NOLAN, MARIE T.; HUGHES, MARK T.; KUB, JOAN; TERRY, PETER B.; ASTROW, ALAN; THOMPSON, RICHARD E.; CLAWSON, LORA; TEXEIRA, KENNETH; SULMASY, DANIEL P.
Objective Several studies have reported high levels of distress in family members who have made health care decisions for loved ones at the end of life. A method is needed to assess the readiness of family members to take on this important role. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure family member confidence in making decisions with (conscious patient scenario) and for (unconscious patient scenario) a terminally ill loved one. Methods On the basis of a survey of family members of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) enriched by in-depth interviews guided by Self-Efficacy Theory, we developed six themes within family decision making self-efficacy. We then created items reflecting these themes that were refined by a panel of end-of-life research experts. With 30 family members of patients in an outpatient ALS and a pancreatic cancer clinic, we tested the tool for internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha and for consistency from one administration to another using the test–retest reliability assessment in a subset of 10 family members. Items with item to total scale score correlations of less than .40 were eliminated. Results A 26-item scale with two 13-item scenarios resulted, measuring family self-efficacy in decision making for a conscious or unconscious patient with a Cronbach’s alphas of .91 and .95, respectively. Test–retest reliability was r = .96, p = .002 in the conscious senario and r = .92, p = .009 in the unconscious scenario. Significance of results The Family Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale is valid, reliable, and easily completed in the clinic setting. It may be used in research and clinical care to assess the confidence of family members in their ability to make decisions with or for a terminally ill loved one. PMID:19788773
Limardi, S; Rocco, G; Stievano, A; Vellone, E; Valle, A; Torino, F; Alvaro, R
Nurses, following their ethical mandate, collaborate with other health and social professionals or people involved in caring activities. Caregivers in this context are becoming more and more significant for the family or the cared person, who for their stable presence and emotional proximity play a pivotal caring role. To maximize the contribution of caregivers, objective tools that emphasize their skill sets are necessary. The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale is part of a larger project aimed at understanding the resilience of caregivers in the field of palliative care. Self-efficacy is one of the aspects of personality most closely associated with resilience. Self-efficacy is shown in a specific context, therefore, its study and evaluation of its level, require capabilities that enable individuals perceive themselves as effective in a particular circumstance. The Family Decision Making Self- Efficacy Scale assesses the behavior of caregivers of patients at the end of their life. The Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale was translated (forward and back translation) and was adapted to the Italian clinical cultural setting by a research team that included experts in palliative care, native translators with experience in nursing and experts in nursing. A consensus on the wording of each item in relation to semantic, idiomatic, experiential and conceptual equivalence was sought. The clarity of the wording and the pertinence of the items of the scenario with the conscious patient and with the unconscious patient were evaluated by a group of caregivers who tested the instrument. The Italian version of the instrument included 12 items for the scenario with the conscious patient and 12 for the scenario with the unconscious patient. The working group expressed consensus on the pretesting version of the instrument. The pre-testing version of the scale was tested on 60 caregivers, 47 taking care of conscious
Paulsen, Alisa M.; Betz, Nancy E.
The extent to which Basic Confidence Scales predicted career decision-making self-efficacy was studied in a sample of 627 undergraduate students. Six confidence variables accounted for 49% of the variance in career decision-making self-efficacy. Leadership confidence was the most important, but confidence in science, mathematics, writing, using…
Lumpkin, Angela; Franco, Dan; Multon, Karen; Achen, Rebecca M.
Grounded in a social cognitive theoretical perspective, this study explores the career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) and vocational identity development process for college students interested or majoring in sport management. While a popular undergraduate major, little research has investigated the specific factors that influence different…
Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…
Yao, Chen; Cai, Yun; Liu, Jia; Shan, Dan; Zhou, Xia
The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship among Career Decision-Making Self Efficacy, existential anxiety and anxiety in the sample of college students during the professional choice. Data on The Revised Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Shot Form, Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS), SCL-90 and self-identity status were collected and analyzed on a sample of 500 college students. 201 rural students' career decision making self-efficacy scores were as follows: self-appraisal (12.58 ± 3.48), occupational information (12.07 ± 3.05), goal selection (12.48 ± 3.51), planning (12.17 ± 3.10), problem solving (9.75 ± 2.38), all scores were lower than urban students, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Rural Students' anxiety dimension score were as follows: death and the fate of anxiety (14.75 ± 2.56), the meaningless and empty anxiety (19.32 ± 2.88), condemnation and guilt anxiety (13.72 ± 2.38), alienation and loneliness anxiety (16.82 ± 2.51), all scores are higher than urban students, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There is negative correlation between Anxiety and career decision making self-efficacy. There is a significant positive correlation between anxiety and existential anxiety. There exists a significant negative correlation among factors of student and career decision making self-efficacy and anxiety. Meaningless and emptiness anxiety on career decision making self-efficacy are significant predictors. There is negative correlation among existential anxiety, occupational information and anxiety during the professional choice.
Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.
Can taking the first (TTF) option in decision-making lead to the best decisions in sports contexts? And, is one's decision-making self-efficacy in that context linked to TTF decisions? The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the TTF heuristic and self-efficacy in decision-making on a simulated sports task. Undergraduate and graduate…
Burns, Gary N.; Jasinski, Dale; Dunn, Steve; Fletcher, Duncan
This study examined the relationship between evaluations of academic support services and student athletes' career decision-making self-efficacy. One hundred and fifty-eight NCAA athletes (68% male) from 11 Division I teams completed measures of satisfaction with their academic support services, career decision-making self-efficacy, general…
Profiles of 104 welfare recipients in Georgia were examined to identify social indicators and cognitive variables that influenced work role participation. Three instruments were administered the Career Thought Inventory, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, and the demographic profile and participation scale of the Salience…
Chung, Y. Barry
Analysis of responses from 165 undergraduates on the Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale revealed high internal consistency for the instrument and moderate correlation between it and the Career Commitment Scale. No gender or ethnic differences were found in this correlation. Blacks scored significantly higher than whites on both measures.…
Bullock-Yowell, Emily; McConnell, Amy E.; Schedin, Emily A.
The career concern differences between undecided and decided college students (N = 223) are examined. Undecided college students (n = 83) reported lower career decision-making self-efficacy, higher incidences of negative career thoughts, and more career decision-making difficulties than their decided peers (n = 143). Results reveal that undecided…
Wang, Jingxia; Guo, Rui; Liu, Minhui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ren, Lu; Sun, Mei; Tang, Siyuan
Developing countries face a shortage of nurses with higher education, such as those with a master's degree. However, few studies have investigated the interaction between career decision and professional commitment (PC) of nursing students, especially for postgraduates. This study performed correlation analysis for career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) and PC of 545 nursing postgraduate students from nursing schools at 19 universities or colleges throughout mainland China, who came from different regions, and possessed different years of study and different types of degrees as well as part-time job experiences. Data reliability and validity were confirmed for both Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale for university students (CDMSE-R) and Professional Commitment Questionnaire (PCQ). We found positive correlations between factors of PC and CDMSE. The score of CDMSE was different between regions, degree types, grades, and part-time job experiences. According to our results, we suggest nursing education or career advisory services should promote the PC of nursing students according to factors of their CDMSE scores.
Hepler, Teri J; Feltz, Deborah L
Can taking the first (TTF) option in decision-making lead to the best decisions in sports contexts? And, is one's decision-making self-efficacy in that context linked to TTF decisions? The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the TTF heuristic and self-efficacy in decision-making on a simulated sports task. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 72) participated in the study and performed 13 trials in each of two video-based basketball decision tasks. One task required participants to verbally generate options before making a final decision on what to do next, while the other task simply asked participants to make a decision regarding the next move as quickly as possible. Decision-making self-efficacy was assessed using a 10-item questionnaire comprising various aspects of decision-making in basketball. Participants also rated their confidence in the final decision. Results supported many of the tenets of the TTF heuristic, such that people used the heuristic on a majority of the trials (70%), earlier generated options were better than later ones, first options were meaningfully generated, and final options were meaningfully selected. Results did not support differences in dynamic inconsistency or decision confidence based on the number of options. Findings also supported the link between self-efficacy and the TTF heuristic. Participants with higher self-efficacy beliefs used TTF more frequently and generated fewer options than those with low self-efficacy. Thus, not only is TTF an important heuristic when making decisions in dynamic, time-pressure situations, but self-efficacy plays an influential role in TTF.
The purpose of this study was to examine what career development variables, according to the Social Cognitive Career Theory, contribute to career decision-making self-efficacy, one of the key components of career development in a sample of Asian American undergraduate college students. The career literature is historically limited in empirical…
Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Andrews, Lindsay; Buzzetta, Mary E.
The authors explore the hypothesis that career decision-making self-efficacy could be affected by negative career thoughts, Big Five personality factors, and cultural mistrust in a sample of African American and Caucasian college students. Findings demonstrated that negative career thinking, openness, and conscientiousness explained a significant…
Brown, Chris; Lavish, Lea A.
One hundred thirty-seven Native American college students currently attending a tribal college were surveyed regarding their life-role salience and career decision-making self-efficacy. Also included was an examination of students reason for attending college. Findings revealed that although participation, commitment, and value expectations for…
Ng, Yew Keong; Shah, Noraida Mohamed; Loong, Ly Sia; Pee, Lay Ting; Hidzir, Sarina Anim M; Chong, Wei Wen
Purpose This study investigated patients’ and pharmacists’ attitudes toward concordance in a pharmacist–patient consultation and how patients’ attitudes toward concordance relate to their involvement and self-efficacy in decision making associated with medication use. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with chronic diseases and pharmacists from three public hospitals in Malaysia. The Revised United States Leeds Attitudes toward Concordance (RUS-LATCon) was used to measure attitudes toward concordance in both patients and pharmacists. Patients also rated their perceived level of involvement in decision making and completed the Decision Self-Efficacy scale. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-test were used to determine significant differences between different subgroups on attitudes toward concordance, and multiple linear regression was performed to find the predictors of patients’ self-efficacy in decision making. Results A total of 389 patients and 93 pharmacists participated in the study. Pharmacists and patients scored M=3.92 (SD=0.37) and M=3.84 (SD=0.46) on the RUS-LATCon scale, respectively. Seven items were found to be significantly different between pharmacists and patients on the subscale level. Patients who felt fully involved in decision making (M=3.94, SD=0.462) scored significantly higher on attitudes toward concordance than those who felt partially involved (M=3.82, SD=0.478) and not involved at all (M=3.68, SD=0.471; p<0.001). Patients had an average score of 76.7% (SD=14.73%) on the Decision Self-Efficacy scale. In multiple linear regression analysis, ethnicity, number of medications taken by patients, patients’ perceived level of involvement, and attitudes toward concordance are significant predictors of patients’ self-efficacy in decision making (p<0.05). Conclusion Patients who felt involved in their consultations had more positive attitudes toward concordance and higher
Ng, Yew Keong; Shah, Noraida Mohamed; Loong, Ly Sia; Pee, Lay Ting; Hidzir, Sarina Anim M; Chong, Wei Wen
This study investigated patients' and pharmacists' attitudes toward concordance in a pharmacist-patient consultation and how patients' attitudes toward concordance relate to their involvement and self-efficacy in decision making associated with medication use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with chronic diseases and pharmacists from three public hospitals in Malaysia. The Revised United States Leeds Attitudes toward Concordance (RUS-LATCon) was used to measure attitudes toward concordance in both patients and pharmacists. Patients also rated their perceived level of involvement in decision making and completed the Decision Self-Efficacy scale. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t -test were used to determine significant differences between different subgroups on attitudes toward concordance, and multiple linear regression was performed to find the predictors of patients' self-efficacy in decision making. A total of 389 patients and 93 pharmacists participated in the study. Pharmacists and patients scored M=3.92 (SD=0.37) and M=3.84 (SD=0.46) on the RUS-LATCon scale, respectively. Seven items were found to be significantly different between pharmacists and patients on the subscale level. Patients who felt fully involved in decision making (M=3.94, SD=0.462) scored significantly higher on attitudes toward concordance than those who felt partially involved (M=3.82, SD=0.478) and not involved at all (M=3.68, SD=0.471; p <0.001). Patients had an average score of 76.7% (SD=14.73%) on the Decision Self-Efficacy scale. In multiple linear regression analysis, ethnicity, number of medications taken by patients, patients' perceived level of involvement, and attitudes toward concordance are significant predictors of patients' self-efficacy in decision making ( p <0.05). Patients who felt involved in their consultations had more positive attitudes toward concordance and higher confidence in making an informed decision. Further study is
Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris; Jawad, Abbas F
The primary objective of this study was to examine the associations of children's involvement in decisions about research participation with their perceptions of the decision-making process and self-efficacy. Participants were children (ages 8-17) who enrolled in research studies in the prior 2 months. Children completed a questionnaire that yielded three decision-making involvement subscales: Researcher Engages Child, Researcher Supports Autonomy, and Child Participates. Children reported on fairness of the decision-making process and health-related decision self-efficacy. After adjusting for age, higher scores on Researcher Engages Child were associated with greater self-efficacy, and higher scores on Researcher Supports Autonomy were associated with greater perceived fairness. These data underscore the potential importance of researcher-child interactions about research participation when assent is sought, including proactively involving children in the decision by asking for their opinions and communicating their central role in the decision, which are likely to be more meaningful to children than receiving information or signing a form.
Sidiropoulou-Dimakakou, Despina; Mylonas, Kostas; Argyropoulou, Katerina; Tampouri, Sofia
The present study aims to examine the relationship of career decision-making difficulties, dysfunctional career thoughts and generalized self-efficacy, as factors involved in the decision-making process for university students. The study also investigates the influence of demographics and individual variables, and examines the predictive power of…
Kelly, Rosemary Ritter
This study explored the differences between career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) and perceived career barriers of students enrolled in the applied technology program compared to those enrolled in a college transfer program at a southeastern urban community college. Participants in the ex-post facto cross-sectional survey included 787…
Results based on responses from 679 managers in three governmental agencies confirmed that career-related organizational practices and relationships impacted their staying in the organization. Specifically, managers who scored higher in career decision-making self efficacy, a relatively new variable to the turnover literature, career integration,…
Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Bo Hyun; Ha, Gyuyoung; Lee, Hong Kwon; Lee, Sang Min
This study examines the role of dysfunctional career thoughts between two-wave longitudinal data (Time 1 and Time 2) in career decision-making self-efficacy during school-to-work transition periods. Career decision-making self-efficacy was measured before (Time 1) and after college graduation (Time 2). The results indicated that the growth of…
Al-mehsin, Salama Aqeel
The present study aimed to reveal the self-efficacy and social skills and their relationship to the quality of decision-making at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University students, and determine the extent of the contribution of self-efficacy and social skills to the quality of decision-making. To achieve this, a questionnaire was built to identify…
Hoppe, Annekatrin; Fujishiro, Kaori
This study aims to identify person-level factors, rather than economic situations, that influence migration decision-making and actual migration. Building on the theory of planned behavior, this study investigated potential migrants’ expectations and attitudes toward migration and career (i.e., anticipated job benefits of migration, career aspiration) as well as beliefs (i.e., generalized self-efficacy) as predictors of migration decision-making conceptualized in three phases: the pre-decisional, pre-actional, and actional phases. This was examined with cross-sectional pre-migration questionnaire data from 1163 potential migrants from Spain to Germany. We also examined whether the migration decision-making phases predicted actual migration with a subsample (n=249) which provided follow-up data within twelve months. For the cross-sectional sample, multinomial logistic regressions revealed that anticipated job benefits and career aspiration are predictive for all migration phases. Self-efficacy predicts the preactional (e.g., gathering information) and actional phases (e.g., making practical arrangements). Finally, for those with low self-efficacy, anticipated job benefits play a stronger role for taking action. For the longitudinal subsample, a logistic regression revealed that being in the preactional and actional phases at baseline is predictive of actual migration within twelve months. This study expands previous research on migration intentions and behaviors by focusing on expectations, values, and beliefs as person-level predictors for migration decision-making. With a longitudinal sample, it shows that international migration is a process that involves multiple phases. PMID:26379343
Lease, Suzanne H.; Dahlbeck, David T.
This study investigated the relations of maternal and paternal attachment, parenting styles, and career locus of control to college students' career decision self-efficacy and explored whether these relations differed by student gender. Data analysis using hierarchical multiple regression revealed that attachment was relevant for females' career…
Sherer, Mark; Adams, Carol
Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that one can successfully perform a behavior. Self-efficacy theory asserts that self-efficacy expectancies exert powerful influence on behavior and behavior change. The Self-efficacy Scale, which was developed to assess generalized self-efficacy expectations, consists of two subscales: general self-efficacy…
Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia
Background Little is known about older adults’ use of online and offline health information sources for medical decision-making despite increasing numbers of older adults who report using the Internet for health information to aid in patient/provider communication and medical decision-making. Objective To investigate older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and factors related to medical decision-making. Methods Survey research was conducted using random-digit-dialing of Florida residents’ landline telephones. The Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and the Reliance Scale were used to measure relationships between users and nonusers of online health information. Results Study respondents were 225 older adults (age range 50–92, M = 68.9, SD = 10.4), which included users (n = 105, 46.7%) and nonusers (n = 119, 52.9%) of online health information. Users and nonusers differed in frequency and types of health sources sought. Users of online health information preferred a self-reliant approach and nonusers of online health information preferred a physician-reliant approach to involvement in medical decisions on the Reliance Scale. Conclusion This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and examined factors related to online health information engagement for medical decision-making. PMID:26054777
Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia
We know little about older adults' use of online and offline health information sources for medical decision making despite increasing numbers of older adults who report using the Internet for health information to aid in patient-provider communication and medical decision making. Therefore we investigated older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and factors related to medical decision making. Survey research was conducted using random digit dialing of Florida residents' landline telephones. The Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and the Reliance Scale were used to measure relationships between users and nonusers of online health information. Study respondents were 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9, SD = 10.4), which included users (n = 105) and nonusers (n = 119) of online health information. Users and nonusers differed in frequency and types of health sources sought. Users of online health information preferred a self-reliant approach and nonusers of online health information preferred a physician-reliant approach to involvement in medical decisions on the Reliance Scale. This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online and offline sources of health information and examined factors related to online health information engagement for medical decision making.
Gallavan, Nancy P.
In 1960, Shirley Engle identified the primary purposes or "heart of social studies instruction" as educating citizens living in a democracy and teaching them the process of decision making based on values formulation through genuine problem solving. Engle's recommendations for helping students to confront and comprehend today's complex issues…
Hansen, Michele J.; Pedersen, Joan S.
This study investigated the effects of career development courses on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), college adjustment, learning integration, academic achievement, and retention among undecided undergraduates. It also investigated the effects of course format on career decision-making abilities and academic success outcomes and…
The purpose of the present research was to develop and validate a measure of motivation toward career decision-making activities, the Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS). The CDMAS is designed to assess the constructs of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation. A longitudinal study was…
Forsythe, Laura P.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Kent, Erin E.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Bellizzi, Keith; Arora, Neeraj; Aziz, Noreen; Keel, Gretchen; Rowland, Julia H.
Objective Cancer survivors play an important role in coordinating their follow-up care and making treatment-related decisions. Little is known about how modifiable factors like social support are associated with active participation in follow-up care. This study tests associations between social support, cancer-related follow-up care use, and self-efficacy for participation in decision making related to follow-up care (SEDM). We also identified sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with social support among long-term survivors. Methods The FOllow-up Care Use among Survivors (FOCUS) study is a cross-sectional, population based survey of breast, prostate, colon, and gynecologic cancer survivors (n=1522) 4 to 14 years post-diagnosis. Multivariable regression models were used to test associations between perceived social support (tangible and emotional/informational support modeled separately), follow-up care use (past two years), and SEDM, as well as to identify factors associated with perceived support. Results Neither support type was associated with follow-up care use (all p>0.05), although marital status was uniquely, positively associated with follow-up care use (p<0.05). Both tangible support (B for a standard deviation increase (SE)=9.75(3.15), p<0.05) and emotional/informational support (B(SE)=12.61(3.05), p<0.001) were modestly associated with SEDM. Being married, having adequate financial resources, history of recurrence, and better perceived health status were associated with higher perceived tangible and emotional support (all p<0.05). Conclusions While perceived social support may facilitate survivor efficacy for participation in decision making during cancer follow-up care, other factors, including marital satisfaction, appear to influence follow-up care use. Marital status and social support may be important factors to consider in survivorship care planning. PMID:24481884
Brennan, Michael D.
This study (a) examined career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) differences across gender, age, military grade, level of education, previous career assessments, previous career counseling, and currently attending college, and (b) examined the effect of career assessments with follow-up counseling on CDMSE among active-duty Coast Guard…
Janosko, Ashley Erin
There has been limited research that focuses on Division III college student athletes and the career development process. Although previous researchers have studied the relationship between athletic identity and career decision making self-efficacy (CDMSE) among college student athletes, results have been inconsistent, with different researchers…
Whiston, Susan C.
Undergraduate women with higher levels of organization and control in their families experienced less career indecision but not higher career self-efficacy. Males and females whose families had intellectual/cultural orientation had higher self-efficacy in using occupational information. An inverse relationship appeared between this type of…
Baglama, Basak; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
Social cognitive career theory, which is one of the most studied career approaches, recently proposed that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are important determinants of the career choice process. Career self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations might both result in avoiding or having greater motivation levels in terms of career…
Brown, Adam D; Kouri, Nicole A; Rahman, Nadia; Joscelyne, Amy; Bryant, Richard A; Marmar, Charles R
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with maladaptive changes in self-identity, including impoverished perceived self-efficacy. This study examined if enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy in combat veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD promotes cognitive strategies associated with positive mental health outcomes. Prior to completing a future thinking and social problem-solving task, sixty-two OEF/OIF veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD were randomized to either a high self-efficacy (HSE) induction in which they were asked to recall three autobiographical memories demonstrating self-efficacy or a control condition in which they recalled any three autobiographical events. An interaction between HSE and PTSD revealed that individuals with symptoms of PTSD in the HSE condition generated future events with more self-efficacious statements than those with PTSD in the control condition, whereas those without PTSD did not differ in self-efficacy content across the conditions. In addition, individuals in the HSE condition exhibited better social problem solving than those in the control condition. Increasing perceptions of self-efficacy may promote future thinking and problem solving in ways that are relevant to overcoming trauma and adversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gadassi, Reuma; Gati, Itamar; Wagman-Rolnick, Halleli
The present study investigated a new model for characterizing the way individuals make career decisions (career decision-making profiles [CDMP]). Using data from 285 students in a preacademic program, the present study assessed the association of the CDMP's dimensions with the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties…
St. Mary, Sharon; Russo, Thomas J.
This study was conducted to develop a scale that assesses perceptions of self-efficacy in potentially stressful situations for chemically dependent adolescents. Adolescent subjects (N=100) currently receiving treatment for chemical dependency were given a 20-situation questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES). Students were…
Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Milhausen, Robin R.; Breuer, Rebecca; Bailey, Julia; Pavlou, Menelaos; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.
This study assessed a newly developed Sexual Communication Self-Efficacy Scale designed to measure the sexual communication self-efficacy of adolescent men and women. Three-hundred and seventy-four U.K. adolescents completed this new scale, along with several other validity measures. Factor analysis revealed that the Sexual Communication…
NOLAN, MARIE T.; KUB, JOAN; HUGHES, MARK T.; TERRY, PETER B.; ASTROW, ALAN B.; CARBO, CYNTHIA A.; THOMPSON, RICHARD E.; CLAWSON, LORA; TEXEIRA, KENNETH; SULMASY, DANIEL P.
Objective: Persons with ALS differ from those with other terminal illnesses in that they commonly retain capacity for decision making close to death. The role patients would opt to have their families play in decision making at the end of life may therefore be unique. This study compared the preferences of patients with ALS for involving family in health care decisions at the end of life with the actual involvement reported by the family after death. Methods: A descriptive correlational design with 16 patient–family member dyads was used. Quantitative findings were enriched with in-depth interviews of a subset of five family members following the patient's death. Results: Eighty-seven percent of patients had issued an advance directive. Patients who would opt to make health care decisions independently (i.e., according to the patient's preferences alone) were most likely to have their families report that decisions were made in the style that the patient preferred. Those who preferred shared decision making with family or decision making that relied upon the family were more likely to have their families report that decisions were made in a style that was more independent than preferred. When interviewed in depth, some family members described shared decision making although they had reported on the survey that the patient made independent decisions. Significance of results: The structure of advance directives may suggest to families that independent decision making is the ideal, causing them to avoid or underreport shared decision making. Fear of family recriminations may also cause family members to avoid or underreport shared decision making. Findings from this study might be used to guide clinicians in their discussions of treatments and health care decision making with persons with ALS and their families. PMID:18662421
Cornick, Jessica E.
The current study utilized exercise self-efficacy ratings from undergraduate students to assess the factor structure of the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale (Bandura, 1997, 2006). An exploratory factor analysis (n = 759) indicated a two-factor model solution and three separate confirmatory factor analyses (n = 1,798) supported this…
Erlen, Judith A.; Cha, EunSeok; Kim, Kevin H.; Caruthers, Donna; Sereika, Susan M.
Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the psychometric properties of the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale. Background Self-efficacy is a critically important component of strategies to improve HIV medication-taking; however, valid and reliable tools for assessing HIV medication-taking self-efficacy are limited. Method We used a cross-sectional, correlational design. Between 2003 and 2007, 326 participants were recruited from sites in Pennsylvania and Ohio in the United States of America. Six self-report questionnaires administered at baseline and 12 weeks later during “Improving Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy” were used to examine the variables of interest. Means and variances, reliability, criterion, and construct validity of the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale were assessed. Findings Participants reported high self-confidence in their ability to carry out specific medication-related tasks (mean=8.31) and in the medication’s ability to effect good outcomes (mean=8.56). The HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale and subscales showed excellent reliability (α = .93 ~ .94). Criterion validity was well-established by examining the relationships between the HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale and selected physiological and psychological factors, and self-reported medication adherence (r = −.20 ~ .58). A two-factor model with a correlation between self-efficacy belief and outcome expectancy fitted the data well (model χ2 = 3871.95, df = 325, p<001; CFA =.96; RMSEA =.046). Conclusion The HIV Medication Taking Self-efficacy Scale is a psychometrically sound measure of medication-taking self-efficacy for use by researchers and clinicians with people with HIV. The findings offer insight into the development of interventions to promote self-efficacy and medication adherence in persons with HIV. PMID:20722799
Myers, Nicholas D; Feltz, Deborah L; Guillén, Félix; Dithurbide, Lori
The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee self-efficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.
Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Suplee, Patricia; Akincigil, Ayse
To consider psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability of the Spanish translation of a mammography-specific self-efficacy scale. A cross-sectional study. Three primarily Hispanic churches and a Hispanic community center in a low-income urban area of New Jersey. 153 low-income Hispanic women aged 40-85 years. The translated scale was administered to participants during a six-month period. Internal consistency, reliability, and construct and predictive validity were assessed. Demographic variables included income and insurance status. Outcome variables included total mammography-specific self-efficacy and having had a mammogram within the past two years. Preliminary evidence of reliability and validity were found, and predictive validity was demonstrated. The health needs of specific populations can be addressed only when research instruments have been appropriately validated and all relevant factors are considered. Diverse groups of low-income women face similar challenges and barriers in their efforts to get screened. Nurses are in an ideal position to help women with preventive care decision making (e.g., screening for breast cancer). Understanding how a woman's level of self-efficacy affects her decision making should be considered when counseling a client.
Martinelli, Selma de Cassia; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Caliatto, Susana Gakyia; Sassi, Adriana de Grecci
This article describes the development of a self-efficacy measure for elementary school children. A sample of 514 children, ages 8 to 11, enrolled in Grades 2 to 4 of public schools in Brazil was investigated. The scale included 78 descriptive items about academic situations, in which the child was required to respond on a 5-point scale, the…
Hoge, Gretchen L; Stylianou, Amanda M; Hetling, Andrea; Postmus, Judy L
Experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and financial hardship are often intertwined. The dynamics of an abusive relationship may include economic abuse tactics that compromise a survivor's ability to work, pursue education, have access to financial resources, and establish financial skills, knowledge, and security. An increasingly common goal among programs serving IPV survivors is increasing financial empowerment through financial literacy. However, providing financial education alone may not be enough to improve financial behaviors. Psychological factors also play a role when individuals make financial choices. Economic self-efficacy focuses on the individual's perceived ability to perform economic or financial tasks, and may be considered a primary influence on one's ability to improve financial decisions and behaviors. The current study tests the reliability and validity of a Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy with a sample of female survivors of IPV. This study uses a calibration and validation analysis model including full and split-sample exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, assesses for internal consistency, and examines correlation coefficients between economic self-efficacy, economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, and difficulty living with income. Findings indicate that the 10-item, unidimensional Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy demonstrates strong reliability and validity among this sample of IPV survivors. An ability to understand economic self-efficacy could facilitate individualized service approaches and allow practitioners to better support IPV survivors on their journey toward financial empowerment. Given the increase in programs focused on assets, financial empowerment, and economic well-being, the Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy has potential as a very timely and relevant tool in the design, implementation, and evaluation of such programs, and specifically for programs created for IPV survivors.
Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others
Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…
Kurtuldu, M. Kayhan; Bulut, Damla
This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine students' levels of self-efficacy toward piano lessons. The sample consisted of 456 university-level piano students enrolled in Music Education programs. Experts in language and the field of music were consulted to establish content validity of the items included in the scalar…
Levinson, Ruth Andrea; Wan, Choi K.; Beamer, LuAnn J.
Forsythe, Laura P; Alfano, Catherine M; Kent, Erin E; Weaver, Kathryn E; Bellizzi, Keith; Arora, Neeraj; Aziz, Noreen; Keel, Gretchen; Rowland, Julia H
Cancer survivors play an important role in coordinating their follow-up care and making treatment-related decisions. Little is known about how modifiable factors such as social support are associated with active participation in follow-up care. This study tests associations between social support, cancer-related follow-up care use, and self-efficacy for participation in decision-making related to follow-up care (SEDM). We also identified sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with social support among long-term survivors. The FOllow-up Care Use among Survivors study is a cross-sectional, population-based survey of breast, prostate, colon, and gynecologic cancer survivors (n=1522) 4-14 years post-diagnosis. Multivariable regression models were used to test associations between perceived social support (tangible and emotional/informational support modeled separately), follow-up care use (past 2 years), and SEDM, as well as to identify factors associated with perceived support. Neither support type was associated with follow-up care use (all p>0.05), although marital status was uniquely, positively associated with follow-up care use (p<0.05). Both tangible support (B for a standard deviation increase (SE)=9.75(3.15), p<0.05) and emotional/informational support (B(SE)=12.61(3.05), p<0.001) were modestly associated with SEDM. Being married, having adequate financial resources, history of recurrence, and better perceived health status were associated with higher perceived tangible and emotional support (all p<0.05). While perceived social support may facilitate survivor efficacy for participation in decision-making during cancer follow-up care, other factors, including marital satisfaction, appear to influence follow-up care use. Marital status and social support may be important factors to consider in survivorship care planning. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conkel Ziebell, Julia Louise
In an effort to understand the viability of inner-city adolescents' career choice goals, the purpose of this study was to predict relationships among person factors, environmental factors, career maturity, career decision-making self-efficacy, vocational outcome expectations, and viable career choice goals within this population. I predicted that…
Erford, Bradley T.; Gavin, Kate
The Self-Efficacy Parent-Report Scale was designed to assess parent perceptions of self-efficacy of their children aged 7 to 17 years. Internal aspects of validity indicated a marginal fit of the data to the unidimensional model. External facets of validity indicated the Self-Efficacy Parent-Report Scale had excellent convergent and discriminant…
Yangin, Selami; Sidekli, Sabri
The measurement of teacher self-efficacy has a history of more than 30 years. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the development and validation of a new scale to measure the science teaching self-efficacy of elementary school teachers. Therefore, a scale has been created to measure elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and…
Purssell, Edward; While, Alison
To field test a parental self-efficacy scale regarding its acceptability and feasibility and to describe parental self-efficacy in a convenience sample of parents with children aged 6 years old or less. Self-care within families is increasingly emphasised in health policy as a means of maximising healthcare resources. This study reports the field testing of a scale designed to measure parental self-efficacy. Cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 6 years old or less. Subjects were recruited through a parenting internet website (n = 84) and local parenting and community organisations (n = 68) and asked to complete a questionnaire containing the scale. Data collection took place between January and August 2011. The scale, previously validated with an expert panel of professionals, gathered information about parental self-efficacy when administered either directly or through an on-line data collection portal, although there were more missing data when administered via the Internet. Although convenience and self-selecting samples precluded parameter estimation, areas of concern highlighted were difficulties differentiating children with serious illnesses and the use of the Personal Child Health Record. Use of the Internet was widespread, as was use of community pharmacists and nursery staff. Although the primary purpose was not to collect specific data, the data indicated the continuing concern of parents regarding serious illness and where additional investment may be required to meet parental needs and expectations. The previously validated scale can be used to collect information about parental self-efficacy either through a paper questionnaire or the Internet. Although there was slightly more missing data from the Internet version, the ease of its administration makes this an attractive option. Parents generally reported high levels of self-efficacy and satisfaction with services; however, the scale was able to identify areas where further investment
Pulwarty, R. S.
As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks
Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis
Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…
Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.
Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…
Buldur, Serkan; Tatar, Nilgun
Determining the candidate teachers' opinions regarding self-efficacy towards alternative assessment will be beneficial in that this will improve their competencies while using these approaches in their applications within the classroom. In this article, the development and validation of the "Self-efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment…
Diao, Yuzhu; Hu, Aqin
Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation. PMID:29498699
Li, Qingsheng; Diao, Yuzhu; Gong, Zaiwu; Hu, Aqin
Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation.
Ramalingam, Vennila; Wiedenbeck, Susan
A 32-item self-efficacy scale for computer programming was developed, primed to the C++ programming language. The scale was administered to 421 students at the beginning and end of an introductory course in C++ programming. There was growth in self-efficacy between two administrations of the scale 12 weeks apart, particularly for students who…
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca
Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…
Kontas, Hakki; Özcan, Bahadir
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Sources of Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Usher and Pajares to Turkish culture. This scale assesses Bandura's theorized sources of self-efficacy among mathematics students in middle school. After the Turkish version of the scale was formed, it was applied 6th, 7th and 8th…
Herrero-Hahn, Raquel; Rojas, Juan Guillermo; Ospina-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Montoya-Juárez, Rafael; Restrepo-Medrano, Juan Carlos; Hueso-Montoro, César
The level of cultural self-efficacy indicates the degree of confidence nursing professionals possess for their ability to provide culturally competent care. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale was performed for nursing professionals in Colombia. A scale validation study was conducted. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale was performed using a sample of 190 nurses in Colombia, between September 2013 and April 2014. This sample was chosen via systematic random sampling from a finite population. The scale was culturally adapted. Cronbach's alpha for the revised scale was .978. Factor analysis revealed the existence of six factors grouped in three dimensions that explained 68% of the variance. The results demonstrated that the version of the Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale adapted to the Colombian context is a valid and reliable instrument for determining the level of cultural self-efficacy of nursing professionals.
McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.
This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Bruce W; Van de Vord, Rebecca
To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was conducted in fall 2009. Students accessed an Internet survey through a link provided in an e-mail. Students who self-diagnosed correctly demonstrated higher levels of media literacy skills than those who self-diagnosed incorrectly. Among those who self-diagnosed incorrectly, the only predictor of knowledge was accessibility of information sources; low accessibility was associated with reduced knowledge. Information efficacy predicted self-efficacy for both groups. The results illustrate the limitations of information efficacy in the absence of media literacy skills. To decrease health risks, college health practitioners should promote media literacy while also ensuring easy access to high-quality information.
Capability to influence and collaborate Compassion Teamwork Communication Leadership Provide vision of outcome / set priorities Confidence, courage to make...project evaluates the viability of expanding the use of serious games to augment classroom training, tabletop and full scale exercise, and actual...training, evaluation, analysis, and technology ex- ploration. Those techniques have found successful niches, but their wider applicability faces
Erford, Bradley T.; Schein, Hallie; Duncan, Kelly
The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary analysis of reliability and validity of scores on the "Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale", which was designed to assess general self-efficacy in students aged 10 to 17 years. Confirmatory factor analysis on cross-validated samples was conducted revealing a marginal fit of the data to the…
Work-related self-efficacy at a core task level fits with the social cognitive career theory explaining the career development of people with severe mental illness. The aim of this study was to further investigate the psychometric properties of the "Work-related Self- Efficacy Scale" for use with people with psychiatric disabilities. Sixty…
Gau, Bih-Shya; Hung, Chao-Chia
Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a questionnaire that assesses preschool teachers' self-efficacy in providing asthma care. Methods: A total of 407 teachers from 54 preschools in Taiwan participated in the study by completing the asthma management self-efficacy scale. We assessed validity…
Pasanen, Leena; Holmström, Lasse; Sillanpää, Mikko J
LASSO is a penalized regression method that facilitates model fitting in situations where there are as many, or even more explanatory variables than observations, and only a few variables are relevant in explaining the data. We focus on the Bayesian version of LASSO and consider four problems that need special attention: (i) controlling false positives, (ii) multiple comparisons, (iii) collinearity among explanatory variables, and (iv) the choice of the tuning parameter that controls the amount of shrinkage and the sparsity of the estimates. The particular application considered is association genetics, where LASSO regression can be used to find links between chromosome locations and phenotypic traits in a biological organism. However, the proposed techniques are relevant also in other contexts where LASSO is used for variable selection. We separate the true associations from false positives using the posterior distribution of the effects (regression coefficients) provided by Bayesian LASSO. We propose to solve the multiple comparisons problem by using simultaneous inference based on the joint posterior distribution of the effects. Bayesian LASSO also tends to distribute an effect among collinear variables, making detection of an association difficult. We propose to solve this problem by considering not only individual effects but also their functionals (i.e. sums and differences). Finally, whereas in Bayesian LASSO the tuning parameter is often regarded as a random variable, we adopt a scale space view and consider a whole range of fixed tuning parameters, instead. The effect estimates and the associated inference are considered for all tuning parameters in the selected range and the results are visualized with color maps that provide useful insights into data and the association problem considered. The methods are illustrated using two sets of artificial data and one real data set, all representing typical settings in association genetics.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…
Rodgers, W. M.; Wilson, P. M.; Hall, C. R.; Fraser, S. N.; Murray, T. C.
This series of three studies considers the multidimensionality of exercise self-efficacy by examining the psychometric characteristics of an instrument designed to assess three behavioral subdomains: task, scheduling, and coping. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis revealed the expected factor structure in a sample of 395 students.…
Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Johnston, Sandra K.; Thompson, Elaine Adams
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity characteristics of two new scales that measure self-efficacy expectations (SE-ICD) and outcome expectations (OE-ICD) in survivors (n=168) of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), all of whom received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Cronbach's alpha reliability demonstrated good internal consistency (SE-ICD α = 0.93 and OE-ICD α = 0.81). Correlations with other self-efficacy instruments (general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy) were consistently high. The instruments were responsive to change across time with effect sizes of 0.46 for SE-ICD, and 0.26 for OE-ICD. These reliable, valid, and responsive instruments for measurement of self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations after an ICD can be used in research and clinical settings. PMID:17693214
Lown, Jean M.
This study developed a 6-item Financial Self-Efficacy Scale for use by researchers, educators, counselors, and advisors. Bandura's concept of self-efficacy and Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change provided the theoretical framework. Scale items were adapted from Schwarzer and Jerusalem's (1995) General Self-Efficacy Scale.…
Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093
Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Ficker, Lisa J; Gross, Evan; Rahman-Filipiak, Analise; Teresi, Jeanne A
The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to empirically test the conceptual model proposed by the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-making Rating Scale (LFDRS); (2) to examine the psychometric properties of the LFDRS contextual factors in financial decision-making by investigating both the reliability and convergent validity of the subscales and total scale, and (3) extending previous work on the scale through the collection of normative data on financial decision-making. A convenience sample of 200 independent function and community dwelling older adults underwent cognitive and financial management testing and were interviewed using the LFDRS. Confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency measures, and hierarchical regression were used in a sample of 200 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom were making or had recently made a significant financial decision. Results confirmed the scale's reliability and supported the conceptual model. Convergent validity analyses indicate that as hypothesized, cognition is a significant predictor of risk scores. Financial management scores, however, were not predictive of decision-making risk scores. The psychometric properties of the LFDRS support the scale's use as it was proposed. The LFDRS instructions and scale are provided for clinicians to use in financial capacity assessments.
Middleton, James W; Tran, Yvonne; Lo, Charles; Craig, Ashley
To improve the clinical utility of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) by reexamining its factor structure and comparing its performance against a measure of general self-efficacy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional survey design. Community. Adults with SCI (N=161; 118 men and 43 women) recruited from Australia (n=82) and the United States (n=79), including 86 with paraplegia and 75 with tetraplegia. None. Confirmatory factor analysis deriving fit indices on reported 1-, 2-, and 3-factor structures for the MSES. Exploratory factor analysis of MSES using principal component analysis with promax oblique rotation and structure validation, with correlations and multiple regression using cross-sectional data from the Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The MSES was confirmed to have a 3-factor structure, explaining 61% of variance. Two of the factors, labeled social function self-efficacy and personal function self-efficacy, were SCI condition-specific, whereas the other factor (accounting for 9.7% of variance) represented general self-efficacy, correlating most strongly with the Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale. Correlations and multiple regression analyses between MSES factors, Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale total score, SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores, and SF-36 domain scores support validity of this MSES factor structure. No significant cross-cultural differences existed between Australia and the United States in total MSES or factor scores. The findings support a 3-factor structure encompassing general and SCI domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs and better position the MSES to assist SCI rehabilitation assessment, planning, and research. Copyright Â© 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Interventions to address unequal gender and power relations and improve self-efficacy and empowerment for sexual and reproductive health decision-making for women living with HIV: A systematic review.
Robinson, Jennifer L; Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Amin, Avni; Morse, Sophie; Beres, Laura K; Yeh, Ping Teresa; Kennedy, Caitlin Elizabeth
Many women living with HIV experience gendered power inequalities, particularly in their intimate relationships, that prevent them from achieving optimal sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and exercising their rights. We assessed the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-efficacy and empowerment of women living with HIV to make SRH decisions through a systematic review. We included peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Scopus published through January 3, 2017, presenting multi-arm or pre-post intervention evaluations measuring one of the following outcomes: (1) self-efficacy, empowerment, or measures of SRH decision-making ability, (2) SRH behaviors (e.g., condom use, contraceptive use), or (3) SRH outcomes (e.g., sexually transmitted infections [STIs]). Twenty-one studies evaluating 11 intervention approaches met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in the United States or sub-Saharan Africa. Two high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed significant decreases in incident gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sixteen studies measuring condom use generally found moderate increases associated with the intervention, including in higher-quality RCTs. Findings on contraceptive use, condom self-efficacy, and other empowerment measures (e.g., sexual communication, equitable relationship power) were mixed. Studies were limited by small sample sizes, high loss to follow-up, and high reported baseline condom use. While more research is needed, the limited existing evidence suggests that these interventions may help support the SRH and rights of women living with HIV. This review particularly highlights the importance of these interventions for preventing STIs, which present a significant health burden for women living with HIV that is rarely addressed holistically. Empowerment-based interventions should be considered as part of a comprehensive package of STI and other SRH services for women living with HIV.
Robinson, Jennifer L.; Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Amin, Avni; Morse, Sophie; Beres, Laura K.; Kennedy, Caitlin Elizabeth
Background Many women living with HIV experience gendered power inequalities, particularly in their intimate relationships, that prevent them from achieving optimal sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and exercising their rights. We assessed the effectiveness of interventions to improve self-efficacy and empowerment of women living with HIV to make SRH decisions through a systematic review. Methods and findings We included peer-reviewed articles indexed in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Scopus published through January 3, 2017, presenting multi-arm or pre-post intervention evaluations measuring one of the following outcomes: (1) self-efficacy, empowerment, or measures of SRH decision-making ability, (2) SRH behaviors (e.g., condom use, contraceptive use), or (3) SRH outcomes (e.g., sexually transmitted infections [STIs]). Twenty-one studies evaluating 11 intervention approaches met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in the United States or sub-Saharan Africa. Two high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed significant decreases in incident gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sixteen studies measuring condom use generally found moderate increases associated with the intervention, including in higher-quality RCTs. Findings on contraceptive use, condom self-efficacy, and other empowerment measures (e.g., sexual communication, equitable relationship power) were mixed. Studies were limited by small sample sizes, high loss to follow-up, and high reported baseline condom use. Conclusions While more research is needed, the limited existing evidence suggests that these interventions may help support the SRH and rights of women living with HIV. This review particularly highlights the importance of these interventions for preventing STIs, which present a significant health burden for women living with HIV that is rarely addressed holistically. Empowerment-based interventions should be considered as part of a comprehensive package of STI and other SRH services
Mainvil, Louise A; Lawson, Rob; Horwath, Caroline C; McKenzie, Joanne E; Reeder, Anthony I
An audience-centered approach was used to develop valid and reliable scales to measure adult self-efficacy to eat fruit and vegetables. Cross-sectional survey of a national population. New Zealand. A sample of 350 adults ages 25 to 60 years was randomly selected from a nationally representative sampling frame. Overall, 231 questionnaires were returned, producing a 72% response rate. The mean age of subjects was 42.7years; 58% were female; 80% were of European descent; 11% were indigenous Maori. The 76-item, self-administered questionnaire collected data on demographics, fruit and vegetable intakes, stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy (24 items). Principal components analysis with oblimin rotation was performed. Principal components analysis yielded three distinct and reliable scales for self-efficacy to eat "vegetables," "fruit," and "fruit and vegetables" (Cronbach alpha = .80, .85, and .73, respectively). These scales were correlated, but only the "vegetable" scale was positively correlated with the "fruit and vegetable" scale (Kendall tau r = 0.30, -0.26 [fruit, "fruit and vegetables"], -0.38 [fruit, vegetable]). As predicted, self-efficacy was associated with intake (r = 0.30 [fruit], 0.34 [vegetables]). Assuming the factor structure is confirmed in independent samples, these brief psychometrically sound scales may be used to assess adult self-efficacy to eat fruit and to eat vegetables (separately) but not self-efficacy to eat "fruit and vegetables."
Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin
This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…
Dykes, Patricia C.; Carroll, Diane; McColgan, Kerry; Hurley, Ann C.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Colombo, Lisa; Zuyev, Lyubov; Middleton, Blackford
Aim This paper is a report of the development and testing of the Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Nurse and Assistant scales. Background Patient falls and fall-related injuries are traumatic ordeals for patients, family members and providers, and carry a toll for hospitals. Self-efficacy is an important factor in determining actions persons take and levels of performance they achieve. Performance of individual caregivers is linked to the overall performance of hospitals. Scales to assess nurses and certified nursing assistants’ self-efficacy to prevent patients from falling would allow for targeting resources to increase SE, resulting in improved individual performance and ultimately decreased numbers of patient falls. Method Four phases of instrument development were carried out to (1) generate individual items from eight focus groups (four each nurse and assistant conducted in October 2007), (2) develop prototype scales, (3) determine content validity during a second series of four nurse and assistant focus groups (January 2008) and (4) conduct item analysis, paired t-tests, Student’s t-tests and internal consistency reliability to refine and confirm the scales. Data were collected during February–December, 2008. Results The 11-item Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Nurse had an alpha of 0·89 with all items in the range criterion of 0·3–0·7 for item total correlation. The 8-item Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Assistant had an alpha of 0·74 and all items had item total correlations in the 0·3–0·7 range. Conclusions The Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Nurse and Self-Efficacy for Preventing Falls Assistant scales demonstrated psychometric adequacy and are recommended to measure bedside staff’s self-efficacy beliefs in preventing patient falls. PMID:21073506
Steffen, Ann M; McKibbin, Christine; Zeiss, Antonette M; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Bandura, Albert
Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.
Siegel, Elena O; Zisberg, Anna; Bakerjian, Debra; Zysberg, Leehu
Nursing home (NH) quality improvement (QI) is challenging. The critical role of NH leaders in successful QI is well established; however, current options for assessing the QI capabilities of leaders such as the licensed NH administrator are limited. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of an instrument to measure NH administrator self-efficacy in QI. We used a mixed-methods cross-sectional design to develop and test the measure. For item generation, 39 NH leaders participated in qualitative interviews. Item reduction and content validity were established with a sample of eight subject matter experts. A random sample of 211 administrators from NHs with the lowest and highest Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Five-Star Quality ratings completed the measure. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and tested the measure for internal reliability and convergent, discriminant, and known group validity. The final measure included five subscales and 32 items. Confirmatory factor analysis reaffirmed the factorial structure with good fit indices. The new measure's subscales correlated with valid measures of self-efficacy and locus of control, supporting the measure's convergent and discriminant validity. Significant differences in most of the subscales were found between the objective (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Five-Star Quality rating) and subjective (Self-Rated Facility QI Index) quality outcomes, supporting the measure's known group validity. The instrument has usefulness to both NH organizations and individual NH administrators as a diagnostic tool to identify administrators with higher/lower chances of successfully implementing QI. Organizations and individuals can use this diagnostic to identify the administrator's professional development needs for QI, in general, and specific to the instrument's five subscales, informing directions for in-house training, mentoring, and outside professional
Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate; Laurent, Diana D
The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of the Spanish-language diabetes self-efficacy scale (DSES-S) and the English-language version (DSES). This study consists of secondary data from 3 randomized studies that administered the DSES-S and DSES at 2 time points. The scales consist of 8 Likert-type 10-point items. Principal component analysis was applied to determine if the scales were unitary or consisted of subscales. Univariate statistics were used to describe the scales. Sensitivity to change was measured by comparing randomized treatment with control groups, where the treatment included methods designed to enhance self-efficacy. General linear models were used to examine the association between the scales and the 8 medical outcomes after controlling for demographic variables. Principal component analysis indicated that there were 2 subscales for both versions: self-efficacy for behaviors and self-efficacy to manage blood levels and medical condition. The measures had similar means across the 3 studies, high internal consistent reliability, values distributed across the entire range, and they showed no evidence of floor effects and little evidence of ceiling effects. The measures were sensitive to change. They were associated with several health indicators and behaviors at baseline, and changes were associated with changes in health measures. The self-efficacy measures behaved consistently across the 3 studies and were highly reliable. Associations with medical indicators and behaviors suggested validity, although further study would be desirable to compare other measures of self-efficacy for people with type 2 diabetes. These brief scales are appropriate for measuring self-efficacy to manage diabetes. © 2016 The Author(s).
Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Ficker, Lisa J.; Gross, Evan; Rahman-Filipiak, Analise; Teresi, Jeanne A.
Objectives The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to empirically test the conceptual model proposed by the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS); (2) to examine the psychometric properties of the LFDRS contextual factors in financial decision-making by investigating both the reliability and convergent validity of the subscales and total scale, and (3) extending previous work on the scale through the collection of normative data on financial decision-making. Methods A convenience sample of 200 independent function and community dwelling older adults underwent cognitive and financial management testing and were interviewed using the LFDRS. Confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency measures, and hierarchical regression were used in a sample of 200 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom were making or had recently made a significant financial decision. Results Results confirmed the scale’s reliability and supported the conceptual model. Convergent validity analyses indicate that as hypothesized, cognition is a significant predictor of risk scores. Financial management scores, however, were not predictive of decision-making risk scores. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the LFDRS support the scale’s use as it was proposed in Lichtenberg et al., 2015. Clinical Implications The LFDRS instructions and scale are provided for clinicians to use in financial capacity assessments. PMID:29077531
Kedem, Leia E; Evans, Ellen M; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen
Lifestyle interventions commonly measure psychosocial beliefs as precursors to positive behavior change, but often overlook questionnaire validation. This can affect measurement accuracy if the survey has been developed for a different population, as differing behavioral influences may affect instrument validity. The present study aimed to explore psychometric properties of self-efficacy and outcome expectation scales-originally developed for younger children-in a population of female college freshmen (N = 268). Exploratory principal component analysis was used to investigate underlying data patterns and assess validity of previously published subscales. Composite scores for reliable subscales (Cronbach's α ≥ .70) were calculated to help characterize self-efficacy and outcome expectation beliefs in this population. The outcome expectation factor structure clearly comprised of positive (α = .81-.90) and negative outcomes (α = .63-.67). The self-efficacy factor structure included themes of motivation and effort (α = .75-.94), but items pertaining to hunger and availability cross-loaded often. Based on cross-loading patterns and low Cronbach's alpha values, respectively, self-efficacy items regarding barriers to healthy eating and negative outcome expectation items should be refined to improve reliability. Composite scores suggested that eating healthfully was associated with positive outcomes, but self-efficacy to do so was lower. Thus, dietary interventions for college students may be more successful by including skill-building activities to enhance self-efficacy and increase the likelihood of behavior change. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Sarabia, Tais Taiana; Fermino, Rogério César; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira
To test the validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity (PA) in Brazilian adults. A self-efficacy scale was applied jointly with a multidimensional questionnaire through face-to-face interviews with 1,418 individuals (63.4% women) aged ≥ 18 years. The scale was submitted to validity (factorial and construct) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and temporal stability). A test-retest procedure was conducted with 74 individuals to evaluate temporal stability. Exploratory factor analyses revealed two independent factors: self-efficacy for walking and self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA). Together, these two factors explained 65.4% of the total variance of the scale (20.9% and 44.5% for walking and MVPA, respectively). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.83 for walking and 0.90 for MVPA, indicating high internal consistency. Both factors were significantly and positively correlated (rho ≥ 0.17, P < 0.001) with quality of life indicators (health perception, self-satisfaction, and energy for daily activities), indicating an adequate construct validity. The scale's validity, internal consistency, and reliability were adequate to evaluate self-efficacy for PA in Brazilian adults.
Carpenter, Carrie M.; Howard, Donna
Objectives: To develop and evaluate psychometric properties of a new instrument, the drug use resistance self-efficacy (DURSE) scale, designed for young adolescents. Methods: Scale construction occurred in 3 phases: (1) initial development, (2) pilot testing of preliminary items, and (3) final scale administration among a sample of seventh graders…
Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark
Self-efficacy belief has been an instrumental affective factor in predicting student behavior and achievement in academic settings. Although there is abundant literature on efficacy belief per se, the sources of efficacy belief have not been fully researched. Very few instruments exist to quantify the sources of efficacy-beliefs. To fill this void, we developed two scales for the two main sources of self-efficacy belief: past performance and social persuasion. Pilot test data were collected from 255 middle school students. A self-efficacy measure was also administered to the students as a criterion measure. The Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze the data. Information on item fit, item design, content validity, external validity, internal consistency, and person separation reliability was examined. The two scales displayed satisfactory psychometric properties. Applications and limitations of these two scales are also discussed.
Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail
Since 1983, HIV patients have been advocating for participatory decision making. This study measures the involvement that HIV-positive people perceive in treatment decision making. A secondary objective is to assess the validity of the instrument used to examine decisional roles, the Control Preferences Scale (CPS). The authors interviewed 79 HIV-positive people, a sub-sample of a study on long survival with HIV, diverse with respect to ethnicity, age, gender, and sexual orientation. They compared the self- and researcher-rated decisional roles of participants on the CPS. They also assessed how well the CPS corresponds with Charles's paternalistic, shared- and informed-choice models of decision making about treatment based on decisional roles and information exchange. Most participants (75%) perceived collaborative/active involvement in decision making. Agreement (Kendall's tau-b) between self- and researcher-rated decisional roles on the CPS was 0.82, whereas agreement between self-ratings on the CPS and researcher ratings on Charles's classification was 0.60. Charles's classification was difficult if participants had chosen not to take their prescribed medication without being adequately informed about the risky consequences of this decision. In this study, HIV-positive people perceived a high level of involvement in decision making. Reliability and convergent validity of the CPS was high. Charles's classification was problematic because decisional roles and information exchange are distinct dimensions. Some people make risky treatment decisions on their own without being adequately informed. The CPS is a useful instrument to measure decisional role perceptions of HIV-positive people but needs to be complemented by an instrument measuring treatment knowledge.
Hill, Erin M; Watkins, Kaitlin
While there are various medication self-efficacy scales that exist, none assess self-efficacy for appropriate antibiotic use. The Appropriate Antibiotic Use Self-Efficacy Scale (AAUSES) was developed, pilot tested, and its psychometric properties were examined. Following pilot testing of the scale, a 28-item questionnaire was examined using a sample (n = 289) recruited through the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform. Participants also completed other scales and items, which were used in assessing discriminant, convergent, and criterion-related validity. Test-retest reliability was also examined. After examining the scale and removing items that did not assess appropriate antibiotic use, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on 13 items from the original scale. Three factors were retained that explained 65.51% of the variance. The scale and its subscales had adequate internal consistency. The scale had excellent test-retest reliability, as well as demonstrated convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity. The AAUSES is a valid and reliable scale that assesses three domains of appropriate antibiotic use self-efficacy. The AAUSES may have utility in clinical and research settings in understanding individuals' beliefs about appropriate antibiotic use and related behavioral correlates. Future research is needed to examine the scale's utility in these settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yildirim, Soner; Tezci, Erdogan
The purpose of this study is to develop a scale--acceptable to potential studies in the context of multicultural education--for determining teachers' attitudes, self-efficacy perceptions and beliefs regarding necessity of multicultural education. The items of the scale which were developed according to opinions of experts and literature were…
Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Bong, Mimi; Ahn, Hyun Seon
This study provides evidence for the validity of the Questionnaire of English Self-Efficacy in a sample of 167 college students in Korea. Results show that the scale measures largely satisfy the Rasch model for unidimensionality. The rating scale appeared to function effectively. The item hierarchy was consistent with the expected item order. The…
Pisconti, Fernando; Mahmoud Smaili Santos, Suhaila; Lopes, Josiane; Rosa Cardoso, Jefferson; Lopes Lavado, Edson
The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale (ESES) is a reliable measure, in the English language, of exercise self-efficacy in individuals with spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to culturally adjust and validate the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale in the Portuguese language. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was applied to 76 subjects, with three-month intervals (three applications in total). The reliability was appraised using the intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman methods, and the internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach´s alpha. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was correlated with the domains of the Quality of life Questionnaire SF-36 and Functional Independence Measure and tested using the Spearman rho coefficient. The Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil presented good internal consistency (alpha 1 = 0.856; alpha 2 = 0.855; alpha 3 = 0.822) and high reliability in the test-retest (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.97). There was a strong correlation between the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil and the SF-36 only in the functional capacity domain (rho = 0.708). There were no changes in Exercise Self-Efficacy scale-Brazil scores between the three applications (p = 0.796). The validation of the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale questionnaire permits the assessor to use it reliably in Portuguese speaking countries, since it is the first instrument measuring self-efficacy specifically during exercises in individuals with spinal cord injury. Furthermore, the questionnaire can be used as an instrument to verify the effectiveness of interventions that use exercise as an outcome. The results of the Brazilian version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy scale support its use as a reliable and valid measurement of exercise self-efficacy for this population.
Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Harold; Cross, Nicole; Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bradbury, Stacey; Feuille, Margaret; Lackey, Jennifer H; Hawley, Anna; Leith, Jaclyn
This study evaluated the cue-reactivity and several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess marijuana users' self-efficacy to employ 21 specific cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce their marijuana use. Using a web-based recruitment and data-collection procedure, 513 regular marijuana users completed dependent measures following marijuana-related or control cue exposure. Although exposure to marijuana-related stimuli significantly increased reported craving, mean reduction-strategy self-efficacy scores did not differ as a function of cue exposure. Reliability analyses supported retaining all 21 items as a single scale. Reduction-strategy self-efficacy was positively associated with marijuana-refusal self-efficacy and with recent past use of reduction strategies, was negatively associated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems, and was positively but weakly associated with general self-efficacy. The most frequently reported strategies that were employed reflected restricting marijuana use to once per day, not keeping a large stash available, turning down unwanted hits, and not obtaining more marijuana right away if one's supply runs out. These findings further support the reliability and validity of the questionnaire when administered to a diverse sample of regular marijuana users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein
Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p < 0.001). Self-efficacy was statistically different among the disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p < 0.001), and health status (p = 0.001). The correlation of Persian Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) scores with GSES (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and HADS (R = -0.53, p < 0.001) was significant. This scale yielded a two-dimensional structure, with a good internal replicability. The external replicability was satisfactory when we compared factor loadings with the original study. The PSES is a valid, reliable and sensitive tool to measure the self-efficacy among SWPD for planning and managing of disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than
Boughfman, Erica M.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the School-Based Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (SB-SES). Two hundred sixty-five (N = 265) licensed mental health professionals participated in this study. Fifty-eight percent of the participants reported experience working as a school-based counselor with the remaining 42% reporting no…
Uzuntiryaki, Esen; Aydin, Yesim Capa
This study described the process of developing and validating the College Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSS) that can be used to assess college students' beliefs in their ability to perform essential tasks in chemistry. In the first phase, data collected from 363 college students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new…
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale instrument to allow us to establish the self-efficacies of elementary education teachers regarding their use of information technologies when educating their students. The study group comprised a total of 924 teachers from different branches working in central Ankara elementary schools. Based on the…
Demirci, Filiz; Ozyurek, Cengiz
The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and safe scale for determining the self-efficacy levels of science teachers in the teaching of astronomy subjects. The study used a survey approach, which is a qualitative research method. The study was conducted with a total of 106 science teachers working in the secondary schools of Ordu city…
Siwatu, Kamau Oginga; Putman, S. Michael; Starker-Glass, Tehia V.; Lewis, Chance W.
This article reports on the development and initial validation of the Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Scale. Data from 380 preservice and inservice teachers were used to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Exploratory factor analysis results suggested a one-factor structure consisting of 35 items and the…
Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester
The 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was developed to assess an individual's beliefs to cope with a variety of situations in life. Despite the GSES being used in numerous research from researchers in different countries and presented in different languages, little is known about the use of its validity in an Asian culture. The aim of the…
Miguel, Jose P.; Silva, Jose T.; Prieto, Gerardo
The present study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) in a sample of Portuguese secondary education students using the Rasch model. The results indicate that the 25 items of the CDSE-SF are well fitted to a latent unidimensional structure, as required by Rasch modeling. The response…
Korkmaz, Ö.; Korkmaz, M. K.
The aim of this study is to improve a measurement tool to evaluate the self-efficacy of Electrical-Electronics Engineering students through their basic electronics skills. The sample group is composed of 124 Electrical-Electronics engineering students. The validity of the scale is analyzed with two different methods through factor analysis and…
Kandemir, Mehmet Ali; Akbas-Perkmen, Rahile
The main purpose of the current study is to examine the construct, convergent and discriminant validity of the Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (Usher & Pajares, 2009) in a Turkish sample. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1986) served as the theoretical framework for the current study. According to Bandura (1986), people's…
Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.
The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.
Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M.
The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown's (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with…
Introduction: The Teacher Efficacy in Deafblindness Education Scale (TEDE) was developed to expand the construct of self-efficacy to teach children with deaf-blindness. Methods: Eighty-seven special educators in the United States were asked to rate their confidence to perform a variety of tasks that are associated with teaching children who are…
Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami
The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…
Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo
This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original scale consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical activity. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical activities when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical activity", with a factor load ≥ 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy scale for physical activity showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians.
Lacasse, Anaïs; Bourgault, Patricia; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Courtemanche-Harel, Roxanne; Choinière, Manon
BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a non-negligible outcome when measuring the impact of self-management interventions for chronic pain patients. However, no validated, chronic pain-specific self-efficacy scales exist for studies conducted with French-speaking populations. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the use of the French-Canadian Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (FC-CPSES) among chronic pain patients. METHODS: The Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale is a validated 33-item self-administered questionnaire that measures perceived self-efficacy to perform self-management behaviours, manage chronic disease in general and achieve outcomes (a six-item version is also available). This scale was adapted to the context of chronic pain patients following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. The FC-CPSES was administered to 109 fibromyalgia and 34 chronic low back pain patients (n=143) who participated in an evidence-based self-management intervention (the PASSAGE program) offered in 10 health care centres across the province of Quebec. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α) were calculated to determine the internal consistency of the 33- and six-item versions of the FC-CPSES. With regard to convergent construct validity, the association between the FC-CPSES baseline scores and related clinical outcomes was examined. With regard to the scale’s sensitivity to change, pre- and postintervention FC-CPSES scores were compared. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high for both versions of the FC-CPSES (α=0.86 to α=0.96). Higher self-efficacy was significantly associated with higher mental health-related quality of life and lower pain intensity and catastrophizing (P<0.05), supporting convergent validity of the scale. There was a statistically significant increase in FC-CPSES scores between pre- and postintervention measures for both versions of the FC-CPSES (P<0.003), which supports their sensitivity to clinical change during an intervention. CONCLUSIONS: These
Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.
Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land
Latimer, Lara; Walker, Lorraine O.; Kim, Sunghun; Pasch, Keryn E.; Sterling, Bobbie Sue
Objective: This study examined test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct and predictive validity of the Physical Activity and Nutrition Self-Efficacy (PANSE) scale, an 11-item instrument to assess weight-loss self-efficacy among postpartum women of lower income. Methods: Seventy-one women completed the PANSE scale and…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said; Al-Hosni, Khoula; Al-Busaidi, Saleh; Al-Kharusi, Bader; Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Alrajhi, Marwa
A scale for measuring self-efficacy for teaching mathematics in grades 5 to 10 was developed in this study for teachers in Oman. The participants were 328 mathematics teachers randomly selected from five educational governorates in the Sultanate of Oman. Factorial structure of the scale revealed three subscales: self-efficacy for understanding the…
Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Heaman, Maureen; Mossman, Marion
This study aimed to (a) psychometrically assess the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) antenatally and postnatally among adolescents, and (b) examine the relationship between breast-feeding self-efficacy and adolescent demographic variables. The BSES-SF is used internationally but has not been psychometrically tested with an adolescent population. A methodological study was conducted in which 103 pregnant adolescents were recruited from two prenatal clinics at a tertiary care setting in western Canada. The BSES-SF was administered at 34 weeks' gestation and again at 1 and 4 weeks postpartum. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .84 for the antenatal assessment and .93 for the postnatal assessment. Antenatal BSES-SF scores significantly predicted breast-feeding initiation, whereas antenatal and postnatal scores predicted duration and exclusivity to 4 weeks postpartum. Other reliability and validity results are consistent with previous research with adult samples. Study findings indicate prenatal classes and professional support may be particularly important sources of information to increase adolescent breast-feeding self-efficacy. Results provide evidence that the scale may be a valid and reliable measure of breast-feeding self-efficacy among adolescents, predicting breast-feeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Najimi, Arash; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Golshiri, Parastoo
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at developing and studying the scale of self-efficacy in adherence to treatment in Iranian patients with hypertension. METHODS: A mix-method study was conducted on the two stages: in the first phase, a qualitative study was done using content analysis through deep and semi-structured interviews. After data analysis, the draft of tool was prepared. Items in the draft were selected based on the extracted concepts. In the second phase, validity and reliability of the instrument were implemented using a quantitative study. The prepared instrument in the first phase was studied among 612 participants. To test the construct validity and internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used, respectively. To study the validity of the final scale, the average score of self-efficacy in patients with controlled hypertension were compared with patients with uncontrolled hypertension. RESULTS: In overall, 16 patients were interviewed. Twenty-six items were developed to assess different concepts of self-efficacy. Concept-related items were extracted from interviews to study the face validity of the tool from patient's point of view. Four items were deleted because scored 0.79 in content validity. The mean of questionnaire content validity was 0.85. Items were collected in two factors with an eigenvalue >1. Four items were deleted with load factor <0.4. Reliability was 0.84 for the entire instrument. CONCLUSION: Self-efficacy scale in patients with hypertension is a valid and reliable instrument that can effectively evaluate the self-efficacy in medication adherence in the management of hypertension. PMID:29114551
Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Swift, Bryan L.; Kirsch, Arthur; Farquhar, James F.; Decker, Daniel J.; Siemer, William F.
Fish and wildlife harvest management at large spatial scales often involves making complex decisions with multiple objectives and difficult tradeoffs, population demographics that vary spatially, competing stakeholder values, and uncertainties that might affect management decisions. Structured decision making (SDM) provides a formal decision analytic framework for evaluating difficult decisions by breaking decisions into component parts and separating the values of stakeholders from the scientific evaluation of management actions and uncertainty. The result is a rigorous, transparent, and values-driven process. This decision-aiding process provides the decision maker with a more complete understanding of the problem and the effects of potential management actions on stakeholder values, as well as how key uncertainties can affect the decision. We use a case study to illustrate how SDM can be used as a decision-aiding tool for management decision making at large scales. We evaluated alternative white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) buck-harvest regulations in New York designed to reduce harvest of yearling bucks, taking into consideration the values of the state wildlife agency responsible for managing deer, as well as deer hunters. We incorporated tradeoffs about social, ecological, and economic management concerns throughout the state. Based on the outcomes of predictive models, expert elicitation, and hunter surveys, the SDM process identified management alternatives that optimized competing objectives. The SDM process provided biologists and managers insight about aspects of the buck-harvest decision that helped them adopt a management strategy most compatible with diverse hunter values and management concerns.
Simon, Daniela; Loh, Andreas; Härter, Martin
In recent years shared decision-making (SDM) has gained importance as an appropriate approach to patient-physician communication and decision-making. However, there is a conceptual variety that implies problems of inconsistent measurement, of defining relationships of SDM and outcome measures, and of comparisons across different studies. This article presents the results of a literature search of psychometric instruments measuring aspects of decision-making. Altogether 18 scales were found. The majority covers the patients' perspective and relates to preferences for information and participation, decisional conflict, self-efficacy as well as to the evaluation of decision-making process and outcomes. The scales differ widely in their extent of validation. Although this review is not exhaustive, it presents a variety of available decision-making instruments. Yet, many of them still need to show their psychometric quality for other settings in further studies.
Callihan, L.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.
Robust decision making, a flexible and dynamic approach to managing water resources in light of deep uncertainties associated with climate variability at inter-annual to decadal time scales, is an analytical framework that detects when a system is in or approaching a vulnerable state. It provides decision makers the opportunity to implement strategies that both address the vulnerabilities and perform well over a wide range of plausible future scenarios. A strategy that performs acceptably over a wide range of possible future states is not likely to be optimal with respect to the actual future state. The degree of success--the ability to avoid vulnerable states and operate efficiently--thus depends on the skill in projecting future states and the ability to select the most efficient strategies to address vulnerabilities. This research develops a robust decision making framework that incorporates new methods of decadal scale projections with selection of efficient strategies. Previous approaches to water resources planning under inter-annual climate variability combining skillful seasonal flow forecasts with climatology for subsequent years are not skillful for medium term (i.e. decadal scale) projections as decision makers are not able to plan adequately to avoid vulnerabilities. We address this need by integrating skillful decadal scale streamflow projections into the robust decision making framework and making the probability distribution of this projection available to the decision making logic. The range of possible future hydrologic scenarios can be defined using a variety of nonparametric methods. Once defined, an ensemble projection of decadal flow scenarios are generated from a wavelet-based spectral K-nearest-neighbor resampling approach using historical and paleo-reconstructed data. This method has been shown to generate skillful medium term projections with a rich variety of natural variability. The current state of the system in combination with the
Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-deok
To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions.
Molle, Elizabeth; Froman, Robin
Computerized interdisciplinary plans of care have revitalized nurse-centric care plans into dynamic and meaningful electronic documents. To maximize the benefits of these documents, it is important to understand healthcare professionals' attitudes, specifically their confidence, for making computerized interdisciplinary care plans useful and meaningful documents. The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Interdisciplinary Plans of Care instrument intended to measure healthcare professionals' self-efficacy for using such documents. Content validity was assessed by an expert review panel. Content validity indices ranged from 0.75 to 1.00, with a scale CVI of 0.94. A sample of 389 healthcare providers completed the 14-item instrument. Principal axis factoring was used to assess factor structure. The exploratory factor analysis yielded a single-factor structure accounting for 71.76% of covariance. Cronbach internal consistency coefficient for the single factor solution was .97. The corrected item-total correlations ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. The coefficient of stability, during a 2-week period, with a subset of the sample (n = 38), was estimated at 0.82. The results of this study suggest that the Self-Efficacy for Interdisciplinary Plans of Care has sturdy reliability and validity for measuring the self-efficacy of healthcare providers to make computerized interdisciplinary plans of care meaningful and useful documents.
Sahin, Cavus; Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Kocer, Tugba; Kocer, Omer
The main purpose of this descriptive research study is to investigate the conceptual and psychometric properties of a self-efficacy perception scale developed for determining self-efficacy perception of 3rd and 4th grade Turkish pre-service teachers, who took Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL) course theoretically in undergraduate level, towards…
Lee, Miyoung; Peterson, Jana J.; Dixon, Alicia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID) scales developed by Peterson, Peterson, Lowe, & Nothwehr (2009). A total of 146 participants with intellectual disabilities completed 6 self-efficacy (SE) items and 18 social…
Aydin, Ayse; Pasinlioglu, Turkan
This study aims to conduct reliability and validity study of the Turkish version of the "Prenatal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale", which determines pregnant women's perception of breastfeeding self-efficacy in the prenatal period. This methodological research was carried out between December 2014 and May 2016 in maternity clinics of the Erzurum Nene Hatun Maternity Hospital and Atatürk University Research Hospital. The study population consisted of pregnant women, admitted to the specified clinics for prenatal controls. The study was carried out with 326 pregnant women, who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the research without any sample selection. "Personal Information Form" and "Prenatal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Turkish Form" were used for data collection. The data were collected by the face-to-face interview method, and analyzed by SPSS 18 software. In the validity-reliability analysis of the scale, language and content validity, explanatory factor analysis, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, item-total score correlation, and testretest methods were used. Linguistic validity was verified by the translation-backtranslation of the Prenatal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, then the necessary corrections were made according to the recommendations of the expert opinions, to ensure the content validity. As a result of the explanatory factor analysis, performed to determine the construct validity of the scale, a single factor structure was found, having factor loadings in the appropriate range (0.30-0.76). In the internal consistency analysis of the scale, Cronbach's Alpha was 0.86, and the item-total score correlations were between 0.23 and 0.65, and no item was removed from the scale. In order to test the time-invariance of the scale, the test-retest correlation value was found to be 0.94. The relationship between the two applications were determined to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). Turkish version of the Prenatal
Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas
The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…
Nooijen, Carla F J; Post, Marcel W M; Spijkerman, Dorien C M; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G
To assess the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) in persons with spinal cord injury. This is the first independent study of ESES psychometric properties, and the first report on ESES test-retest reliability. A total of 53 Dutch persons with spinal cord injury. Subjects completed the Dutch ESES twice, with 2 weeks between (ESES_1 and ESES_2). Subjects also completed the General self-efficacy scale (GSE), and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and lesion characteristics. Psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the ESES were assessed and compared with those of the original English-language version. The Dutch ESES was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's α for ESES_1 = 0.90, ESES_2 = 0.88). Test-retest reliability was adequate (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.89). For validity, a moderate, statistically significant correlation was found between ESES and the GSE (Spearman's ρ ESES_1 = 0.52, ESES_2 = 0.66, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the Dutch ESES were found to be similar to those of the original English version. The results of this study support the use of the ESES as a reliable and valid measure of exercise self-efficacy.
Johnson, Mallory O.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dilworth, Samantha; Morin, Stephen F.; Remien, Robert H.; Chesney, Margaret A.
Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. This paper describes the validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES) with two samples of HIV+ adults on ART. Factor analyses support subscales measuring Adherence Integration (eigenvalue = 6.12) and Adherence Perseverance (eigenvalue = 1.16), accounting for 61% of the variance in scale items. The HIV-ASES demonstrates robust internal consistency (ρs > .90) and 3-month (rs > .70) and 15-month (rs > .40) test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity analyses revealed relationships with psychosocial measures, ART adherence, clinical status, and healthcare utilization. Findings support the use of the HIV-ASES and provide guidance for further investigation of adherence self-efficacy in the context of treatment for HIV and other diseases. PMID:17588200
Vivienne Wu, Shu-Fang; Courtney, Mary; Edwards, Helen; McDowell, Jan; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Chang, Pei-Jen
The purpose of this study was to translate the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) into Chinese and test the validity and reliability of the instrument within a Taiwanese population. A two-stage design was used for this study. Stage I consisted of a multi-stepped process of forward and backward translation, using focus groups and consensus meetings to translate the 20-item Australia/English version DMSES to Chinese and test content validity. Stage II established the psychometric properties of the Chinese version DMSES (C-DMSES) by examining the criterion, convergent and construct validity, internal consistency and stability testing. The sample for Stage II comprised 230 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years or more from a diabetes outpatient clinic in Taiwan. Three items were modified to better reflect Chinese practice. The C-DMSES obtained a total average CVI score of .86. The convergent validity of the C-DMSES correlated well with the validated measure of the General Self-Efficacy Scale in measuring self-efficacy (r=.55; p<.01). Criterion-related validity showed that the C-DMSES was a significant predictor of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scores (Beta=.58; t=10.75, p<.01). Factor analysis supported the C-DMSES being composed of four subscales. Good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.77 to .93) and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient r=.86, p<.01) were found. The C-DMSES is a brief and psychometrically sound measure for evaluation of self-efficacy towards management of diabetes by persons with type 2 diabetes in Chinese populations.
Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P.; Rapp, Charlie; Goscha, Rick; Young, Leslie; Mabry, Ally
Shared decision-making has become a central tenet of recovery-oriented, person-centered mental health care, yet the practice is not always transferred to the routine psychiatric visit. Supporting the practice at the system level, beyond the interactions of consumers and medication prescribers, is needed for successful adoption of shared decision-making. CommonGround is a systemic approach, intended to be part of a larger integration of shared decision-making tools and practices at the system level. We discuss the organizational components that CommonGround uses to facilitate shared decision-making, and we present a fidelity scale to assess how well the system is being implemented. PMID:28090194
Canbulat, Ayse Nur Kutluca
This work uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to study Verbal Skills Development Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (VSDTS), Reading Skills Development Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (RSDTS) and Writing Skills Development Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (WSDTS) developed to identify classroom teacher candidates' perceptions of teacher…
Graff, Lesley A; Sexton, Kathryn A; Walker, John R; Clara, Ian; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N
Self-efficacy describes a person's confidence in their ability to manage demands, and is predictive of health outcomes in chronic disease such as hospitalization and health status. However, meaningful measurement must be domain (e.g., disease) specific. This study aims to provide validation of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Self-Efficacy scale (IBD-SE), using a population-based IBD sample. Manitoba IBD Cohort Study participants completed a survey and clinical interview at a mean of 12 years postdiagnosis (n = 121 Crohn's disease; n = 108 ulcerative colitis), which included validated measures of psychological functioning, disability, disease-specific quality of life, perceived health, and current and recent disease activity, in addition to the IBD-SE. The IBD-SE had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.97), and a 4-factor structure was confirmed. Construct validity was demonstrated as follows: the IBD-SE was strongly correlated with mastery (r = 0.53), highly correlated in the expected directions with measures of psychological well-being (r = 0.70), stress (r = -0.78), distress (r = -0.71), disability (r = -0.48), disease-specific quality of life (r = 0.68), and overall perceived health (r = 0.52) (all P < 0.001). Those with currently inactive disease had higher self-efficacy than the active disease group (Crohn's disease: mean = 232 versus 195, P < 0.001; ulcerative colitis: mean = 233 versus 202, P < 0.01), with similar findings for recent symptomatic disease activity. The IBD-SE is a reliable, valid, and sensitive measure as demonstrated in this population-based sample, supporting its utility in IBD. Because self-efficacy is a modifiable psychological characteristic that can contribute to positive health outcomes, the IBD-SE may prove to be a valuable instrument for research and in targeted intervention with IBD patients.
Messina, Rossella; Rucci, Paola; Sturt, Jackie; Mancini, Tatiana; Fantini, Maria Pia
Being highly self-efficacious is a key factor in successful chronic disease self-management. In the context of measuring self-efficacy in type 2 diabetes management, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) is the most widely used scale. The aim of this study was to adapt the English version of the scale to Italian and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of DMSES in type 2 diabetes (IT-DMSES). We conducted a cross-sectional study of people with type 2 diabetes attending the Endocrine-Metabolic Disease Care Unit of the Internal Medicine Department of San Marino State Hospital between October 2016 and February 2017. Patients completed a socio-demographic and clinical data form, the IT-DMSES and 3 self-report questionnaires measuring diabetes distress (PAID-5), psychological well-being (WHO-5) and depression (PHQ-9). Psychometric testing included construct validity (principal component analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient) and convergent/discriminant validity (Spearman's correlation coefficient). Decision tree analysis was performed to classify patients into homogeneous subgroups of self-efficacy based on their demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants were 110 males and 55 females, mean age of 65.2 years (SD ± 9), 56.9% had been diagnosed for 1-15 years, 63% had HbA1c level > 53 mmol/mol. Two main factors underlain the construct of self-efficacy in diabetes management: 'Disease Management' and "Lifestyles Management". Disease Management had a good reliability (α = .849) and Lifestyle Management had an excellent reliability (α = .902) indicating that the instrument is internally consistent. A negative and weak correlation was found between Lifestyle management, PAID-5 (r = - 0.258, p = < 0.01) and PHQ-9 (r = - 0.274, p = < 0.01) and a positive one with WHO-5 (r = 0.325, p < 0.01) supporting convergent validity. Disease management was
Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa; Rahman-Filipiak, Analise; Tatro, Ron; Farrell, Cynthia; Speir, James J; Mall, Sanford J; Simasko, Patrick; Collens, Howard H; Jackman, John Daniel
One of the challenges in preventing the financial exploitation of older adults is that neither criminal justice nor noncriminal justice professionals are equipped to detect capacity deficits. Because decision-making capacity is a cornerstone assessment in cases of financial exploitation, effective instruments for measuring this capacity are essential. We introduce a new screening scale for financial decision making that can be administered to older adults. To explore the scale's implementation and assess construct validity, we conducted a pilot study of 29 older adults seen by APS (Adult Protective Services) workers and 79 seen by other professionals. Case examples are included.
Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio; Fida, Roberta; Vecchione, Michele
Since its introduction in 1977, self-efficacy has proven to be a fundamental predictor of positive adjustment and achievement in many domains. In problem gambling studies, self-efficacy has been defined mainly as an individual's ability to avoid gambling in risky situations. The interest in this construct developed mainly with regard to treatment approaches, where abstinence from gambling is required. Very little is known, however, regarding self-efficacy as a protective factor for problem gambling. This study aims to fill this gap, proposing a new self-efficacy scale which measures not only the ability to restrain oneself from gambling but also the ability to self-regulate one's gambling behavior. Two studies were conducted in which the data from two Italian prevalence surveys on problem gambling were considered. A total of about 6,000 participants were involved. In the first study, the psychometric characteristics of this new self-efficacy scale were investigated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicated the presence of two different factors: self-efficacy in self-regulating gambling behavior and self-efficacy in avoiding risky gambling behavior. The second study confirmed the replicability of the two-factor solution and displayed high correlations among these two self-efficacy dimensions and different measures of gambling activities as well as other psychological variables related to gambling (gambling beliefs, gambling motivation, risk propensity, and impulsiveness). The results of logistic regression analyses showed the particular importance of self-regulating gaming behavior in explaining problem gambling as measured by Problem Gambling Severity Index and South Oaks Gambling Screen, thus proving the role of self-efficacy as a pivotal protective factor for problem gambling. PMID:28676781
The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of items on the original Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) and psychometrically assess the revised BSES-Short Form (BSES-SF). As part of a longitudinal study, participants completed mailed questionnaires at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Health region in British Columbia. A population-based sample of 491 breastfeeding mothers. BSES, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Internal consistency statistics with the original BSES suggested item redundancy. As such, 18 items were deleted, using explicit reduction criteria. Based on the encouraging reliability analysis of the new 14-item BSES-SF, construct validity was assessed using principal components factor analysis, comparison of contrasted groups, and correlations with measures of similar constructs. Support for predictive validity was demonstrated through significant mean differences between breastfeeding and bottle feeding mothers at 4 (p < .001) and 8 (p < .001) weeks postpartum. Demographic response patterns suggested the BSES-SF is a unique tool to identify mothers at risk of prematurely discontinuing breastfeeding. These psychometric results indicate the BSES-SF is an excellent measure of breastfeeding self-efficacy and considered ready for clinical use to (a) identify breastfeeding mothers at high risk, (b) assess breastfeeding behaviors and cognitions to individualize confidence-building strategies, and (c) evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions and guide program development.
Chambers, David W
A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.
Robertson Evia, Jane; Peterman, Karen; Cloyd, Emily; Besley, John
Self-efficacy, or the beliefs people hold about their ability to succeed in certain pursuits, is a long-established construct. Self-efficacy for science communication distinguishes scientists who engage with the public and relates to scientists' attitudes about the public. As such, self-efficacy for public engagement has the potential to serve as…
Hancher, M.; Lieber, A.; Scott, L.
The volume of satellite and other Earth data is growing rapidly. Combined with information about where people are, these data can inform decisions in a range of areas including food and water security, disease and disaster risk management, biodiversity, and climate adaptation. Google's platform for planetary-scale geospatial data analysis, Earth Engine, grants access to petabytes of continually updating Earth data, programming interfaces for analyzing the data without the need to download and manage it, and mechanisms for sharing the analyses and publishing results for data-driven decision making. In addition to data about the planet, data about the human planet - population, settlement and urban models - are now available for global scale analysis. The Earth Engine APIs enable these data to be joined, combined or visualized with economic or environmental indicators such as nighttime lights trends, global surface water, or climate projections, in the browser without the need to download anything. We will present our newly developed application intended to serve as a resource for government agencies, disaster response and public health programs, or other consumers of these data to quickly visualize the different population models, and compare them to ground truth tabular data to determine which model suits their immediate needs. Users can further tap into the power of Earth Engine and other Google technologies to perform a range of analysis from simple statistics in custom regions to more complex machine learning models. We will highlight case studies in which organizations around the world have used Earth Engine to combine population data with multiple other sources of data, such as water resources and roads data, over deep stacks of temporal imagery to model disease risk and accessibility to inform decisions.
Lichtenberg, P.A.; Howard, H; Simaskp, P.; Mall, S.; Speir, J.; Farrell, C.; Tatro, R; Rahman-Filipiak, A.; Ficker, L.J.
One of the challenges in preventing the financial exploitation of older adults is that neither criminal justice nor noncriminal justice professionals are equipped to detect capacity deficits. Because decision-making capacity is a cornerstone assessment in cases of financial exploitation, effective instruments for measuring this capacity are essential. We introduce a new screening scale for financial decision making that can be administered to older adults. To explore the scale’s implementation and assess construct validity, we conducted a pilot study of 29 older adults seen by APS workers and 79 seen by other professionals. Case examples are included. PMID:27010780
Tindal, Gerald; Lee, Daesik; Geller, Leanne Ketterlin
In this paper we review different methods for teachers to recommend accommodations in large scale tests. Then we present data on the stability of their judgments on variables relevant to this decision-making process. The outcomes from the judgments support the need for a more explicit model. Four general categories are presented: student…
Forsyth, A D; Carey, M P; Fuqua, R W
Assessment of behavioral skills remains critical to the evaluation of HIV prevention interventions; however, investigators often rely upon participant reports of self-efficacy to estimate such skills. We evaluated the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs for condom use and behavioral performance. Forty-three men completed the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSES) and participated in 2 behavioral assessments. Regression analyses indicated that the CUSES subscales relevant to negotiation of condom use did not account for a significant amount of variability in interpersonal skills; similarly, the CUSES subscale relevant to technical condom use skill did not account for variability in the condom application scores. We caution investigators against the assumption that higher self-efficacy reflects behavioral competence for HIV-risk reduction.
Pace, Ana Emilia; Gomes, Lilian Cristiane; Bertolin, Daniela Comelis; Loureiro, Helena Maria Almeira Macedo; Bijl, Jaap Van Der; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M.
Objective: to perform the cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Management Self-efficacy Scale for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with a Brazilian population sample. Method: cross-sectional methodological study in which the adaptation and validation process included the stages recommended in the literature. Construct validity and reliability were assessed with 200 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: the items indicated by the panel of judges and by the target population were adjusted in the cultural adaptation to improve clarity and understanding. The instrument's four factors remained in the confirmatory factor analysis with factor loadings of items greater than 0.30, except for factor 4; convergent validity, verified by the multitrait-multimethod analysis, presented inter-item correlations from 0.37 to 0.92, while for discriminant validity, 100% of the items presented greater correlation in their own factors. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the total scale was 0.78, ranging from 0.57 to 0.86 among factors. Conclusion: semantic, cultural, conceptual and idiomatic equivalences were achieved and the instrument's Brazilian version also presented psychometric properties that showed evidence of reliability and validity. Thus, it can be applied both in clinical practice and research. Self-efficacy is useful for planning and assessing educational interventions, as well as predicting behavior modification in self-care. PMID:28562700
Arias, María Luisa Flores; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Soto, Norma Elva Sáenz
Development of a Spanish Version Contraceptive Self-efficacy Scale for use among heterosexual Mexican populations of reproductive age inclusive of 18-35years. Methods of family planning have decreased in Mexico which may lead to an increase in unintended pregnancies. Contraceptive self-efficacy is considered a predictor and precursor for use of family planning methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive study design was used to assess contraceptive self-efficacy among a heterosexual Mexican population (N=160) of reproductive age (18-35years). Adaptation of a Spanish Version Contraceptive Self-efficacy scale was conducted prior to instrument administration. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses identified seven factors with a variance of 72.812%. The adapted scale had a Cronbach alpha of 0.771. A significant correlation between the Spanish Version Contraceptive Self-efficacy Scale and the use of family planning methods was identified. The Spanish Version Contraceptive Self-efficacy scale has an acceptable Cronbach alpha. Exploratory factor analysis identified 7 components. A positive correlation between self-reported contraceptive self-efficacy and family planning method use was identified. This scale may be used among heterosexual Mexican men and women of reproductive age. The factor analysis (7 factors versus 4 factors for the original scale) identified a discrepancy for interpretation of the Spanish versus English language versions. Interpretation of findings obtained via the Spanish versión among heterosexual Mexican men and women of reproductive age require interpretation based upon these differences identified in these analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ruble, Lisa A.; Toland, Michael D.; Birdwhistell, Jessica L.; McGrew, John H.; Usher, Ellen L.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a new measure, the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET) for its dimensionality, internal consistency, and construct validity derived in a sample of special education teachers (N = 44) of students with autism. Results indicate that all items reflect one dominant factor, teachers’ responses to items were internally consistent within the sample, and compared to a 100-point scale, a 6-point response scale is adequate. ASSET scores were found to be negatively correlated with scores on two subscale measures of teacher stress (i.e., self-doubt/need for support and disruption of the teaching process) but uncorrelated with teacher burnout scores. The ASSET is a promising tool that requires replication with larger samples. PMID:23976899
Ruble, Lisa A; Toland, Michael D; Birdwhistell, Jessica L; McGrew, John H; Usher, Ellen L
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a new measure, the Autism Self-Efficacy Scale for Teachers (ASSET) for its dimensionality, internal consistency, and construct validity derived in a sample of special education teachers ( N = 44) of students with autism. Results indicate that all items reflect one dominant factor, teachers' responses to items were internally consistent within the sample, and compared to a 100-point scale, a 6-point response scale is adequate. ASSET scores were found to be negatively correlated with scores on two subscale measures of teacher stress (i.e., self-doubt/need for support and disruption of the teaching process) but uncorrelated with teacher burnout scores. The ASSET is a promising tool that requires replication with larger samples.
Cha, EunSeok; Kim, Kevin H; Burke, Lora E
When an instrument is translated for use in cross-cultural research, it needs to account for cultural factors without distorting the psychometric properties of the instrument. To validate the psychometric properties of the condom self-efficacy scale (CSE) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults after translating the scale to Korean (CSE-K) to determine its suitability for cross-cultural research among Korean college students. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with an exploratory survey methodology through self-report questionnaires. A convenience sample of 351 students, aged 18 to 25 years, were recruited at a university in Seoul, Korea. The participants completed the CSE-K and the intention of condom use scales after they were translated from English to Korean using a combined translation technique. A demographic and sex history questionnaire, which included an item to assess actual condom usage, was also administered. Mean, variance, reliability, criterion validity, and factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis were assessed in the CSE-K. Norms for the CSE-K were similar, but not identical, to norms for the English version. The means of all three subscales were lower for the CSE-K than for the original CSE; however, the obtained variance in CSE-K was roughly similar with the original CSE. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale was higher for the CSE-K (.91) than that for either the CSE (.85) or CSE in Thai (.85). Criterion validity and construct validity of the CSE-K were confirmed. The CSE-K was a reliable and valid scale in measuring condom self-efficacy among Korean college students. The findings suggest that the CSE was an appropriate instrument to conduct cross-cultural research on sexual behavior in adolescents and young adults.
Gittner, Lisaann S; Gittner, Kevin B
Assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Scale (F/V scale) in African American women. Midwestern Health Maintenance Organization. 221 African American women age 40-65 with BMI≥30 MEASURES: F/V scale was compared to eating efficacy/availability subscale reported on the WEL and mean micronutrient intake (vitamins A, C, K, folate, potassium, and beta-carotene reported on 3-day food records. F/V scale construct validity and internal consistency were assessed and compared to: 1) the original scale validation in Chinese women, 2) WEL scale, and 3) to micronutrient intake from 3-day food records. Total scale scores differed between African American women (μ=1.87+/-0.87) and Chinese (μ=0.41). In a Chinese population, F/V scale factored into two subscales; the F/V factored into one subscale in African American women. Construct validity was supported with correlation between the F/V scale and the eating efficacy WEL subscale (r 2 =-0.336, p=0.000). There was not a significant correlation between dietary consumption of micronutrients representative of fruit and vegetable intake and the F/V scale. The F/V scale developed for Chinese populations can be reliably used with African American women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ritter, Philip L; Lorig, Kate
Self-efficacy theory, as developed by Bandura, suggests that self-efficacy is an important predictor of future behavior. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program was designed to enhance self-efficacy as one approach to improving health behaviors and outcomes for people with varying chronic diseases. The six-item Self-Efficacy to Manage Chronic Disease Scale (SEMCD) and the four-item Spanish-language version (SEMCD-S) were developed to measure changes in self-efficacy in program participants and have been used in a numerous evaluations of chronic disease self-management programs. This study describes the development of the scales and their psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of questionnaire data from 2,866 participants in six studies are used to quantify and evaluate the SEMCD. Data from 868 participants in two studies are used for the SEMCD-S. Subjects consisted of individuals with various chronic conditions, who enrolled in chronic disease self-management programs (either small group or Internet based). Subjects came from United States, England, Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Descriptive statistics are summarized, reliability tested (Cronbach alpha), and principal component analyses applied to items. Baseline and change scores are correlated with baseline and change scores for five medical outcome variables that have been shown to be associated with self-efficacy measures in past studies. Principal component analyses confirmed the one-dimensional structure of the scales. The SEMCD had means ranging from 4.9 to 6.1 and the SEMCD-S 6.1 and 6.2. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha, 0.88-0.95). The scales were sensitive to change and significantly correlated with health outcomes. The SEMCD and SEMCD-S are reliable and appear to be valid instruments for assessing self-efficacy for managing chronic disease. There was remarkable consistency across a range of studies from varying countries using two languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All
Lambert, Jessica E; Benight, Charles C; Harrison, Erica; Cieslak, Roman
The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters' perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis using a second sample. Internal consistency of the measure was excellent. Analysis of cross-sectional data indicated FFCSE was positively associated with measures of psychological well-being and social support, and negatively associated with work-related stress and psychological distress. FFCSE also uniquely contributed to the variance in psychological distress, over and above variables previously shown to be associated with distress among this population. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Eksioglu, Aysun Basgun; Ceber, Esin
Recent research indicates that most mothers give up breast feeding their infants early in the postpartum period due to difficulties with breast feeding and the belief that they are inefficient at breast feeding. Using self-efficacy theory as a conceptual framework to measure breast-feeding confidence, a Turkish version of the Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) was developed and psychometrically tested among Turkish mothers. To translate the BSES into Turkish and assess its psychometric properties among breast-feeding mothers. A methodological study to assess the reliability, validity and predictive value of the BSES. Women were recruited from two mother and child health-care units in the Altındağ district in Izmir, Turkey between 2006 and 2007, and followed up two months post partum. 165 Turkish-speaking women. Following back-translation, questionnaires were completed in hospital and at home by postnatal women. The BSES was administrated at one, four and eight weeks post partum to determine the method of infant feeding. The interviews and home visits were conducted in mothers' own homes at a mutually convenient time. The psychometric assessment method used to validate the original BSES (English version) was replicated with the translated Turkish version. The well-concordance coefficient of Kendall's W scale was 0.227, p<0.01 and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.45. The consistency of the scale in terms of temporal process was efficient (p = 0.00). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91 and 0.92 at one and four weeks post partum, respectively, and the reliability of the scale was found to be high (0.80 ≤ α<1.00). The Turkish version of the BSES can be used to determine which mothers are at risk of giving up breast feeding early in the postpartum period, and the subjects they need to learn about breast feeding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chesney, Margaret A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Chambers, Donald B.; Taylor, Jonelle M.; Folkman, Susan
Objectives Investigate the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale, a 26-item measure of one’s confidence in performing coping behaviors when faced with life challenges. Design Data came from two randomized clinical trials (N1 = 149, N2 = 199) evaluating a theory-based Coping Effectiveness Training (CET) intervention in reducing psychological distress and increasing positive mood in persons coping with chronic illness. Methods The 348 participants were HIV-seropositive men with depressed mood who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention and comparison conditions and assessed pre- and post-intervention. Outcome variables included the CSE scale, ways of coping, and measures of social support and psychological distress and well-being. Results Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) revealed a 13-item reduced form of the CSE scale with three factors: Use problem-focused coping (6 items, α = .91), stop unpleasant emotions and thoughts (4 items, α = .91), and get support from friends and family (3 items, α = .80). Internal consistency and test–retest reliability are strong for all three factors. Concurrent validity analyses showed these factors assess self-efficacy for different types of coping. Predictive validity analyses showed that residualized change scores in using problem- and emotion-focused coping skills were predictive of reduced psychological distress and increased psychological well-being over time. Conclusions The CSE scale provides a measure of a person’s perceived ability to cope effectively with life challenges, as well as a way to assess changes in CSE over time in intervention research. PMID:16870053
Oliveira, Albertina L; Silva, José T; Lima, Margarida P
To validate the Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (EAAS - Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale). Non-experimental quantitative study of EAAS validation, by confirmatory factorial analyses, evaluating a sample of 508 older adults from the north and the center of Portugal with mean age of 71.67 (from 51 to 96 years), to whom the Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were applied. The EAAS was developed from the theoretical constructs of self-efficacy and from self-directed learning within the PALADIN European project framework, aiming to develop an instrument able to assess the extent to which older adults take good care of their health. The internal consistency was 0.87 (Cronbach's alpha) and confirmatory factorial analyses enabled to find a model near the one theoretically proposed, indicating a structure consisting of four dimensions: physical exercise, healthy diet, engaging in health-related learning, and visits to health professionals. From the psychometric point of view, the model in four factors showed quite satisfactory fit indicators. The Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, with 16 items, is adequate to evaluate to what extent older adults have confidence in their ability to take care of their own health, with high degree of autonomy. Validar a Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção no domínio da Saúde (EAAS). Estudo quantitativo não experimental de validação da EAAS, por meio de análises fatoriais confirmatórias, avaliando amostra de 508 seniores e idosos provenientes das regiões Norte e Centro de Portugal com média etária de 71.67 (51 a 96 anos), a quem foram aplicadas a Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde, a Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, a Escala de Afeto Positivo e Afeto Negativo, a Escala de
Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Smith, Tenbroeck; Hack, Thomas F.; Huschka, Mashele M.; Rummans, Teresa A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Diekmann, Brent; Degner, Lesley F.
Objectives To collect normative data, assess differences between demographic groups, and indirectly compare US and Canadian medical systems relative to patient expectations of involvement in cancer treatment decision making. Study Design Meta-analysis. Methods Individual patient data were compiled across 6 clinical studies among 3491 patients with cancer who completed the 2-item Control Preferences Scale indicating the roles they preferred versus actually experienced in treatment decision making. Results The roles in treatment decision making that patients preferred were 26% active, 49% collaborative, and 25% passive. The roles that patients reported actually experiencing were 30% active, 34% collaborative, and 36% passive. Roughly 61% of patients reported having their preferred role; only 6% experienced extreme discordance between their preferred versus actual roles. More men than women (66% vs 60%, P = .001) and more US patients than Canadian patients (84% vs 54%, P <.001) reported concordance between their preferred versus actual roles. More Canadian patients than US patients preferred and actually experienced (42% vs 18%, P <.001) passive roles. More women than men reported taking a passive role (40% vs 24%, P <.001). Older patients preferred and were more likely than younger patients to assume a passive role. Conclusions Roughly half of the studied patients with cancer indicated that they preferred to have a collaborative relationship with physicians. Although most patients had the decision-making role they preferred, about 40% experienced discordance. This highlights the need for incorporation of individualized patient communication styles into treatment plans. PMID:20873956
Airlie, J; Baker, G A; Smith, S J; Young, C A
To develop a scale to measure self-efficacy in neurologically impaired patients with multiple sclerosis and to assess the scale's psychometric properties. Cross-sectional questionnaire study in a clinical setting, the retest questionnaire returned by mail after completion at home. Regional multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatient clinic or the Clinical Trials Unit (CTU) at a large neuroscience centre in the UK. One hundred persons with MS attending the Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral, as outpatients. Cognitively impaired patients were excluded at an initial clinic assessment. Patients were asked to provide demographic data and complete the self-efficacy scale along with the following validated scales: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Impact, Stigma and Mastery and Rankin Scales. The Rankin Scale and Barthel Index were also assessed by the physician. A new 11-item self-efficacy scale was constructed consisting of two domains of control and personal agency. The validity of the scale was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha analysis of internal consistency (alpha = 0.81). The test-retest reliability of the scale over two weeks was acceptable with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. Construct validity was investigated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient resulting in significant correlations with depression (r= -0.52) anxiety (r =-0.50) and mastery (r= 0.73). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that these factors accounted for 70% of the variance of scores on the self-efficacy scale, with scores on mastery, anxiety and perceived disability being independently significant. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this new self-efficacy scale suggest that it possesses good validity and reliability in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy
This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…
Wu, Tzu-Yi; Yu, Wan-Hui; Huang, Chien-Yu; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ching-Lin
Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply Rasch analysis to examine the unidimensionality and reliability of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Furthermore, if the items of the GSE fitted the Rasch model's assumptions, we transformed the raw sum ordinal scores of the GSE into Rasch interval scores. Methods A total of 1076 participants completed the GSE at 1 month post injury. Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality and person reliability of the GSE. The unidimensionality of the GSE was verified by determining whether the items fit the Rasch model's assumptions: (1) item fit indices: infit and outfit mean square (MNSQ) ranged from 0.6 to 1.4; and (2) the eigenvalue of the first factor extracted from principal component analysis (PCA) for residuals was <2. Person reliability was calculated. Results The unidimensionality of the 10-item GSE was supported in terms of good item fit statistics (infit and outfit MNSQ ranging from 0.92 to 1.32) and acceptable eigenvalues (1.6) of the first factor of the PCA, with person reliability = 0.89. Consequently, the raw sum scores of the GSE were transformed into Rasch scores. Conclusions The results indicated that the items of GSE are unidimensional and have acceptable person reliability in workers with traumatic limb injuries. Additionally, the raw sum scores of the GSE can be transformed into Rasch interval scores for prospective users to quantify workers' levels of self-efficacy and to conduct further statistical analyses.
Sigman, Mariano; Etchemendy, Pablo; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Cecchi, Guillermo A
Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times (RTs) and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: (1) RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, (2) RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state-function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.
Sigman, Mariano; Etchemendy, Pablo; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Cecchi, Guillermo A.
Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times (RTs) and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: (1) RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, (2) RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state-function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation. PMID:21031032
Fueyo-Díaz, Ricardo; Magallón-Botaya, Rosa; Gascón-Santos, Santiago; Asensio-Martínez, Ángela; Palacios-Navarro, Guillermo; Sebastián-Domingo, Juan J.
The aim of this study was to develop a scale to assess the levels of specific self-efficacy in order to enhance adherence to a gluten-free diet and the life quality of celiac patients. Celiac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed people. The only treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. Within the framework of Social Cognitive Theory, expectation of self-efficacy is understood as the degree in which a person believes himself to be capable of performing a certain task (e.g., adhering to a gluten-free diet), a construct which has been widely studied in its relation with adopting healthy behaviors, but scarcely in relation to celiac disease. A validation study was carried out in various stages: preparation of the protocol; construction of the questionnaire and a pilot run with 20 patients; validation of the scale with 563 patients and statistical analysis. A 25-item scale was developed. Feasibility was excellent (99.82% of participants completed all the questions). Factorial analysis pointed to the existence of five factors that explained 70.98% of the variance with a Cronbach alpha of 0.81 for the scale overall and between 0.64 and 0.90 for each factor. The scale showed a Spearman's Rho coefficient of 0.279 with the General self-efficacy Scale. This easily administered scale provides good psychometric properties for evaluating specific self-efficacy of celiac patients in adhering to treatment. It seeks to be the first scale that provides not only a measurement of specific self-efficacy in celiac disease, but also to determine its levels for each of the areas as a first step toward designing interventions of self-management and empowerment programs to cope with the disease. PMID:29615946
Macdonald, Jackie; Bath, Peter A; Booth, Andrew
Managers who work in publicly funded healthcare organizations are an understudied group. Some of the influences on their decisions may be unique to healthcare. This study considers how to integrate research knowledge effectively into healthcare managers' decision making, and how to manage and integrate information that will include community data. This first phase in a two-phase mixed methods research study used a qualitative, multiple case studies design. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were undertaken using the critical incident technique. Interview transcripts were analysed using the NatCen Framework. One theme represented ;information and decisions'. Cases were determined to involve complex multi-level, multi-situational decisions with participants in practical rather than ceremonial work roles. Most considered organizational knowledge in the first two decision phases and external knowledge, including research, in the third phase. All participants engaged in satisficing to some degree.
Fertman, Carl I.; Primack, Brian A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item…
Hennessy, Kelly D.; Lent, Robert W.
The Self-Efficacy for Work-Family Conflict Management Scale (SE-WFC), developed in Israel, was designed to assess beliefs regarding one's ability to manage conflict between work and family roles. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an English language version of the SE-WFC in a sample of 159 working mothers in…
Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko
Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…
Noroozi, Azita; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Heydarnia, Ali Reza; Nabipour, Iraj; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat
Purpose: The exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) is largely used among diabetic patients to enhance exercise behaviour. However, the Iranian version of ESES was not available. The aim of this study was to validate ESES in this country. Method: Data were collected from 348 women who referred to a diabetes institute in Iran through convenience…
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Weißenrieder, Jochen; Roesken-Winter, Bettina; Schueler, Sven; Binner, Elke; Blömeke, Sigrid
Whereas much is known about designing effective continuous professional development (CPD) for teachers, little is known about spillover effects of CPD by fostering collegial interactions. In this respect, the self-efficacy expectancy of multipliers to spread CPD issues within their own school is an important predictor for scaling. Self-efficacy…
Loeb, Danielle F; Crane, Lori A; Leister, Erin; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Ludman, Evette; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Kline, Danielle M; Smith, Meredith; deGruy, Frank V; Nease, Donald E; Dickinson, L Miriam
Develop and validate self-efficacy scales for primary care provider (PCP) mental illness management and team-based care participation. We developed three self-efficacy scales: team-based care (TBC), mental illness management (MIM), and chronic medical illness (CMI). We developed the scales using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a guide. The survey instrument included items from previously validated scales on team-based care and mental illness management. We administered a mail survey to 900 randomly selected Colorado physicians. We conducted exploratory principal factor analysis with oblique rotation. We constructed self-efficacy scales and calculated standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients to test internal consistency. We calculated correlation coefficients between the MIM and TBC scales and previously validated measures related to each scale to evaluate convergent validity. We tested correlations between the TBC and the measures expected to correlate with the MIM scale and vice versa to evaluate discriminant validity. PCPs (n=402, response rate=49%) from diverse practice settings completed surveys. Items grouped into factors as expected. Cronbach's alphas were 0.94, 0.88, and 0.83 for TBC, MIM, and CMI scales respectively. In convergent validity testing, the TBC scale was correlated as predicted with scales assessing communications strategies, attitudes toward teams, and other teamwork indicators (r=0.25 to 0.40, all statistically significant). Likewise, the MIM scale was significantly correlated with several items about knowledge and experience managing mental illness (r=0.24 to 41, all statistically significant). As expected in discriminant validity testing, the TBC scale had only very weak correlations with the mental illness knowledge and experience managing mental illness items (r=0.03 to 0.12). Likewise, the MIM scale was only weakly correlated with measures of team-based care (r=0.09 to.17). This validation study of MIM and TBC self-efficacy scales
Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the
Najm, Majdi R. Abou; Mohtar, Rabi H.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; French, Brian F.
Proper understanding of scaling and large-scale hydrologic processes is often not explicitly incorporated in the teaching curriculum. This makes it difficult for students to connect the effect of small scale processes and properties (like soil texture and structure, aggregation, shrinkage, and cracking) on large scale hydrologic responses (like…
Huang, Fei-Fei; Yang, Qing; Han, Xuan Ye; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Lin, Ting
The purpose of this study was to develop a Self-Efficacy Scale for Rehabilitation Management designed specifically for postoperative lung cancer patients (SESPRM-LC) and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Based on the concept of self-management of chronic disease, items were developed from literature review and semistructured interviews of 10 lung cancer patients and screened by expert consultation and pilot testing. Psychometric evaluation was done with 448 postoperative lung cancer patients recruited from 5 tertiary hospitals in Fuzhou, China, by incorporating classical test theory and item response theory methods. A 6-factor structure was illustrated by exploratory factor analysis and confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, explaining 60.753% of the total variance. The SESPRM-LC achieved Cronbach's α of 0.694 to 0.893, 2-week test-retest reliability of 0.652 to 0.893, and marginal reliability of 0.565 to 0.934. The predictive and criterion validities were demonstrated by significant association with theoretically supported quality-of-life variables (r = 0.211-0.392, P < .01), and General Perceived Self-efficacy Scale (r = 0.465, P < .01), respectively. Item response theory analysis showed that the SESPRM-LC offers information about a broad range of self-efficacy measures and discriminates well between patients with high and low levels of self-efficacy. We demonstrated initial support for the reliability and validity of the 27-item SESPRM-LC, as a developmentally appropriate instrument for assessing self-efficacy among lung cancer patients during postoperative rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tadaka, Etsuko; Kono, Ayumi; Ito, Eriko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Imamatsu, Yuki; Itoi, Waka
Among older people in developed countries, social isolation leading to solitary death has become a public health issue of vital importance. Such isolation could be prevented by monitoring at-risk individuals at the neighborhood level and by implementing supportive networks at the community level. However, a means of measuring community confidence in these measures has not been established. This study is aimed at developing the Community's Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES; Mimamori scale in Japanese) for community members preventing social isolation among older people. The CSES is a self-administered questionnaire developed on the basis of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The survey was given to a general population (GEN) sample (n = 6,000) and community volunteer (CVOL) sample (n = 1,297). Construct validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. The Generative Concern Scale (GCS-R) and Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) were also administered to assess criterion-related validity of the CSES. In total, 3,484 and 859 valid responses were received in the GEN and CVOL groups, respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis identified eight items from two domains-community network and neighborhood watch-with goodness of fit index = 0.984, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.970, comparative fit index = 0.988, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.047. Cronbach's alpha for the entire CSES was 0.87 and for the subscales was 0.80 and higher. The score of the entire CSES was positively correlated with the GCS-R in both the GEN (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) and CVOL (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) samples. The CSES demonstrated adequate reliability and validity for assessing a community's self-efficacy to aid in its preventing social isolation among older people. The scale is potentially useful for promoting health policies, practices, and interventions within communities. This
Keller, H; Hirsch, O; Müller-Engelmann, M; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M; Krones, T; Donner-Banzhoff, N
The OPTION scale ("observing patient involvement in decision making") assesses the extent to which clinicians involve patients in decisions across a range of situations in clinical practice. It so far just covers physician behavior. We intended to modify the scoring of the OPTION scale to incorporate active patient behavior in consultations. Modification was done on scoring level, attempting a dyadic, relationship-centred approach in that high ratings can be evoked also by the behaviour of active patients. The German version of the OPTION scale was compared with a modified version by analysing video recordings of primary care consultations dealing with cardiovascular prevention. Fifteen general practitioners provided 40 videotaped consultations. Videos were analysed by two rater pairs and two experts in shared decision making (SDM). Reliability measures of the modified version were lower than those of the original scale. Significant associations of the dichotomised scale with the expert SDM rating as well as with physicians' expertise in SDM were only found for the modified OPTION scale. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed a valid differentiation between the presence of SDM (yes/no) on total score level, even though the cut-off point was quite low. Standard deviations of the single items in the modified version were higher compared to the original OPTION scale, while the means of total scores were similar. The original OPTION scale is physician-centered and neglects the activity and a possible self-involvement of the patient. Our modified instruction was able to capture the dyadic element partially. The development of a separate dyadic instrument might be more promising.
Scholl, Isabelle; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin
While there has been a clear move towards shared decision-making (SDM) in the last few years, the measurement of SDM-related constructs remains challenging. There has been a call for further psychometric testing of known scales, especially regarding validity aspects. To test convergent validity of the nine-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) by comparing it to the OPTION Scale. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected in outpatient care practices. Patients suffering from chronic diseases and facing a medical decision were included in the study. Consultations were evaluated using the OPTION Scale. Patients completed the SDM-Q-9 after the consultation. First, the internal consistency of both scales and the inter-rater reliability of the OPTION Scale were calculated. To analyse the convergent validity of the SDM-Q-9, correlation between the patient (SDM-Q-9) and expert ratings (OPTION Scale) was calculated. A total of 21 physicians provided analysable data of consultations with 63 patients. Analyses revealed good internal consistency of the SDM-Q-9 and limited internal consistency of the OPTION Scale. Inter-rater reliability of the latter was less than optimal. Association between the total scores of both instruments was weak with a Spearman correlation of r = 0.19 and did not reach statistical significance. By the use of the OPTION Scale convergent validity of the SDM-Q-9 could not be established. Several possible explanations for this result are discussed. This study shows that the measurement of SDM remains challenging. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups ...
Yuen, Mantak; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Shea, Peter M. K.
This article describes the development of an instrument--the "Career and Talent Development Self-Efficacy Scale (CTD-SES)"--for assessing students' self-efficacy in applying life skills essential for personal talent development, acquisition of positive work habits, and career exploration. In Study 1, data were obtained from a large…
Sun, Yan; Li, Shu; Bonini, Nicolao; Liu, Yang
We investigate the effect of graph scale on risky choices. By (de)compressing the scale, we manipulate the relative physical distance between options on a given attribute in a coordinate graphical context. In Experiment 1, the risky choice changes as a function of the scale in the graph. In Experiment 2, we show that the type of graph scale also affects decision times. In Experiment 3, we examine the graph scale effect by using real money among students who have taken statistics courses. Consequently, the scale effects still appear even when we control the variations in calculation ability and increase the gravity with which participants view the consequence of their decisions. This finding is inconsistent with descriptive invariance of preference. The theoretical implications and practical applications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26771530
Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C
This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.
Chou, Chih Chin; Cardoso, Elizabeth Da Silva; Chan, Fong; Tsang, Hector W H; Wu, Mingyi
The aim of this study was to validate a Task-Specific Self-Efficacy Scale for Chinese people with mental illness. The study included 79 men and 77 women with chronic mental illness. The Task-Specific Self-Efficacy Scale for People with Mental Illness (TSSES-PMI) and Change Assessment Questionnaire for People with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness were used as measures for the study. Factor analysis of the TSSES-PMI resulted in four subscales: Symptom Management Skills, Work-Related Skills, Help-Seeking Skills, and Self-Emotional-Regulation Skills. These community living skills were found to be related to the level of readiness for psychiatric rehabilitation among Chinese people with mental illness. In conclusion the results support the construct validity of the TSSES-PMI for the Chinese population and the TSSES-PMI can be a useful instrument for working with Chinese people with mental illnesses.
Ersoy, Evren; Deniz, Mehmet Engin
The purpose of this study is to develop the scale concerning gifted children's' skills for making decisions and coping with anger and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. A total of 324 students, which 151 were female and 173 were male, studying in 3 different Science and Arts Center's (BILSEM) in Istanbul during 2014-2015…
Decision-makers at all scales are faced with setting priorities for both use of limited resources and for risk management. While there are all kinds of monitoring data and models to project conditions at different spatial and temporal scales, synthesized information to establish ...
Singh, Puneet; Bussey, Kay
This study presents findings regarding the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure designed to assess children's self-efficacy for coping with peer aggression. The sample consisted of 2,161 participants (1,071 females and 1,090 males, who ranged in age from 10 to 15 years; 63% White, 17% Middle-Eastern, 10% Asian, and 10% from other…
David, E. J. R.; Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
Theory and empirical research suggest that perceived self-efficacy, or one's perceived ability to perform personally significant tasks, is related to individuals' psychological well-being and mental health. Thus, the authors hypothesized that bicultural individuals' perceived ability to function competently in 2 cultures, or perceived bicultural…
Batool, Naila; Riaz, Muhammad Naveed; Riaz, Muhammad Akram; Akhtar, Masud
To examine the effect of self-related factors, including self-regulation, self-esteem and self-efficacy, on decision-making styles of early adults. The cross-sectional study was conducted from February to August, 2014 at four universities of Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised adult students of both Social and Natural sciences. Data was collected through Self-Regulation Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and the General Decision Making Styles Questionnaire. Data was subjected to multivariate regression analysis. Of the 300 participants, 160(53%) were men and 140(47%) were women. The overall mean age was 22.68±5.96 years. Besides, 170(56%) were studying Social sciences and 130(44%) Natural sciences. Self-regulation, self-esteem and self-efficacy positively predicted rational and intuitive style and negatively predicted avoidant and spontaneous style. Self-efficacy and self-regulation negatively predicted dependent style. Ensuring positive self-related factors affected adults' effective decision-making choices.
Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu
Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…
Li, Hong-Yan; Bi, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Qing-Ling
Disaster nurse education has received increasing importance in China. Knowing the abilities of disaster response in undergraduate nursing students is beneficial to promote teaching and learning. However, there are few valid and reliable tools that measure the abilities of disaster response in undergraduate nursing students. To develop a self-report scale of self-efficacy in disaster response for Chinese undergraduate nursing students and test its psychometric properties. Nursing students (N=318) from two medical colleges were chosen by purposive sampling. The Disaster Response Self-Efficacy Scale (DRSES) was developed and psychometrically tested. Reliability and content validity were studied. Construct validity was tested by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The DRSES consisted of 3 factors and 19 items with a 5-point rating. The content validity was 0.91, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.912, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.953. The construct validity was good (χ 2 /df=2.440, RMSEA=0.068, NFI=0.907, CFI=0.942, IFI=0.430, p<0.001). The newly developed DRSES has proven good reliability and validity. It could therefore be used as an assessment tool to evaluate self-efficacy in disaster response for Chinese undergraduate nursing students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vedam, Saraswathi; Stoll, Kathrin; Martin, Kelsey; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Partridge, Sarah; Thordarson, Dana; Jolicoeur, Ganga
Shared decision making (SDM) is core to person-centered care and is associated with improved health outcomes. Despite this, there are no validated scales measuring women’s agency and ability to lead decision making during maternity care. Objective To develop and validate a new instrument that assesses women’s autonomy and role in decision making during maternity care. Design Through a community-based participatory research process, service users designed, content validated, and administered a cross-sectional quantitative survey, including 31 items on the experience of decision-making. Setting and participants Pregnancy experiences (n = 2514) were reported by 1672 women who saw a single type of primary maternity care provider in British Columbia. They described care by a midwife, family physician or obstetrician during 1, 2 or 3 maternity care cycles. We conducted psychometric testing in three separate samples. Main outcome measures We assessed reliability, item-to-total correlations, and the factor structure of the The Mothers’ Autonomy in Decision Making (MADM) scale. We report MADM scores by care provider type, length of prenatal appointments, preferences for role in decision-making, and satisfaction with experience of decision-making. Results The MADM scale measures a single construct: autonomy in decision-making during maternity care. Cronbach alphas for the scale exceeded 0.90 for all samples and all provider groups. All item-to-total correlations were replicable across three samples and exceeded 0.7. Eigenvalue and scree plots exhibited a clear 90-degree angle, and factor analysis generated a one factor scale. MADM median scores were highest among women who were cared for by midwives, and 10 or more points lower for those who saw physicians. Increased time for prenatal appointments was associated with higher scale scores, and there were significant differences between providers with respect to average time spent in prenatal appointments. Midwifery care
Resnick, Barbara; Luisi, Daria; Vogel, Amanda; Junaleepa, Piyatida
Older African Americans and Latinos tend to exercise less than older Whites and are more likely to have chronic diseases that could benefit from exercise. Measurement of self-efficacy of exercise and exercise outcome expectations in this older population is required if exercise is to be monitored carefully and enhanced in this population. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (OEE) in a sample of African American and Latino older adults. A total of 166 individuals, 32 males (19%) and 134 females (81%) with an average age of 72.8 +/- 8.4 years participated in the study. The SEE and OEE scales were completed using face-to-face interviews. There was evidence of internal consistency for both scales with alphas of .89 and .90 for the SEE scale and .72 and .88 for the OEE scale. There was some evidence of validity for both scales based on confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis testing, because factor loadings were greater than .50 in all but two items in the OEE, and there were significant relationships between self-efficacy and outcome expectations and exercise behavior at all testing time-points. The measurement models showed a fair fit of the data to the models. The study provided some evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE when used with minority older adults, and it provides some guidelines for future scale revisions and use.
Chang, Sun Ju; Song, Misoon; Im, Eun-Ok
To evaluate the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale among South Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Self-efficacy has been reported to be a key component of enhancing diabetes self-management, and many healthcare providers have paid attention to the instruments to accurately measure self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management. A psychometric test of an instrument measuring self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management. A total of 278 Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited in one senior centre in Seoul, South Korea. The instrument included the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale and the summary of the Diabetes Self-care Activities. Item analyses, reliability including internal consistency and stability, and validity including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and hypothesised relationships test were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale. The item-total correlation coefficients of all items were >0·30 and ranged from 0·47-0·73. The coefficient alpha for the internal consistency was 0·89, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for the stability was 0·90. Two factors were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis (factor 1, self-efficacy for diet-related self-management behaviours; factor 2, self-efficacy for diabetes self-management behaviours except diet), and the two-factor model for the confirmatory factor analysis had good fitness indices. The diabetes self-efficacy scores were positively correlated with the level of diabetes self-management. The findings supported that the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale was reliable and valid in measuring self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management in Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes. The Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale can allow healthcare providers to
Bell, Winnie; Colaiezzi, Brooke A; Prata, Cathleen S
Dietary surveys in low-income countries (LICs) are hindered by low investment in the necessary research infrastructure, including a lack of basic technology for data collection, links to food composition information, and data processing. The result has been a dearth of dietary data in many LICs because of the high cost and time burden associated with dietary surveys, which are typically carried out by interviewers using pencil and paper. This study reviewed innovative dietary assessment technologies and gauged their suitability to improve the quality and time required to collect dietary data in LICs. Predefined search terms were used to identify technologies from peer-reviewed and gray literature. A total of 78 technologies were identified and grouped into 6 categories: 1) computer- and tablet-based, 2) mobile-based, 3) camera-enabled, 4) scale-based, 5) wearable, and 6) handheld spectrometers. For each technology, information was extracted on a number of overarching factors, including the primary purpose, mode of administration, and data processing capabilities. Each technology was then assessed against predetermined criteria, including requirements for respondent literacy, battery life, requirements for connectivity, ability to measure macro- and micronutrients, and overall appropriateness for use in LICs. Few technologies reviewed met all the criteria, exhibiting both practical constraints and a lack of demonstrated feasibility for use in LICs, particularly for large-scale, population-based surveys. To increase collection of dietary data in LICs, development of a contextually adaptable, interviewer-administered dietary assessment platform is recommended. Additional investments in the research infrastructure are equally important to ensure time and cost savings for the user. PMID:29141974
Bell, Winnie; Colaiezzi, Brooke A; Prata, Cathleen S; Coates, Jennifer C
Dietary surveys in low-income countries (LICs) are hindered by low investment in the necessary research infrastructure, including a lack of basic technology for data collection, links to food composition information, and data processing. The result has been a dearth of dietary data in many LICs because of the high cost and time burden associated with dietary surveys, which are typically carried out by interviewers using pencil and paper. This study reviewed innovative dietary assessment technologies and gauged their suitability to improve the quality and time required to collect dietary data in LICs. Predefined search terms were used to identify technologies from peer-reviewed and gray literature. A total of 78 technologies were identified and grouped into 6 categories: 1 ) computer- and tablet-based, 2 ) mobile-based, 3 ) camera-enabled, 4 ) scale-based, 5 ) wearable, and 6 ) handheld spectrometers. For each technology, information was extracted on a number of overarching factors, including the primary purpose, mode of administration, and data processing capabilities. Each technology was then assessed against predetermined criteria, including requirements for respondent literacy, battery life, requirements for connectivity, ability to measure macro- and micronutrients, and overall appropriateness for use in LICs. Few technologies reviewed met all the criteria, exhibiting both practical constraints and a lack of demonstrated feasibility for use in LICs, particularly for large-scale, population-based surveys. To increase collection of dietary data in LICs, development of a contextually adaptable, interviewer-administered dietary assessment platform is recommended. Additional investments in the research infrastructure are equally important to ensure time and cost savings for the user.
Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Potenza, Marc N.
Background and aims This study employed a newly developed questionnaire to evaluate whether men’s self-efficacy to avoid using pornography in each of 18 emotional, social, or sexually arousing situations was associated with either their typical frequency of pornography use or their hypersexuality. Methods Using an Internet-based data collection procedure, 229 male pornography users (Mage = 33.3 years, SD = 12.2) who had sought or considered seeking professional help for their use of pornography completed questionnaires assessing their situationally specific self-efficacy, history of pornography use, self-efficacy to employ specific pornography-reduction strategies, hypersexuality, and demographic characteristics. Results Frequency of pornography use was significantly negatively associated with level of confidence in 12 of the 18 situations. In addition, lower hypersexuality and higher confidence to employ pornography-use-reduction strategies were associated with higher confidence to avoid using pornography in each of the 18 situations. A principal axis factor analysis yielded three clusters of situations: (a) sexual arousal/boredom/opportunity, (b) intoxication/locations/easy access, and (c) negative emotions. Discussion and conclusions This questionnaire could be employed to identify specific high-risk situations for lapse or relapse and as a measure of treatment outcome among therapy clients, but we recommend further examination of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the questionnaire in treatment samples. Because only one of the three clusters reflected a consistent theme, we do not recommend averaging self-efficacy within factors to create subscales. PMID:28889754
Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Potenza, Marc N
Background and aims This study employed a newly developed questionnaire to evaluate whether men's self-efficacy to avoid using pornography in each of 18 emotional, social, or sexually arousing situations was associated with either their typical frequency of pornography use or their hypersexuality. Methods Using an Internet-based data collection procedure, 229 male pornography users (M age = 33.3 years, SD = 12.2) who had sought or considered seeking professional help for their use of pornography completed questionnaires assessing their situationally specific self-efficacy, history of pornography use, self-efficacy to employ specific pornography-reduction strategies, hypersexuality, and demographic characteristics. Results Frequency of pornography use was significantly negatively associated with level of confidence in 12 of the 18 situations. In addition, lower hypersexuality and higher confidence to employ pornography-use-reduction strategies were associated with higher confidence to avoid using pornography in each of the 18 situations. A principal axis factor analysis yielded three clusters of situations: (a) sexual arousal/boredom/opportunity, (b) intoxication/locations/easy access, and (c) negative emotions. Discussion and conclusions This questionnaire could be employed to identify specific high-risk situations for lapse or relapse and as a measure of treatment outcome among therapy clients, but we recommend further examination of the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the questionnaire in treatment samples. Because only one of the three clusters reflected a consistent theme, we do not recommend averaging self-efficacy within factors to create subscales.
Freeman, Daniel; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Colbert, Susannah; Jolley, Suzanne; Fowler, David; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul
Clinicians and researchers have suggested that rapidity in belief formation, due to having a high 'need for closure' (NFC), may contribute to the acceptance of delusional explanations. The aim of the study is to determine whether NFC has such a direct link with delusions. A secondary aim is to examine if NFC is related to the delusion-associated reasoning process of 'jumping to conclusions'. One hundred and eighty-seven patients with psychosis, recruited for a treatment trial of psychological therapy (the PRP trial), completed the Need for Closure Scale (NFCS), symptom measures, and probabilistic reasoning tasks. The NFCS was considered in terms of its two dimensions: a desire for simple structure and a preference for quick, decisive answers. The individuals with psychosis reported being poor at making quick, decisive answers but required a greater need for simple structure. NFC was associated with levels of anxiety and depression. There were weak links between NFC and both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis, but these were explained by differences in affect. NFCS scores were unrelated to jumping to conclusions. Contrary to the argument that NFC is directly linked to delusions, individuals with delusions actually perceive themselves as indecisive. There was no evidence that NFC-at least as assessed by the NFCS-could be a proximal cause of delusions. Any potential effect on psychotic symptom presentation is indirect, mediated through affect. The use of the NFCS on its own in the study of psychotic symptoms cannot be recommended.
Abdulameer, S A; Syed Sulaiman, S A; Hassali, M A; Subramaniam, K; Sahib, M N
In type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), only 22 % have normal bone mineral density and almost three quarters of the sample population had low self-efficacy towards osteoporosis. These results reflect the need for screening and educational programs to increase the awareness of T2DM towards osteoporosis. Our aim was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the osteoporosis self-efficacy scale (OSES-M) among T2DM and to determine the best cut-off value with optimum sensitivity and specificity. In addition, to assess factors that affects diabetic patients' osteoporosis self-efficacy. A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate the OSES into Malay language, which was then validated with a convenience sample of 250 T2DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the OSES-M was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Bivariate and multivariate approaches were used to examine multiple independent variables on each dependent variable. The mean score of OSES-M was 731.74 ± 197.15. Fleiss' kappa, content validity ratio range, and content validity index were 0.99, 0.75-1, and 0.96, respectively. Two factors were extracted from exploratory factor analysis and were confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were 0.92 and 0.86, respectively. The optimum cut-off point of OSES-M to predict osteoporosis/osteopenia was 858. Regression analysis revealed that knowledge, health belief, and some demographic data had an impact on OSES-M. The results show that the OSES-M is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring osteoporosis self-efficacy in the Malaysian clinical setting.
Graef, Julia E; Rief, Winfried; French, Douglas J; Nilges, Paul; Nestoriuc, Yvonne
This study aims to develop and validate a German version of French and colleagues' Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale and to construct an abbreviated form for use in behavioral headache research. Furthermore, the contribution of headache-specific self-efficacy to pain-related disability in German chronic headache sufferers was examined. Headache-specific self-efficacy refers to an individuals' confidence that they can engage in behaviors to either prevent headache episodes or to manage headache-related pain and disability. Self-efficacy beliefs have been shown repeatedly to be positively associated with psychological well-being, effective coping, and enhanced treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional sample of 304 individuals diagnosed with either migraine, chronic tension-type headache, or a combination of 2 or more headache disorders completed the German Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale and questionnaires assessing headache activity, pain-related coping, general self-efficacy, depression, and anxiety. Responsiveness of the scale was analyzed in a longitudinal subsample of 32 inpatients undergoing headache treatment. Finally, a short form was constructed and evaluated regarding psychometric properties. The German Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale showed good reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.87) as did the 6-item short form (Cronbach's α = 0.72). In the longitudinal sample, both versions showed a good ability to change over time (SRM= 0.52-1.16). Chronic headache patients with higher levels of self-efficacy reported lower levels of disability (r = -0.26 to -0.31). Multiple regression analyses revealed headache intensity and headache-specific self-efficacy as strongest predictors of headache-related disability (βself-efficacy = -0.21, βintensity = 0.26). Both the 25-item version and the 6-item version appear to be valid, reliable measures of self-efficacy beliefs. These scales will allow clinicians to identify headache sufferers
Vedam, Saraswathi; Stoll, Kathrin; Martin, Kelsey; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Partridge, Sarah; Thordarson, Dana; Jolicoeur, Ganga
To develop and validate a new instrument that assesses women's autonomy and role in decision making during maternity care. Through a community-based participatory research process, service users designed, content validated, and administered a cross-sectional quantitative survey, including 31 items on the experience of decision-making. Pregnancy experiences (n = 2514) were reported by 1672 women who saw a single type of primary maternity care provider in British Columbia. They described care by a midwife, family physician or obstetrician during 1, 2 or 3 maternity care cycles. We conducted psychometric testing in three separate samples. We assessed reliability, item-to-total correlations, and the factor structure of the The Mothers' Autonomy in Decision Making (MADM) scale. We report MADM scores by care provider type, length of prenatal appointments, preferences for role in decision-making, and satisfaction with experience of decision-making. The MADM scale measures a single construct: autonomy in decision-making during maternity care. Cronbach alphas for the scale exceeded 0.90 for all samples and all provider groups. All item-to-total correlations were replicable across three samples and exceeded 0.7. Eigenvalue and scree plots exhibited a clear 90-degree angle, and factor analysis generated a one factor scale. MADM median scores were highest among women who were cared for by midwives, and 10 or more points lower for those who saw physicians. Increased time for prenatal appointments was associated with higher scale scores, and there were significant differences between providers with respect to average time spent in prenatal appointments. Midwifery care was associated with higher MADM scores, even during short prenatal appointments (<15 minutes). Among women who preferred to lead decisions around their care (90.8%), and who were dissatisfied with their experience of decision making, MADM scores were very low (median 14). Women with physician carers were
Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Subramaniam, Ganakumaran; Dostal, Jirí
Pedagogical decision making is very important for professional teachers, it concerns belief, self-efficacy, and actions that teachers expose to classroom. This paper employed theoretical lens and education policy in Thailand to examine the preservice teachers' views about pedagogical decision making. Discussion helps school mentors understand…
Bilodeau, A; Forget, G; Tétreault, J
The social learning theory of Bandura leads us to believe that contraceptive self-efficacy supports the adoption and the maintenance of effective contraceptive behaviours during the teenage years. Levinson has developed a validated measure of this concept which consists of an 18-item scale for sexually active girls. However there are no such scales in French or for sexually active boys. The health promotion program, entitled SEXPRIMER, which aims at reducing teenage pregnancy, has incorporated the French version of the Levinson scale, the adapted boy's version and the validity studies. A 15-item scale for girls and a 14-item scale for boys with respective reliability coefficients of .78 and .71 resulted from this program. A logistic regression analysis shows the predictive value of the measures in regard to contraceptive behaviours. According to Levinson's more recent studies, results indicate that new research on the factor matrix of the scale are relevant.
Yang, T.; Welles, E.
In this paper, we introduce a flood forecasting and decision making platform, named Delft-FEWS, which has been developed over years at the Delft Hydraulics and now at Deltares. The philosophy of Delft-FEWS is to provide water managers and operators with an open shell tool, which allows the integratation of a variety of hydrological, hydraulics, river routing, and reservoir models with hydrometerological forecasts data. Delft-FEWS serves as an powerful tool for both basin-scale and national-scale water resources management. The essential novelty of Delft-FEWS is to change the flood forecasting and water resources management from a single model or agency centric paradigm to a intergrated framework, in which different model, data, algorithm and stakeholders are strongly linked together. The paper will start with the challenges in water resources managment, and the concept and philosophy of Delft-FEWS. Then, the details of data handling and linkages of Delft-FEWS with different hydrological, hydraulic, and reservoir models, etc. Last, several cases studies and applications of Delft-FEWS will be demonstrated, including the National Weather Service and the Bonneville Power Administration in USA, and a national application in the water board in the Netherland.
Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus
Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417
Nessen, Thomas; Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H
The aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of reliability and validity of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S) in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. A total of 244 people with RA participating in a physical activity study were included. The six-item ESES-S, exploring confidence in performing exercise, was assessed for test-retest reliability over 4-6 months, and for internal consistency. Construct validity investigated correlation with similar and other constructs. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.59 (95% CI 0.37-0.73) was found for 84 participants with stable health perceptions between measurement occasions. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.87 and 0.89 were found at the first and second measurements. Corrected item-total correlation single ESES-S items ranged between 0.53 and 0.73. Construct convergent validity for the ESES-S was partly confirmed by correlations with health-enhancing physical activity and outcome expectations respectively (Pearson's r = 0.18, p < 0.01). Construct divergent validity was confirmed by the absence of correlations with age or gender. No floor or ceiling effects were found for ESES-S. The results indicate that the ESES-S has moderate test-retest reliability and respectable internal consistency in people with RA. Construct validity was partially supported in the present sample. Further research on construct validity of the ESES-S is recommended. Physical exercise is crucial for management of symptoms and co-morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis. Self-efficacy for exercise is important to address in rehabilitation as it regulates exercise motivation and behavior. Measurement properties of self-efficacy scales need to be assessed in specific populations and different languages.
Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali
This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…
Lee, Kwan Min
Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…
Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond
As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high
Richardson, Emma; Allison, Kenneth R; Gesink, Dionne; Berry, Albert
Understanding the persistent inequalities in the prevalence rates of family planning and unmet need for family planning between indigenous and nonindigenous women in Guatemala requires localized explorations of the specific barriers faced by indigenous women. Based on social cognitive theory, elicitation interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of 16 young women, aged 20–24 years, married or in union, from the rural districts of Patzún, Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Content analysis was carried out using the constant-comparison method to identify the major themes. Based on this qualitative study, the following barriers are incorporated into the development of a self-efficacy scale: lack of knowledge about and availability of methods, fear of side effects and infertility, husbands being against family planning (and related fears of marital problems and abandonment), pressure from in-laws and the community, and the belief that using contraception is a sin. This is the first evidence-informed self-efficacy scale developed with young adult, indigenous women that addresses the issue of family planning in Latin America. PMID:29386939
Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.
We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891
Lichtenberg, Peter A; Gross, Evan; Ficker, Lisa J
This work examines the clinical utility of the scoring system for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision-making Rating Scale (LFDRS) and its usefulness for decision making capacity and financial exploitation. Objective 1 was to examine the clinical utility of a person centered, empirically supported, financial decision making scale. Objective 2 was to determine whether the risk-scoring system created for this rating scale is sufficiently accurate for the use of cutoff scores in cases of decisional capacity and cases of suspected financial exploitation. Objective 3 was to examine whether cognitive decline and decisional impairment predicted suspected financial exploitation. Two hundred independently living, non-demented community-dwelling older adults comprised the sample. Participants completed the rating scale and other cognitive measures. Receiver operating characteristic curves were in the good to excellent range for decisional capacity scoring, and in the fair to good range for financial exploitation. Analyses supported the conceptual link between decision making deficits and risk for exploitation, and supported the use of the risk-scoring system in a community-based population. This study adds to the empirical evidence supporting the use of the rating scale as a clinical tool assessing risk for financial decisional impairment and/or financial exploitation.
Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.
Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye
Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi
Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.
Salyers, Michelle P.; Matthias, Marianne S.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Holter, Mark C.; Collins, Linda; Rose, Nichole; Thompson, John; Coffman, Melinda; Torrey, William C.
Objective Shared decision making is widely recognized to facilitate effective health care; tools are needed to measure the level of shared decision making in psychiatric practice. Methods A coding scheme assessing shared decision making in medical settings (1) was adapted, including creation of a manual. Trained raters analyzed 170 audio recordings of psychiatric medication check-up visits. Results Inter-rater reliability among three raters for a subset of 20 recordings ranged from 67% to 100% agreement for the presence of each of nine elements of shared decision making and 100% for the overall agreement between provider and consumer. Just over half of the decisions met minimum criteria for shared decision making. Shared decision making was not related to length of visit after controlling for complexity of decision. Conclusions The shared decision making rating scale appears to reliably assess shared decision making in psychiatric practice and could be helpful for future research, training, and implementation efforts. PMID:22854725
Wulff, M B; Steitz, J A
Utilizing a path model, this study investigated the relationship between Androgyny and career decision-making among 91 high school girls. The constructs included in the model were Androgyny as assessed by the Bem Sex-role Inventory, Self-esteem as assessed by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Self-efficacy as assessed by the Wulff-Steitz Career Self-efficacy Scale, and Career Indecision as assessed by the Osipow Career Decision Scale. The results indicated that Androgyny scores were significantly associated with those on Self-esteem, Self-esteem with Self-efficacy, and Self-efficacy with Career Indecision. The results are discussed in terms of the usefulness of path models in clarifying complex interrelationships.
Advises directors of ways to include day care workers in the decision-making process. Enumerates benefits of using staff to help focus and direct changes in the day care center and discusses possible pitfalls in implementation of a collective decision-making approach to management. (NH)
Smith, Carl B.
Since teaching is fundamentally a decision-making process, analyzing teachers' decisions can lead to a better understanding of learning and of management in the classroom. Three major features of teacher decision making are (1) that teaching is an intensely active profession; (2) that most of the work of teaching occurs in a group setting; and (3)…
King, M. Bruce; And Others
Shifting from traditional, hierarchical bureaucracies to participatory governance and decision making is a major theme in school restructuring. This paper focuses on the involvement of teachers in key aspects of school decision making. Specifically, the paper describes how changes in power relations supported teachers' focus on improving the…
Faye, Sophie; Cico, Altea; Gueye, Alioune Badara; Baruwa, Elaine; Johns, Benjamin; Ndiop, Médoune; Alilio, Martin
Senegal's National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) implements control interventions in the form of targeted packages: (1) scale-up for impact (SUFI), which includes bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy, rapid diagnostic tests, and artemisinin combination therapy; (2) SUFI + reactive case investigation (focal test and treat); (3) SUFI + indoor residual spraying (IRS); (4) SUFI + seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC); and, (5) SUFI + SMC + IRS. This study estimates the cost effectiveness of each of these packages to provide the NMCP with data for improving allocative efficiency and programmatic decision-making. This study is a retrospective analysis for the period 2013-2014 covering all 76 Senegal districts. The yearly implementation cost for each intervention was estimated and the information was aggregated into a package cost for all covered districts. The change in the burden of malaria associated with each package was estimated using the number of disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. The cost effectiveness (cost per DALY averted) was then calculated for each package. The cost per DALY averted ranged from $76 to $1591 across packages. Using World Health Organization standards, 4 of the 5 packages were "very cost effective" (less than Senegal's GDP per capita). Relative to the 2 other packages implemented in malaria control districts, the SUFI + SMC package was the most cost-effective package at $76 per DALY averted. SMC seems to make IRS more cost effective: $582 per DALY averted for SUFI + IRS compared with $272 for the SUFI + IRS + SMC package. The SUFI + focal test and treat, implemented in malaria elimination districts, had a cost per DALY averted of $1591 and was only "cost-effective" (less than three times Senegal's per capita GDP). Senegal's choice of deploying malaria interventions by packages seems to be effectively targeting high burden areas with a wide range of interventions
Smother, Anthony William
The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…
Rigotti, Thomas; Schyns, Birgit; Mohr, Gisela
Occupational self-efficacy is an important resource for individuals in organizations. To be able to compare the occupational self-efficacy of employees across different countries, equivalent versions of the standard instruments need to be made available in different languages. In this article, the authors report on the structural and construct…
de Sousa, Carla Suellen Pires; Castro, Régia Christina Moura Barbosa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira; Almeida, Paulo César; Aquino, Priscila de Souza
ABSTRACT Objective: translate and adapt the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale to Portuguese in the Brazilian context. The scale originated in the United States and measures self-efficacy in condom use. Method: methodological study in two phases: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and verification of psychometric properties. The translation and adaptation process involved four translators, one mediator of the synthesis and five health professionals. The content validity was verified using the Content Validation Index, based on 22 experts’ judgments. Forty subjects participated in the pretest, who contributed to the understanding of the scale items. The scale was applied to 209 students between 13 and 26 years of age from a school affiliated with the state-owned educational network. The reliability was analyzed by means of Cronbach’s alpha. Results: the Portuguese version of the scale obtained a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.85 and the total mean score was 68.1 points. A statistically significant relation was found between the total scale and the variables not having children (p= 0.038), condom use (p= 0.008) and condom use with fixed partner (p=0.036). Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable tool to verify the self-efficacy in condom use among adolescents and young adults. PMID:29319748
McWilliams, L A; Kowal, J; Wilson, K G
To facilitate efficient screening and reduce the length of comprehensive self-report batteries, a four-item short form of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and a two-item short form of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) have been developed and evaluated in samples of patients with arm and upper extremity pain. The first aim of this study was to evaluate these short forms in a heterogeneous sample of patients seeking treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain, using a priori criteria for determining adequate internal consistency, construct validity and sensitivity to change. In addition, the findings of past studies were used to identify items suitable for new and potentially stronger short forms of these measures. Data were provided by 280 patients who completed the original PCS and PSEQ as part of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. The previously developed four-item PCS and the newly developed six-item short form of the PCS both met the internal consistency and construct validity criteria. They did not meet the criterion regarding sensitivity to change. However, similar to what was obtained using the original PCS, large effect sizes were found when using these short forms to examine pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in catastrophizing. For the PSEQ, the new four-item short form was clearly superior to the other alternatives and met all three criteria. The strongest short forms of the PCS and PSEQ could facilitate the assessment of pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy in situations in which the use of the longer original measures is not feasible. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.
We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PMID:25730718
Reyna, Valerie F; Nelson, Wendy L; Han, Paul K; Pignone, Michael P
We review decision making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
6.11.02.B 74F n/a n/a 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Strategies of Decision Making 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Gary A. Klein 13a. TYPE OF...NOTATION Judith Orasanu, contracting officer’s representative Arailability: Klein, G. Strategies of decision making . in Military Review. May 1989.(see...T.aIng pI(l( i ’I , / Decision making ) Com bat 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This article posits that
Pérez-Revuelta, José; Villagrán-Moreno, José María; Moreno-Sánchez, Luisa; Pascual-Paño, Juan Manuel; González-Saiz, Francisco
The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the COMRADE scale (Combined Outcome Measure for Risk communication And treatment Decision making Effectiveness) in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. 150 patients recruited at five mental health centers were assessed using a cross-sectional study design. The COMRADE, WAIS-S (therapeutic alliance) and TSQM (satisfaction with medication) scales were used. Exploratory Factor Analysis identified three factors from the COMRADE (F1: "Risk communication"; F2: "Confidence in decision" and F3: "Knowledge of decisional balance") which explain 45.2, 8.5 and 6% of the variance, respectively. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the scores of the COMRADE subscales with the subscales of the WAI-S and the TSQM. The internal consistency observed for each of the factorial scores of the COMRADE were (Cronbach's alpha values) 0.90, 0.89 and 0.74, respectively. The COMRADE scale offers appropriate psychometric properties for its use as a measure of perceived patient involvement in the shared decision making process in antipsychotic treatment. The use of the COMRADE measure in psychiatric clinical practice and in research studies provides an outcome measure of interventions from the shared decision making model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study was conducted in order to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in measuring self-efficacy of candidate music teachers in rendering piano education to children of 6-12 years. To this end, a pool of 51 items was created by using the literature, and taking the opinions of piano professors and piano instructors working with…
Kadioglu, Hasibe; Erol, Saime; Ergun, Ayse
The purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the situational self-efficacy scale for vegetable and fruit consumption in adolescents. This was a methodological study. The study was conducted in four public secondary schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Subjects were 1586 adolescents. Content and construct validity were assessed to test the validity of the scale. The reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. For confirmatory factor analysis, χ(2) statistics plus other fit indices were used, including the goodness-of-fit index, the adjusted goodness-of-fit index, the nonnormed fit index, the comparative fit index, the standardized root mean residual, and the root mean square error of approximation. Pearson's correlation was used for test-retest reliability and item total correlation. The internal consistency was assessed by using Cronbach α. Confirmatory factor analysis strongly supported the three-component structure representing positive social situations (α = .81), negative effect situations (α = .93), and difficult situations (α = .78). Psychometric analyses of the Turkish version of the situational self-efficacy scale indicate high reliability and good content and construct validity. Researchers and health professionals will find it useful to employ the Turkish situational self-efficacy scale in evaluating situational self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.
Cruz, Andréia Cascaes; Angelo, Margareth; Santos, Bernardo Pereira Dos
The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Self-efficacy Scale for the Establishment of Good Relationships with Families in Neonatal and Pediatric Hospital Settings. Methodological study grounded on self-efficacy theory was conducted in three phases: conceptual and operational definition (review of the literature and interviews with the target population), content validity (opinion of five experts e three clinical nurses), and exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability (cross-sectional survey with a valid sample of 194 nurses). A ten-point Likert scale with 40-item was designed and one item was excluded after review by experts. Three factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis. The Cronbach's alpha for all items was 0.983 with item-total correlations in the range 0.657 to 0.847. Cronbach's alpha value if item deleted were less than or equal to 0.983. The final version of the scale demonstrated psychometric adequacy. It is a useful tool to be administered in the clinical, educational and research nursing fields to measure nurses' self-efficacy beliefs concerning the establishment of good relationships with families. El propósito de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Autoeficacia para el Establecimiento de Buenas Relaciones con las Familias en Ambientes Neonatales y Pediátricos. Estudio metodológico fundamentado en la teoría de la auto-eficacia se realizó en tres fases: conceptual y definición operacional (revisión de la literatura y entrevistas con la población objetivo), la validez de contenido (opinión de cinco expertos y tres enfermeras clínicas), y el factor de análisis exploratorio e fiabilidad interna de consistencia (estudio transversal con una muestra válida de 194 enfermeras). La escala de Likert de diez puntos con 40 ítems fue diseñada y un elemento fue excluido después de la revisión por expertos. Hay tres factores que
Légaré, France; Thompson-Leduc, Philippe
As shared decision makes increasing headway in healthcare policy, it is under more scrutiny. We sought to identify and dispel the most prevalent myths about shared decision making. In 20 years in the shared decision making field one of the author has repeatedly heard mention of the same barriers to scaling up shared decision making across the healthcare spectrum. We conducted a selective literature review relating to shared decision making to further investigate these commonly perceived barriers and to seek evidence supporting their existence or not. Beliefs about barriers to scaling up shared decision making represent a wide range of historical, cultural, financial and scientific concerns. We found little evidence to support twelve of the most common beliefs about barriers to scaling up shared decision making, and indeed found evidence to the contrary. Our selective review of the literature suggests that twelve of the most commonly perceived barriers to scaling up shared decision making across the healthcare spectrum should be termed myths as they can be dispelled by evidence. Our review confirms that the current debate about shared decision making must not deter policy makers and clinicians from pursuing its scaling up across the healthcare continuum. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chorney, Jill; Haworth, Rebecca; Graham, M Elise; Ritchie, Krista; Curran, Janet A; Hong, Paul
The aim of this study was to describe the level of decisional conflict experienced by parents considering surgery for their children and to determine if decisional conflict and perceptions of shared decision making are related. Prospective cohort study. Academic pediatric otolaryngology clinic. Sixty-five consecutive parents of children who underwent surgical consultation for elective otolaryngological procedures were prospectively enrolled. Participants completed the Shared Decision Making Questionnaire and the Decisional Conflict Scale. Surgeons completed the Shared Decision Making Questionnaire-Physician version. Eleven participants (16.9%) scored over 25 on the Decisional Conflict Scale, a previously defined clinical cutoff indicating significant decisional conflict. Parent years of education and parent ratings of shared decision making were significantly correlated with decisional conflict (positively and negatively correlated, respectively). A logistic regression indicated that shared decision making but not education predicted the presence of significant decisional conflict. Parent and physician ratings of shared decision making were not related, and there was no correlation between physician ratings of shared decision making and parental decisional conflict. Many parents experienced considerable decisional conflict when making decisions about their child's surgical treatment. Parents who perceived themselves as being more involved in the decision-making process reported less decisional conflict. Parents and physicians had different perceptions of shared decision making. Future research should develop and assess interventions to increase parents' involvement in decision making and explore the impact of significant decisional conflict on health outcomes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Hageman, Michiel G J S; Reddy, Rajesh; Makarawung, Dennis J S; Briet, Jan Paul; van Dijk, C Niek; Ring, David
Shared decision-making is a combination of expertise, available scientific evidence, and the preferences of the patient and surgeon. Some surgeons contend that patients are less capable of participating in decisions about traumatic conditions than nontraumatic conditions. (1) Do patients with nontraumatic conditions have different preferences for shared decision-making when compared with those who sustained acute trauma? (2) Do disability, symptoms of depression, and self-efficacy correlate with preference for shared decision-making? In this prospective, comparative trial, we evaluated a total of 133 patients presenting to the outpatient practices of two university-based hand surgeons with traumatic or nontraumatic hand and upper extremity illnesses or conditions. Each patient completed questionnaires measuring their preferred role in healthcare decision-making (Control Preferences Scale [CPS]), symptoms of depression (Patients' Health Questionnaire), and pain self-efficacy (confidence that one can achieve one's goals despite pain; measured using the Pain Self-efficacy Questionnaire). Patients also completed a short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and an ordinal rating of pain intensity. There was no difference in decision-making preferences between patients with traumatic (CPS: 3 ± 2) and nontraumatic conditions (CPS: 3 ± 1 mean difference = 0.2 [95% confidence interval, -0.4 to 0.7], p = 0.78) with most patients (95 versus 38) preferring shared decision-making. More educated patients preferred a more active role in decision-making (beta = -0.1, r = 0.08, p = 0.001); however, differences in levels of disability, pain and function, depression, and pain-related self-efficacy were not associated with differences in patients' preferences in terms of shared decision-making. Patients who sustained trauma have on average the same preference for shared decision-making compared with patients who sustained no trauma. Now that we
Weller, Kathryn E; Greene, Geoffrey W; Redding, Colleen A; Paiva, Andrea L; Lofgren, Ingrid; Nash, Jessica T; Kobayashi, Hisanori
To develop and validate an instrument to assess environmentally conscious eating (Green Eating [GE]) behavior (BEH) and GE Transtheoretical Model constructs including Stage of Change (SOC), Decisional Balance (DB), and Self-efficacy (SE). Cross-sectional instrument development survey. Convenience sample (n = 954) of 18- to 24-year-old college students from a northeastern university. The sample was randomly split: (N1) and (N2). N1 was used for exploratory factor analyses using principal components analyses; N2 was used for confirmatory analyses (structural modeling) and reliability analyses (coefficient α). The full sample was used for measurement invariance (multi-group confirmatory analyses) and convergent validity (BEH) and known group validation (DB and SE) by SOC using analysis of variance. Reliable (α > .7), psychometrically sound, and stable measures included 2 correlated 5-item DB subscales (Pros and Cons), 2 correlated SE subscales (school [5 items] and home [3 items]), and a single 6-item BEH scale. Most students (66%) were in Precontemplation and Contemplation SOC. Behavior, DB, and SE scales differed significantly by SOC (P < .001) with moderate to large effect sizes, as predicted by the Transtheoretical Model, which supported the validity of these measures. Successful development and preliminary validation of this 25-item GE instrument provides a basis for assessment as well as development of tailored interventions for college students. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) can be formally implemented by various methods. This study compares suitability of four selected MCDM methods, namely WPM, TOPSIS, VIKOR, and PROMETHEE, for future applications in agent-based computational economic (ACE) models of larger scale (i.e., over 10 000 agents in one geographical region). These four MCDM methods were selected according to their appropriateness for computational processing in ACE applications. Tests of the selected methods were conducted on four hardware configurations. For each method, 100 tests were performed, which represented one testing iteration. With four testing iterations conducted on each hardware setting and separated testing of all configurations with the–server parameter de/activated, altogether, 12800 data points were collected and consequently analyzed. An illustrational decision-making scenario was used which allows the mutual comparison of all of the selected decision making methods. Our test results suggest that although all methods are convenient and can be used in practice, the VIKOR method accomplished the tests with the best results and thus can be recommended as the most suitable for simulations of large-scale agent-based models. PMID:27806061
Tučník, Petr; Bureš, Vladimír
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) can be formally implemented by various methods. This study compares suitability of four selected MCDM methods, namely WPM, TOPSIS, VIKOR, and PROMETHEE, for future applications in agent-based computational economic (ACE) models of larger scale (i.e., over 10 000 agents in one geographical region). These four MCDM methods were selected according to their appropriateness for computational processing in ACE applications. Tests of the selected methods were conducted on four hardware configurations. For each method, 100 tests were performed, which represented one testing iteration. With four testing iterations conducted on each hardware setting and separated testing of all configurations with the-server parameter de/activated, altogether, 12800 data points were collected and consequently analyzed. An illustrational decision-making scenario was used which allows the mutual comparison of all of the selected decision making methods. Our test results suggest that although all methods are convenient and can be used in practice, the VIKOR method accomplished the tests with the best results and thus can be recommended as the most suitable for simulations of large-scale agent-based models.
Korkmaz, Fahrettin; Unsal, Serkan
The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid measurement tool which will reveal teachers' self-competence in education process. Participants of the study are 300 teachers working at state primary schools in the province of Gaziantep. Results of the exploratory factor analysis administered to the scale in order to determine its…
The Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI), developed in the United States, is one of the most popular scales used in the study of mathematics teaching efficacy. However, the MTEBI might not be trustworthy in other cultures. This study described the development of a new instrument measuring mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs…
Brand, Emily; Nyland, John; Henzman, Cameron; McGinnis, Mark
Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. To evaluate studies that used arthritis self-management education alone or with exercise to improve Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale scores of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Increasing self-efficacy may improve patient knee osteoarthritis symptom management and function. MEDLINE (1946-March 2013), CINAHL (1981-March 2013), and PsycINFO (1967-March 2013) databases were searched. Twenty-four studies, including 3163 subjects (women, n = 2547 [80.5%]; mean ± SD age, 65.3 ± 6.5 years), met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the standardized mean difference effect sizes (Cohen d) of randomized controlled studies that used the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale pain (13 studies, n = 1906), other symptoms (13 studies, n = 1957), and function (5 studies, n = 399) subscales. Cohen d effect sizes were also calculated for cohort studies that used the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale pain (10 studies, n = 1035), other symptoms (9 studies, n = 913), and function (3 studies, n = 141) subscales. Both randomized controlled studies and cohort studies were grouped by intervention type (intervention 1, arthritis self-management education alone; intervention 2, arthritis self-management education with exercise), and effect sizes were compared (Mann-Whitney U tests, P<.05). Interventions that used arthritis self-management education with exercise displayed higher methodological quality scale scores (76.8 ± 13.1 versus 61.6 ± 19.6, P = .03). Statistically significant standardized effect-size differences between intervention 1 and intervention 2 were not observed. Small to moderate effect sizes were observed regardless of whether the intervention included exercise. Exercise interventions used in conjunction with arthritis self-management education programs need to be developed to better enhance the self-efficacy of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Therapy, level 2b-.
Choi, Mona; Ahn, Sangwoo; Jung, Dukyoo
We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEE-K). The SEE-K consists of nine items and was translated into Korean using the forward-backward translation method. We administered it to 212 community-dwelling older adults along with measures of outcome expectation for exercise, quality of life, and physical activity. The validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis with INFIT and OUTFIT statistics, which showed acceptable model fit. The concurrent validity was confirmed according to positive correlations between the SEE-K, outcome expectation for exercise, and quality of life. Furthermore, the high physical activity group had higher SEE-K scores. Finally, the reliability of the SEE-K was deemed acceptable based on Cronbach's alpha, coefficients of determination, and person and item separation indices with reliability. Thus, the SEE-K appears to have satisfactory validity and reliability among older adults in South Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernández, Maria E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Rakowski, William; Gonzales, Alicia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Williams, Janet; Morales-Campos, Daisy Y.
While self-efficacy (SE), a construct from Social Cognitive Theory, has been shown to influence other screening behaviors, few measures currently exist for measuring Pap test SE. This paper describes the development and psychometric testing of such a measure for Mexican-American women. Data from two separate samples of Mexican-American women 50 years or older, obtained as part of a study to develop and evaluate a breast and cervical cancer screening educational program, were used in the current study. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single factor solution and all item loadings were > .73. Confirmatory analysis confirmed a single factor structure with all standardized loadings greater than .40 as hypothesized. The eight item SE scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .95). As hypothesized, SE was correlated with knowledge, prior experience, and screening intention. Logistic regression supported the theoretical relationship that women with higher SE were more likely to have had a recent Pap test. Findings showed a significant increase in SE following the intervention, indicating the measure has good sensitivity to change over time. PMID:19258484
Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)
The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication
Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S
A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.
Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta
Conditions of a healthy, friendly and safe work environment and proper work organisation increase self-efficacy and decrease or eliminate the factors causing the occurrence of burnout symptoms, all of which have a decisive impact on increasing the quality of work. The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on the self-efficacy of medical staff. The study comprised randomly selected professionally-active nurses working on hospital wards (N=405) on the area of two provinces in Poland. The study used the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire concerning the factors that influence the process of work organisation at nursing positions in hospitals. Lower scores for self-efficacy resulted in a worse assessment of development opportunities and promotion prospects (r=-0.11), participation in the decision-making process (r=-0.11) and teamwork (r=-0.10). Lower self-efficacy contributed to the occurrence of burnout symptoms r∈[-0.19 - -0.17]. Properly shaped and used organisational factors are stimulating for professional efficiency and effectiveness, and consequently, for the quality of nursing work. Negative assessment of the factors in the work environment contributes to the occurrence of burnout symptoms and decrease in self-efficacy. Nurses with lower self-efficacy more often experienced symptoms of burnout.
Investigated premarital decision-making among community college students. Results concluded that premarital decisions about the number of children to have is associated with certain characteristics of the rational-comprehensive thinker, but is also associated with non-normative childbearing expectations, whether they are above or below the popular…
In shared decision making (SDM), principals collaborate with teachers and sometimes parents to take actions aimed at improving instruction and school climate. While research on SDM outcomes is still inconclusive, the literature shows that SDM brings both benefits and problems, and that the principal is a key figure. This brief offers a sampling of…
Baldwin, Grover H.
The use of quantitative decision making tools provides the decision maker with a range of alternatives among which to decide, permits acceptance and use of the optimal solution, and decreases risk. Training line administrators in the use of these tools can help school business officials obtain reliable information upon which to base district…
Jonassen, David H.
Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…
Warner, Linda Sue
In contrast to European cultures, many American Indian societies have been matriarchal. Indian women have had a great deal of power, both as individuals and as groups, and have held various leadership roles within their tribes. Traditionally, Indian women have worked in partnership with men, and decision-making has been related to consensus…
Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn
Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…
With sustainability as the “true north” for EPA research, a premium is placed on the ability to make decisions under highly complex and uncertain conditions. The primary challenge is reconciling disparate criteria toward credible and defensible decisions. Making decisions on on...
Capone, Vincenza; Petrillo, Giovanna
In two studies we constructed and validated the Patient's Communication Perceived Self-efficacy Scale (PCSS) designed to assess patients' beliefs about their capability to successfully manage problematic situations related to communication with doctor. The 20-item scale was administered to 179 outpatients (study 1). An Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a three-factor solution. In study 2, the 16-item scale was administered to 890 outpatients. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses supported the 3-factor solution (Provide and Collect information, Express concerns and doubts, Verify information) that showed good psychometric properties and was invariant for gender. PCSS is an easily administered, reliable, and valid test of patients' communication self-efficacy beliefs. It can be applied optimally in the empirical study of factors influencing doctor-patient communication and used in training aimed at strengthening patients' communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kortas, Linda; And Others
The Career Decision Scale, Assessment of Career Decision Making, and Cognitive Differentiation Grid were administered to 598 community college students. Results indicated a relationship between decision-making styles and vocational construct structure. Poorly developed vocational schemas predispose individuals toward dependent and intuitive…
AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim
Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990
Michael, Rinat; Most, Tova; Cinamon, Rachel Gali
The current study examined the contribution of different types of parental support to career self-efficacy among 11th and 12th grade students (N = 160): 66 students with hearing loss (23 hard of hearing and 43 deaf) and 94 hearing students. Participants completed the Career-Related Parent Support Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict questionnaire. Different aspects of parental support predicted different types of career self-efficacies across the 3 groups. Differences among groups were also found when levels of parental support were compared. The deaf group perceived lower levels of parental career-related modeling and verbal encouragement in comparison with the hard-of-hearing students and higher levels of parental emotional support compared with the hearing participants. No significant differences were found among the research groups in career decision-making self-efficacy and self-efficacy in managing work-family conflict. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Qi, Bing-Bing; Resnick, Barbara
To assess the psychometric properties of Chinese versions self-efficacy and outcome expectations on osteoporosis medication adherence (SEOMA-C and OEOMA-C) scales. Back-translated tools were assessed by internal consistency and R2 by structured equation modeling, confirmatory factor analyses, hypothesis testing, and criterion-related validity among 110 (81 females, 29 males) Mandarin-speaking immigrants (mean age = 63.44, SD = 9.63). The Cronbach's alpha for SEOMA-C and OEOMA-C is .904 and .937, respectively. There was fair and good fit of the measurement model to the data. Previous bone mineral density (BMD) testing, calcaneus BMD, self-efficacy for exercise, and osteoporosis medication adherence were positively related to SEOMA-C scores. These scales constitute some preliminary validity and reliability. Further refined and cultural sensitive items could be explored and added.
Mellers, B A; Schwartz, A; Cooke, A D
For many decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory. In that framework, rationality is expressed as a single correct decision shared by experimenters and subjects that satisfies internal coherence within a set of preferences and beliefs. Outside of psychology, social scientists are now debating the need to modify rational choice theory with behavioral assumptions. Within psychology, researchers are debating assumptions about errors for many different definitions of rationality. Alternative frameworks are being proposed. These frameworks view decisions as more reasonable and adaptive that previously thought. For example, "rule following." Rule following, which occurs when a rule or norm is applied to a situation, often minimizes effort and provides satisfying solutions that are "good enough," though not necessarily the best. When rules are ambiguous, people look for reasons to guide their decisions. They may also let their emotions take charge. This chapter presents recent research on judgment and decision making from traditional and alternative frameworks.
Johnson, M. V. V.; Behrman, K. D.; Atwood, J. D.; White, M. J.; Norfleet, M. L.
takes time for monitoring efforts to measure meaningful changes over time. Careful interpretation of model outputs is imperative for appropriate application of current scientific knowledge to inform decision making, especially when models are used to set spatial and temporal goals around conservation practice adoption and water quality.
A sound approach to rational decision making requires a decision maker to establish decision objectives, identify alternatives, and evaluate those...often violate the axioms of rationality when making decisions under uncertainty. The systematic description of such observations may lead to the...which leads to “anchoring” on the initial value. The fact that individuals have been shown to deviate from rationality when making decisions
Floer, B; Schnee, M; Böcken, J; Streich, W; Kunstmann, W; Isfort, J; Butzlaff, M
The demand for integration of patients in medical decisions becomes more and more obvious. Little is known about whether patients are willing and ready to share therapeutic decisions. So far information is lacking, whether existing communication skills of both -- patients and physicians -- are sufficient for shared decision making (SDM). This paper presents new data on patients perspectives regarding SDM. Standardized survey of 3058 German speaking people (1565 females, 1493 males), aged 18-79 years, a population based random sample of an access panel (pool of german households available for specific surveys) regarding the following topics: medical decision making in practice, communication skills and behaviour of physicians. A majority of patients approved the model of SDM. However, some subgroups of patients, especially older patients, were less interested in the concept of SDM. Necessary communication skills which may help patients to participate in decision making were used rather scarcely. Patients who approved the model of SDM more often experienced a common and trustful exchange of information. Most patients favour the concept of SDM. The communication skills necessary for this process are to be promoted and extended. Research on patients' preferences and their participation in health care reform should be intensified. Academic and continuous medical education should focus on knowledge transfer to patients.
Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Background and aims This study developed and validated the Parents' Perceived Self-Efficacy to Manage Children's Internet Use Scale (PSMIS) in the parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In total, 231 parents of children with ADHD were invited to complete the PSMIS, followed by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and the short version of Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale - Chinese version for analyzing Internet addiction severity and ADHD symptoms, respectively. Results The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the four-factor structure of the 18-item PSMIS. The significant difference in the levels of parents' perceived self-efficacy between the parents of children with and without Internet addiction supported the criterion-related validity of the PSMIS. The internal consistency and 1-month test-retest reliability were acceptable. Conclusion The results indicate that the PSMIS has acceptable validity and reliability and can be used for measuring parents' perceived self-efficacy to manage children's Internet use among parents of children with ADHD.
Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Blanco-Rosas, José Luis; Barois, Isabelle
Land degradation is a serious problem in tropical mountainous areas. Market prices, technological development, and population growth are often invoked as the prime causes. Using historical agrarian documents, literature sources, and historical population data, we (1) provide quantitative and qualitative evidence that the land degradation present at Sierra de Santa Marta (Los Tuxtlas, Mexico) has involved a historical reduction in the temporal, spatial, and diversity scales, in which individual farmers make management decisions, and has resulted in decreased maize productivity; and (2) analyze how these three scalar changes can be linked to policy, population growth, and agrarian history. We conclude that the historical reduction in the scales of land use decision-making and practices constitutes a present threat to indigenous agricultural heritage. The long-term viability of agriculture requires that initiatives consider incentives for co-responsibility with an initial focus on self-sufficiency.
Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Blanco-Rosas, José Luis; Barois, Isabelle
Land degradation is a serious problem in tropical mountainous areas. Market prices, technological development, and population growth are often invoked as the prime causes. Using historical agrarian documents, literature sources, and historical population data, we (1) provide quantitative and qualitative evidence that the land degradation present at Sierra de Santa Marta (Los Tuxtlas, Mexico) has involved a historical reduction in the temporal, spatial, and diversity scales, in which individual farmers make management decisions, and has resulted in decreased maize productivity; and (2) analyze how these three scalar changes can be linked to policy, population growth, and agrarian history. We conclude that the historical reduction in the scales of land use decision-making and practices constitutes a present threat to indigenous agricultural heritage. The long-term viability of agriculture requires that initiatives consider incentives for co-responsibility with an initial focus on self-sufficiency.
Shared decision-making has been called the crux of patient-centred care and identified as a key part of change for improved quality and safety in healthcare. However, it rarely happens, is hard to do and is not taught - for many reasons. Talking with patients about options is not embedded in the attitudes or communication skills training of most healthcare professionals. Information tools such as patient decision aids, personal health records and the Internet will help to shift this state, as will policy that drives patient and public involvement in healthcare delivery and training.
Killi, Carita; Kauppinen, Merja; Coiro, Julie; Utriainen, Jukka
This paper reports on two studies designed to examine pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Study I investigated the measurement properties of a self-efficacy beliefs questionnaire comprising scales for computer self-efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and self-efficacy towards technology integration. In Study I, 200 pre-service teachers…
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Swogger, Emily D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Sanchez, Jeremy
We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-I5) of the newly adapted Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE12) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991) conducted in 13 schools across three states with 195 kindergarten…
Säljö, Roger; Radišic, Jelena
Public discussion on the quality of education in different corners of the world very much relies on the data provided by the international large-scale assessment (ILSA) studies. While aware of different methodological keystones and technicalities embedded in these, the idea behind this special issue is to contribute to the understanding of how…
Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon
A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…
The study of judgment and decision making entails three interrelated forms of research: (1) normative analysis, identifying the best courses of action, given decision makers' values; (2) descriptive studies, examining actual behavior in terms comparable to the normative analyses; and (3) prescriptive interventions, helping individuals to make better choices, bridging the gap between the normative ideal and the descriptive reality. The research is grounded in analytical foundations shared by economics, psychology, philosophy, and management science. Those foundations provide a framework for accommodating affective and social factors that shape and complement the cognitive processes of decision making. The decision sciences have grown through applications requiring collaboration with subject matter experts, familiar with the substance of the choices and the opportunities for interventions. Over the past half century, the field has shifted its emphasis from predicting choices, which can be successful without theoretical insight, to understanding the processes shaping them. Those processes are often revealed through biases that suggest non-normative processes. The practical importance of these biases depends on the sensitivity of specific decisions and the support that individuals have in making them. As a result, the field offers no simple summary of individuals' competence as decision makers, but a suite of theories and methods suited to capturing these sensitivities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Decision making, often viewed as a form of reasoning toward action, has raised the interest of many scholars including economists, psychologists, and computer scientists for a long time. Any decision problem amounts to selecting the “best” or sufficiently “good” action(s) that are feasible among different alternatives, given some available information about the current state of the world and the consequences of potential actions. Available information may be incomplete or pervaded with uncertainty. Besides, the goodness of an action is judged by estimating how much its possible consequences fit the preferences of the decision maker. This agent is assumed to behave in a rational way  amgoud-woold, at least in the sense that his decisions should be as much as possible consistent with his preferences.
Kremer, Ingrid E H; Evers, Silvia M A A; Jongen, Peter J; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona; Hiligsmann, Mickaël
Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics-or attributes-of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes' relative importance among patients. First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes' mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48-9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00-9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39-8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33-7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06-7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p < .001). This study shows that, on average, patients valued effectiveness and unwanted effects as most important. Clinicians should be aware of the average preferences but also that attributes of disease-modifying drugs are valued differently by different patients. Person-centred clinical decision making would be needed and requires eliciting
Machado, Luciana A. C.; Telles, Rosa W.; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M.
Abstract Background Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. Objective To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Method Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Results Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45, p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60, p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. Conclusion These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs. PMID:27878226
Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn
Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Attanasio, Laura B; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Kjerulff, Kristen H
To examine correlates of shared decision making during labor and delivery. Data were from a cohort of women who gave birth to their first baby in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011 (N = 3006). We used logistic regression models to examine the association between labor induction and mode of delivery in relation to women's perceptions of shared decision making, and to investigate race/ethnicity and SES as potential moderators. Women who were Black and who did not have a college degree or private insurance were less likely to report high shared decision making, as well as women who underwent labor induction, instrumental vaginal or cesarean delivery. Models with interaction terms showed that the reduction in odds of shared decision making associated with cesarean delivery was greater for Black women than for White women. Women in marginalized social groups were less likely to report shared decision making during birth and Black women who delivered by cesarean had particularly low odds of shared decision making. Strategies designed to improve the quality of patient-provider communication, information sharing, and shared decision making must be attentive to the needs of vulnerable groups to ensure that such interventions reduce rather than widen disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lindley, Lori D.; Borgen, Fred H.
Analysis of Self-Efficacy Scale, Skills Confidence Inventory; ACT Assessment, and grade point average (GPA) results for 189 women and 91 men revealed strong relationships between generalized self-efficacy and confidence in Investigative and Enterprising occupations for both and Conventional occupations for men. ACT scores were related to…
Decision making is aided by emotions. Bodily responses, such as sweating, heartbeat, and visceral sensation, are used to monitor the emotional state during decision making. Because decision making in dairy life is complicated and cognitively demanding, these bodily signals are thought to facilitate the decision making process by assigning positive or negative values for each of the behavioral options. The sweat response in a decision making task is measured by skin conductance response (SCR). SCR in decision making is divided into two categories: anticipatory SCR is observed before making decisions, and reward/punishment SCR is observed after the outcome of the decision is perceived. Brain lesion studies in human revealed that the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are important in decision making. Patients with lesinon in the amygdala exhibit neither the anticipatory nor reward/punishment SCRs, while patients with the ventromedial prefrontal lesions have deficits only in the anticipatory SCRs. Decision making tasks and SCR analysis have contributed to reveal the implicit aspects of decision making. Further research is necessary for clarifying the role of explicit process of decision making and its relationship with the implicit process.
Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling; Choi, Kai-Chow; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun; Xiao, Yang
Little is known about the effect of maternal perceived breastfeeding self-efficacy on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum in mainland China. The aim of this study was to examine the relative effect of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and selected relevant factors on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. The internal consistency and construct validity of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) were also examined. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at a regional teaching hospital in Guangzhou, China. A total of 562 in-hospital mothers who were within 72 hours postpartum were recruited to the study and followed up by telephone for 6 months. Although all of the mothers breastfed their babies within 72 hours postpartum, only 25% of the mothers breastfed exclusively. The mean survival time of continuation of exclusive breastfeeding was 16.7 days. The proportion of mothers who breastfed exclusively after discharge was 14.8%, 2.0%, and 0.2% at 1, 4, and 6 months, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that the mothers who had a higher BSES-SF score at baseline, underwent cesarean section, and practiced exclusive breastfeeding within 72 hours after delivery were significantly associated with a lower hazard of discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum. The exclusive breastfeeding rate among Chinese women is far from satisfactory. The Chinese (Mandarin) version of the BSES-SF can help in identifying mothers who need more support for exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum.
The present study investigates the psychometric properties and the factorial structure of the German adaptation of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale (Powell & Myers, 1995) for the evaluation of falls-related self-efficacy in community-dwelling older adults. The German adaptation of the ABC using a forward-backward procedure was administered to 113 older adults (age 68.9+/-8.5 years). The following internationally accepted instruments were used for validation: The Short Form Health Survey SF 36, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the Trail Making Test and the Letter Number Sequencing Test, and motor tests (balance, strength, mobility). The internal consistency (0.91-0.95) as well as the test-retest reliability of the subscales was excellent (0.94-0.98). The correlation coefficients with the validation instruments ranged between 0.33 and 0.58. Significant differences in the ABC-D scores were found in older adults with and without falls. Older adults with a recent fall history scored lower on the ABC-D than older adults without a recent fall history. To conclude, the German version of the ABC has properties analogous to the original English version and is apparently useful in assessing falls-related self-efficacy.
Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul
Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…
Pilot Decisional Attitude Questionnaire (PDAQ). 2. Aeronautical Decision Making . a. The pilot judgment problem b. Relationship of judgment to training...lmEr OAT . REPOR TYPE ANO GATES COVEIRO May 1990 Final - June 1985 - December 1988 4 .MU AN m . .m m t 4i C ’u. SUM L FUNING MUMBRS Pilot Decision - Making ...13 AGSTRACT (Maxu’m 200 wo f -The effectiveness of a simulator-based approach to training pilot skills in risk assessment and decision making was
desired effect (Eagly, & Chaiken, 1993). Arguably, artificial intelligence is representative of the best of approaches in rational decision - making ...2001), The quantum of social action and the function of emotion in decision - making , Emotional and Intelligent II: The Tangled Knot of Social...Collaborative decision making in METOC W.F. Lawless Paine College, Departments of Mathematics and Psychology Augusta, GA 30901-3182 ph: 706
Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Solberg, V. Scott H.; Soresi, Salvatore
Family support has been found to influence both career self-efficacy beliefs and career decision making. The purpose of this study was to verify whether career search self-efficacy could mediate the relationship between family support and career indecision. Using a sample of 253 Italian youth, the study found that, for male adolescents attending a…
Higgins, Guy; Freedman, Jennifer
The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis.
discussion ............................................................ 47 6. GENERAL DISCUSSION...65 6.3. Generality of results................................................................ 68 6.4. Implications for...3 2-1 General model of decision making
Kremer, Ingrid E. H.; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona
Objectives Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics–or attributes–of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes’ relative importance among patients. Methods First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes’ mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Results Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48–9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00–9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39–8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33–7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06–7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p < .001). Conclusions This study shows that, on average, patients valued effectiveness and unwanted effects as most important. Clinicians should be aware of the average preferences but also that attributes of disease-modifying drugs are valued differently by different patients. Person-centred clinical
Al-Obaidi, Saud; Wall, James C; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Al-Mutairie, Rebecca
Low back pain (LBP) may challenge an individual's self-confidence to perform usual daily activities such as Islamic daily prayer. Existing self-efficacy scales may not be appropriate to assess individual's self-confidence to perform Islamic prayers. This study aimed to develop a scale to assess self-confidence to prepare and perform Islamic prayer in the presence of LBP, the Islamic Prayer-based Self-efficacy Scale (IpbSeS), and to determine its consistency. The IpbSeS consists of three parts: pre-prayer preparation, getting to and from the mosque, and positions and movements during prayer. On a scale of 0 to 6, 0 indicates 'not at all confident' and 6 'fully confident'. Sixty individuals with LBP gave their responses on two different visits. Pain intensity was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and the pain intensity changes were assessed using a seven-point global patient rating scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon test and t-test were used in the analysis (alpha set at 0.05). VAS scores did not differ significantly between visits. No association was found between VAS and age (r = 0.039, p = 0.77) and between VAS and body mass index (BMI; r = 0.06, p = 0. 67). All 28 questions have consistent responses on two visits (0.75 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, p < 0.001 for all) indicating a very high reliability. IpbSeS appears to be a reliable instrument to assess the self-confidence of Muslims in the presence of LBP to pray. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin
Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bearman, Chris; Grunwald, Jared A; Brooks, Benjamin P; Owen, Christine
Emergency situations are by their nature difficult to manage and success in such situations is often highly dependent on effective team coordination. Breakdowns in team coordination can lead to significant disruption to an operational response. Breakdowns in coordination were explored in three large-scale bushfires in Australia: the Kilmore East fire, the Wangary fire, and the Canberra Firestorm. Data from these fires were analysed using a top-down and bottom-up qualitative analysis technique. Forty-four breakdowns in coordinated decision making were identified, which yielded 83 disconnects grouped into three main categories: operational, informational and evaluative. Disconnects were specific instances where differences in understanding existed between team members. The reasons why disconnects occurred were largely consistent across the three sets of data. In some cases multiple disconnects occurred in a temporal manner, which suggested some evidence of disconnects creating states that were conducive to the occurrence of further disconnects. In terms of resolution, evaluative disconnects were nearly always resolved however operational and informational disconnects were rarely resolved effectively. The exploratory data analysis and discussion presented here represents the first systematic research to provide information about the reasons why breakdowns occur in emergency management and presents an account of how team processes can act to disrupt coordination and the operational response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Pennell, Claire; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul
There is a lack of research investigating parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born preterm as well as a paucity of parental self-efficacy measures that are domain-specific and theoretically grounded. This study aimed to compare parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born term, preterm and very preterm as well as to test whether parental self-efficacy mediates the relationship between psychological symptoms and parental competence. In order to achieve this, a new measure of parental self-efficacy and parental competence relevant for the preterm population and consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1989) conceptualisation of self-efficacy was developed. Participants included 155 parents, 83 of whom were parents of very preterm (GA<32 weeks), 40 parents of preterm (GA<37 weeks) and 32 parents of term born infants. Parents completed the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist (the new measure), Family Demographic Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. This initial study indicates that the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist has adequate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and split half reliability. Contrary to expectations, parents of very preterm infants did not report significantly lower overall levels of parental self-efficacy or significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms compared to parents of preterm and term infants. Parental self-efficacy about parenting tasks mediated the relationship between psychological symptoms and self perceived parental competence as predicted. Clinical implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.
Duryea, Elias J.
A position statement is offered that clarifies the function, role, and emphasis of decision making within the field of health education, and a rationale that proposes that health decision-making efforts be limited to areas where evidence links a health behavior (i.e., smoking) to a health problem (i.e., lung cancer) is presented. (Author/CJ)
Michaelis, Svea; Kriston, Levente; Härter, Martin; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; Melchior, Hanne
Background The involvement of patients in medical decision making has been investigated widely in somatic diseases. However, little is known about the preferences for involvement and variables that could predict these preferences in patients with mental disorders. Objective This study aims to determine what roles mentally ill patients actually want to assume when making medical decisions and to identify the variables that could predict this role, including patients’ self-efficacy. Method Demographic and clinical data of 798 patients with mental disorders from three psychotherapeutic units in Germany were elicited using self-report questionnaires. Control preference was measured using the Control Preferences Scale, and patients’ perceived self-efficacy was assessed using the Self-Efficacy Scale. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between patient variables and control preference. Results Most patients preferred a collaborative role (57.5%), followed by a semi passive (21.2%), a partly autonomous (16.2%), an autonomous (2.8%) and a fully passive (2.3%) role when making medical decisions. Age, sex, diagnosis, employment status, medical pretreatment and perceived self-efficacy were associated with the preference for involvement in the multivariate logistic model. Conclusion Our results confirm the preferences for involvement in medical decisions of mentally ill patients. We reconfirmed previous findings that older patients prefer a shared role over an autonomous role and that subjects with a high qualification prefer a more autonomous role over a shared role. The knowledge about predictors may help strengthen treatment effectiveness because matching the preferred and actual role preferences has been shown to improve clinical outcome. PMID:28837621
Michaelis, Svea; Kriston, Levente; Härter, Martin; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; Melchior, Hanne
The involvement of patients in medical decision making has been investigated widely in somatic diseases. However, little is known about the preferences for involvement and variables that could predict these preferences in patients with mental disorders. This study aims to determine what roles mentally ill patients actually want to assume when making medical decisions and to identify the variables that could predict this role, including patients' self-efficacy. Demographic and clinical data of 798 patients with mental disorders from three psychotherapeutic units in Germany were elicited using self-report questionnaires. Control preference was measured using the Control Preferences Scale, and patients' perceived self-efficacy was assessed using the Self-Efficacy Scale. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between patient variables and control preference. Most patients preferred a collaborative role (57.5%), followed by a semi passive (21.2%), a partly autonomous (16.2%), an autonomous (2.8%) and a fully passive (2.3%) role when making medical decisions. Age, sex, diagnosis, employment status, medical pretreatment and perceived self-efficacy were associated with the preference for involvement in the multivariate logistic model. Our results confirm the preferences for involvement in medical decisions of mentally ill patients. We reconfirmed previous findings that older patients prefer a shared role over an autonomous role and that subjects with a high qualification prefer a more autonomous role over a shared role. The knowledge about predictors may help strengthen treatment effectiveness because matching the preferred and actual role preferences has been shown to improve clinical outcome.
Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen
Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877
Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen
Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.
Hartley, Catherine A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.
While the everyday decision-making of clinically anxious individuals is clearly influenced by their excessive fear and worry, the relationship between anxiety and decision-making remains relatively unexplored in neuroeconomic studies. In this review, we attempt to explore the role of anxiety in decision-making using a neuroeconomic approach. We first review the neural systems mediating fear and anxiety, which overlap with a network of brain regions implicated in studies of economic decision-making. We then discuss the potential influence of cognitive biases associated with anxiety upon economic choice, focusing on a set of decision-making biases involving choice in the face of potential aversive outcomes. We propose that the neural circuitry supporting fear learning and regulation may mediate the influence of anxiety upon choice, and suggest that techniques for altering fear and anxiety may also change decisions. PMID:22325982
We sometimes make decisions relying not necessarily on deliberative thoughts but on intuitive and emotional processes in uncertain situations. The somatic marker hypothesis proposed by Damasio argued that interoception, which means bodily responses such as sympathetic activity, can be represented in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and can play critical roles in decision-making. Though this hypothesis has been criticized in its theoretical and empirical aspects, recent studies are expanding the hypothesis to elucidate multiple bodily responses including autonomic, endocrine, and immune activities that affect decision-making. In addition, cumulative findings suggest that the anterior insula where the inner model of interoception is represented can act as an interface between the brain and body in decision-making. This article aims to survey recent findings on the brain-body interplays underlying decision-making, and to propose hypotheses on the significance of the body in decision-making.
Suárez-Almiñana, Sara; Pedro-Monzonís, María; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Solera, Abel
This study focuses on a novel type of methodology which connects Pan-European data to the local scale in the field of water resources management. This methodology is proposed to improve and facilitate the decision making within the planning and management of water resources, taking into account climate change and its expected impacts. Our main point of interest is focused on the assessment of the predictability of extreme events and their possible effects, specifically droughts and water scarcity. Consequently, the Júcar River Basin was selected as the case study, due to the ongoing water scarcity problems and the last drought episodes suffered in the Mediterranean region. In order to study these possible impacts, we developed a modeling chain divided into four steps, they are: i) data collection, ii) analysis of available data, iii) models calibration and iv) climate impact analysis. Over previous steps, we used climate data from 15 different regional climate models (RCMs) belonging to the three different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) coming from a hydrological model across all of Europe called E-HYPE. The data were bias corrected and used to obtain statistical results of the availability of water resources for the future (horizon 2039) and in form of indicators. This was performed through a hydrological (EVALHID), stochastic (MASHWIN) and risk management (SIMRISK) models, all of which were specifically calibrated for this basin. The results show that the availability of water resources is much more enthusiastic than in the current situation, indicating the possibility that climate change, which was predicted to occur in the future has already happened in the Júcar River Basin. It seems that the so called "Effect 80", an important decrease in water resources for the last three decades, is not well contemplated in the initial data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen
Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen
Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155
The Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT): Relationship of Interest Scale Scores to Fluid and Crystallized IQs at Ages 12 to 22 Years.
McLean, James E.; Kaufman, Alan S.
The six Holland-based Interest Scale scores yielded by the Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) (T. Harrington and A. O'Shea, 1982) were related to sex, race, and performance on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test for 254 adolescents and young adults. CDM scores did not relate to most of the variables studied, and…
Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.
We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.
Esen, Binnaz Kiran; Özcan, H. Duygu; Sezgin, Mehtap
In this research, the prediction cognitive flexibility obtained by general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and achievement is examined. This study is executed in 2014-2015 academic year on 760 high school students who are between ages 15 and 18. Cognitive flexibility Scale is developed by Bilgin…
Kingston, Dawn; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Sword, Wendy
The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the influence of efficacy-enhancing experiences on breast-feeding self-efficacy. Using the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, the influences of enactive mastery and various forms of experiences (vicarious, verbal persuasory, and physiological) on breast-feeding self-efficacy were assessed at 48 hours and 4 weeks postpartum among a convenience sample of 63 mothers. Those women who observed breast-feeding role models through videotapes or received praise from their partners or their own mothers had significantly higher levels of breast-feeding self-efficacy than mothers who did not. In addition, mothers who experienced physical pain or received professional assistance with breast-feeding difficulties had significantly lower levels of breast-feeding self-efficacy than those who did not. This study provides preliminary evidence that specific efficacy-enhancing strategies may significantly influence breast-feeding self-efficacy. Further research is warranted.
Teo, Eng Wah; Lee, Yuin Yi; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony
Smoking tobacco is a major concern in Malaysia, with 23.1% of Malaysian adults smoking tobacco in 2012. Withdrawal symptoms and self-efficacy to quit smoking have been shown to have significant effects on the outcomes of smoking cessation. The Shiffman-Jarvik Withdrawal Scale (Psychopharmacology, 50: 35-39, 1976) and the Cessation Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (Cognitive Ther Res 5: 175-187, 1981) are two questionnaires that have been widely used in various smoking cessation research. The short SJWS consists of 15 items with five subscales: physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, stimulation/sedation, appetite, and cravings. The CSEQ is a 12-item questionnaire that assesses participant's self-efficacy to avoid smoking in various situations described in each item. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Malay language version of the SJWS and the CSEQ. The SJWS and CSEQ were translated into the Malay language based on the back translation method. A total of 146 participants (25.08 ± 5.19 years) answered the translated questionnaires. Psychometrics properties such as reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity (content validity, construct validity and face validity) were examined. Both questionnaires showed acceptable internal consistency; SJWS-M (α = 0.66) and CSEQ-M (α = 0.90) and good test-retest reliability; SJWS-M (r = 0.76) and the CSEQ-M (r = 0.80). SJWS-M (χ(2) = 15.964, GFI = 0.979, CFI = 1.000, RMSEA = 0.000, ChiSq/df = 0.939, AGFI = 0.933, TLI = 1.004, and NPI = 0.978) and CSEQ-M (of χ(2) = 35.16, GFI = 0.960, CFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.015, ChiSq/df = 1.034, AGFI = 0.908, TLI = 0.999, and NPI = 0.979) also showed good construct validity. Both questionnaires showed sufficient item to item convergent validity and item discriminant validity. Content validity was established (reassess) by experts in the field of psychology, culture and language whereas face validity was confirmed by smokers. The translated Malay
Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
Background: According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is central to behavior change. Consequently, parental self-efficacy (PSE) for influencing children's dietary, physical activity (PA), sedentary, and screen time behaviors is important for child obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an…
Warner, Lisa M; Schüz, Benjamin; Wolff, Julia K; Parschau, Linda; Wurm, Susanne; Schwarzer, Ralf
The effects of self-efficacy beliefs on physical activity are well documented, but much less is known about the origins of self-efficacy beliefs. This article proposes scales to assess the sources of self-efficacy for physical activity aims and to comparatively test their predictive power for physical activity via self-efficacy over time to detect the principal sources of self-efficacy beliefs for physical activity. A study of 1,406 German adults aged 16-90 years was conducted to construct scales to assess the sources of self-efficacy for physical activity (Study 1). In Study 2, the scales' predictive validity for self-efficacy and physical activity was tested in a sample of 310 older German adults. Short, reliable and valid instruments to measure six sources of self-efficacy for physical activity were developed that enable researchers to comparatively test the predictive value of the sources of self-efficacy. The results suggest that mastery experience, self-persuasion, and reduction in negative affective states are the most important predictors of self-efficacy for physical activity in community-dwelling older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.
Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision-making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision-making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision-making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision-making in health and disease. PMID:24908481
Chisholm, Joe; Edmunds, Alan
Examines differences in levels of career decision-making self-efficacy in Cape Breton high school students who lived in communities with recent closures of mining and steel industries compared to students from communities with no such closures. Students demonstrated considerable confidence in their career decision-making abilities implying that…
Aluş Tokat, Merlinda; Okumuş, Hülya; Dennis, Cindy-Lee
most women stop breast feeding before the recommended 6 months post partum. If health professionals are to improve low breast-feeding duration and exclusivity rates, they need to assess high-risk women reliably and identify predisposing factors amenable to intervention. One possible modifiable variable is breast-feeding confidence. The Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) is a 14-item measure designed to assess a mother's confidence in her ability to breast feed her baby. to translate the BSES-SF into Turkish and assess its psychometric properties among women in the antenatal and postnatal periods. a methodological study to assess the reliability, validity and predictive value of the BSES-SF. two private and two public hospitals and their outpatient health clinics in Izmir, Turkey. 144 pregnant women and 150 postnatal breast-feeding mothers were recruited using convenience sampling. following back-translation procedures, questionnaires were completed in the third trimester by pregnant women and in the hospital by postnatal women. All mothers were telephoned at approximately 12 weeks after the birth to determine how they were feeding their babies. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.87 antenatally and 0.86 postnatally. Antenatal and postnatal BSES-SF scores were significant predictors of breast-feeding duration and exclusivity at 12 weeks after the birth. Differences were found between antenatal and postnatal BSES-SF scores for mothers with previous breast-feeding experience compared with scores for mothers with no breast-feeding experience. Demographic response patterns suggest that the BSES-SF is a unique tool to identify pregnant women and new mothers at risk of early cessation of breast feeding. this study provides evidence that the translated version of the BSES-SF may be a valid and reliable measure of breast-feeding self-efficacy among a perinatal sample in Turkey. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova
The current study examined the contribution of hearing loss, social affiliation, and career self-efficacy to adolescents' future perceptions. Participants were 191 11th and 12th grade students: 60 who were deaf, 36 who were deaf or hard of hearing, and 95 who were hearing. They completed the Future Perceptions Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict Scale. Results indicated that participants who were deaf reported significantly higher levels of future clarity and intensity than the other groups. However, no significant differences were found in career self-efficacy. Hearing status and affiliation and the efficacy to manage future conflict between work and family roles were significant predictors of participants' future clarity. CDMSE was a significant predictor of future planning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Homberg, Judith R
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Babbin, Steven F.; Yin, Hui-Qing; Rossi, Joseph S.; Redding, Colleen A.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Velicer, Wayne F.
The Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection consists of two correlated factors with three items each for Sunscreen Use and Avoidance. This study evaluated two crucial psychometric assumptions, factorial invariance and scale reliability, with a sample of adults (N = 1356) participating in a computer-tailored, population-based intervention study. A measure has factorial invariance when the model is the same across subgroups. Three levels of invariance were tested, from least to most restrictive: (1) Configural Invariance (nonzero factor loadings unconstrained); (2) Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings); and (3) Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors). Strong Factorial Invariance was a good fit for the model across seven grouping variables: age, education, ethnicity, gender, race, skin tone, and Stage of Change for Sun Protection. Internal consistency coefficient Alpha and factor rho scale reliability, respectively, were .84 and .86 for Sunscreen Use, .68 and .70 for Avoidance, and .78 and .78 for the global (total) scale. The psychometric evidence demonstrates strong empirical support that the scale is consistent, has internal validity, and can be used to assess population-based adult samples. PMID:26457203
Isaac, Vivian; Pit, Sabrina Winona; McLachlan, Craig S
Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students. Secondly, to determine whether self-efficacy influences the association between social isolation and rural career intent. 2015 data, from a cross-sectional survey of the National Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) study. Among 619 medical students attending rural clinical schools (RCS), rural career intent was assessed. This included intended rural location for either postgraduate medical specialist or generalist training or completion of that training. Self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice were based on a validated scale consisting of six questions. Social isolation was measured asking students whether they felt socially isolated during their RCS placement. 31.3% of surveyed students self-reported feeling socially isolated during their rural placement. Social isolation was associated with reduced rural career intent after controlling for gender, rural background, RCS preference, RCS support and wellbeing. In step-wise logistic regression the association between social isolation and rural intent disappeared with the inclusion of rural self-efficacy. Social isolation during a rural clinical placement is commonly reported and is shown to reduce rural career intent. High levels of rural clinical self-efficacy reduce the effects of social isolation on future rural workforce intentions.
Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.
Cuypers, Maarten; Lamers, Romy E D; Cornel, Erik B; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; de Vries, Marieke; Kil, Paul J M
The objective of this study is to test if patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) declines after prostate biopsy to detect Pca, and after subsequent treatment decision-making in case Pca is confirmed, and to test whether personality state and traits are associated with these potential changes in HRQoL. Patients who were scheduled for prostate biopsy to detect Pca (N = 377) filled out a baseline questionnaire about HRQoL (EORTC QLQ-C30 and PR25), "big five" personality traits (BFI-10), optimism (LOT-r), and self-efficacy (Decision Self-efficacy Scale) (t0). Patients with confirmed Pca (N = 126) filled out a follow-up questionnaire on HRQoL within 2 weeks after treatment was chosen but had not yet started (t1). HRQoL declined between t0 and t1, reflected in impaired role and cognitive functioning, and elevated fatigue, constipation, and prostate-specific symptoms. Sexual activity and functioning improved. Baseline HRQoL scores were unrelated to the selection of a particular treatment, but for patients who chose a curative treatment, post-decision HRQoL showed a greater decline compared to patients who chose active surveillance. Optimism was associated with HRQoL at baseline; decisional self-efficacy was positively associated with HRQoL at follow-up. No associations between HRQoL and the "big five" personality traits were found. Patients who have undergone prostate biopsy and treatment decision-making for Pca experience a decline in HRQoL. Choosing treatment with a curative intent was associated with greater decline in HRQoL. Interventions aimed at optimism and decision self-efficacy could be helpful to reduce HRQoL impairment around the time of prostate biopsy and treatment decision-making.
Doubova, Svetlana V; Espinosa-Alarcón, Patricia; Infante, Claudia; Aguirre-Hernández, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Leticia; Olivares-Santos, Roberto; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo
To adapt and validate in Spanish of Mexico scales to measure self-efficacy (SES) and empowerment for self-care (ES) among climacteric women. The study was conducted from February to July 2011 in two family medicine clinics in Mexico City. The adaptation phase was done through testing for language comprehension. To validate the scales we used the principal Axis factoring analysis with oblique rotation technique and estimation of Cronbach's alpha (CA). Three hundred eighty women aged 45-59 years participated in the study. SES had 16 items with four factors: participation in the doctor-patient relationship; in the study control of mental health and sexual changes; risk of dying from cancer, and other health risks that explained 39.8% of the variability, CA = 0.84. ES had eight items with one factor explaining 47.1% variability; CA = 0.83. Both scales had acceptable psychometric properties and are suitable for interventions aimed at improving self-care of climacteric women.
Abboudi, Hamid; Ahmed, Kamran; Normahani, Pasha; Abboudi, May; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, Ben; Khan, Mohammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar
Non-technical skills are important behavioural aspects that a urologist must be fully competent at to minimise harm to patients. The majority of surgical errors are now known to be due to errors in judgment and decision making as opposed to the technical aspects of the craft. The authors reviewed the published literature regarding decision-making theory and in practice related to urology as well as the current tools available to assess decision-making skills. Limitations include limited number of studies, and the available studies are of low quality. Decision making is the psychological process of choosing between alternative courses of action. In the surgical environment, this can often be a complex balance of benefit and risk within a variable time frame and dynamic setting. In recent years, the emphasis of new surgical curriculums has shifted towards non-technical surgical skills; however, the assessment tools in place are far from objective, reliable and valid. Surgical simulators and video-assisted questionnaires are useful methods for appraisal of trainees. Well-designed, robust and validated tools need to be implemented in training and assessment of decision-making skills in urology. Patient safety can only be ensured when safe and effective decisions are made.
Ko, C-H; Wang, P-W; Liu, T-L; Chen, C-S; Yen, C-F; Yen, J-Y
Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively. These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision-making
Dalis, Gus T.; Strasser, Ben B.
The authors present the DALSTRA model of decision making, a descriptive statement of ways individuals or groups respond to different kinds of decision-making problems they encounter. Decision making is viewed in two phases: the decision-making antecedents (whether to decide, how to decide) and the modes of decision making (Chance/Impulse,…
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Giunta, Laura Di; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tramontano, Carlo
The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy (RESE) scale was developed to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing negative (NEG) and in expressing positive (POS) affect (G. V. Caprara & M. Gerbino, 2001). In this study of young adults, the factorial structure of the RESE scale was found to be similar in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia: In…
Bingöl, Tugba Yilmaz
In this study, it was aimed to determine the variables affecting self-efficacy and cyber bullying. The participants of the study were 223 high school students. The data was collected through the use of self-administered questionnaires which were the General Self-efficacy Scale, the Gratitude Scale, the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale…
Phillips, Susan D.; And Others
Examined the role of rational, intuitive, and dependent decisional strategies in facilitating decisions about postcollege occupation among college students (N=71). Results indicated that the use of a dependent decision-making style was the single most powerful predictor of progress. (LLL)
Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)
The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that
Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E
The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.
Hinson, Janice; DiStefano, Christine; Daniel, Cathy
This study investigated fourth grade students' perceptions of abilities to use the Internet. The 31-item research instrument measuring Internet Self-Perceptions was adapted for use from the Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS) developed by Henk and Melnick (1995). The RSPS survey was based upon Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1995) research in the areas of…
McDermott, T. K. J.; Surminski, S.
Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting `acceptable risk levels' and identifying `adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of
Human actions, emotions, and decision making are products of complex interactions between explicit and implicit processes at various levels of spatial and temporal scales. Although it may not be possible to obtain to experimental data for all the complexity of human behavioral and emotional processes in our everyday life, recent studies have investigated the effects of social contexts on actions, emotions, and decision making; these studies include those in the fields of experimental psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this paper, we review several empirical studies that exemplify how our actions, social emotions, and decision making are influenced by the presence of implicit external, rather than internal factors, particularly by presence of other individuals. The following are the main principles identified. (1) Unconscious behavioral contagion: Individuals tend to mimic others' actions. This tendency occurs unconsciously even when the observed and the to-be-executed movements are unrelated at various levels and aspects of behaviors (e. g., behavioral tempo and speed). (2) Neural substrates of social emotions: Various social emotions, including admiration, compassion, envy, and schadenfreude, are represented in neuronal networks that are similar to those of basic emotional processes. (3) Evasive nature of human decision making: Individuals tend to overrate their own subjective impression of and emotional reaction in forecasting affective reaction to events in the future, even though the predictive power of information from peer group is much larger in this regard. Individuals are seldom aware of the dissociation between their intended choice and excuted actions and are willing to give elaborate explanations for the choices they, in fact, did not make. Using these empirical examples, I will illustrate the considerable influences of implicit, unconscious processes on human actions, emotions, and decision making.
Colson, Sébastien; Coté, José; Collombier, Madeleine; Debout, Christophe; Bonnel, Galadriel; Reynaud, Rachel; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude
Introduction : many structured educational programs, using the concept of self-efficacy, have been studied in English-speaking countries. Background : tools were developed in English to assess this concept along with treatment adherence. However, there seems to be no French version of these tools in scientific literature. Aim : to adapt the tools to the French language and to test the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Self-Management (SEDM) and the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP). Methods : a cross-cultural adaptation of the SEDM and DSMP in French was performed. The psychometric properties were tested in a pilot study that took place between January 1st and December 31st, 2015. Results : Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of SEDM in French was 0.84, test-retest reliability 0.80 and sensitivity to change was moderate. The Cronbach’s alpha and sensitivity to change of the French DSMP were low, and the test-retest was 0.71. Discussion and conclusions : the first results of the psychometric properties of French SEDM were rather encouraging. The use of the French version of DSMP seems compromised in terms of psychometric properties and the opinion of the participants.
Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott
We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].
of scattering of a particle and coplanarity of two particles. Decision - making spark chambers are used to trigger an optical spark chamber of two...the position of a spark and the separation of two sparks. Many other kinds of spatial decisions can be made with these devices such as the recognition
Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)
Walker, Terrance L.; Tracey, Terence J. G.
The present study of two hundred and seven university students examined the structural relation of future-orientation (both valence and instrumentality), career decision-making self-efficacy and career indecision (choice/commitment anxiety and lack of readiness) in a sample of 218 college students. Future time perspective was viewed as a key input…
Dik, Bryan J.; Sargent, Adam M.; Steger, Michael F.
This article describes and demonstrates a novel approach to assessing goals and motives among individuals engaged in the career decision-making and planning process. Participants generated five career development strivings, rated each striving along several dimensions (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, sense of calling, spiritual significance,…
Lee, Eun-Hyun; van der Bijl, Jaap; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Han, Seung Jin; Moon, Seung Hei
Objectives. The aims of this study were to perform a cultural translation of the DMSES and evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated scale in a Korean population with type 2 diabetics. Methods. This study was conducted in patients with diabetes recruited from university hospitals. The first stage of this study involved translating the DMSES into Korean using a forward- and backward-translation technique. The content validity was assessed by an expert group. In the second stage, the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the DMSES (K-DMSES) were evaluated. Results. The content validity of the K-DMSES was satisfactory. Sixteen-items clustered into four-subscales were extracted by exploratory factor analysis, and supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The construct validity of the K-DMSES with the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scale was satisfactory (r = 0.50, P<0.001). The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient were 0.92 and 0.85 (P<0.001; 95% CI = 0.75-0.91), respectively, which indicate excellent internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. Conclusions. The K-DMSES is a brief instrument that has demonstrated good psychometric properties. It is therefore feasible to use in practice, and is ready for use in clinical research involving Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.
Young, Henry N.; Schumacher, Jayna B.; Moreno, Megan A.; Brown, Roger L.; Sigrest, Ted D.; McIntosh, Gwen K.; Schumacher, Daniel J.; Kelly, Michelle M.; Cox, Elizabeth D.
Purpose Factors that support self-efficacy must be understood in order to foster family-centered care (FCC) during rounds. Based on social cognitive theory, this study examined (1) how 3 supportive experiences (observing role models, having mastery experiences, and receiving feedback) influence self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and (2) whether the influence of these supportive experiences was mediated by self-efficacy with 3 key FCC tasks (relationship building, exchanging information, and decision making). Method Researchers surveyed 184 students during pediatric clerkship rotations during the 2008–2011 academic years. Surveys assessed supportive experiences and students’ self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and with key FCC tasks. Measurement models were constructed via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Composite indicator structural equation (CISE) models evaluated whether supportive experiences influenced self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and whether self-efficacy with key FCC tasks mediated any such influences. Results Researchers obtained surveys from 172 eligible students who were 76% (130) White and 53% (91) female. Observing role models and having mastery experiences supported self-efficacy with FCC during rounds (each p<0.01), while receiving feedback did not. Self-efficacy with two specific FCC tasks, relationship building and decision making (each p < 0.05), mediated the effects of these two supportive experiences on self-efficacy with FCC during rounds. Conclusions Observing role models and having mastery experiences foster students’ self-efficacy with FCC during rounds, operating through self-efficacy with key FCC tasks. Results suggest the importance of helping students gain self-efficacy in key FCC tasks before the rounds experience and helping educators implement supportive experiences during rounds. PMID:22534602
Ahlström, Isabell; Hellström, Karin; Emtner, Margareta; Anens, Elisabeth
To examine the test-retest reliability of the Swedish translated version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (S-ESES) in people with neurological disease and to examine internal consistency. Test-retest study. A total of 30 adults with neurological diseases including: Parkinson's disease; Multiple Sclerosis; Cervical Dystonia; and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The S-ESES was sent twice by surface mail. Completion interval mean was 16 days apart. Weighted kappa, intraclass correlation coefficient 2,1 [ICC (2,1)], standard error of measurement (SEM), also expressed as a percentage value (SEM%), and Cronbach's alpha were calculated. The relative reliability of the test-retest results showed substantial agreement measured using weighted kappa (MD = 0.62) and a very high-reliability ICC (2,1) (0.92). Absolute reliability measured using SEM was 5.3 and SEM% was 20.7. Excellent internal consistency was shown, with an alpha coefficient of 0.91 (test 1) and 0.93 (test 2). The S-ESES is recommended for use in research and in clinical work for people with neurological diseases. The low-absolute reliability, however, indicates a limited ability to measure changes on an individual level.
Damásio, Bruno F; Valentini, Felipe; Núñes-Rodriguez, Susana I; Kliem, Soeren; Koller, Sílvia H; Hinz, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar; Finck, Carolyn; Zenger, Markus
This study evaluated cross-cultural measurement invariance for the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) in a large Brazilian (N = 2.394) and representative German (N = 2.046) and Colombian (N = 1.500) samples. Initially, multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses showed that sex and age were biasing items responses on the total sample (2 and 10 items, respectively). After controlling for these two covariates, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was employed. Configural invariance was attested. However, metric invariance was not supported for five items, in a total of 10, and scalar invariance was not supported for all items. We also evaluated the differences between the latent scores estimated by two models: MIMIC and MGCFA unconstraining the non-equivalent parameters across countries. The average difference was equal to |.07| on the estimation of the latent scores, and 22.8% of the scores were biased in at least .10 standardized points. Bias effects were above the mean for the German group, which the average difference was equal to |.09|, and 33.7% of the scores were biased in at least .10. In synthesis, the GSES did not provide evidence of measurement invariance to be employed in this cross-cultural study. More than that, our results showed that even when controlling for sex and age effects, the absence of control on items parameters in the MGCFA analyses across countries would implicate in bias of the latent scores estimation, with a higher effect for the German population.
Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Kuppens, Sofie; Rosenberg, Gary
Purpose: The need for psychometrically sound measurement approaches to social work educational outcomes assessment is increasing. Method: The research reported here describes an original and two replication studies of a new scale (N = 550) designed to assess an individual's self-efficacy regarding social work competencies specified by the Council…
Black, David S; Sussman, Steve; Johnson, C Anderson; Milam, Joel
The cognitive tendency toward mindfulness may influence the enactment of health and risk behaviors by its bringing increased attention to and awareness of decision-making processes underlying behavior. The present study examined the moderating effect of trait mindfulness on associations between intentions to smoke (ITS)/smoking refusal self-efficacy (SRSE) and smoking frequency. Self-reports from Chinese adolescents (N = 5,287; mean age = 16.2 years, standard deviation = .7; 48.8% female) were collected in 24 schools. Smoking frequency was regressed on latent factor interactions Mindful Attention Awareness Scale*ITS and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale*SRSE, adjusting for school clustering effects and covariates. Both interaction terms were significant in cross-sectional analyses and showed that high ITS predicted higher smoking frequency among those low, relative to high, in trait mindfulness, whereas low SRSE predicted higher smoking frequency among those low, relative to high, in trait mindfulness. Findings suggest trait mindfulness possibly shields against decision-making processes that place adolescents at risk for smoking. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McDermott, T K J; Surminski, S
Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting 'acceptable risk levels' and identifying 'adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce
This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…
Olmez, Cemil; Ozbas, Serap
This study examined the self-efficacy of Turkish Cypriot science teachers working at high schools in Northern Cyprus. The study sample was 200 science teachers who participated in the survey. The Teacher Self-Efficacy (TSE) Scale was used as a data source. It was observed that the science teachers' efficacy beliefs about student engagement in…
Glackin, Melissa; Hohenstein, Jill
Teacher self-efficacy has predominantly been explored using quantitative instruments such as Likert scales-based questionnaires. Several researchers have questioned these methods, suggesting they offer only a limited view of the concept. This paper considers their claim by exploring the self-efficacy of UK secondary science teachers participating…
Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik
This study aims to examine the computer anxiety and self-efficacy of music teachers in terms of different variables. The research is implemented on 124 music teachers. A personal information form and scales of Computer Anxiety and Self Efficacy are implemented on 124 music teachers. Data are analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and…
The aim of this research is to investigate primary school teachers' characteristics by comparing their mathematics teaching self-efficacy beliefs. In this research, qualitative research method is used. In order to determine the participant teachers, firstly, "Self-Efficacy Beliefs toward Mathematics Teaching Scale" (Dede, 2008) was…
Yu, Jai Y.; Frank, Loren M.
When making a decision it is often necessary to consider the available alternatives in order to choose the most appropriate option. This deliberative process, where the pros and cons of each option are considered, relies on memories of past actions and outcomes. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are required for memory encoding, memory retrieval and decision making, but it is unclear how these areas support deliberation. Here we examine the potential neural substrates of these processes in the rat. The rat is a powerful model to investigate the network mechanisms underlying deliberation in the mammalian brain given the anatomical and functional conservation of its hippocampus and prefrontal cortex to other mammalian systems. Importantly, it is amenable to large scale neural recording while performing laboratory tasks that exploit its natural decisionmaking behavior. Focusing on findings in the rat, we discuss how hippocampal-cortical interactions could provide a neural substrate for deliberative decision making. PMID:24530374
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Huerta, Ramón; Afraimovich, Valentin
We suggest a new paradigm for intelligent decision-making suitable for dynamical sequential activity of animals or artificial autonomous devices that depends on the characteristics of the internal and external world. To do it we introduce a new class of dynamical models that are described by ordinary differential equations with a finite number of possibilities at the decision points, and also include rules solving this uncertainty. Our approach is based on the competition between possible cognitive states using their stable transient dynamics. The model controls the order of choosing successive steps of a sequential activity according to the environment and decision-making criteria. Two strategies (high-risk and risk-aversion conditions) that move the system out of an erratic environment are analyzed.
Souther, J. W.
The need to teach informational writing as a decision-making process is discussed. Situational analysis, its relationship to decisions in writing, and the need for relevant assignments are considered. Teaching students to ask the right questions is covered. The need to teach writing responsiveness is described. Three steps to get started and four teaching techniques are described. The information needs of the 'expert' and the 'manager' are contrasted.
Fisheries , (06 2014): 1. doi: 10.1111/faf.12084 L. Giuggioli, J. R. Potts, D. I. Rubenstein, S. A. Levin. Stigmergy, collective actions, and animal ...terrestrial and marine food webs, as well as enabling interspecies interactions such as reproduction. Eulerian models describe aggregations of animals in...achieved in decision-making. Animal groups frequently display highly coordinated movements, and provide an excellent vehicle by which to understand
De las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao; de Rivera, Luis
To assess the concordance between patients' preferred role in clinical decision-making and the role they usually experience in their psychiatric consultations and to analyze the influence of socio-demographic, clinical and personality characteristics on patients' preferences. 677 consecutive psychiatric outpatients were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey and 507 accepted. Patients completed Control Preference Scale twice consecutively before consultation, one for their preferences of participation and another for the style they usually experienced until then, and locus of control and self-efficacy scales. Sixty-three percent of psychiatric outpatients preferred a collaborative role in decision-making, 35% preferred a passive role and only a 2% an active one. A low concordance for preferred and experienced participation in medical decision-making was registered, with more than a half of patients wanting a more active role than they actually had. Age and doctors' health locus of control orientation were found to be the best correlates for participation preferences, while age and gender were for experienced. Psychiatric diagnoses registered significant differences in patients' preferences of participation but no concerning experiences. The limited concordance between preferred and experienced roles in psychiatric patients is indicative that clinicians need to raise their sensitivity regarding patient's participation. The assessment of patient's attribution style should be useful for psychiatrist to set objectives and priority in the communication with their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clarke, Gemma; Fistein, Elizabeth; Holland, Anthony; Barclay, Matthew; Theimann, Pia; Barclay, Stephen
There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life. Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016). Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life. There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610). Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%). Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, p<0.010), and older age (OR = 1.09 per decade, p<0.010). Negative predictors: living with children (OR = 0.72, p<0.010) and being of "black" race/ethnicity (OR = 0.45, p<0.001). Public opinion was uniform between GB and USA, but markedly heterogeneous. Despite contemporaneous capacitous consent providing an essential legal safeguard in most jurisdictions, there was a high prevalence of preference for "measures to end my life peacefully" when decision-making
Margalit, Daniella; Ben-Ari, Amichai
Background: Adolescents participate in decision-making processes involving risky behaviors. Management of these important decisions may be promoted by enhancing adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and cognitive autonomy. Objective: In order to elucidate the value of wilderness therapy to the successful management of decision making processes among…
Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.
The purpose of this study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, burnout, job satisfaction and principals' motivation to quit. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a recently developed multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Burnout was measured by a modified version of the Maslach Burnout…
Federici, Roger A.
The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…
Stagg, Steven D.; Eaton, Elizabeth; Sjoblom, Amanda M.
It may be thought that gaining a place at university confers self-belief on students with dyslexia; after all, they have succeeded in their academic studies. Our research explored self-efficacy beliefs in university students with and without dyslexia. An Academic Self-Efficacy Scale and a Sources of Academic Self-Efficacy Scale were completed by…
Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J
An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.
Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J.
An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability. PMID:21647306
Corbière, Marc; Negrini, Alessia; Durand, Marie-José; St-Arnaud, Louise; Briand, Catherine; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Loisel, Patrick; Lachance, Jean-Philippe
Introduction Common mental disorders (CMDs) and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) lead the list of causes for work absence in several countries. Current research is starting to look at workers on sick leave as a single population, regardless of the nature of the disease or accident. The purpose of this study is to report the validation of the Return to Work Obstacles and Self-Efficacy Scale (ROSES) for people with MSDs and CMDs, based on the disability paradigm. Methods From a prospective design, the ROSES' reliability and validity were investigated in a Canadian sample of workers on sick leave due to MSDs (n = 206) and CMDs (n = 157). Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that 46 items spread out on 10 conceptual dimensions (e.g., Fears of a relapse, Job demands, Difficult relation with the immediate supervisor), with satisfactory alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability for all subscales. Finally, several dimensions of ROSES also predict the participant's RTW within 6 months for MSDs (e.g., job demands), and CMDs (e.g., difficult relation with the immediate supervisor), even when adjusted by several variables (e.g., age, severity of symptoms). Apart from the job demands dimension, when the ROSES dimension is more external to the individual, only the perception of obstacles remains significant to predict RTW whereas it is the opposite result when the dimension is more internal (e.g., fears of a relapse). Conclusion The ROSES demonstrated satisfactory results regarding its validity and reliability with people having MSDs or CMDs, at the time of the return-to-work process.
Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xue; Zhu, Yu; Li, Hongchen; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Wang, Kai
Alexithymia is characterised by difficulties identifying and describing emotions. Few studies have investigated how alexithymia influences decision-making under different conditions (ambiguity and risk). This study aimed to examine whether alexithymia contributes to impairment in decision-making. This study included 42 participants with high scores in the Chinese version of Toronto Alexithymia Scale (alexithymia group), and 44 matched subjects with low scores (control group). Decision-making was measured using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Game of Dice Task (GDT). The main findings of this study revealed selective deficits in IGT performance for the alexithymia group, while GDT performance was unimpaired when compared with the control group. In IGT, total netscores were lower for the alexithymia group compared to the control group, particularly with regard to block 5. Moreover, the alexithymia individuals selected significantly more adverse cards than the controls, indicating significant decision-making impairments. Alexithymia selectively influences decision-making under ambiguity.
Hicks Patrick, Julie; Steele, Jenessa C.; Spencer, S. Melinda
The primary aim of this study was to examine the contributions of individual characteristics and strategic processing to the prediction of decision quality. Data were provided by 176 adults, ages 18 to 93 years, who completed computerized decision-making vignettes and a battery of demographic and cognitive measures. We examined the relations among age, domain-specific experience, working memory, and three measures of strategic information search to the prediction of solution quality using a 4-step hierarchical linear regression analysis. Working memory and two measures of strategic processing uniquely contributed to the variance explained. Results are discussed in terms of potential advances to both theory and intervention efforts. PMID:24282638
Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Sabina E [Albuquerque, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM
A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.
Mosier, Kathleen L.
A recognition-primed decisions (RPD) model is employed as a framework to investigate crew decision-making processes. The quality of information transfer, a critical component of the team RPD model and an indicator of the team's 'collective consciouness', is measured and analyzed with repect to crew performance. As indicated by the RPD model, timing and patterns of information search transfer were expected to reflect extensive and continual situation assessment, and serial evaluation of alternative states of the world or decision response options.
Center at Gunter APS, Alabama, 1% predicts that 150.000 more microcomputers, with integrated software, will be VP aided !,: the A:r Fcrce inventory...a computer’s power when he said, ’it is also useful to anticipate or predict changes in the data Pondering ’what if’ situations enabled me to answer... predict future b) experts forecast In Isolation, then consensus is found C. Group decision making (3t30-34) Slide i-i 1. Advantages a. broader background 1
Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn
Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794
Ono, Satomi; Manabe, Yukiko
The aim of this study is to prepare the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS) and verify its reliability and validity. The PSESCAMS was developed based on the findings of previous qualitative studies on preschool children aged 3-6 years who were undergoing day surgery and their parents. The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Maternal Self-Accomplishment Scale (MSAS), and Japanese-language version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-trait subscale (STAI: A-trait) were used to examine the criterion-related validity of the PSESCAMS. In addition, the test-retest method was utilized for the PSESCAMS. The number of valid responses was 586. A principle component analysis of the PSESCAMS was conducted of 18 items, extracting two factors. As a result of factor analysis that assumed two factors, the two factors were named "self-efficacy for support related to child's emotional control for minor surgery" and "self-efficacy for support related to child's understanding of minor surgery". A structural equation model having high goodness of fit for the PSESCAMS was shown by a covariance structure analysis. The correlations between GSES, MSAS, STAI: A-trait and the PSESCAMS were r = 0.323 (P < 0.001), r = 0.370 (P < 0.001), and r = -0.248 (P < 0.001), respectively. Cronbach's alpha of both the initial test and the test-retest for the PSESCAMS were 0.9 and the correlation between both was significant. The PSESCAMS consists of two categories and includes 18 items. The reliability and validity of the PSESCAMS were proved. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Yoshizaki, Satoko; Hiraoka, Kyoichi
The purpose of the present study was to examine the multivariate relations between career exploration and its predictors. University sophomores and seniors completed a questionnaire about career exploration, career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivation. Canonical correlation analysis showed that combining all predictors, i.e., career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivations, accounted for a large portion of the career exploration variance. Of subfactors of career motivation, only "integrated and identified regulation" was significantly related to career exploration. This result suggests that career exploration is predicted by self-efficacy as well as a highly self-determinated extrinsic motivation.
Kakudate, N; Morita, M; Fukuhara, S; Sugai, M; Nagayama, M; Kawanami, M; Chiba, I
In clinical practice, self-efficacy refers to how certain a patient feels about his or her ability to take the necessary action to improve the indicators and maintenance of health. It is assumed that the prognosis for patient behaviour can be improved by assessing the proficiency of their self-efficacy through providing psychoeducational instructions adapted for individual patients, and promoting behavioural change for self-care. Therefore, accurate assessment of self-efficacy is an important key in daily clinical preventive care. The previous research showed that the self-efficacy scale scores predicted patient behaviour in periodontal patients and mother's behaviour in paediatric dental practice. Self-efficacy belief is constructed from four principal sources of information: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological and affective states. Thus, self-efficacy can be enhanced by the intervention exploiting these sources. The previous studies revealed that behavioural interventions to enhance self-efficacy improved oral-care behaviour of patients. Therefore, assessment and enhancement of oral-care specific self-efficacy is important to promote behaviour modification in clinical dental practice. However, more researches are needed to evaluate the suitability of the intervention method. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Kavookjian, Jan; Berger, Bruce A; Grimley, Diane M; Villaume, William A; Anderson, Heidi M; Barker, Kenneth N
Patient self-care is critical in controlling diabetes and its complications. Lack of diet adherence is a particular challenge to effective diabetes intervention. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Change, decision-making theory, and self-efficacy have contributed to successful tailoring of interventions in many target behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a diagnostic tool, including TTM measures for the stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy, that pharmacists involved in diabetes intervention can use for patients resistant to a diet regimen. A questionnaire was developed through a literature review, interviews with diabetic patients, an expert panel input, and pretesting. Cross-sectional implementation of the questionnaire among a convenience sample of 193 type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients took place at 4 patient care sites throughout the southeastern United States. Validated measures were used to collect respondent self-report for the TTM variables and for demographic and diabetes history variables. Social desirability was also assessed. Relationships among TTM measures for diet adherence generally replicated those established for other target behaviors. Salient items were identified as potential facilitators (decisional balance pros) or barriers (decisional balance cons and self-efficacy tempting situations) to change. Social desirability exhibited a statistically significant relationship with patient report of diet adherence, with statistically significant differences in mean social desirability across race categories. The TTM measures for the stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy are useful for making decisions on individually tailored interventions for diet adherence, with caution asserted about the potential of diabetes patients to self-report the target behavior in a socially desirable manner. Future research directions, implications, and limitations of the findings are also presented.
Rabarison, Kristina M.; Bish, Connie L.; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Giles, Wayne H.
Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking “how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and/or social services?” is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions. PMID:26157792
Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.
This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…
The purpose of the present research is presenting the relationships between self-efficacy, fear of success and life satisfaction; and determining the predictive power fear of success and self-efficacy on life satisfaction. For this purpose, self-efficacy, fear of achievement and life satisfaction scales were implemented on 625 individuals. In the…
Askar, Petek; Davenport, David
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…
Renner, Suzanne; Pratt, Keryn
The self-efficacy beliefs of 140 generalist teachers for teaching dance in the New Zealand curriculum were surveyed using an adapted version of the Teachers' Sense of Self-efficacy scale (TSES) developed by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy (2001). Four hypotheses were created to test relationships between the participants' self-efficacy beliefs…
Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo; van Tartwijk, Jan
In this study, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring teachers' interpersonal self-efficacy: the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction-Self-Efficacy (QTI-SE). We used the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction as a basis to construct items. Current scales on teacher self-efficacy in classroom management cover…
Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Goins, Deborah D.
Self-efficacy and knowledge, both concerning the chi-squared test of independence, were examined in education graduate students. Participants rated statements concerning self-efficacy and completed a related knowledge assessment. After completing a demographic survey, participants completed the self-efficacy and knowledge scales a second time.…
Ahn, Bonnie; Boykin, Lolita; Hebert, Corie; Kulkin, Heidi
This study explored baccalaureate social work students' self-efficacy at a rural southern university. Bandura's concept of self-efficacy is used as a theoretical base for the study. Students (N = 43) in introductory social work courses and in the field practicum course completed the Foundation Practice Self Efficacy Scale. Following The Council on…
Hermans, Caroline M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Erickson, Jon D.; Messner, Frank; Ring, Irene
Environmental decision making involving multiple stakeholders can benefit from the use of a formal process to structure stakeholder interactions, leading to more successful outcomes than traditional discursive decision processes. There are many tools available to handle complex decision making. Here we illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) outranking tool (PROMETHEE) to facilitate decision making at the watershed scale, involving multiple stakeholders, multiple criteria, and multiple objectives. We compare various MCDA methods and their theoretical underpinnings, examining methods that most realistically model complex decision problems in ways that are understandable and transparent to stakeholders.
Labrecque, Michel; Ratté, Stéphane; Frémont, Pierre; Cauchon, Michel; Ouellet, Jérôme; Hogg, William; McGowan, Jessie; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Njoya, Merlin; Légaré, France
Abstract Objective To compare the ability of users of 2 medical search engines, InfoClinique and the Trip database, to provide correct answers to clinical questions and to explore the perceived effects of the tools on the clinical decision-making process. Design Randomized trial. Setting Three family medicine units of the family medicine program of the Faculty of Medicine at Laval University in Quebec city, Que. Participants Fifteen second-year family medicine residents. Intervention Residents generated 30 structured questions about therapy or preventive treatment (2 questions per resident) based on clinical encounters. Using an Internet platform designed for the trial, each resident answered 20 of these questions (their own 2, plus 18 of the questions formulated by other residents, selected randomly) before and after searching for information with 1 of the 2 search engines. For each question, 5 residents were randomly assigned to begin their search with InfoClinique and 5 with the Trip database. Main outcome measures The ability of residents to provide correct answers to clinical questions using the search engines, as determined by third-party evaluation. After answering each question, participants completed a questionnaire to assess their perception of the engine’s effect on the decision-making process in clinical practice. Results Of 300 possible pairs of answers (1 answer before and 1 after the initial search), 254 (85%) were produced by 14 residents. Of these, 132 (52%) and 122 (48%) pairs of answers concerned questions that had been assigned an initial search with InfoClinique and the Trip database, respectively. Both engines produced an important and similar absolute increase in the proportion of correct answers after searching (26% to 62% for InfoClinique, for an increase of 36%; 24% to 63% for the Trip database, for an increase of 39%; P = .68). For all 30 clinical questions, at least 1 resident produced the correct answer after searching with either
Dustin, Irene; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Michael, Kathleen; Wiggs, Edythe
The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the revised Self-Efficacy for Exercise With Epilepsy (SEE-E) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise with Epilepsy (OEE-E) when used with people with epilepsy. The SEE-E and OEE-E were given in face-to-face interviews to 26 persons with epilepsy in an epilepsy clinic. There was some evidence of validity based on Rasch analysis INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. There was some evidence of reliability for the SEE-E and OEE-E based on person and item separation reliability indexes. These measures can be used to identify persons with epilepsy who have low self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise and guide design of interventions to strengthen these expectations and thereby improve exercise behavior.
Williams, Betsy W; Kessler, Harold A; Williams, Michael V
The relationship between an individual's sense of self-efficacy, motivation to change, and the implementation of improvement programs has been reported. This research reports the relationship among self-efficacy, motivation to change, and intent to implement continuing medical education (CME) activity learnings. The measure of individual sense of self-efficacy was a 4-item scale. The measure of motivation was a 4-item scale following on the work of Johnson, et al. The self-efficacy scale has been confirmed for structure, and together the 2 scales provide indicators of 3 underlying variables-2 self-efficacy constructs and a motivation variable. In addition, a global intent to implement measure was collected. Preliminary analysis demonstrates a significant relationship between a self-efficacy construct, the motivation to change construct, and global intent to change. Specifically, the sense of efficacy in effecting change in the practice environment is predictive of a high level of motivation to change, which, in turn, is predictive of formation of an intent to change practice patterns. Further inspection of the motivation to change construct suggests that it mediates the self-efficacy constructs' effect on intent. This is consistent with an earlier report on the relationship among self-efficacy, barriers to change, and stated intent. This new finding suggests that the proximal construct motivation completely masks an important underlying causal relationship that appears to contribute to practice change following CME: self-efficacy. A focus on the participants' sense of self-agency may provide a path to practice change. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Fischer, Sophia; Soyez, Katja; Gurtner, Sebastian
Research testing the concept of decision-making styles in specific contexts such as health care-related choices is missing. Therefore, we examine the contextuality of Scott and Bruce's (1995) General Decision-Making Style Inventory with respect to patient choice situations. Scott and Bruce's scale was adapted for use as a patient decision-making style inventory. In total, 388 German patients who underwent elective joint surgery responded to a questionnaire about their provider choice. Confirmatory factor analyses within 2 independent samples assessed factorial structure, reliability, and validity of the scale. The final 4-dimensional, 13-item patient decision-making style inventory showed satisfactory psychometric properties. Data analyses supported reliability and construct validity. Besides the intuitive, dependent, and avoidant style, a new subdimension, called "comparative" decision-making style, emerged that originated from the rational dimension of the general model. This research provides evidence for the contextuality of decision-making style to specific choice situations. Using a limited set of indicators, this report proposes the patient decision-making style inventory as valid and feasible tool to assess patients' decision propensities. © The Author(s) 2015.
When an organisation's reputation is at stake, crisis decision-making (CDM) is challenging and prone to failure. Most CDM schemes are strong at certain aspects of the overall CDM process, but almost none are strong at all of them. This paper defines criteria for good CDM schemes, analyses common approaches and introduces an alternative, stakeholder-driven scheme. Focusing on the most important stakeholders and directing any actions to preserve the relationships with them is crucial. When doing so, the interdependencies between the stakeholders must be identified and considered. Without knowledge of the sometimes less than obvious links, wellmeaning actions can cause adverse effects, so a cross-check for the impacts of potential options is recommended before making the final decision. The paper also gives recommendations on how to implement these steps at any organisation in order to enhance the quality of CDM and thus protect the organisation's reputation.
Weber, Elke U; Johnson, Eric J
A full range of psychological processes has been put into play to explain judgment and choice phenomena. Complementing work on attention, information integration, and learning, decision research over the past 10 years has also examined the effects of goals, mental representation, and memory processes. In addition to deliberative processes, automatic processes have gotten closer attention, and the emotions revolution has put affective processes on a footing equal to cognitive ones. Psychological process models provide natural predictions about individual differences and lifespan changes and integrate across judgment and decision making (JDM) phenomena. "Mindful" JDM research leverages our knowledge about psychological processes into causal explanations for important judgment and choice regularities, emphasizing the adaptive use of an abundance of processing alternatives. Such explanations supplement and support existing mathematical descriptions of phenomena such as loss aversion or hyperbolic discounting. Unlike such descriptions, they also provide entry points for interventions designed to help people overcome judgments or choices considered undesirable.
Cabanac, Michel; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude
Three experiments studied the hedonicity of decision making. Participants rated their pleasure/displeasure while reading item-sentences describing political and social problems followed by different decisions (Questionnaire 1). Questionnaire 2 was multiple-choice, grouping the items from Questionnaire 1. In Experiment 1, participants answered Questionnaire 2 rapidly or slowly. Both groups selected what they had rated as pleasant, but the 'leisurely' group maximized pleasure less. In Experiment 2, participants selected the most rational responses. The selected behaviors were pleasant but less than spontaneous behaviors. In Experiment 3, Questionnaire 2 was presented once with items grouped by theme, and once with items shuffled. Participants maximized the pleasure of their decisions, but the items selected on Questionnaires 2 were different when presented in different order. All groups maximized pleasure equally in their decisions. These results support that decisions are made predominantly in the hedonic dimension of consciousness. PMID:17848195
Bartlett, Jacqueline A; Peterson, Jane A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Shared Decision-Making Inventory-Revised (SDMI-R) to measure four constructs (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and intent) theoretically defined as vital in discussing the human papillomavirus (HPV) disease and vaccine with clients. The SDMI-R was distributed to a sample (N = 1,525) of school nurses. Correlational matrixes denoted moderate to strong correlations, indicating adequate internal reliability. Reliability for the total instrument was satisfactory (α = .874) along with Attitude, Self-Efficacy and Intent subscales .828, .917, .891, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five components that explained 75.96% of the variance.
Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.
Amir, Tami; Gati, Itamar
The present research investigated the relations among the measured and the expressed career decision-making difficulties in a sample of 299 young adults who intended to apply to college or university. As hypothesised, the correlations between career decision-making difficulties, as measured by the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire…
Focuses on the use of graphic representations to enable students to improve their decision making skills in the social studies. Explores three visual aids used in assisting students with decision making: (1) the force field; (2) the decision tree; and (3) the decision making grid. (CMK)
Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio
Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.
Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…
This study investigates the effect of preschool teachers' collective self-efficacy. A study group consists of 172 preschool teachers who are working in public preschools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in different cities of Turkey. In this study, teacher self-efficiency scale is employed to assess professional efficiency…
Johnson, LeAnne D.
Bringing effective practices to scale across large systems requires attending to how information and belief systems come together in decisions to adopt, implement, and sustain those practices. Statewide scaling of the Pyramid Model, a framework for positive behavior intervention and support, across different types of early childhood programs…
Blake, Shane S; Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K
Studies of non-health-care work environments indicate that non-managerial employee job satisfaction is higher in companies that use participative (as opposed to autocratic) decision making. It has not been determined whether managerial decision-making style influences job satisfaction among respiratory therapists (RTs) and which managerial decision-making style RTs prefer. We surveyed Nebraska RTs' attitudes regarding their job satisfaction, their perceptions of their managers' decision-making styles (autocratic, consultative, and/or delegative), and which decision-making style they would prefer their managers to use. We sought to determine whether there is a significant correlation between RTs' perceptions of their managers' decision-making styles and the RTs' job satisfaction. The study population was 792 licensed and practicing non-managerial RTs in Nebraska, from which we randomly selected 565 RTs to survey. The self-administered, descriptive survey used 2 Likert scales (one for decision-making style and one for job satisfaction) and inquired about 57 items. The survey was mailed on October 1, 1999. On October 28, 1999, we sent a second mailing to RTs who had not responded. We received 271 responses (response rate 47.9%). The respondents were generally satisfied with their jobs (mean +/- SD Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire score 73.46 +/- 11.63). The sub-scale scores ranged from 20 ("very dissatisfied") to 100 ("very satisfied"). The respondents did not want autocratic managerial decision making (mean +/- SD autocratic sub-scale score 4.29 +/- 0.60). Autocratic decision making was associated with lower job satisfaction (r = 0.49), whereas consultative and delegative decision making were associated with higher job satisfaction (r = -0.31 and -0.48, respectively). RTs who worked in departments that had < 25 RT employees reported higher job satisfaction than did RTs in larger departments (p = 0.029). Our survey data indicate that (1) RTs prefer delegative and
Effective decision making under time constraints is often overlooked in medical decision making. The recognition primed decision making (RPDM) model was developed by Gary Klein based on previous recognized situations to develop a satisfactory solution to the current problem. Bayes Theorem is the most popular decision making model in medicine but is limited by the need for adequate time to consider all probabilities. Unlike other decision making models, there is a potential neurobiological basis for RPDM. This model has significant implication for health informatics and medical education.
Horbach, Sophie E R; Ubbink, Dirk T; Stubenrouch, Fabienne E; Koelemay, Mark J W; van der Vleuten, Carine J M; Verhoeven, Bas H; Reekers, Jim A; Schultze Kool, Leo J; van der Horst, Chantal M A M
In shared decision-making, clinicians and patients arrive at a joint treatment decision, by incorporating best available evidence and the patients' personal values and preferences. Little is known about the role of shared decision-making in managing patients with congenital vascular malformations, for which preference-sensitive decision-making seems obvious. The authors investigated preferences regarding decision-making and current shared decision-making behavior during physician-patient encounters. In two Dutch university hospitals, adults and children with congenital vascular malformations facing a treatment-related decision were enrolled. Before the consultation, patients (or parents of children) expressed their preference regarding decision-making (Control Preferences Scale). Afterward, participants completed shared decision-making-specific questionnaires (nine-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire, CollaboRATE, and satisfaction), and physicians completed the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire-Physician questionnaire. Consultations were audiotaped and patient involvement was scored by two independent researchers using the five-item Observing Patient Involvement instrument. All questionnaire results were expressed on a scale of 0 to 100 (optimum shared decision-making). Fifty-five participants (24 parents and 31 adult patients) were included. Two-thirds preferred the shared decision-making approach (Control Preferences Scale). Objective five-item Observing Patient Involvement scores were low (mean ± SD, 31 ± 15), whereas patient and physician Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire scores were high, with means of 68 ± 18 and 68 ± 19, respectively. The median CollaboRATE score was 93. There was no clear relationship between shared decision-making and satisfaction scores. Although adults and parents of children with vascular malformations express a strong desire for shared decision-making, objective shared decision-making behavior is still lacking, most
Booister, Nikéh; Verkade, Jan; Werner, Micha; Cranston, Michael; Cumiskey, Lydia; Zevenbergen, Chris
flood event management, the more damage can be reduced. And with decisions based on probabilistic forecasts, partial decisions can be made earlier in time (with a lower probability) and can be scaled up or down later in time when there is more certainty; whether the event takes place or not. Partial decisions are often more cheap, or shorten the final mitigation-time at the moment when there is more certainty. The proposed method is tested on Stonehaven, on the Carron River in Scotland. Decisions to implement demountable defences in the town are currently made based on a very short lead-time due to the absence of certainty. Application showed that staged decision making is possible and gives the decision maker more time to respond to a situation. The decision maker is able to take a lower regret decision with higher uncertainty and less related negative consequences. Although it is not possible to quantify intangible effects, it is part of the analysis to reduce these effects. Above all, the proposed approach has shown to be a possible improvement in economic terms and opens up possibilities of more flexible and robust decision making.
Bandyopadhyay, Debarati; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Srinivasan, Narayanan
Emotion plays a major role in influencing our everyday cognitive and behavioral functions, including decision making. We introduce different ways in which emotions are characterized in terms of the way they influence or elicited by decision making. This chapter discusses different theories that have been proposed to explain the role of emotions in judgment and decision making. We also discuss incidental emotional influences, both long-duration influences like mood and short-duration influences by emotional context present prior to or during decision making. We present and discuss results from a study with emotional pictures presented prior to decision making and how that influences both decision processes and postdecision experience as a function of uncertainty. We conclude with a summary of the work on emotions and decision making in the context of decision-making theories and our work on incidental emotions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)
This paper describes the implications of a naturalistic decision making (NDM) perspective for training air crews to make flight-related decisions. The implications are based on two types of analyses: (a) identification of distinctive features that serve as a basis for classifying a diverse set of decision events actually encountered by flight crews, and (b) performance strategies that distinguished more from less effective crews flying full-mission simulators, as well as performance analyses from NTSB accident investigations. Six training recommendations are offered: (1) Because of the diversity of decision situations, crews need to be aware that different strategies may be appropriate for different problems; (2) Given that situation assessment is essential to making a good decision, it is important to train specific content knowledge needed to recognize critical conditions, to assess risks and available time, and to develop strategies to verify or diagnose the problem; (3) Tendencies to oversimplify problems may be overcome by training to evaluate options in terms of goals, constraints, consequences, and prevailing conditions; (4) In order to provide the time to gather information and consider options, it is essential to manage the situation, which includes managing crew workload, prioritizing tasks, contingency planning, buying time (e.g., requesting holding or vectors), and using low workload periods to prepare for high workload; (5) Evaluating resource requirements ("What do I need?") and capabilities ("'What do I have?" ) are essential to making good decisions. Using resources to meet requirements may involve the cabin crew, ATC, dispatchers, and maintenance personnel; (6) Given that decisions must often be made under high risk, time pressure, and workload, train under realistic flight conditions to promote the development of robust decision skills.
Stiggelbout, A M; Molewijk, A C; Otten, W; Timmermans, D R M; van Bockel, J H; Kievit, J
Evidence based patient choice seems based on a strong liberal individualist interpretation of patient autonomy; however, not all patients are in favour of such an interpretation. The authors wished to assess whether ideals of autonomy in clinical practice are more in accordance with alternative concepts of autonomy from the ethics literature. This paper describes the development of a questionnaire to assess such concepts of autonomy. A questionnaire, based on six moral concepts from the ethics literature, was sent to aneurysm patients and their surgeons. The structure of the questionnaire was assessed by factor analysis, and item reduction was based on reliability. Ninety six patients and 58 surgeons participated. The questionnaire consisted of four scales. Two of the scales reflected the paternalistic and consumerist poles of the liberal individualist model, one scale reflected concepts of Socratic autonomy and of procedural independence, and the fourth scale reflected ideals of risk disclosure. The Ideal Patient Autonomy Scale is a 14 item normative instrument. It is clearly distinct from the generally used psychological preference questionnaires that assess preferences for physician-patient roles.
Stiggelbout, A; Molewijk, A; Otten, W; Timmermans, D; van Bockel, J H; Kievit, J
Objectives: Evidence based patient choice seems based on a strong liberal individualist interpretation of patient autonomy; however, not all patients are in favour of such an interpretation. The authors wished to assess whether ideals of autonomy in clinical practice are more in accordance with alternative concepts of autonomy from the ethics literature. This paper describes the development of a questionnaire to assess such concepts of autonomy. Methods: A questionnaire, based on six moral concepts from the ethics literature, was sent to aneurysm patients and their surgeons. The structure of the questionnaire was assessed by factor analysis, and item reduction was based on reliability. Results: Ninety six patients and 58 surgeons participated. The questionnaire consisted of four scales. Two of the scales reflected the paternalistic and consumerist poles of the liberal individualist model, one scale reflected concepts of Socratic autonomy and of procedural independence, and the fourth scale reflected ideals of risk disclosure. Discussion: The Ideal Patient Autonomy Scale is a 14 item normative instrument. It is clearly distinct from the generally used psychological preference questionnaires that assess preferences for physician-patient roles. PMID:15173361
Adams, Geoffrey K.; Watson, Karli K.; Pearson, John; Platt, Michael L.
A neuroethological approach to decision-making considers the effect of evolutionary pressures on neural circuits mediating choice. In this view, decision systems are expected to enhance fitness with respect to the local environment, and particularly efficient solutions to specific problems should be conserved, expanded, and repurposed to solve other problems. Here, we discuss basic prerequisites for a variety of decision systems from this viewpoint. We focus on two of the best-studied and most widely represented decision problems. First, we examine patch leaving, a prototype of environmentally based switching between action patterns. Second, we consider social information seeking, a process resembling foraging with search costs. We argue that while the specific neural solutions to these problems sometimes differ across species, both the problems themselves and the algorithms instantiated by biological hardware are repeated widely throughout nature. The behavioral and mathematical study of ubiquitous decision processes like patch leaving and social information seeking thus provides a powerful new approach to uncovering the fundamental design structure of nervous systems. PMID:22902613
Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.
Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity
Saka, Noa; Gati, Itamar
This study focused on examining the persistent aspects of career decision-making difficulties, using the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties scale ("EPCD"; [Saka, N., Gati, I., & Kelly, K.R. (in press). Emotional and personality-related aspects of career decision-making difficulties. "Journal of Career…
Miller, David C.; Byrnes, James P.
This study investigated the utility of the self-regulation model of decision making for explaining and predicting adolescents' academic decision making. Measures included an assessment of decision-making skill; academic goals; select scales of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory; and teacher ratings of achievement behavior. Adolescents'…
Lucas, Andrew; Lee, Ching Hua
We propose a simple model for a binary decision making process on a graph, motivated by modeling social decision making with cooperative individuals. The model is similar to a random field Ising model or fiber bundle model, but with key differences in behavior on heterogeneous networks. For many types of disorder and interactions between the nodes, we predict with mean field theory discontinuous phase transitions that are largely independent of network structure. We show how these phase transitions can also be understood by studying microscopic avalanches and describe how network structure enhances fluctuations in the distribution of avalanches. We suggest theoretically the existence of a “glassy” spectrum of equilibria associated with a typical phase, even on infinite graphs, so long as the first moment of the degree distribution is finite. This behavior implies that the model is robust against noise below a certain scale and also that phase transitions can switch from discontinuous to continuous on networks with too few edges. Numerical simulations suggest that our theory is accurate.
Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck
Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This studymore » applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.« less
Valentini, Gabriele; Fernández-Oto, Cristian; Dorigo, Marco
The engineering of large-scale decentralised systems requires sound methodologies to guarantee the attainment of the desired macroscopic system-level behaviour given the microscopic individual-level implementation. While a general-purpose methodology is currently out of reach, specific solutions can be given to broad classes of problems by means of well-conceived design patterns. We propose a design pattern for collective decision making grounded on experimental/theoretical studies of the nest-site selection behaviour observed in honeybee swarms (Apis mellifera). The way in which honeybee swarms arrive at consensus is fairly well-understood at the macroscopic level. We provide formal guidelines for the microscopic implementation of collective decisions to quantitatively match the macroscopic predictions. We discuss implementation strategies based on both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent systems, and we provide means to deal with spatial and topological factors that have a bearing on the micro-macro link. Finally, we exploit the design pattern in two case studies that showcase the viability of the approach. Besides engineering, such a design pattern can prove useful for a deeper understanding of decision making in natural systems thanks to the inclusion of individual heterogeneities and spatial factors, which are often disregarded in theoretical modelling. PMID:26496359
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Cantwell, Emily Dawn; Schatschneider, Christopher; Menzies, Holly; Crittenden, Meredith; Messenger, Mallory
We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-I6) of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991). Participants included 227 sixth- through 12th-grade students from nine schools across…
In 2012, the United States Forest Service promulgated new rules to guide Forest planning efforts in accordance with the National Forest Management Act (NFMA). One important component of the 2012 rule is a requirement for Regionally coordinated cross-boundary "broad scale" monitoring strategies that are designed to inform and facilitate Forest-level adaptive management and planning. This presentation will examine institutional challenges and opportunites for developing effective broad scale monitoring strategies identified in 90 interviews with USFS staff and partner organizations, and collaborative workshops held in Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Internal barriers to development include funding and human resource constraints, organizational culture, problematic incentives and accountability structures, data management issues, and administrative barriers to collaboration. However, we also identify several opportunities for leveraging interagency collaboration, facilitating multi-level coordination, generating efficiencies in data collection and analysis, and improving strategies for reporting and communication to Forest level decision-makers and relevant stakeholders.
Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise
This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038
Pahwa, Rohini; Fulginiti, Anthony; Brekke, John S; Rice, Eric
Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision. The current study uses the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM) by Greene (2009) to better understand the processes of mental illness disclosure preference and selective disclosure for individuals with SMI (n = 60) using multivariate random intercept logistic regression with an emphasis on the constituent factors of disclosure preference at both individual and relational levels. The majority of participants were found to practice selective disclosure, with 68% of the participants identifying at least 1 network member to whom they could disclose. Family members and friends were central to the selective disclosure process, comprising the greatest proportion of network members who, both were and were not identified as preferred confidants. Women were found to show higher odds of preference for mental illness disclosure than men. Having lower perceived social support was associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Among relational factors, greater relationship availability and lower dyadic tangible social support were associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Practice and research implications of using social network analysis to get a deeper understanding of disclosure and disclosure preference are discussed, including implications for future interventions targeting stigma reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
We have previously shown that information given to patients approaching end stage renal failure to make an informed decision about dialysis modality is frequently incomplete and difficult to comprehend . We have now studied whether there are differences in decisions made about dialysis modality according to the method employed to deliver this information. In an online study, 784 participants viewed treatment information about hemodialysis (HD) and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and completed a questionnaire. A control group saw only basic information, but otherwise treatment information was varied by format (written or videotaped) and who presented the information (male or female; 'patient' or 'doctor'). The information was carefully controlled to ensure comparable content and comprehensibility. In addition to collection of demographic data, measures included: treatment choice, reasons for treatment choice, decisional conflict, need for affect, need for cognition, decision regret, quality of information, previous knowledge of end-stage renal failure and social comparison. There were a number of differences in choices made among subjects who viewed written or video information presented as if by doctors or patients. There was a statistically significant effect that subjects chose the dialysis modality recommended by the patient (whether CCPD or HD). There was no significant effect of the gender of the person presenting information on the modality chosen. However, among participants, females were more satisfied with the information presented, and more likely to choose CCPD (compared to male participants). Subjects' style of information processing (need for cognition/need for affect) had no significant effect on choice of dialysis modality. There was a higher drop-out rate among subjects viewing videotaped information. The use of testimonials might bias patients decision making regarding dialysis options and until these effects are understood, they
Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise
This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.
Pickrell, W O; Elwyn, G; Smith, P E M
Policy makers, clinicians, and patients increasingly recognize the need for greater patient involvement in clinical decision-making. Shared decision-making helps address these concerns by providing a framework for clinicians and patients to make decisions together using the best evidence. Shared decision-making is applicable to situations where several acceptable options exist (clinical equipoise). Such situations occur commonly in epilepsy, for example, in decisions regarding the choice of medication, treatment in pregnancy, and medication withdrawal. A talk model is a way of implementing shared decision-making during consultations, and decision aids are useful tools to assist in the process. Although there is limited evidence available for shared decision-making in epilepsy, there are several benefits of shared decision-making in general including improved decision quality, more informed choices, and better treatment concordance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hong, Paul; Gorodzinsky, Ayala Y; Taylor, Benjamin A; Chorney, Jill MacLaren
To date, there has been little research on shared decision making and decisional outcomes in pediatric surgery. The objectives of this study were to describe the level of decisional conflict and decisional regret experienced by parents considering otoplasty for their children, and to determine if they are related to perceptions of shared decision making. Prospective cohort clinical study. Sixty-five consecutive parents of children who underwent surgical consultation for otoplasty were prospectively enrolled. Participants completed the Demographic Form, the Decisional Conflict Scale, and the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire after the consultation visit. The consulting surgeons completed the physician version of the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire. Six months after surgery, parents completed the Decisional Regret Scale. The median decisional conflict was 15.63; 21 (32.8%) parents scored 25 or above, a previously defined cutoff indicating clinically significant decisional conflict. Parent ratings of shared decision making and decisional conflict were significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between physician ratings of shared decision making and parental decisional conflict. Significant decisional regret was reported in two (3.2%) participants. Decisional regret and parent and physician ratings of shared decision making were both significantly negatively correlated (P = 0.044 and P = 0.001, respectively). Decisional regret and decisional conflict scores were significantly positively correlated (P = 0.001). Parent and physician ratings of shared decision making were correlated (intraclass correlation = 0.625, P < 0.001). Many parents experienced significant decisional conflict when making decisions about their child's elective surgical treatment. Fewer parents experienced significant decisional regret after the procedure. Parents who perceived themselves as being more involved in the decision making process
Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm; Craven, Olive; Jones, David; Luker, Karen A; Susnerwala, Shabbir S
To design and administer an attitude rating scale, exploring colorectal cancer patients' views of involvement in decision making. To examine the impact of socio-demographic and/or treatment-related factors on decision making. To conduct principal components analysis to determine if the scale could be simplified into a number of factors for future clinical utility. An attitude rating scale was constructed based on previous qualitative work and administered to colorectal cancer patients using a cross-sectional survey approach. 375 questionnaires were returned (81.7% response). For patients it was important to be informed and involved in the decision-making process. Information was not always used to make decisions as patients placed their trust in medical expertise. Women had more positive opinions on decision making and were more likely to want to make decisions. Written information was understood to a greater degree than verbal information. The scale could be simplified to a number of factors, indicating clinical utility. Few studies have explored the attitudes of colorectal cancer patients towards involvement in decision making. This study presents new insights into how patients view the concept of participation; important when considering current policy imperatives in the UK of involving service users in all aspects of care and treatment.
USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT COMMAND DECISION - MAKING : EXPERIENCE COUNTS by Lieutenant Colonel Kelly A. Wolgast United States Army Colonel Charles...1. REPORT DATE 18 MAR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Command Decision Making Experience Counts 5a. CONTRACT...Colonel Kelly A. Wolgast TITLE: Command Decision - making : Experience Counts FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 18 March 2005 PAGES: 30 CLASSIFICATION
13th ICCRTS “C2 for Complex Endeavors” Trust and Decision Making : An Empirical Platform Topic(s): Cognitive and Social Issues...and Decision Making : An Empirical Platform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Trust and Decision Making : An Empirical Platform Dr. Joseph B
Nies, Yong Hui; Islahudin, Farida; Chong, Wei Wen; Abdullah, Norlia; Ismail, Fuad; Ahmad Bustamam, Ros Suzanna; Wong, Yoke Fui; Saladina, J J; Mohamed Shah, Noraida
This study investigated breast cancer patients' involvement level in the treatment decision-making process and the concordance between patients' and physician's perspectives in decision-making. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving physicians and newly diagnosed breast cancer patients from three public/teaching hospitals in Malaysia. The Control Preference Scale (CPS) was administered to patients and physicians, and the Krantz Health Opinion Survey (KHOS) was completed by the patients alone. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, the patients' involvement in treatment decision-making, and patients' preference for behavioral involvement and information related to their disease. The majority of patients preferred to share decision-making with their physicians (47.5%), while the second largest group preferred being passive (42.6%) and a small number preferred being active (9.8%). However, the physicians perceived that the majority of patients preferred active decision-making (56.9%), followed by those who desired shared decision-making (32.8%), and those who preferred passive decision-making (10.3%). The overall concordance was 26.5% (54 of 204 patient-physician dyads). The median of preference for information score and behavioral involvement score was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] =3-5) and 2 (IQR =2-3), respectively. In univariate analysis, the ethnicity and educational qualification of patients were significantly associated with the patients' preferred role in the process of treatment decision-making and the patients' preference for information seeking ( p >0.05). However, only educational qualification ( p =0.004) was significantly associated with patients' preference for information seeking in multivariate analysis. Physicians failed to understand patients' perspectives and preferences in treatment decision-making. The concordance between physicians' perception and patients' perception
Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Falese, Lavinia; Mancone, Stefania; Purromuto, Francesco
The study aimed to identify factors predicting self-efficacy in a sample of 248 Italian handball referees. The main hypothesis was that perception of teamwork efficacy would be a significant predictor of self-efficacy in handball referees. Participants completed an online questionnaire including Referee Self-Efficacy Scale (α = 0.85), Self-Determination Scale (α = 0.78), and an adaptation for Referees of the Sport Commitment Model (α = 0.80). Two hierarchical regression analyses have identified: (1) Enjoyment (β = 0.226), Couple Efficacy (β = 0.233), and Personal Awareness (β = 0.243), as predictors of Self-Efficacy; (2) Span of Co-Refereeing (β = 0.253), Perceived Quality of the Relationship (β = 0.239), and Mutual Agreement (β = 0.274), as predictors of Couple Self-Efficacy. A further SEM analysis confirmed the fit of a structural model of Self-efficacy considering the reciprocal influence of Couple Efficacy, Enjoyment and Awareness (χ2: 5.67; RMSEA: 0.000; SRMR: 0.019). The study underlines the importance of teamwork (or co-refereeing) as it relates to enjoyment and awareness in officiating and how it enhances the psychological well-being of handball referees. Future studies should investigate the relationship between factors influencing perceived teamwork efficacy and officiating performance outcome. PMID:28572783
Validation of Malaysian Versions of Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), Medication Understanding and Use Self-Efficacy Scale (MUSE) and 8-Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) Using Partial Credit Rasch Model.
Al Abboud, Safaa Ahmed; Ahmad, Sohail; Bidin, Mohamed Badrulnizam Long; Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah
The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a common silent epidemic disease with frequent morbidity and mortality. The psychological and psychosocial health factors are negatively influencing the glycaemic control in diabetic patients. Therefore, various questionnaires were developed to address the psychological and psychosocial well-being of the diabetic patients. Most of these questionnaires were first developed in English and then translated into different languages to make them useful for the local communities. The main aim of this study was to translate and validate the Malaysian versions of Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), Medication Understanding and Use Self-Efficacy Scale (MUSE), and to revalidate 8-Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) by Partial Credit Rasch Model (Modern Test Theory). Permission was obtained from respective authors to translate the English versions of PDSMS, MUSE and MMAS-8 into Malay language according to established standard international translation guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, 62 adult DM patients were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur by purposive sampling method. The data were extracted from the self-administered questionnaires and entered manually in the Ministeps (Winsteps) software for Partial Credit Rasch Model. The item and person reliability, infit/outfit Z-Standard (ZSTD), infit/outfit Mean Square (MNSQ) and point measure correlation (PTMEA Corr) values were analysed for the reliability analyses and construct validation. The Malay version of PDSMS, MUSE and MMAS-8 found to be valid and reliable instrument for the Malaysian diabetic adults. The instrument showed good overall reliability value of 0.76 and 0.93 for item and person reliability, respectively. The values of infit/outfit ZSTD, infit/outfit MNSQ, and PTMEA Corr were also within the stipulated range of the Rasch Model proving the valid item constructs of the questionnaire. The translated Malay version of PDSMS, MUSE and MMAS-8 was found to
Kuys, Suzanne S; Donovan, Jacquelin; Mattin, Sarah; Low Choy, Nancy L
Older adults discharging from inpatient rehabilitation were investigated to determine change in self-efficacy at 1 month after discharge, the relationship with discharge balance performance and physical function, and the influence of diagnosis. A prospective cohort of 101 adults older than 50 years of age, 43% men, average age 75.84 (SD 9.8) years, were recruited at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Balance self-efficacy was assessed using Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale at discharge and 1 month following discharge. Balance and physical function were measured at discharge using the Functional Independence Measure, Balance Outcome Measure for Elder Rehabilitation, Modified Elderly Mobility Scale and gait speed. At discharge, balance self-efficacy was moderate (ABC score 62, SD 23) and did not change at follow-up. When grouped by discharge self-efficacy (ABC scores: low<50; moderate 51-80; high>80), significant between-group differences were found for balance (P=0.005) and physical function (P=0.035). At the 1-month follow-up, those with low discharge balance self-efficacy showed improvement (mean-change ABC score 12, 95% confidence interval 2-22) and those with high discharge balance self-efficacy had lower scores (mean-change ABC score 18, 95% confidence interval -8 to -28). Differences in ABC change scores were also found between diagnostic groups (F=3.740, P=0.03), with the orthopaedic group improving (ABC mean change=8) and the general frailty group showing a decrease in confidence (ABC mean change=10). The differences in balance self-efficacy change at 1 month following discharge were related to self-efficacy level at discharge and clinical group requiring rehabilitation. Clinicians need to be aware of these changes as patients are prepared for discharge.
Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn
This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated Questioning (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…
Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck
Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operatormore » conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.« less
This review examines recent developments during the past 5 years in the field of judgment and decision making, written in the form of a list of 16 research problems. Many of the problems involve natural extensions of traditional, originally rational, theories of decision making. Others are derived from descriptive algebraic modeling approaches or from recent developments in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience.
Wales, Charles E.; And Others
Defines education's new paradigm as schooling based on decision making, the critical thinking skills serving it, and the knowledge base supporting it. Outlines a model decision-making process using a hypothetical breakfast problem; a late riser chooses goals, generates ideas, develops an action plan, and implements and evaluates it. (4 references)…
Simon, Herbert A.
Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…
Steimel, Eric L.
This paper examines the changing role of school leaders, in light of the current trend toward participative decision making. Executive Order 12871 mandates the formation of a partnership between unions and management, which will result in teachers playing an active role in decision making. Leaders, particularly leaders of Department of Defense…
Morey, Janis T.; Dansereau, Donald F.
College students' decision making is often less than optimal and sometimes leads to negative consequences. The effectiveness of two strategies for improving student decision making--node-link mapping and social perspective taking (SPT)--are examined. Participants using SPT were significantly better able to evaluate decision options and develop…
This report summarizes an evaluation of Shared Decision Making (SDM) in Los Angeles (California) schools and also includes some comments about School Based Management (SBM). SDM is a democratization of local school decision making that delegates decisions formerly made by principals to local school leadership councils composed of teachers,…
Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei
Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630
reflect the realities of system-of-systems development, acquisition, fielding and support: multi-view decision making (MVDM). MVDM addresses the...including mission risk, interoperable acquisition, and operational security and survivability. Hence, a multi-view approach to decision making is
West, Dana R.
Students and their parents/guardians rely on school counselors to provide counseling services based on ethically sound principles. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence about what influences a school counselor's ethical decision making. Ethical decision making for this study was defined as the degree to which decisions pertaining to…
Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei
Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience.
Delegating decision making to those closest to implementation can result in better decisions, more support for improvement initiatives, and increased student performance. Shared decision making depends on capable school leadership, a professional community, instructional guidance mechanisms, knowledge and skills, information sharing, power, and…
Amundson, Norman E.
The decision-making model described highlights the interaction between contextual factors, decision triggers, establishing a frame of the problem, reframing, and action planning. The interactive perspective is based on process and change. Career counseling with an interactive decision-making approach requires an acknowledgment of external…
Student leaders and campus activities professionals can use a variety of techniques to help college students develop skill in ethical decision making, including teaching about the decision-making process, guiding students through decisions with a series of questions, playing ethics games, exploring assumptions, and best of all, role modeling. (MSE)
Brown, Nicola; Gallagher, Robyn; Fowler, Cathrine; Wales, Sandra
The aim of this study was to investigate asthma management self-efficacy in parents of primary school-age children with asthma and to explore possible associations between parent asthma management self-efficacy, parent and child characteristics, asthma task difficulty and asthma management responsibility. A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 113 parents was conducted to assess the level of parent asthma management self-efficacy, asthma task difficulty and confidence, asthma responsibility and socio-demographic characteristics. The findings indicate that parents had higher self-efficacy for attack prevention than attack management. Parents had higher self-efficacy for asthma management tasks that are simple, skills based and performed frequently such as medication administration and less confidence and greater difficulty with tasks associated with judgement and decision-making. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified English language, child asthma responsibility and parent education as predictors of higher asthma management self-efficacy, while an older child was associated with lower parent asthma management self-efficacy. The implications of these results for planning and targeting health education and self-management interventions for parents and children are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Ridlo, S.; Lutfiya, F.
Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic achievement. Self-efficacy refers to the ability of college students to achieve the desired results. The metacognition level can influence college student’s self-efficacy. This study aims to identify college student’s metacognition level and self-efficacy, as well as determine the relationship between self-efficacy and metacognition level for college students of Biology Education 2013, Semarang State University. The ex-post facto quantitative research was conducted on 99 students Academic Year 2015/2016. Saturation sampling technique determined samples. E-D scale collected data for self-efficacy identification. Data for assess the metacognition level collected by Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. Data were analysed quantitatively by Pearson correlation and linear regression. Most college students have the high level of metacognition and average self-efficacy. Pearson correlation coefficient result was 0.367. This result showed that metacognition level and self-efficacy has a weak relationship. Based on linear regression test, self-efficacy influenced by metacognition level up to 13.5%. The results of the study showed that positive and significant relationships exist between metacognition level and self-efficacy. Therefore, if the metacognition level is high, then self-efficacy will also be high (appropriate).
Oetjen, Reid M; Oetjen, Dawn M; Rotarius, Timothy
Today's health care organizations face tremendous challenges and fierce competition. These pressures impact the decisions that managers must execute on any given day, not to mention the ever-present constraints of time, personnel, competencies, and finances. The importance of making quality and informed decisions cannot be underestimated. Traditional decision making methods are inadequate for today's larger, more complex health care organizations and the rapidly changing health care environment. As a result, today's health care managers and their teams need new approaches to making decisions for their organizations. This article examines the managerial decision making process and offers a model that can be used as a decision making template to help managers successfully navigate the choppy health care seas. The administrative decision making model will enable health care managers and other key decision makers to avoid the common pitfalls of poor decision making and guide their organizations to success.
Decision making in midwifery is a complex process that shapes and underpins clinical practice and determines, to a large extent, the quality of care. Effective decision making and professional accountability are central to clinical governance, and being able.to justify all decisions is a professional and legal requirement. At the same time, there is an emphasis in midwifery on shared decision making, and keeping women at the centre of their care, and research reveals that feelings of choice, control and autonomy are central to a positive birth experience. However the extent to which decisions are really shared and care truly woman-centred is debatable and affected by environment and culture. Using a case study of a decision made in clinical practice around amniotomy, this article explores the role of the intuitive thinking system in midwifery decision making, and highlights the importance of involving women in the decision making process.
Kureychik, V. M.; Safronenkova, I. B.
Uncertainty is an essential part of a decision-making procedure. The paper deals with the problem of decision-making under criteria uncertainty. In this context, decision-making under uncertainty, types and conditions of uncertainty were examined. The decision-making problem under uncertainty was formalized. A modification of the mathematical decision support method under uncertainty via ontologies was proposed. A critical distinction of the developed method is ontology usage as its base elements. The goal of this work is a development of a decision-making method under criteria uncertainty with the use of ontologies in the area of multilayer board designing. This method is oriented to improvement of technical-economic values of the examined domain.
Tunney, Richard J; Ziegler, Fenja V
In everyday life, many of the decisions that we make are made on behalf of other people. A growing body of research suggests that we often, but not always, make different decisions on behalf of other people than the other person would choose. This is problematic in the practical case of legally designated surrogate decision makers, who may not meet the substituted judgment standard. Here, we review evidence from studies of surrogate decision making and examine the extent to which surrogate decision making accurately predicts the recipient's wishes, or if it is an incomplete or distorted application of the surrogate's own decision-making processes. We find no existing domain-general model of surrogate decision making. We propose a framework by which surrogate decision making can be assessed and a novel domain-general theory as a unifying explanatory concept for surrogate decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Vancampfort, Davy; Gorczynski, Paul; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel; Naisiga, Annetie; Basangwa, David; Mugisha, James
Despite the recognition of the importance of exercise self-efficacy in exercise adoption and maintenance, previous investigations on exercise self-efficacy in people with psychosis is scarce. The present study aimed to (1) explore if exercise self-efficacy differed between stages of behavior change in Ugandan outpatients with psychosis, and (2) assess sociodemographic, clinical and motivational correlates of exercise self-efficacy. In total, 48 patients (24 women) completed the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and questions pertaining to intrinsic motivation in the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. Additionally, participants were asked about their exercise behavior in the past 7 days and screened for cardio-metabolic risk factors. Higher ESES-scores were observed in those in the maintenance (n = 17) versus those in the pre-action stage (n = 17) of behavior change. Higher ESES-scores were also significantly associated with lower BSI-18 somatization and higher intrinsic motivation scores. Our data indicated that health care professionals should assist patients with psychosis in interpreting physiological states during exercise. Future research should explore whether bolstering such sources of information might directly or indirectly effect exercise self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gettings, M. E.
variables such as water use, environmental quality measures (visual and geochemical), deposit quality, rate of development, and commodity price combine in complex ways to yield frequently counter-intuitive results. By varying the interaction strengths linking the variables, insight into the complex interactions of the system can be gained. An example using agent-based modeling is a model designed to test the hypothesis that new valley fever fungus sites could be established from existing sites by wind transport of fungal spores. The variables include layers simulating precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, and soil chemistry based on historical climate records and studies of known valley fever habitat. Numerous agent-based model runs show that the system is self organizing to the extent that there will be new sites established by wind transport over decadal scales. Possibility theory provides a framework for gaining insight into the interaction of known or suspected variables in a complex system. Once the data layers are quantified into possibility functions, varying hypotheses of the relative importance of variables and processes can be obtained by repeated combinations with varying weights. This permits an evaluation of the effects of various data layers, their uncertainties, and biases from the layers, all of which improve the objectivity of decision making.
Ngadimon, I W; Islahudin, F; Mohamed Shah, N; Md Hatah, E; Makmor-Bakry, M
Background Shared decision-making is vital in achieving desired drug therapy goals, especially with antibiotics, in view of the potential long-term reduction in drug resistance. However, shared decision-making is rarely practiced with adolescent patients. Objectives The aim of the study was to identify the effect antibiotic education has on willingness to engage in shared decision-making among adolescents in Malaysia. Setting Participants from secondary schools in Malaysia were enrolled with ethical approval. Method The adolescents answered a validated questionnaire, which included demographics, antibiotic knowledge, attitude towards antibiotic use, and the Control Preference Scale, which measures willingness to engage in shared decision-making. Afterwards, antibiotic education was delivered to participating students. Main outcome measure Knowledge about and attitude toward antibiotics were investigated. Results A total of 510 adolescents participated in the study. Knowledge of antibiotics significantly increased post education (pre 3.2 ± 1.8 vs. post 6.8 ± 2.1, p < 0.001), as did attitude score (pre 3.3 ± 1.7 vs. post 5.4 ± 1.9, p = 0.003). Interestingly, adolescents were less likely to be passively involved in shared decision-making post education (χ = 36.9, df = 2, p < 0.001). Adolescents who were more collaborative in shared decision-making had a significantly higher total antibiotics knowledge and attitude scores compared to those who were not collaborative (p = 0.003). Conclusion The present work demonstrates that antibiotic education improves knowledge, attitude, and willingness to engage in shared decision-making among adolescents. Antibiotic education can therefore be introduced as a strategy to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Sarı, İhsan; Bayazıt, Betül
The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R 2_ = .03), intrinsic motivation (adjusted R 2 = .04) and amotivation (adjusted R 2 = .05). Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51), autocratic behaviour (β = -.17) and social support behaviour (β = -.27) significantly contributed to athletes' general self-efficacy (adjusted R 2 = .10). In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches.
Sarı, İhsan; Bayazıt, Betül
Abstract The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R2_ = .03), intrinsic motivation (adjusted R2 = .04) and amotivation (adjusted R2 = .05). Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51), autocratic behaviour (β = -.17) and social support behaviour (β = -.27) significantly contributed to athletes’ general self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = .10). In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches. PMID:28713476
Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…
Smallest detectable change and test-retest reliability of a self-reported outcome measure: Results of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire.
Ohno, Shotaro; Takahashi, Kana; Inoue, Aimi; Takada, Koki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Tanigawa, Masaru; Hirao, Kazuki
This study aims to examine the smallest detectable change (SDC) and test-retest reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We tested 154 young adults at baseline and 2 weeks later. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability with a two-way random effects model for agreement. We then calculated the standard error of measurement (SEM) for agreement using the ICC formula. The SEM for agreement was used to calculate SDC values at the individual level (SDC ind ) and group level (SDC group ). The study participants included 137 young adults. The ICCs for all self-reported outcome measurement scales exceeded 0.70. The SEM of CES-D was 3.64, leading to an SDC ind of 10.10 points and SDC group of 0.86 points. The SEM of GSES was 1.56, leading to an SDC ind of 4.33 points and SDC group of 0.37 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with bimodal scoring was 1.47, leading to an SDC ind of 4.06 points and SDC group of 0.35 points. The SEM of GHQ-12 with Likert scoring was 2.44, leading to an SDC ind of 6.76 points and SDC group of 0.58 points. To confirm that the change was not a result of measurement error, a score of self-reported outcome measurement scales would need to change by an amount greater than these SDC values. This has important implications for clinicians and epidemiologists when assessing outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…
Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…
Zuya, Habila Elisha; Kwalat, Simon Kevin; Attah, Bala Galle
Pre-service mathematics teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching self-efficacy were investigated in this study. The purpose was to determine the confidence levels of their self-efficacy in mathematics and mathematics teaching. Also, the study was aimed at finding whether their mathematics self-efficacy and teaching…
makers. 3) Analyze existing climate assessments and translate projected impacts into possible, probable, and effectively certain impacts. 4) Improve climate projections with respect to precipitation (timing, amount, and intensity), extreme events, and tails of probability distributions (i.e., low-probability but high-consequence events). 5) Increase spatial resolution of climate projections in order to provide climate information at the scale most relevant to financial investments. 6) Improve projections of the societal consequences of climate impacts through integrated assessments of physical, natural, and social sciences. 7) Create a user-friendly information repository and portal that provides easy access to information relevant to financial decision making. 8) Create and maintain opportunities to bring together financial decision makers, scientists, and service providers. Near-term financial decisions have long-term implications for the United States’ social and economic well-being that depend, in part, on climate variability and change. Investments will be most successful, and will advance the interests of society most effectively, if they are grounded in the best available knowledge & understanding.« less
Matthies, S; Philipsen, A; Svaldi, J
Risky decision making and disadvantageous choices constitute core characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Consequences include negative psychosocial and health-related outcomes. However, risky decision making and its interrelations with emotional states in ADHD are poorly understood. Therefore, the authors investigated risky decision making without and after boredom induction in adults with and without ADHD. In study 1, ADHD patients (n = 15) and age/education matched controls (CG; n = 16) were compared on the Game of Dice Task (GDT), an established task measuring decision making in unambiguous situations. In study 2, ADHD patients (n = 14) and CG (n = 13) underwent boredom induction prior to the GDT. In study 1, ADHD patients selected the disadvantageous alternatives significantly more often than CG. In study 2, no significant group differences were found due to an increase in risky decision making in CG following the boredom induction. Even if severity of depression did not affect our results, it may be necessary to compare GDT responses in ADHD patients with and without current depression. Risk as a motor of disadvantageous decision making needs to be taken into account in therapeutic contexts as a maintenance factor of dysfunctional behaviour. The findings of study 2 are in line with postulated alterations of emotional state adjustment in ADHD. The link between decisions making and emotional regulation in ADHD needs further attention in research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato
The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants' choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the "reward value" of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants' choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have successfully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures) was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making.
Gupta, Rupa; Koscik, Timothy R; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel
Decision-making is a complex process that requires the orchestration of multiple neural systems. For example, decision-making is believed to involve areas of the brain involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and memory (e.g., hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In this article, we will present findings related to the amygdala's role in decision-making, and differentiate the contributions of the amygdala from those of other structurally and functionally connected neural regions. Decades of research have shown that the amygdala is involved in associating a stimulus with its emotional value. This tradition has been extended in newer work, which has shown that the amygdala is especially important for decision-making, by triggering autonomic responses to emotional stimuli, including monetary reward and punishment. Patients with amygdala damage lack these autonomic responses to reward and punishment, and consequently, cannot utilize "somatic marker" type cues to guide future decision-making. Studies using laboratory decision-making tests have found deficient decision-making in patients with bilateral amygdala damage, which resembles their real-world difficulties with decision-making. Additionally, we have found evidence for an interaction between sex and laterality of amygdala functioning, such that unilateral damage to the right amygdala results in greater deficits in decision-making and social behavior in men, while left amygdala damage seems to be more detrimental for women. We have posited that the amygdala is part of an "impulsive," habit type system that triggers emotional responses to immediate outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Daeyeol; Seo, Hyojung
Human choice behaviors during social interactions often deviate from the predictions of game theory. This might arise partly from the limitations in cognitive abilities necessary for recursive reasoning about the behaviors of others. In addition, during iterative social interactions, choices might change dynamically, as knowledge about the intentions of others and estimates for choice outcomes are incrementally updated via reinforcement learning. Some of the brain circuits utilized during social decision making might be general-purpose and contribute to isomorphic individual and social decision making. By contrast, regions in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporal parietal junction might be recruited for cognitive processes unique to social decision making. PMID:26688301
Patrick, Nicholas J. M.
Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).
Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen
This study investigated the effects of personality on participation in decision making in a sample of 225 business students. The Neo-FFI scale was used to measure the five personality dimensions of openness, agreeableness, extroversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Analysis indicated that personality dimensions, extroversion and…
Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm; Craven, Olive; Jones, David; Luker, Karen A.; Susnerwala, Shabbir S.
Abstract Objectives To design and administer an attitude rating scale, exploring colorectal cancer patients’ views of involvement in decision making. To examine the impact of socio‐demographic and/or treatment‐related factors on decision making. To conduct principal components analysis to determine if the scale could be simplified into a number of factors for future clinical utility. Methods An attitude rating scale was constructed based on previous qualitative work and administered to colorectal cancer patients using a cross‐sectional survey approach. Results 375 questionnaires were returned (81.7% response). For patients it was important to be informed and involved in the decision‐making process. Information was not always used to make decisions as patients placed their trust in medical expertise. Women had more positive opinions on decision making and were more likely to want to make decisions. Written information was understood to a greater degree than verbal information. The scale could be simplified to a number of factors, indicating clinical utility. Conclusion Few studies have explored the attitudes of colorectal cancer patients towards involvement in decision making. This study presents new insights into how patients view the concept of participation; important when considering current policy imperatives in the UK of involving service users in all aspects of care and treatment. PMID:19250150
This study examined both the moral development levels using the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT--2) and ethical decision-making using the Professional Opinion Scale (POS) of social workers who provide field supervision to students within accredited social work programs in Wisconsin. Using the moral development theory of Kohlberg (1981) which defined…
Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra
This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…
This article describes a project conducted with Year 12 English students. It was based on the model of "Teaching as Inquiry" (Ministry of Education, 2007) and aimed to develop students' self-efficacy in relation to their literature-response essay writing. Self-efficacy was measured using Bandura's (2006) self-efficacy scale and an…
Lu, Frank J H; Lin, Ju-Han; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chou, Chien-Chih; Wang, Erica T W; Yeh, Li-Chin
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among adolescents' self-efficacy and social norms, and physical activity and whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between social norms and physical activity. 400 junior high school students (202 boys, 198 girls, 2 not identified; M age = 15.3yr., SD = 0.6) completed a demographic questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Perceived Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity Scale, and the Physical Activity Social Norms Scale. Regression analyses indicated that both self-efficacy and social norms predicted physical activity. Self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between peer norms and physical activity for boys but partially mediated the relationship for girls. An application of the results may be to foster self-efficacy and peer norms as a motivational strategy for supporting increased physical activity.
Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Quigley, Denise D; Marie, Peter St; Nayyar, Nikita; Sabbagh, Sarah H; Gress, Kyle L; Probst, Marc A
As Shared Decision-Making (SDM) has received increased attention as a method to improve the patient-centeredness of emergency department (ED) care, we sought to determine patients' desired level of involvement in medical decisions and their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of adult ED patients at three academic medical centers across the United States. The survey included 32 items regarding patient involvement in medical decisions including a modified Control Preference Scale (CPS) and questions about barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. Items were developed and refined based on prior literature and qualitative interviews with ED patients. Research assistants administered the survey in person. Of 797 patients approached, 661 (83%) agreed to participate. Participants were 52% female, 45% white, and 30% Hispanic. The majority of respondents (85-92%, depending on decision type) expressed a desire for some degree of involvement in decision-making in the ED, while 8-15% preferred to leave decision-making to their physician alone. Ninety-eight percent wanted to be involved with decisions when "something serious is going on." The majority of patients (94%) indicated that self-efficacy was not a barrier to SDM in the ED. However, most patients (55%) reported a tendency to defer to the physician's decision-making during an ED visit, with about half reporting they would wait for a physician to ask them to be involved. We found the majority of ED patients in our large, diverse sample wanted to be involved in medical decisions, especially in the case of a "serious" medical problem, and felt that they had the ability to do so. Nevertheless, many patients were unlikely to actively seek involvement and defaulted to allowing the physician to make decisions during the ED visit. After fully explaining the consequences of a decision, clinicians should make an effort to explicitly ascertain patients
Bossaerts, Peter; Murawski, Carsten
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective. To be plausible, future theories of decision-making will need to take into account both the resources required for implementing the computations implied by the theory, and the resource constraints imposed on the decision-maker by biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhugra, Dinesh; Malliaris, Yanni; Gupta, Susham
Psychiatrists use biopsychosocial models in identifying aetiological factors in assessing their patients and similar approaches in planning management. Models in decision making will be influenced by previous experience, training, age and gender, among other factors. Critical thinking and evidence base are both important components in the process of reaching clinical decisions. Expected outcome of treatment may be another factor. The way we think influences our decision making, clinical or otherwise. With patients expecting and taking larger roles in their own management, there needs to be a shift towards patient-centred care in decision making. Further exploration in how clinical decisions are made by psychiatrists is necessary. An understanding of the manner in which therapeutic alliances are formed between the clinician and the patient is necessary to understand decision making.
Rosenbloom, Michael H; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Price, Bruce H
Decision-making is a complex executive function that draws on past experience, present goals, and anticipation of outcome, and which is influenced by prevailing and predicted emotional tone and cultural context. Functional imaging investigations and focal lesion studies identify the orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as critical to decision-making. The authors review the connections of these prefrontal regions with the neocortex, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, highlight current ideas regarding the cognitive processes of decision-making that these networks subserve, and present a novel integrated neuroanatomical model for decision-making. Finally, clinical relevance of this circuitry is illustrated through a discussion of frontotemporal dementia, traumatic brain injury, and sociopathy.
Approximately 10-15% of our diagnostic decisions are faulty and may lead to unfavorable and dangerous outcomes, which could be avoided. These diagnostic errors are mainly caused by cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process.Our medical diagnostic decision-making is based on intuitive "System 1" and analytical "System 2" diagnostic decision-making and can be deviated by unconscious cognitive biases.These deviations can be positively influenced on a systemic and an individual level. For the individual, metacognition (internal withdrawal from the decision-making process) and debiasing strategies, such as verification, falsification and rule out worst-case scenarios, can lead to improved diagnostic decisions making.
Rogerson, Mark D; Gottlieb, Michael C; Handelsman, Mitchell M; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey
Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasilegal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior, including context, perceptions, relationships, emotions, and heuristics. For example, a large body of behavioral research has demonstrated the importance of automatic intuitive and affective processes in decision making and judgment. These processes profoundly affect human behavior and lead to systematic biases and departures from normative theories of rationality. Their influence represents an important but largely unrecognized component of ethical decision making. We selectively review this work; provide various illustrations; and make recommendations for scientists, trainers, and practitioners to aid them in integrating the understanding of nonrational processes with ethical decision making.
Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Robbins, Trevor W
Adolescence is characterized by making risky decisions. Early lesion and neuroimaging studies in adults pointed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and related structures as having a key role in decision-making. More recent studies have fractionated decision-making processes into its various components, including the representation of value, response selection (including inter-temporal choice and cognitive control), associative learning, and affective and social aspects. These different aspects of decision-making have been the focus of investigation in recent studies of the adolescent brain. Evidence points to a dissociation between the relatively slow, linear development of impulse control and response inhibition during adolescence versus the nonlinear development of the reward system, which is often hyper-responsive to rewards in adolescence. This suggests that decision-making in adolescence may be particularly modulated by emotion and social factors, for example, when adolescents are with peers or in other affective ('hot') contexts.
The author discusses a career decision-making program which she designed and implemented using a pyramidal model of exploration, crystallization, choice, and classification. Her article outlines the value of rigorous evaluation techniques applied by the local practitioner. (MF)
Peng, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jiaxi; Sun, Hao; Zeng, Zhicong; Mai, Yuexia; Miao, Danmin
By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions. In study 2, the results suggested that after controlling the effects of the hedonic tone of the sure options, risky option description did not significantly predict decision-making. In study 3, we found that neither the sure-to-risky option presentation order nor presentation order within risky options had significant effect on decision-making. We thus concluded that sure option description can serve as the decision-making foundation (reference point) for decision-makers in mixed frames.
Harber, Jean R.
The utility of the procedures special educators apply in making decisions about the identification of handicapped individuals has not been thoroughly studied. The paper examines the utility of diagnostic decision making from the perspective of receiver operating curve analysis. (Author)
Berggren, Ingela; Carlstrom, Eric
To explore community nurses' experiences of decision making within the community provider organization. Recent changes in health care with an increasing number of patients being cared for outside of institutions can put considerable pressure on the nurse with respect to decision making. In-depth interviews were performed with 6 registered nurses in two communities. The interviews were analysed by means of phenomenological hermeneutics. The community nurses' experiences of decision making were interpreted as spiders or octopuses, consultants and troubleshooters. The subthemes were; networking and structuring, responsibility, availability and knowledge, assessment power, information selection, avoiding rules and bypassing managers. In accordance with hermeneutical phenomenology, the findings were discussed and explained with reference to Ofstad's philosophy of freedom to make decisions. In their decision making, community nurses are committed to finding administrative solutions that satisfy patient needs.
59 LIST OF REFERENCES Agor , Weston H ., The Logic of Intuitive Decision Making, Greenwood Press 1998 Barrick, M., Mount, M., "The Big Five...of sources discuss the concept of intuition. In The Logic of Intuitive Decision-making, Weston Agor refers to intuition as a highly rational...both factual and feeling 16 cues. Agor studied over 3000 individuals in leadership positions in a variety of organizations to determine the role
Address correspondence to Cleotilde Gonzalez, Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Dynamic Decision Making Lab, Carnegie Mellon University...Cleotilde Gonzalez, Carnegie Mellon University, and Joachim Meyer, Tel-Aviv University Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 201X, Volume XX...Number X, Month 2016, pp. 1 –3 DOI: 10.1177/1555343416655256 Copyright © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. at CARNEGIE MELLON UNIV LIBRARY
REPORT DATE March 2002 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The PRC Decision - Making ...of crisis. It explores who has the authority to make decisions in China today and who will have this authority as new leaders...security and foreign policy decision - making during times of crisis. The April 2001 EP-3 incident is examined to assess high-level
Cognitive Task Analysis Decision Making Design Engineer Design System Human-Computer Interface System Development 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 182 16...people use to select a course of action. The SOAR explains how stress affects the decision making of both individuals and teams. COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS : This...procedures for Cognitive Task Analysis , contrasting the strengths and weaknesses of each, and showing how a Cognitive Task Analysis
information processing capabilities of a decision maker, given any " reasonable " time limit for making the decision. If use of a more normative rule...DECISION MAKING JOHN W. PAYNE DTIC DUKE UNIVERSITY L.CT E AUG 13 JAMES R. BETTMAN DUKE. UNIVERSITY ERIC J. JOHNSON CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ADAPTIVE STRATEGY SELECTION IN DECISION MAKING Research 6. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTNORfe) e. CONTRACT ON GRANT
During the last decades a variety of telemedicine applications have been trialed worldwide. However, telemedicine is still an example of major potential benefits that have not been fully attained. Health care regulators are still debating why institutionalizing telemedicine applications on a large scale has been so difficult and why health care professionals are often averse or indifferent to telemedicine applications, thus preventing them from becoming part of everyday clinical routines. We believe that the lack of consolidated procedures for supporting decision making by health care regulators is a major weakness. We aim to further the current debate on how to legitimize decision making about the institutionalization of telemedicine applications on a large scale. We discuss (1) three main requirements— rationality, fairness, and efficiency—that should underpin decision making so that the relevant stakeholders perceive them as being legitimate, and (2) the domains and criteria for comparing and assessing telemedicine applications—benefits and sustainability. According to these requirements and criteria, we illustrate a possible reference process for legitimate decision making about which telemedicine applications to implement on a large scale. This process adopts the health care regulators’ perspective and is made up of 2 subsequent stages, in which a preliminary proposal and then a full proposal are reviewed. PMID:21955510
Zanaboni, Paolo; Lettieri, Emanuele
During the last decades a variety of telemedicine applications have been trialed worldwide. However, telemedicine is still an example of major potential benefits that have not been fully attained. Health care regulators are still debating why institutionalizing telemedicine applications on a large scale has been so difficult and why health care professionals are often averse or indifferent to telemedicine applications, thus preventing them from becoming part of everyday clinical routines. We believe that the lack of consolidated procedures for supporting decision making by health care regulators is a major weakness. We aim to further the current debate on how to legitimize decision making about the institutionalization of telemedicine applications on a large scale. We discuss (1) three main requirements--rationality, fairness, and efficiency--that should underpin decision making so that the relevant stakeholders perceive them as being legitimate, and (2) the domains and criteria for comparing and assessing telemedicine applications--benefits and sustainability. According to these requirements and criteria, we illustrate a possible reference process for legitimate decision making about which telemedicine applications to implement on a large scale. This process adopts the health care regulators' perspective and is made up of 2 subsequent stages, in which a preliminary proposal and then a full proposal are reviewed.
Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian
In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (2) preference satisfaction; (3) self-direction; (4) binary autonomy of the person; (5) gradual autonomy of the person. It is argued that both individually and jointly these aspects will support the models called shared rational deliberative patient choice and joint decision as the preferred versions from an autonomy perspective. Acknowledging that both of these models may fail, the professionally driven best interest compromise model is held out as a satisfactory second-best choice.
Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G
Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels to the automatic system. This chapter will discuss a theoretical framework for understanding the role of emotion in decision-making and evidence supporting the underlying neural substrates. This chapter applies a conceptual framework to understanding the role of emotion in decision-making, and emphasizes a distinction between expected and immediate emotions. Expected emotions refer to anticipated emotional states associated with a given decision that are never actually experienced. Immediate emotions, however, are experienced at the time of decision, and either can occur in response to a particular decision or merely as a result of a transitory fluctuation. This chapter will review research from the neuroeconomics literature that supports a neural dissociation between these two classes of emotion and also discuss a few interpretive caveats. Several lines of research including regret, uncertainty, social decision-making, and moral decision-making have yielded evidence consistent with our formulization--expected and immediate emotions may invoke dissociable neural systems. This chapter provides a more specific conceptualization of the mediating role of emotions in the decision-making process, which has important implications for understanding the interacting neural systems underlying the interface between emotion and cognition--a topic of immediate value to anyone investigating topics within the context of social-cognitive-affective-neuroscience.
Broche-Pérez, Y; Herrera Jiménez, L F; Omar-Martínez, E
Decision-making is the process of selecting a course of action from among 2 or more alternatives by considering the potential outcomes of selecting each option and estimating its consequences in the short, medium and long term. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has traditionally been considered the key neural structure in decision-making process. However, new studies support the hypothesis that describes a complex neural network including both cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on the anatomical structures underlying the decision-making process, considering new findings that support the existence of a complex neural network that gives rise to this complex neuropsychological process. Current evidence shows that the cortical structures involved in decision-making include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This process is assisted by subcortical structures including the amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum. Findings to date show that both cortical and subcortical brain regions contribute to the decision-making process. The neural basis of decision-making is a complex neural network of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections which includes subareas of the PFC, limbic structures, and the cerebellum. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín
The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384
Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín
The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Waldrop, Deborah P; Meeker, Mary Ann
This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 hospice patients and 55 caregivers after 2 weeks of hospice care. The study was guided by Janis and Mann's conflict theory model (CTM) of decision making. Qualitative data analysis involved a directed content analysis using concepts from the CTM. A model of hospice enrollment decision making is presented. Concepts from the CTM (appraisal, surveying and weighing the alternatives, deliberations, adherence) were used as an organizing framework to illustrate the dynamics. Distinct differences were found by diagnosis (cancer vs. other chronic illness, e.g., heart and lung diseases) during the pre-encounter phase or before the hospice referral but no differences emerged during the post-encounter phase. Differences in decision making by diagnosis suggest the need for research about effective means for tailored communication in end-of-life decision making by type of illness. Recognition that decision making about hospice admission varies is important for clinicians who aim to provide person-centered and family-focused care.
Depp, Colin; Sorocco, Kristen; Kasl-Godley, Julia; Thompson, Larry; Rabinowitz, Yaron; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
The authors sought to determine the effect of kinship status (daughters versus wives) and ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino versus Caucasian) on self-efficacy to perform tasks relevant to caregiving in a sample of family caregivers for people with memory problems. Baseline data were collected from 238 female caregivers who participated in an intervention program. Ethnic and kin relationship groups were compared on measures of caregiver self-efficacy, acculturation within the Hispanic/Latino sample, and the relationship of self-efficacy to key outcome variables. Hispanics/Latinos reported higher self-efficacy on two of three self-efficacy subscales (Responding to Disruptive Behaviors and Controlling Negative Thoughts About Caregiving). Daughters reported higher self-efficacy on all three self-efficacy scales. Among Hispanics/Latinos, acculturation did not relate strongly to self-efficacy. Caucasian and spousal caregivers appeared to make more generalized appraisals about caregiving. Higher self-efficacy among Hispanic/Latino caregivers may relate to cultural values about caregiving and/or ethnic differences in appraisal. Wives may be more at risk for low self-efficacy, which may relate to greater role frustration and distress. This study highlights the heterogeneity among caregivers in their experience of caregiving.
Baele, J; Dusseldorp, E; Maes, S
To investigate aspects of adolescents' condom use self-efficacy that affect their intended and actual condom use. Four hundred twenty-four male and female sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescents with a mean age of 17.0 years filled out a questionnaire concerning condom use self-efficacy and intended and actual condom use. Specific condom use self-efficacy scales were constructed from 37 items on the basis of a principal component analysis. The effect of self-efficacy, both as a global measure and in terms of specific scales, on condom use intention and consistency was assessed using multiple hierarchic regression analyses. Six specific self-efficacy scales were constructed: Technical Skills, Image Confidence, Emotion Control, Purchase, Assertiveness, and Sexual Control. In sexually inexperienced adolescents, global self-efficacy explained 48%, the six self-efficacy scales 30%, and both together 51% of the variance in intention, after statistical control for gender, age, and education level. In the sexually experienced sample, this was 40%, 50%, and 57% for intention, and 23%, 29%, and 33% for consistency of condom use. Significant predictors of intention in the final model were gender, age, global self-efficacy and purchasing skills in the inexperienced sample, and global self-efficacy, emotion control, assertiveness, image confidence, and sexual control in the experienced sample, whereas gender, age, global self-efficacy, emotion control, assertiveness, and purchase predicted consistency of condom use in the experienced sample. Condom use self-efficacy is a multidimensional construct. Intended and actual condom use in adolescents are best predicted by self-efficacy measures that include both global and relevant specific aspects of condom use.
Wahlberg, Lara; Nirenberg, Anita; Capezuti, Elizabeth
To examine distress and coping self-efficacy in inpatient oncology nurses. . Cross-sectional survey design. . Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) chapter meetings and Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, both in New York, New York, as well as social media. . 163 oncology nurses who work with an inpatient adult population. . Participants were recruited through the ONS New York, New York, area chapter meetings, Hunter College, and ONS Facebook pages. An adapted Nurse Distress Thermometer (NDT) measured distress levels. The Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Nurses (OCSE-N) used a Likert-type scale to measure coping self-efficacy. Open-ended questions elicited additional perceptions of nurse respondents. . Descriptive statistics summarized sample demographics. A Pearson correlation between distress levels and coping self-efficacy scores was calculated. Low, normal, and high coping scores were compared to mean distress levels. . Survey participants showed high levels of distress, with a mean NDT score of 8.06. Those with higher coping self-efficacy scores reported less distress. A moderate, negative correlation was shown, with a statistically significant Pearson coefficient of -0.371. Responses to the open-ended questions revealed common stressors and pointed to solutions that institutions might implement to support nurses. . Because coping self-efficacy related to lower distress levels in inpatient oncology nurses, institutional-level support for oncology nurses should be provided. . Interventions aimed at coping self-efficacy may prepare oncology nurses to cope better with their professional demands. Future research should explore how nurse distress affects patients.
Zafeiris, Anna; Koman, Zsombor; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás
An essential task of groups is to provide efficient solutions for the complex problems they face. Indeed, considerable efforts have been devoted to the question of collective decision-making related to problems involving a single dominant feature. Here we introduce a quantitative formalism for finding the optimal distribution of the group members' competences in the more typical case when the underlying problem is complex, i.e., multidimensional. Thus, we consider teams that are aiming at obtaining the best possible answer to a problem having a number of independent sub-problems. Our approach is based on a generic scheme for the process of evaluating the proposed solutions (i.e., negotiation). We demonstrate that the best performing groups have at least one specialist for each sub-problem - but a far less intuitive result is that finding the optimal solution by the interacting group members requires that the specialists also have some insight into the sub-problems beyond their unique field(s). We present empirical results obtained by using a large-scale database of citations being in good agreement with the above theory. The framework we have developed can easily be adapted to a variety of realistic situations since taking into account the weights of the sub-problems, the opinions or the relations of the group is straightforward. Consequently, our method can be used in several contexts, especially when the optimal composition of a group of decision-makers is designed.
The objective of study is the underlying to relationship between emotional self-efficacy and educational stress with a structural equation model. The research was conducted on 232 secondary school students. Emotional self-efficacy scale and educational stress scale were used in the study. It was found that there was a negative correlation between…
Chan, David W.
This article reports the development of a teacher self-efficacy scale that aims to accommodate the complexity of teacher functioning in secondary schools in times of education reforms in Hong Kong. The scale was designed to assess six domains of teacher self-efficacy: teaching highly able learners, classroom management, guidance and counselling,…
Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…
Bradley, Rachel L.; Browne, Blaine L.; Kelley, Heather M.
This paper examined self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills and their influence on achievement in an online learning environment. This study utilized the Online Academic Success Indicators Scale (OASIS). The results of the scale were compared to previous tests measuring the predictive nature of self-efficacy and self-regulatory skills on academic…
Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart
Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…
Ainscough, Louise; Foulis, Eden; Colthorpe, Kay; Zimbardi, Kirsten; Robertson-Dean, Melanie; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley
Academic self-efficacy encompasses judgments regarding one’s ability to perform academic tasks and is correlated with achievement and persistence. This study describes changes in biology self-efficacy during a first-year course. Students (n = 614) were given the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. The instrument consisted of 21 questions ranking confidence in performing biology-related tasks on a scale from 1 (not at all confident) to 5 (totally confident). The results demonstrated that students increased in self-efficacy during the semester. High school biology and chemistry contributed to self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester; however, this relationship was lost by the end of the semester, when experience within the course became a significant contributing factor. A proportion of high- and low- achieving (24 and 40%, respectively) students had inaccurate self-efficacy judgments of their ability to perform well in the course. In addition, female students were significantly less confident than males overall, and high-achieving female students were more likely than males to underestimate their academic ability. These results suggest that the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale may be a valuable resource for tracking changes in self-efficacy in first-year students and for identifying students with poorly calibrated self-efficacy perceptions. PMID:27193290