn out over a longer period of time. Changes in A(max) lagged green-up by at least a week. We conclude that webcams offer an inexpensive means by which phenological changes in the canopy state can be quantified. A network of cameras could offer a novel opportunity to implement a regional or national phenology monitoring program.

  9. Trade-offs between seedling growth and survival in deciduous broadleaved trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Seiwa, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    In spatially heterogeneous environments, a trade-off between seedling survival and relative growth rate may promote the coexistence of plant species. In temperate forests, however, little support for this hypothesis has been found under field conditions, as compared with shade-house experiments. Performance trade-offs were examined over a large resource gradient in a temperate hardwood forest. The relationship between seedling survival and seedling relative growth rate in mass (RGR(M)) or height (RGR(H)) was examined at three levels of canopy cover (forest understorey, FU; small gap, SG; and large gap, LG) and at two microsites within each level of canopy cover (presence or absence of leaf litter) for five deciduous broad-leaved tree species with different seed sizes. Within each species, both RGR(M) and RGR(H) usually increased with increasing light levels (in the order FU < SG < LG), whereas little difference was observed based on the presence or absence of litter. Seedling survival in FU was negatively correlated with both RGR(M) and RGR(H) in both LG and SG. The trade-off between high-light growth and low-light survival was more evident in the relationship with LG as compared with SG. An intraspecific trade-off between survival and RGR was observed along environmental gradients in Acer mono, whereas seedlings of Betula platyphylla var. japonica survived and grew better in LG. The results presented here strongly support the idea of light gradient partitioning (i.e. species coexistence) in spatially heterogeneous light environments in temperate forests, and that further species diversity would be promoted by increased spatial heterogeneity. The intraspecific trade-off between survival and RGR in Acer suggests that it has broad habitat requirements, whereas Betula has narrow habitat requirements and specializes in high-light environments.

  10. Temperature responses of cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata) under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahanara; Nakaba, Satoshi; Bayramzadeh, Vilma; Oribe, Yuichiro; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that localized heating of tree stems induces localized cambial reactivation. We analyzed by light microscopy the effects of early spring increases in ambient temperature in 2005 and 2007 on the timing of cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in stems of two trees of a cloned deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii Miquel. x P. grandidentata Michx.) growing under natural conditions. Meteorological data at the study site showed that temperatures in late winter and early spring differed markedly between 2005 and 2007, with trends toward higher temperatures starting around April 3 in 2005 and around March 20 in 2007. Cambial reactivation occurred about 17 days earlier in 2007 than in 2005. The cumulative daily maximum temperature in excess of 15 degrees C (maximum daily temperatures minus 15 degrees C) in late winter and early spring before cambial reactivation was defined as the cambial reactivation index (CRI(15)). Cambial reactivation, which began when the minimum temperature rose above 0 degrees C, occurred when the CRI(15) was 93 and 96 degrees C in 2005 and 2007, respectively. The differentiation of secondary xylem started earlier in 2007 than in 2005. On May 27, we found a wider current-year band of xylem and a higher frequency of small-diameter vessel elements in 2007 than in 2005. We propose that the timing of cambial reactivation is controlled by air temperature and that earlier cambial reactivation induces earlier differentiation of xylem in hybrid poplar under natural conditions. Our results indicate that the CRI might be a useful indicator of the timing of cambial reactivation.

  11. The Wood and Bark of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites - A Pictorial Atlas

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1980-01-01

    Provides a pictorial description of the structure and appearance of 23 pine-site hardwoods, an overview of hardwood anatomy, and data on the resource and certain important physical properties of stemwood and bark.

  12. 77 FR 73428 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... investigation, the Coalition for Fair Trade of Hardwood Plywood and its individual members (Petitioners), made a... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  13. Proceedings of the 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL.

    Treesearch

    George Rink; Carl A. Budelsky

    1989-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh central hardwood forest conference, March 5-8, 1989 at Carbondale, Illinois. Includes 48 manuscripts dealing with silviculture, biology, management, protection, regeneration, utilization, structure, hydrology, and research policy in the central hardwood forest.

  14. Guide to the measurement of tree characteristics important to the quality classification for young hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    David L. Sonderman

    1979-01-01

    A procedure is shown for measuring external tree characteristics that are important in determining the current and future quality of young hardwood trees. This guide supplements a precious study which describes the quality classification system for young hardwood trees

  15. Influence of chlorhexidine application on longitudinal adhesive bond strength in deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Bohn, Priscila Veit; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of applying 2% chlorhexidine for 30 seconds after phosphoric acid conditioning of dentin on the immediate and long-term bond strengths in deciduous teeth. The occlusal enamel was removed from 40 human sound deciduous molars, which were exfoliated by natural means, and the dentin was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and washed with running water. The specimens were divided into two groups of 20 teeth. The test group received an application of 2% chlorhexidine for 30 seconds prior to a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, whereas the control group received only the adhesive system. Three cylindrical restorations were made with a composite resin for each tooth. Ten teeth in each group were submitted to a microshear bond strength test after 24 hours, while the remaining teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 6 months before testing the microshear bond strength. The test group had a higher bond strength than did the control group after 6 months of storage. No statistical differences were found when groups with the same dentin treatment were compared at different times. Short applications of chlorhexidine at low concentrations prevent hybrid layer degradation and positively affect bond strength over time.

  16. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Gao, Rufei; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Liao, Xinggui; Geng, Yanqing; Ding, Yubin; Wang, Yingxiong; He, Junlin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34) immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), placental growth factor (PLGF), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone. PMID:26247969

  17. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Gao, Rufei; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Liao, Xinggui; Geng, Yanqing; Ding, Yubin; Wang, Yingxiong; He, Junlin

    2015-08-04

    The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34) immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), placental growth factor (PLGF), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone.

  18. Deciduous dentition of a Late Archaic population of Ohio.

    PubMed

    Sciulli, P W

    1990-04-01

    I describe the developmental, metric, morphologic, and pathologic features of deciduous dentition in a terminal Late Archaic (c. 3000 B.P.) Native American population in Ohio. Development of deciduous dentition in this Late Archaic population is stable with little sequence variation. The pattern of development (ldc, ldp3, ldp4) cannot be shown to be different from a modern Euro-American sample. There is an indication, however, that the permanent first molar in the Late Archaic population developed somewhat more rapidly with respect to the deciduous teeth than in the Euro-American sample. Metric and morphologic features of deciduous dentition in the Late Archaic population appear typical for a population of northeast Asian descent. In general, these metric and morphologic features are shown to be useful in distinguishing among populations of differing ancestries. Developmental and acquired pathologic conditions of deciduous dentition are rare or absent in the Late Archaic population. Absence of linear enamel hypoplasia indicates sufficient access to basic resources for the younger children of this population, and the low frequency of caries reflects the relatively cariogenic-free nature of the diet of these hunter-gatherers.

  19. Clinical survey on type of restoration in deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tatsuro; Oda, Shinya; Yamashita, Haruto; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted in 533 children with 1,634 treated teeth who visited the Pediatric Dentistry Department at the Chiba Hospital of Tokyo Dental College between January and December, 2003. Restorations on deciduous tooth were categorized by age of patient and tooth type. The following observations were made: Children aged 4 (17.9%) visited the clinic most frequently and this group had the highest number of deciduous restorations (21.3%). Among the 1,634 deciduous teeth restored, metal inlays were provided in 29.4% of total teeth restored, composite resin restorations in 27.2%, stainless-steel crowns in 25.7%, composite resin full crowns in 7.7%, glass-ionomer cement restorations in 6.6%, and amalgam restorations in 3.4%. By age, composite resin was most frequently used in children aged 1 to 3. In children aged 5 to 9, metal inlay was most frequently used. Those aged 4 received mostly stainless-steel crowns. Composite resin restorations were used mostly in anterior deciduous teeth, and metal inlays mostly in deciduous molars. Previous research indicated an increasing trend towards composite resin restorations and composite resin full crowns. The present study also confirmed such a trend. While the use of metal inlays and stainless-steel crowns tended to increase until 1987, the present study indicated a trend to decrease.

  20. Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Patricia DA; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Anne Croy, B

    2014-01-01

    Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed. PMID:25066422

  1. Comparative vessel anatomy of arctic deciduous and evergreen dicots.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, D M; Oberbauer, S F; Fisher, J B

    2001-09-01

    Arctic tundra plant species exhibit striking variation in leaf character and growth form. Both are likely related to differences in vessel anatomy, and all may affect responses to climate changes in the Arctic. To investigate the relationships among leaf character, growth form, vessel anatomy, and susceptibility to freeze-thaw-induced xylem cavitation, xylem vessel characteristics were compared among six deciduous and six evergreen arctic dicot species of erect and prostrate growth forms. We hypothesized that deciduous and erect species would have larger and longer vessels than evergreen and cushion/mat-forming species. Vessel lengths, diameters, and densities were measured for each species. Theoretical vessel flow rates were calculated using Poiseuille's law for ideal capillaries. Flow rates were used to determine the susceptibility of vessels to cavitation induced by freeze-thaw events that may become more frequent with global warming. Vessel diameters were larger in deciduous species compared to evergreens, and in shrubs/trees vs. cushion/mat-forming plants. Vessel length distributions, however, did not differ for growth form or leaf character. Vessel density was greater in cushion/mat-forming species than in shrub/tree species. Deciduous plants showed a greater contribution to total conductivity by relatively larger vessels than evergreens. One of the deciduous species, Vaccinium uliginosum, is predicted to be susceptible to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation. These results have important implications for future arctic species composition and plant community structure.

  2. Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Patricia D A; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Croy, B Anne

    2014-11-01

    Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed.

  3. Fire history in a southern Appalachian deciduous forest

    Treesearch

    Norman L., Jr. Christensen; Kurt. Fesenmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Because there are few long-term dendrochronological and lake sediment data for the southern Appalachians, little is known regarding the history of fire in this region's forests through the Holocene. Radio-carbon ages for 82 soil charcoal samples collected from local depositional sites along a topographic gradient from mixed hardwood (Liriodendron...

  4. Insight into the photosynthetic apparatus in evergreen and deciduous European oaks during autumn senescence using OJIP fluorescence transient analysis.

    PubMed

    Holland, V; Koller, S; Brüggemann, W

    2014-07-01

    Climate change is one of the major issues nowadays, and Mediterranean broadleaf species have been suggested to fill possible future gaps created by climate change in Central European forests. To provide a scientific-based foundation for such practical strategies, it is important to obtain a general idea about differences and similarities in the physiology of Central European and Mediterranean species. In the present study, we evaluated the onset of leaf senescence of a broad spectrum of oak species under the Central European climate in a common garden experiment. Degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus of evergreen (Quercus ilex, Q. suber), semi-evergreen (Q.×turneri, Q.×hispanica) and deciduous oaks (Q. robur, Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. pubescens) was monitored as chlorophyll content and analysed chlorophyll fluorescence induction transients. In the deciduous species, a significant decline in chlorophyll content was observed during autumn/winter, with Q. pubescens showing the slowest decline. Analysis of fluorescence induction transients revealed a significant decline in quantum efficiency of the primary photochemistry and reaction centre density and later, a decrease in quantum efficiency of end acceptor reduction. Alterations in fluorescence parameters were compared to the decline in chlorophyll content, which occurred much more slowly than expected from the fluorescence data. The evergreen species showed no decline in chlorophyll content, nor different chlorophyll a fluorescence induction behaviour despite temperature falling below 0 °C. The hybrids showed intermediate behaviour between their parental evergreen and deciduous taxa.

  5. U.S. Has Plenty of Hardwood, but Much of It's Not For Sale

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; John Tansey

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the hardwood timber resource situation in the U.S. and reasons why less than 40% of the timber is available for cutting. It also discusses the U.S. hardwoods which are in the greatest demand as well as characteristics of U.S. hardwoods.

  6. An analysis of declines in hardwood lumber price of the past 40 years

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, hardwood lumber prices have fluctuated as a result of overall economic activity and periodic inventory adjustment. Still, the decline in price for major hardwood species that began in the spring of 2004 and continued until the summer of 2009 is by far the most significant. In this article, we will examine just how much hardwood lumber prices...

  7. Genetic improvement of hardwood fiber production in the north-central region: potentials and breeding alternatives

    Treesearch

    R.E., Jr. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    In the Lake States, aspens are now growing towards senility Faster than they are being harvested (Groff 1966). In the Central States, wood processing residues have recently supplied about one-half of the area's hardwood fiber requirement (Blyth 1970), thus allowing hardwood growing stock to continue its recuperation. In fact, the national hardwood fiber supply...

  8. Manufacturers and distributors in the U.S. hardwood lumber supply chain: Perceptions of industry trends

    Treesearch

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Global competition, a slowing housing market, and shifts in the customer base have contributed to reduced demand for hardwood lumber and have increased the need for specialized services by suppliers of hardwood lumber such as sawmills or distributors. Customers of hardwood lumber suppliers also have started initiatives to reduce internal costs dramatically, frequently...

  9. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bowe Bergman

    2008-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the US. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using life-cycle inventory methodology. Material flow and energy use were identified for hardwood sawmills in northeastern US. A hardwood log volume conversion of 43.7% to planed dry lumber was found. Values of 608 MJ/m3 of electrical and...

  10. Silvicultural Alternatives in Bottomland Hardwoods and Their Impact on Stand Quality

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy; Robert L. Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods occur on some 35 million acres of forest land in swamps, creek margins, river bottoms, and brown loam bluffs from Virginia to Texas. These hardwood types are very important because the wood has great value and is in demand by forest industries. This article discusses silvicultural alternatives such as site-species relationships, how hardwood timber...

  11. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  12. Determinant Product and Supplier Attributes in Domestic Markets for Hardwood Lumber

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Product and supplier attributes that are critical in hardwood lumber purchase decisions (i.e., determinant) were investigated in four segments of the domestic market for hardwood lumber: millwork producers (Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2431), hardwood dimension and flooring producers (SIC 2426), wood household furniture producers (SIC 2511), and wood...

  13. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  14. Introducing white pine into poor-site hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Poor hardwood land presents a problem that is only too well known: what to do with areas in hardwood country that support only stunted, slow-growing trees? This is a question that vexes foresters and landowners in many parts of West Virginia and neighboring mountainous areas of Maryland and Virginia. On these poor sites, it is doubtful whether the hardwoods can pay the...

  15. Chemical control of hardwoods on pine sites of Maryland's eastern shore

    Treesearch

    S. Little; J. J. Mohr

    1956-01-01

    Relatively worthless hardwoods often take over space that should be growing loblolly pine on Maryland's Eastern Shore. In many cut-over areas, hardwoods are suppressing small pines that would become a part of the next crop if released. One way of controlling these hardwoods is with chemicals such as ammate and 2,4,5-T.

  16. Marketing low-grade hardwoods for furniture stock - a new approach

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...

  17. Thinning northern hardwoods in New England by dominant-tree removal — early results

    Treesearch

    William Leak

    2007-01-01

    Commercial thinning is a widely accepted practice in northern hardwood stands of New England. Commercial thinning guidelines for eastern hardwoods generally recommend releasing selected crop trees or the removal of trees in less-than-dominant crown classes unless they are of poor health or quality. However, many northern hardwood stands in New England have a dominant...

  18. Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree improvement including breeding and molecular marker applications

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...

  19. Converting hardwoods on poor sites to white pine by planting and direct seeding

    Treesearch

    G.W. Wendel; G.W. Wendel

    1971-01-01

    Until recently, conversion of hardwood stands on poor sites to white pine (Pinus strobus L.) was limited mostly to natural white pine reproduction released from a hardwood overstory, either by killing the hardwoods or by removing them through a timber sale. However, in our effort to increase the returns from poor sites in West Virginia (oak site index 45 to 60) we have...

  20. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  1. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Treesearch

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  2. Southern hardwood growth-use gap closing fast as inventories peak

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold

    1989-01-01

    The use of hardwood for pulp and paper furnish and other fiber products is steadily increasing in the U.S. Pulpwood now accounts for half of all hardwood roundwood currently harvested for industrial timber products in the Southeast. In addition to domestic consumption, hardwood exports to Europe and Asia are also expanding, and good portion of these are shipped from...

  3. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the Eastern Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Many markets for hardwood lumber have experienced growth in recent years. Eastern and Central hardwood lumber production reached an estimated 11.2 billion board feet in 1988, a twenty year high. Wood furniture, flooring, and exports have also experienced growth in the last ten years. During the same period, annual growth on eastern hardwood forests has exceeded annual...

  4. Early Stump Sprout Development after Two Levels of Harvest in a Midwestern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Matthew G. Olson; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    Sprouting is an important source of regeneration for hardwood trees but has not been studied extensively in bottomland hardwood forests. We quantified the sprouting responses of 11 bottomland hardwood species or species groups after two levels of overstory harvest, including clearcutting with reserves (CCR) (residual basal area ∼2.0 m2/ha) and...

  5. Impacts of changing hardwood lumber consumption and price on stumpage and sawlog prices in Ohio

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner; T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000s, increasing US furniture imports preceded declining US hardwood lumber demand and price. In the summer of 2002, however, hardwood lumber prices started to increase as demand by construction industries increased. By the mid-2000s, hardwood lumber prices hit all-time highs. Lumber prices hit all-time highs for red oak (Quercus spp...

  6. Changes in Tennessee's secondary hardwood processing and sawmill industries from 2005 to 2009

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Delton Alderman; Doug. Schnabel

    2012-01-01

    Tennessee is in the center of the Eastern hardwood region and has experienced large declines in employment by primary and secondary hardwood processors since 2005 in a pattern similar to the one these processors have experienced nationally. The objective of this article is to examine changes in national hardwood processing industries between 2005 and 2009 and compare...

  7. Understanding chain-of-custody certification in the Appalachian hardwood region: Primary manufacturers' practices and perceptions

    Treesearch

    Iris B. Montague

    2011-01-01

    Many obstacles may deter hardwood manufacturers from obtaining chain-of-custody certification. Because the hardwood and softwood forest products industries have many differences between them, current certification systems may not fit the unique demographics of the hardwood industry. For this reason, it is important to understand chain-of-custody certification as it...

  8. Primary detection of hardwood log defects using laser surface scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Thomas, Liya; Mili, Lamine; Ehrich, Roger W.; Abbott, A. Lynn; Shaffer, Clifford

    2003-05-01

    The use of laser technology to scan hardwood log surfaces for defects holds great promise for improving processing efficiency and the value and volume of lumber produced. External and internal defect detection to optimize hardwood log and lumber processing is one of the top four technological needs in the nation"s hardwood industry. The location, type, and severity of defects on hardwood logs are the key indicators of log quality and value. These visual cues provide information about internal log characteristics and products for which the log is suitable. We scanned 162 logs with a high-resolution industrial four-head laser surface scanner. The resulting data sets contain hundreds of thousands of three-dimensional coordinate points. The size of the data and noise presented special problems during processing. Robust regression models were used to fit geometric shapes to the data. The estimated orthogonal distances between the fitted model and the log surface are converted to a two-dimensional image to facilitate defect detection. Using robust regression methods and standard image processing tools we have demonstrated that severe surface defects on hardwood logs can be detected using height and contour analyses of three-dimensional laser scan data.

  9. Stem cells from deciduous tooth repair mandibular defect in swine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, C M; Zhang, H Y; Li, W H; Shi, S; Le, A D; Wang, S L

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been identified as a new post-natal stem cell population with multipotential differentiation capabilities, including regeneration of mineralized tissues in vivo. To examine the efficacy of utilizing these stem cells in regenerating orofacial bone defects, we isolated stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth and engrafted the critical-size bone defects generated in swine mandible models. Our results indicated that stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth, an autologous and easily accessible stem cell source, were able to engraft and regenerate bone to repair critical-size mandibular defects at 6 months post-surgical reconstruction. This pre-clinical study in a large-animal model, specifically swine, allows for testing of a stem cells/scaffold construct in the restoration of orofacial skeletal defects and provides rapid translation of stem-cell-based therapy in orofacial reconstruction in human clinical trials.

  10. Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth Repair Mandibular Defect in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, C.M.; Zhang, H.Y.; Li, W.H.; Shi, S.; Le, A.D.; Wang, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been identified as a new post-natal stem cell population with multipotential differentiation capabilities, including regeneration of mineralized tissues in vivo. To examine the efficacy of utilizing these stem cells in regenerating orofacial bone defects, we isolated stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth and engrafted the critical-size bone defects generated in swine mandible models. Our results indicated that stem cells from miniature pig deciduous teeth, an autologous and easily accessible stem cell source, were able to engraft and regenerate bone to repair critical-size mandibular defects at 6 months post-surgical reconstruction. This pre-clinical study in a large-animal model, specifically swine, allows for testing of a stem cells/scaffold construct in the restoration of orofacial skeletal defects and provides rapid translation of stem-cell-based therapy in orofacial reconstruction in human clinical trials. PMID:19329459

  11. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Vicent; Marco, Francisco; Cerveró, Júlia; Sánchez-Peña, Gerardo; Sanz, María José

    2010-12-01

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO(2) assimilation and stomatal conductance (g(s)), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V(c,max,)J(max)) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed.

  12. Microscale Pressure Fluctuations Within a Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmon, John Thomas

    Attempts to evaluate sources of errors in estimates of fluxes from forested surfaces have been thwarted by the lack of an accurate description of the nature of air flow within forest canopies. An important property of any boundary layer flow is the occurrence of pressure fluctuations at the boundary and within the flow. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the microscale pressure fluctuations within a forest canopy and the relationship between these fluctuations and the air flow within and above the forest canopy. Pressure fluctuations were measured using a method similar to that developed by J. A. Elliott in 1972. Measurements were taken at the ground and above a deciduous forest canopy. Time series, spectra, and cross-correlations were calculated under different canopy conditions, and relationships between surface pressure fluctuations and mean windspeeds were determined. Turbulent pressure fluctuations at the forest floor did not contain the higher frequencies found over smooth terrain and were continuously occurring at frequencies greater than 0.5 Hz. Somewhat higher frequencies and larger amplitudes occurred in the pressure fluctuations above the canopy after leaf emergence than at the surface. Horizontal length scales many times larger than the average spacing of the overstory trees were predominant. While both leaf emergence of flow-through from an adjacent field had an effect on the mean windspeed profiles, only the flow-through conditions had an effect on the relationship of mean windspeed above the canopy to pressure fluctuation variance at the surface. Pressure fluctuations at the surface appeared coupled at all times to those above the canopy and were directly related to windspeed above the canopy. Pressure eddies were advected downwind at speeds approximating the mean windspeed 6-8 meters above the canopy. Shapes of the pressure spectra were affected slightly by changes in windspeed, and comparisons of spectra above and below the

  13. Relating the temporal change observed by AIRSAR to surface and canopy properties of mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northern Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Mcdonald, Kyle; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

    1991-01-01

    The mixed hardwood and conifer forests of northern Michigan were overflown by a 3-frequency airborne imaging radar in Apr. and Jul. 1990. A set of 10 x 10 km test sites near the University of Michigan Biological Station at Douglas Lake and within the Hiawatha National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan contained training stands representing the various forest species typical of forest communities across the ecotone between the coniferous boreal forest and mid-latitude hardwood and coniferous forests. The polarimetric radar data were externally calibrated to allow interdate comparisons. The Apr. flight was prior to bud-break of deciduous species and patchy snowcover was present. The Jul. flights occurred during and 2 days after heavy rain showers, and provide a unique opportunity to examine the differences in radar backscatter attributable to intercepted precipitation. Analyses show that there are significant changes in backscattering between biophysically dissimilar forest stands on any given date and also between dates for a given forest stand. These differences in backscattering can be related to moisture properties of the forest floor and the overlying canopy and also to the quantity and organizational structure of the above-ground biomass.

  14. Relating the temporal change observed by AIRSAR to surface and canopy properties of mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northern Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Mcdonald, Kyle; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

    1991-01-01

    The mixed hardwood and conifer forests of northern Michigan were overflown by a 3-frequency airborne imaging radar in Apr. and Jul. 1990. A set of 10 x 10 km test sites near the University of Michigan Biological Station at Douglas Lake and within the Hiawatha National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan contained training stands representing the various forest species typical of forest communities across the ecotone between the coniferous boreal forest and mid-latitude hardwood and coniferous forests. The polarimetric radar data were externally calibrated to allow interdate comparisons. The Apr. flight was prior to bud-break of deciduous species and patchy snowcover was present. The Jul. flights occurred during and 2 days after heavy rain showers, and provide a unique opportunity to examine the differences in radar backscatter attributable to intercepted precipitation. Analyses show that there are significant changes in backscattering between biophysically dissimilar forest stands on any given date and also between dates for a given forest stand. These differences in backscattering can be related to moisture properties of the forest floor and the overlying canopy and also to the quantity and organizational structure of the above-ground biomass.

  15. Incremental enamel development in modern human deciduous anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    This study reconstructs incremental enamel development for a sample of modern human deciduous mandibular (n = 42) and maxillary (n = 42) anterior (incisors and canines) teeth. Results are compared between anterior teeth, and with previous research for deciduous molars (Mahoney: Am J Phys Anthropol 144 (2011) 204-214) to identify developmental differences along the tooth row. Two hypotheses are tested: Retzius line periodicity will remain constant in teeth from the same jaw and range from 6 to 12 days among individuals, as in human permanent teeth; daily enamel secretion rates (DSRs) will not vary between deciduous teeth, as in some human permanent tooth types. A further aim is to search for links between deciduous incremental enamel development and the previously reported eruptionsequence. Retzius line periodicity in anterior teeth ranged between 5 and 6 days, but did not differ between an incisor and molar of one individual. Intradian line periodicity was 12 h. Mean cuspal DSRs varied slightly between equivalent regions along the tooth row. Mandibular incisors initiated enamel formation first, had the fastest mean DSRs, the greatest prenatal formation time, and based upon prior studies are the first deciduous tooth to erupt. Relatively rapid development in mandibular incisors in advance of early eruption may explain some of the variation in DSRs along the tooth row that cannot be explained by birth. Links between DSRs, enamel initiation times, and the deciduous eruption sequence are proposed. Anterior crown formation times presented here can contribute toward human infant age-at-death estimates. Regression equations for reconstructing formation time in worn incisors are given.

  16. Aerial spraying of low-grade hardwood stands with 2,4,5-T in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    George W. Wendel

    1966-01-01

    Aerial application of herbicides to poor hardwood stands shows promise of being an effective aid in converting stands of low-grade hardwoods to conifers in West Virginia. Many of the sites now occupied by low-grade hardwoods are incapable of producing quality hardwoods - even under good management - and are generally much better suited to certain conifers, particularly...

  17. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  18. Fate of pulpectomized deciduous teeth: Bilateral odontogenic cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Sandhyarani, B.; Noorani, Hina; Shivaprakash, P. K.; Dayanand, A. Huddar

    2016-01-01

    Pulpectomy is preferably more conservative treatment option than the extraction of deciduous teeth despite few undesirable consequences of obturating materials of which odontogenic cysts are one. This article aims to report a case of an 11-year-old female child having bilateral odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular and infected dentigerous cyst followed by pulpectomy of deciduous molars using zinc oxide eugenol which was surgically enucleated and followed up to 6 months until satisfactory healing of bone was observed. The article also emphasizes on the importance of regular follow-up of the pulpectomized tooth which can be harmful otherwise. PMID:27307677

  19. Winter-Deciduous versus Evergreen Habit in Mediterranean Regions: A Model

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Blumler

    1991-01-01

    Although winter-deciduous species are presumed to be "out-of-phase" with the mediterranean climate regime, distributional evidence suggests some taxa may be more tolerant of summer drought than evergreen sclerophylls. Deciduous species possess several features that confer advantage in extreme summer dry regions: drought-deciduousness, an efficient response to...

  20. Bottomland Hardwood Forests along the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Y.; Nelson, J.C.; Lubinski, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests along the United States' Upper Mississippi River have been drastically reduced in acreage and repeatedly logged during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Conversion to agricultural land, timber harvesting, and river modifications for flood prevention and for navigation were the primary factors that caused the changes. Navigation structures and flood-prevention levees have altered the fluvial geomorphic dynamics of the river and floodplain system. Restoration and maintenance of the diversity, productivity, and natural regeneration dynamics of the bottomland hardwood forests under the modified river environment represent a major management challenge.

  1. Mycorrhizal Response to Experimental pH and P Manipulation in Acidic Hardwood Forests

    PubMed Central

    Kluber, Laurel A.; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R.; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; DeForest, Jared L.; Hewins, Charlotte R.; Shaw, Alanna N.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Burke, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., deciduous forests across eastern Ohio, USA. One year after treatment initiation, AM root biomass was positively correlated with the most available P pool, resin P, while AM colonization was negatively correlated. In total, 15,876 EcM root tips were identified and assigned to 26 genera and 219 operational taxonomic units (97% similarity). Ectomycorrhizal richness and root tip abundance were negatively correlated with the moderately available P pools, while the relative percent of tips colonized by Ascomycetes was positively correlated with soil pH. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed regional, but not treatment, differences in AM communities, while EcM communities had both treatment and regional differences. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between mycorrhizae and the soil environment and further underscore the fact that mycorrhizal communities do not merely

  2. Seasonal patterns of leaf photosynthetic capacity in successional northern hardwood tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Jurik, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Seasonal patterns of leaf photosynthetic capacity and conductance were determined for deciduous hardwood tree species in natural habitats in northern lower Michigan. Leaves of bigtooth aspen and red oak at the top of the canopy had higher maximum CO/sub 2/ Exchange Rate (CER) (10-15 ..mu..mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/) than leaves of sugar maple, red maple, red oak, and beech growing in the understory (4-5 ..mu..mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). In all leaves, CER measured at light-saturation increased to a maximum near the completion of leaf expansion in early June, was constant until mid-September, and then rapidly declined until leaf death. A similar pattern was seen for CER measured in low light (1.5% full sun). Respiration rate in the dark was highest in young leaves and decreased during leaf expansion; a relatively constant rate was then maintained for the rest of leaf lifespan. The seasonal pattern of the initial slope of the light response of CER paralleled the pattern of light-saturated CER. The initial slope in midsummer ranged from values of 37 to 44 ..mu..mol/mol for species in the understory to 51 and 56 ..mu..mol/mol for red oak and bigtooth aspen, respectively, at the top of the canopy. Leaf conductance was constant throughout most of leaf lifespan, with some decline occurring in autumn. Leaves at the top of the canopy had higher conductances for water vapor (2-5 mm/s) than leaves in the understory (1-2 mm/s). All species maintained leaf intercellular CO/sub 2/ mole fractions (c/sub i/) near 200 ..mu..L/L until autumn, when c/sub i/ increased during leaf senescence.

  3. Enhanced degradation of softwood versus hardwood by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus coccineus.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Marie; Navarro, David; Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Piumi, François; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Grigoriev, Igor V; Riley, Robert; Lipzen, Anna; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Master, Emma R; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle

    2015-01-01

    White-rot basidiomycete fungi are potent degraders of plant biomass, with the ability to mineralize all lignocellulose components. Recent comparative genomics studies showed that these fungi use a wide diversity of enzymes for wood degradation. Deeper functional analyses are however necessary to understand the enzymatic mechanisms leading to lignocellulose breakdown. The Polyporale fungus Pycnoporus coccineus BRFM310 grows well on both coniferous and deciduous wood. In the present study, we analyzed the early response of the fungus to softwood (pine) and hardwood (aspen) feedstocks and tested the effect of the secreted enzymes on lignocellulose deconstruction. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses revealed that P. coccineus grown separately on pine and aspen displayed similar sets of transcripts and enzymes implicated in lignin and polysaccharide degradation. In particular, the expression of lignin-targeting oxidoreductases, such as manganese peroxidases, increased upon cultivation on both woods. The sets of enzymes secreted during growth on both pine and aspen were more efficient in saccharide release from pine than from aspen, and characterization of the residual solids revealed polysaccharide conversion on both pine and aspen fiber surfaces. The combined analysis of soluble sugars and solid residues showed the suitability of P. coccineus secreted enzymes for softwood degradation. Analyses of solubilized products and residual surface chemistries of enzyme-treated wood samples pointed to differences in fiber penetration by different P. coccineus secretomes. Accordingly, beyond the variety of CAZymes identified in P. coccineus genome, transcriptome and secretome, we discuss several parameters such as the abundance of manganese peroxidases and the potential role of cytochrome P450s and pectin degradation on the efficacy of fungi for softwood conversion.

  4. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Kluber, Laurel A; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Coyle, Kaitlin P; DeForest, Jared L; Hewins, Charlotte R; Shaw, Alanna N; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., deciduous forests across eastern Ohio, USA. One year after treatment initiation, AM root biomass was positively correlated with the most available P pool, resin P, while AM colonization was negatively correlated. In total, 15,876 EcM root tips were identified and assigned to 26 genera and 219 operational taxonomic units (97% similarity). Ectomycorrhizal richness and root tip abundance were negatively correlated with the moderately available P pools, while the relative percent of tips colonized by Ascomycetes was positively correlated with soil pH. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed regional, but not treatment, differences in AM communities, while EcM communities had both treatment and regional differences. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between mycorrhizae and the soil environment and further underscore the fact that mycorrhizal communities do not merely

  5. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  6. Effects of Multiple Photon Scattering in Deciduous Tree Canopies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    SCATTERING IN DECIDUOUS TREE CANOPIES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F 6. AUTHOR(S...where mh 18= , 16132.0 −= mLm , and 85.0=hzm . Note that the value for mL corresponds to our own experimental results, as will be described in Section 4

  7. Fire ecology and bird populations in eastern deciduous forests

    Treesearch

    Vanessa L. Artman; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jeffrey D. Brawn; Jeffrey D. Brawn

    2005-01-01

    Eastern deciduous forests are located across the central portion of eastern North America and provide habitat for a wide diversity of bird species. The occurrence of fi re in the region has been associated with the presence of humans for over 10,000 yr. While pre-European fire regimes are poorly understood, fire is widely thought to have promoted and maintained large...

  8. Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) breeding in deciduous forests

    Treesearch

    Carl D. Marti

    1997-01-01

    The first studies of nesting Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) established the idea that the species needs ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests for breeding. In northern Utah, Flammulated Owls nested in montane deciduous forests dominated by quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). No pines were present but...

  9. Plant Identification Characteristics for Deciduous Trees & Shrubs. Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Kathy

    This manual contains a group of lesson plans designed for use with a slide series (not included here). Its purpose is to introduce students to the basic concepts and terminology used in the identification of deciduous trees and shrubs. The manual is composed of 12 lesson plans. The first lesson is an introduction to plant identification. The…

  10. Nanomechanical characterization of exfoliated and retained deciduous incisors.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-01-01

    The anisotropic natures of dental tissues result in variable properties from one point to the other within the same tooth. The aim of this study was to analyze deciduous incisors enamel and dentin for elastic modulus and hardness. In addition, retained deciduous incisors were assessed to compare properties with exfoliated teeth. Deciduous mandibular incisors either exfoliated at physiological age or retained were included in this study. Samples were prepared by dissecting teeth in transverse sections and surfaces under investigation were prepared and polished for nanoindentation. Nanoindentation was performed at multiple sites using Hysitron [TI 725 Ubi] testing instrument. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20) to calculate absolute hardness and elastic modulus. The statistical significance was calculated using the t-test. The hardness of human deciduous incisor varies between 0.01-7 GPa. The highest value of hardness was observed for the incisal edge (5.09 ± 0.64 GPa) followed by mid-surface enamel and cervical enamel. The hardness of mantle dentin was (0.56 ± 0.19 GPa) and the inner dentin was (0.34 ± 0.12 GPa). The average hardness of primary teeth enamel is lower than permanent teeth enamel. The hardness of retained teeth enamel is greater than exfoliated teeth however lower than permanent teeth enamel of the equivalent region.

  11. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Barton D. Clinton; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality...

  12. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yue; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Zhen, Xin; Yan, Guijun; Sun, Haixiang

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Decidually produced PRL plays a key role during pregnancy. {yields} Overexpression of Nur77 increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter activity. {yields} Knockdown of Nur77 decreased decidual PRL secretion induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. {yields} Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression. -- Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized and released by several extrapituitary tissues, including decidualized stromal cells. Despite the important role of decidual PRL during pregnancy, little is understood about the factors involved in the proper regulation of decidual PRL expression. Here we present evidence that the transcription factor Nur77 plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs). Nur77 mRNA expression in hESCs was significantly increased after decidualization stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 in hESCs markedly increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter (dPRL/-332Luc) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nur77 in hESCs significantly decreased decidual PRL promoter activation and substantially attenuated PRL mRNA expression and PRL secretion (P < 0.01) induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. These results demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that contributes significantly to the regulation of prolactin gene expression in human endometrial stromal cells.

  13. Proceedings: guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H Clay Smith; Maxine C. Eye

    1986-01-01

    How to do it, that is what this workshop is all about. This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands. We all have dozens of questions and concerns and though several of these will be answered, some will not. Basically, guidelines are "guides" and...

  14. Feasibility of harvesting southern hardwood trees by extraction

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Sirois

    1977-01-01

    A Rome TXH Tree Extractor was used to explore the harvesting of four species of southern hardwoods by extraction. The test indicate that harvesting by extraction is feasible for harvestang, if tree size is limited to 9 inches DBH or less. Stump and below ground biomass averaged 18 percent of total tree biomass.

  15. Development of a Southern Appalachian Hardwood Stand After Clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Beck; Ralph M. Hooper

    1986-01-01

    A mixed hardwood stand composed of 53% oak (Quercus spp.), 33% yellow-poplar(Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and 14% other species, was clearcut in 1963. Twenty years later a developing, even-aged stand of predominantly sprout origin is dominated by yellow-poplar, black locust(Robinia pseudoacacia L.), redmaple (...

  16. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  17. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  18. Achieving restoration success: myths in bottomland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Callie Jo Schweitzer; James P. Shepard

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of bottomland hardwood forests is the subject of considerable interest in the Southern United States, but restoration success is elusive. Techniques for establishing bottomland tree species are well developed, yet problems have occurred in operational programs. Current plans for restoration on public and private land suggest that as many as 200,000 ha could...

  19. Utilizing hardwood logging residue: a case study in the Appalachians

    Treesearch

    E. Paul Craft

    1976-01-01

    An Appalachian hardwood timber stand that contained 6,700 board feet per acre of sawtimber was harvested by clearcutting. After the merchantable sawlogs were removed, this stand contained 69.3 tons per acre of green wood residue. Thirty-three and one-third tons of residue were from tops of merchantable sawtimber; 36 tons were from residual trees. Treetop residue...

  20. Green Lumber Grade Yields for Subfactory Class Hardwood Logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Leland F. Hanks

    1973-01-01

    Data on lumber grade yields for subfactory class logs are presented for ten species of hardwoods. Eogs of this type are expected to assume greater importance in the market. The yields, when coupled with lumber prices, will be useful to sawmill operators for developing log prices in terms of standard factory lumber.

  1. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Treesearch

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  2. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  3. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  4. Ground cover management in walnut and other hardwood plantings

    Treesearch

    J.W. Van Sambeek; H.E. Garrett

    2004-01-01

    Ground cover management in walnut plantings and established stands can include (1) manipulating the resident vegetation, (2) mechanical control, (3) chemical control, (4) mulching, (5) planting cover crops, or (6) interplanting woody nurse crops. Data from over 110 reports were used to compile a database that compared growth of black walnut and other hardwoods under...

  5. Thinning southern bottomland hardwoods stands: Insect and disease consideratons

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker; Theodor D. Leininger; James S. Meadows; Michael D. Warriner

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thinning on insects and diseases have not been thoroughly examined in southern bottomland hardwood forests. To adress this issue, a study was initiated at sites in Mississippi and Alabama. These study sites allowed us to make observations concerning insect and disease activity 1-5 years following thinning. On all sites there was an unthinned control and...

  6. Observed Methods for Felling Hardwood Trees with Chain Saws

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Koger

    1983-01-01

    The angles and lengths of the cutting surfaces made by chain saw operators on hardwood tree stumps are described by means, standard deviations, ranges, and regression equations. Recommended felling guidelines are compared with observed felling methods used by experienced timber cutters in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

  7. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  8. Weights of the Small Appalachian Hardwood Trees and Components

    Treesearch

    Jeffery L. Wartluft

    1977-01-01

    A large portion of logging residues and materials removed in thinning consists of trees 1 to 10 inches dbh (diameter at breast height). As part of research to achieve increased utilization of these small trees, whole-tree weight tables and prediction equations were developed for small Appalachian hardwoods, based on a sample of 200 trees of 17 species from a site in...

  9. An Old-Growth Definition for Southern Mixed Hardwood Forests

    Treesearch

    William B. Batista; William J. Platt

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an old-growth definition for the southern mixed hardwood forests based on five exemplary stands that show no evidence of having undergone any natural catastrophe or clearcutting for at least 200 years. This forest type occurs in the U.S. southeastern Coastal Plain from the Carolinas to eastern Texas. The exemplary old-growth stands were restricted...

  10. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith

    1976-01-01

    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  11. Central hardwood forests: recent trends in a robust resource

    Treesearch

    T. W. Birch; D. A. Gansner; W. H. McWilliams

    1993-01-01

    Re-inventories completed for each of four Central Hardwood States (Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) show that forest area is increasing and stocking hit new highs; there is 27 percent more growing-stock volume than a decade ago. Large increases in volume have been recorded for all but the smallest diameter classes. Volume in trees 15 inches in diameter...

  12. The impact of deer browsing on Allegheny hardwood regeneration

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of deer browsing on Allegheny hardwood regeneration, surveys were made of vegetation inside and outside deer exclosures in 13 stands that had been clearcut 5 to 16 years earlier. The surveys showed that browsing by white-tailed deer has resulted in regeneration failures in 25 to 40 percent of the areas studied. Pin cherry and sugar maple were the...

  13. Properties of flakeboards from hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Treesearch

    C. -Y. Hse

    1975-01-01

    Boards 0.5 inch thick were made from 3-inch-long flakes of 9 species of southern hardwoods commonly found on pine sites. The main effects of species were due to variation in wood density; low-density species compacted readily when pressed, and the resulting good flake contact improved bonding and gave boards of high strength. With species having specific gravities...

  14. Sediment dynamics and sources in a grazed hardwood rangeland watershed

    Treesearch

    Melvin R. George; Neil K. McDougald; Kenneth W. Tate; Royce Larsen

    2002-01-01

    From 1994 to 1998 we documented sediment transport dynamics and sources in a 137 ha grazed hardwood rangeland watershed on granitic soils at the San Joaquin Experimental Range in Madera County. Sediment transport for this watershed was determined by measuring total suspended solids, bedload and flow at an H-flume installed in 1994. Sediment movement as bedload is the...

  15. An investigation of selected factors that influence hardwood wettability

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Wan H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Wettability of sanded and non-sanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwoods species was judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol formaldehyde resins. As expected, contact angle values on transverse sections were higher than those on tangential sections for both sanded and non-sanded surfaces. On sanded surfaces, hackberry had the...

  16. Software analyzes feasibility of saw kerf reduction for hardwood mills

    Treesearch

    Philip H. Steele

    2005-01-01

    Reductions in saw kerf on head rigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery in hardwood sawmills. Research has shown that lumber sawing variation reduction will increase lumber recovery above that obtained solely from kerf reduction. Reductions in sawing machine kerf or variation always come at some cost in both capital and variable costs. Determining...

  17. An investigation of factors affecting wettability of some southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Wan H. Wang

    1999-01-01

    >Wettability of sanded and nonsanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwood species were[was] judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol-formaldehyde resins. As ex­pected, contact angle values on transverse sec­tions were higher than on tangential sections for both sanded and...

  18. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Treesearch

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  19. Red spruce/hardwood ecotones in the central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Harold S. Adams; Steven L. Stephenson; David M. Lawrence; Mary Beth Adams; John D. Eisenback

    1995-01-01

    We are currently investigating patterns of species composition and distribution, ecologically important population processes, and microenvironmental gradients along ten permanent transects (each consisting of a series of. contiguous 10 x 10 m quadrats) established across the typically abrupt and narrow spruce/hardwood ecotone at seven localities in the mountains of...

  20. Study Cold-Soaking Treatment of Posts of Delta Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    G. M. Furnival

    1954-01-01

    In 1953, a study was begun at the Delta Branch of the Southern Forest Experiment Station to determine whether fence posts cut from Delta hardwoods can be treated satisfactorily by cold-soaking in pentacholorophenol. Species included in the test were overcup oak, red oak (water oaks) sweetgum, tupelo, privet, boxelder, hackberry, hickory, cedar elm, American elm, and...

  1. New technology for low-grade hardwood utilization: System 6

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1982-01-01

    System 6 is a technology for converting low-grade hardwood to high-valued end products such as furniture and kitchen cabinets. Among its concepts are: (1) a new, nonlumber product called standard-size blanks; (2) highly automated methods of converting the logs to blanks; (3) total processing of every board that contains a minimum-size cutting; and (4) minimized machine...

  2. Collecting dormant hardwood cuttings for western riparian restoration projects

    Treesearch

    Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2006-01-01

    Dormant hardwood cuttings are sections of woody stems that can develop into new plants complete with stems, leaves, and roots. Cuttings differ from seedlings because all new daughter plants that arise from cuttings are genetically identical to the parent plant. Cuttings can be long or short, depending on how they are used.

  3. Simulation of hydrology of short rotation hardwood plantations

    Treesearch

    John E. Parsons; Carl C. Trettin

    2001-01-01

    A 76 ha hardwood plantation at Trice Research Forest near Sumter, SC is being usedto study forest hydrology on an operational scale. The overall objective of this project is to develop tools to enable forest managers to assess and manage sustainable short rotation woody crop production systems. This paper reports on the use of the water management model, WATRCOM, as a...

  4. Modeling the regeneration of northern hardwoods with FOREGEN

    Treesearch

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stochastic model FOREGEN that simulates regeneration in openings in northern hardwood stands that range in size from clearcuts of 2,000 by 2,000 feet to single-tree openings of 25 by 25 feet. The model incorporates the effects of seed development, dispersal, germination, seedbed conditions, advanced regeneration, and weather. Users can specify options on...

  5. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  6. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System Technology for the Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    For the last few years the authors have been extolling the virtues of a multiple sensor approach to hardwood defect detection. Since 1989 the authors have actively been trying to develop such a system. This paper details some of the successes and failures that have been experienced to date. It also discusses what remains to be done and gives time lines for the...

  7. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1992-01-01

    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  8. Marking guides for northern hardwoods under the selection system

    Treesearch

    Carl, Jr. Arbogast

    1957-01-01

    The preparation of these guides has been a joint undertaking of research and national forest administration. Reviews and suggestions of other members of the Station who are active in northern hardwood research were helpful, especially those from men working at the Upper Peninsula Research Center in Marquette, Mich., and the Northern Lakes Research Center in Wausau, Wis...

  9. Hardwood timber resources of the Douglas-fir subregion.

    Treesearch

    Melvin E. Metcalf

    1965-01-01

    The statistics on hardwood timber volume and type area presented here are being made available in response to the increasing interest in this resource in western Oregon and western Washington. These estimates are based on data obtained by the U.S. Forest Service in the course of timber inventories carried out by National Forest Administration on National Forest lands...

  10. Financial aspects of partial cutting practices in central Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Gary W. Miller

    1993-01-01

    Uneven-aged silvicultural practices can be used to regenerate and manage many eastern hardwood stands. Single-tree selection methods are feasible in stands where a desirable shade-tolerant commercial species can be regenerated following periodic harvests. A variety of partial cutting practices, including single-tree selection and diameter-limit cutting have been used...

  11. Competition and climate affects US hardwood-forest tree mortality

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Individual-tree measurements have been collected periodically on sites established in Kentucky, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania to investigate the effects of thinning on the growth and yield of valuable hardwood species. These plots were installed between 1959 and 1985. The long-term characteristics of this data set of 47,853 trees allowed us to investigate potential...

  12. The changing market for hardwood plywood stock panels.

    Treesearch

    Gary R. Lindell

    1972-01-01

    The major end product for hardwood plywood (usually birch) stock panels in 1970 was kitchen cabinets. About 1/3 of the volume was shipped to the Pacific region. Over 1/3 of the responses by wholesalers indicated that stock panel sales had declined over the preceding 3 years, chiefly because of the inroads being made by plastic covered particleboard panels. The...

  13. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    Treesearch

    David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  14. Growth and Survival of Northern Hardwood Sprouts After Burning

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Root collar sprouting of nine hardwoods was measured annually after a prescribed burn. Basswood, red oak, and paper birch were the most vigorous sprouters; sugar maple and yellow birch the least; and American elm, bur oak, ironwood and red maple were intermediate. Parent tree diameter influenced spreading.

  15. Red maple development in mixed hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Brian Tift

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that red maple (Acer rubrum) may become a more prominent species in eastern mixed hardwood stands. This study will examine the strategies used by red maple to reach dominant and codominant canopy positions on two different stands (one mesic and one drier). Stand level data such as dbh, height, crown class, height class, and...

  16. CT Imaging of Hardwood Logs for Lumber Production

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; A. Lynn Abbott

    1996-01-01

    Hardwood sawmill operators need to improve the conversion of raw material (logs) into lumber. Internal log scanning provides detailed information that can aid log processors in improving lumber recovery. However, scanner data (i.e. tomographic images) need to be analyzed prior to presentation to saw operators. Automatic labeling of computer tomography (CT) images is...

  17. Robust Spatial Autoregressive Modeling for Hardwood Log Inspection

    Treesearch

    Dongping Zhu; A.A. Beex

    1994-01-01

    We explore the application of a stochastic texture modeling method toward a machine vision system for log inspection in the forest products industry. This machine vision system uses computerized tomography (CT) imaging to locate and identify internal defects in hardwood logs. The application of CT to such industrial vision problems requires efficient and robust image...

  18. The economic potential of CT scanners for hardwood sawmills

    Treesearch

    Donald G. Hodges; Walter C. Anderson; Charles W. McMillin

    1990-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a knowledge of internal log defects prior to sawing could improve lumber value yields significantly. This study evaluated the potential economic returns from investments in computerized tomographic (CT) scanners to detect internal defects in hardwood logs at southern sawmills. The results indicate that such investments would be profitable...

  19. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Treesearch

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  20. CT Imaging, Data Reduction, and Visualization of Hardwood Logs

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is a mathematical technique that, combined with noninvasive scanning such as x-ray imaging, has become a powerful tool to nondestructively test materials prior to use or to evaluate materials prior to processing. In the current context, hardwood lumber processing can benefit greatly by knowing what a log looks like prior to initial breakdown....

  1. A CT-based Simulator for Hardwood Log Veneering

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Profits for hardwood veneer manufacturers are dependent on proper initial log breakdown (flitching) decisions. While human skill is often adequate to ãreadä bark indicators of internal defects, it is much more difficult to envision potential veneer patterns that result from different flitching options. Different veneer patterns greatly affect potential markets and...

  2. OPTIGRAMI: Optimum lumber grade mix program for hardwood dimension parts

    Treesearch

    David G. Martens; Jr., Robert L. Nevel; Jr. Nevel

    1985-01-01

    With rapidly increasing lumber prices and shortages of some grades and species, the furniture industry must find ways to use its hardwood lumber resource more efficiently. A computer program called OPTIGRAMI is designed to help managers determine the best lumber to use in producing furniture parts. OPTIGRAMI determines the least-cost grade mix of lumber required to...

  3. Designing and establishing a fine hardwood timber plantation

    Treesearch

    James R. McKenna; Lenny D. Farlee

    2013-01-01

    Today, new tools and lessons learned from established plantations of black walnut and other fine hardwoods can provide landowners with guidelines to design and establish successful plantations to produce quality timber for the future. From earlier plantations now maturing, we can recognize design features critical during establishment. Current production practices...

  4. Survey of Root and Shoot Cultural Practices for Hardwood Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Harry L. Vanderveer

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of selected forest seedling nursery managers was conducted in early 2004. About 2 dozen managers were contacted and asked to respond during a brief (15 to 30 minute) conversation about the current practices they employ to manage root and shoot growth of hardwood seedlings. The participants involved were evenly split between public agencies (...

  5. Perceived impacts of disturbance in central hardwood ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John Hetherington; John Burde

    1997-01-01

    The intent of this research was to empirically identify and estimate the relationship between perceived scenic beauty and biophysical resources of hardwood stands in southeast Missouri under various disturbance regimes. The scenic effects of different harvest methods, wind, and fire were systematically investigated using a psychophysical approach. Ratings of scenic...

  6. Edge-glued panels from Alaska hardwoods: retail manager perspectives

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner; Valerie Barber

    2010-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) are both lesser-known hardwoods grown, harvested, and manufactured into appearance products, with potential for increased utilization. The production of edgeglued panels from red alder and paper birch offers one expansion opportunity for wood...

  7. Mistletoes on Hardwoods in the United States (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1974-01-01

    The traditional use of mistletoes during holiday seasons, their involvement in folklore and legend, their consumption by domestic and wild animals, and their use for medicinal purposes make mistletoes of widespread interest to the public. The fact that these plants are parasites that injure and eventually kill trees both conifers and hardwoods is not well known. Two...

  8. Seasonal influence on Ohio hardwood stumpage price trends

    Treesearch

    T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    The average annual percentage rates of change in real sawtimber stumpage prices from 1978 through 2012 (dollars per thousand board feet, Doyle) for the 10 commercial hardwood species of Ohio were determined. Each species was then further examined for differing trend lines between the spring and fall reporting periods. Annual real rates of change ranged from -1.10...

  9. Response of northern hardwood forests to nutrient perturbation

    Treesearch

    Christopher Eagar; Scott Bailey; Amey Bailey

    1999-01-01

    Substantial amounts of calcium have been depleted from the soils of northern hardwood forests in northern New Engtand over the past 50 years. Portions of this depleted calcium have been incorporated into the biomass of the aggrading forests; however, significant amounts have been leached into drainage waters and lost from the ecosystem.

  10. Current status of the U.S. hardwood industry

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. manufacturing sector has seen challenging years during the past decades. The major driver behind the decline of U.S. manufacturing prowess has been the ongoing globalization of trade, which has brought market share losses for U.S.-based manufacturing in many hardwood lumber consuming industries. The wood furniture, flooring, and millwork industries, for...

  11. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  12. Influence of fertilizer on seed production in Allegheny hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    John C. Bjorkbom; L.R. Auchmoody; Donald E. Dorn

    1979-01-01

    Fertilizers applied in spring can stimulate production of black cherry and red maple seeds in Allegheny hardwood stands. Increased seed production begins in the year after application, but lasts only about 2 years. However, fertilizers do not increase seed production of individual black cherry trees that have a history of poor production, and they do not eliminate seed...

  13. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  14. Technical guide to crop tree release in hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Jeffrey W. Stringer; David C. Mercker

    2007-01-01

    Crop tree release (CTR) is a widely applicable silvicultural technique used to enhance the performance of individual trees. It offers flexibility in that it can be applied on small or large properties, and with certain modifications, it can be applied as a precommercial or commercial operation. By favoring the development of selected crop trees within a hardwood stand...

  15. Water Quality Effects of Forest Roads in Bottomland Hardwood Stands

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer

    1999-01-01

    Management of bottomland hardwood sites requires adequate access to support forest operations. A study conducted in a bottomland forest in central Georgia has evaluated the effect of forest road design on sediment movement and water quality. Five years of measurement indicate that a conventional crowned road design is a net sink for sediment, primarily due to settling...

  16. Guidelines for evaluating regeneration before and after clearcutting Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; John C. Bjorkbom

    1982-01-01

    Use of the guides presented here will enable selection of Allegheny hardwood stands most likely to regenerate successfully after clearcutting. The guides are based on how well before-logging criteria predicted success in a number of stands 5 years after cutting. In comparison to earlier information, these guidelines recommend more small reproduction and higher quality...

  17. Excessive exposure stimulates epicormic branching in young northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Barton M. Blum

    1963-01-01

    Sudden and excessive exposure of northern hardwood trees often causes growth responses that degrade tree quality, injuries that lead to tree deterioration, or both. The most sensitive and visible tree reaction to increased exposure is the formation of epicormic branches. Such branches may arise along the tree bole from either dormant or adventitious buds in response to...

  18. South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, interior west room showing hardwood floor; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Telephone Switchboard Building, South side of Weymouth Way, approximately 100 feet west of East Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  19. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  20. Computer Vision Systems for Hardwood Logs and Lumber

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners

    1991-01-01

    Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...