Science.gov

Sample records for declarative language bias

  1. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  2. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and... Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual...

  3. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can... declaration relates. (b) Unless the text of any oath or declaration in a language other than English is in a... accompanied by an English translation together with a statement that the translation is accurate, except...

  4. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual can... declaration relates. (b) Unless the text of any oath or declaration in a language other than English is in a... accompanied by an English translation together with a statement that the translation is accurate, except...

  5. Declarative language design for interactive visualization.

    PubMed

    Heer, Jeffrey; Bostock, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the design of declarative, domain-specific languages for constructing interactive visualizations. By separating specification from execution, declarative languages can simplify development, enable unobtrusive optimization, and support retargeting across platforms. We describe the design of the Protovis specification language and its implementation within an object-oriented, statically-typed programming language (Java). We demonstrate how to support rich visualizations without requiring a toolkit-specific data model and extend Protovis to enable declarative specification of animated transitions. To support cross-platform deployment, we introduce rendering and event-handling infrastructures decoupled from the runtime platform, letting designers retarget visualization specifications (e.g., from desktop to mobile phone) with reduced effort. We also explore optimizations such as runtime compilation of visualization specifications, parallelized execution, and hardware-accelerated rendering. We present benchmark studies measuring the performance gains provided by these optimizations and compare performance to existing Java-based visualization tools, demonstrating scalability improvements exceeding an order of magnitude. PMID:20975153

  6. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-10-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children's Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  7. Gender Bias in Lebanese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mougharbel, Ghada M.; Bahous, Rima

    2010-01-01

    Gender bias, though often implicit and unnoticed, exists in many forms and in different situations. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender bias exists in Lebanese language classrooms. Semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and nonparticipant observational techniques were used for data collection. Results reveal…

  8. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M.; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R.; Reagan, Andrew J.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M.; Bagrow, James P.; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts. PMID:25675475

  9. Teaching EFL Students about Language Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss a method for teaching EFL students about language bias. The method involves (A) introducing vocabulary, (B) activating knowledge, (C) giving instruction, (D) group and individual practice, and (E) reflection. I also summarize guidelines for teaching students about the use of gendered pronouns, gender-loaded nouns and…

  10. Procedural and Declarative Knowledge in Vocabulary Learning: Communication and the Language Learner's Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter J.

    A discussion of approaches for teaching foreign language vocabulary is based on the distinction between "declarative knowledge" of the meanings of words and the procedures used for achieving this declarative knowledge. These procedures form part of individuals' knowledge of how to negotiate meaning. It is proposed that a communicative view of the…

  11. Declarative business process modelling: principles and modelling languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedertier, Stijn; Vanthienen, Jan; Caron, Filip

    2015-02-01

    The business process literature has proposed a multitude of business process modelling approaches or paradigms, each in response to a different business process type with a unique set of requirements. Two polar paradigms, i.e. the imperative and the declarative paradigm, appear to define the extreme positions on the paradigm spectrum. While imperative approaches focus on explicitly defining how an organisational goal should be reached, the declarative approaches focus on the directives, policies and regulations restricting the potential ways to achieve the organisational goal. In between, a variety of hybrid-paradigms can be distinguished, e.g. the advanced and adaptive case management. This article focuses on the less-exposed declarative approach on process modelling. An outline of the declarative process modelling and the modelling approaches is presented, followed by an overview of the observed declarative process modelling principles and an evaluation of the declarative process modelling approaches.

  12. Left hemisphere EEG coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language.

    PubMed

    Kühn-Popp, N; Kristen, S; Paulus, M; Meinhardt, J; Sodian, B

    2016-01-01

    Pointing plays a central role in preverbal communication. While imperative pointing aims at influencing another person's behavior, declarative gestures serve to convey epistemic information and to share interest in an object. Further, the latter are hypothesized to be a precursor ability of epistemic language. So far, little is known about their underlying brain maturation processes. Therefore, the present study investigated the relation between brain maturation processes and the production of imperative and declarative motives as well as epistemic language in N = 32 infants. EEG coherence scores were measured at 14 months, imperative and declarative point production at 15 months and epistemic language at 48 months. Results of correlational analyses suggest distinct behavioral and neural patterns for imperative and declarative pointing, with declarative pointing being associated with the maturation of the left hemisphere. Further, EEG coherence measures of the left hemisphere at 14 months and declarative pointing at 15 months are related to individual differences in epistemic language skills at 48 months, independently of child IQ. In regression analyses, coherence measures of the left hemisphere prove to be the most important predictor of epistemic language skills. Thus, neural processes of the left hemisphere seem particularly relevant to social communication.

  13. Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

  14. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  15. Harmonic biases in child learners: In support of language universals

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky & Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common harmonic word order patterns—those which preserve the order of the head with respect to its complements—validating the psychological reality of a principle formalized in many different linguistic theories. We also discuss important differences between child and adult learners in terms of both the strength and content of the biases at play during language learning. In particular, the bias favoring harmonic patterns is markedly stronger in children than adults, and children (unlike adults) acquire adjective ordering more readily than numeral ordering. The results point to the importance of investigating learning biases across development in order to understand how these biases may shape the history and structure of natural languages. PMID:25800352

  16. Declaration of Rights for Parents of English Language Learners Under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet is a declaration of rights for parents of English language learners under No Child Left Behind. President George W. Bush had a vision that all children could achieve academic success by receiving a high-quality education. He knew that something had to be done to close the large achievement gap that exists between minority children…

  17. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  18. Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

  19. Vowel Bias in Danish Word-Learning: Processing Biases Are Language-Specific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of…

  20. Preference for language in early infancy: the human language bias is not speech specific.

    PubMed

    Krentz, Ursula C; Corina, David P

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental to infants' acquisition of their native language is an inherent interest in the language spoken around them over non-linguistic environmental sounds. The following studies explored whether the bias for linguistic signals in hearing infants is specific to speech, or reflects a general bias for all human language, spoken and signed. Results indicate that 6-month-old infants prefer an unfamiliar, visual-gestural language (American Sign Language) over non-linguistic pantomime, but 10-month-olds do not. These data provide evidence against a speech-specific bias in early infancy and provide insights into those properties of human languages that may underlie this language-general attentional bias.

  1. The three official language versions of the Declaration of Helsinki: what's lost in translation?

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Robert V; van Ginneken, Nadja H; Pettigrew, Luisa M; Davies, Alan; Boyd, Kenneth M; Webb, David J

    2007-01-01

    Background The Declaration of Helsinki, the World Medical Association's (WMA's) statement of ethical guidelines regarding medical research, is published in the three official languages of the WMA: English, French and Spanish. Methods A detailed comparison of the three official language versions was carried out to determine ways in which they differed and ways in which the wording of the three versions might illuminate the interpretation of the document. Results There were many minor linguistic differences between the three versions. However, in paragraphs 1, 6, 29, 30 and in the note of clarification to paragraph 29, there were differences that could be considered potentially significant in their ethical relevance. Interpretation Given the global status of the Declaration of Helsinki and the fact that it is translated from its official versions into many other languages for application to the ethical conduct of research, the differences identified are of concern. It would be best if such differences could be eliminated but, at the very least, a commentary to explain any differences that are unavoidable on the basis of language or culture should accompany the Declaration of Helsinki. This evidence further strengthens the case for international surveillance of medical research ethics as has been proposed by the WMA. PMID:17761826

  2. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  3. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  4. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    PubMed

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  5. The Layer-Oriented Approach to Declarative Languages for Biological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Raikov, Ivan; De Schutter, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to modeling languages for computational biology, which we call the layer-oriented approach. The approach stems from the observation that many diverse biological phenomena are described using a small set of mathematical formalisms (e.g. differential equations), while at the same time different domains and subdomains of computational biology require that models are structured according to the accepted terminology and classification of that domain. Our approach uses distinct semantic layers to represent the domain-specific biological concepts and the underlying mathematical formalisms. Additional functionality can be transparently added to the language by adding more layers. This approach is specifically concerned with declarative languages, and throughout the paper we note some of the limitations inherent to declarative approaches. The layer-oriented approach is a way to specify explicitly how high-level biological modeling concepts are mapped to a computational representation, while abstracting away details of particular programming languages and simulation environments. To illustrate this process, we define an example language for describing models of ionic currents, and use a general mathematical notation for semantic transformations to show how to generate model simulation code for various simulation environments. We use the example language to describe a Purkinje neuron model and demonstrate how the layer-oriented approach can be used for solving several practical issues of computational neuroscience model development. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the approach in comparison with other modeling language efforts in the domain of computational biology and outline some principles for extensible, flexible modeling language design. We conclude by describing in detail the semantic transformations defined for our language. PMID:22615554

  6. The layer-oriented approach to declarative languages for biological modeling.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Ivan; De Schutter, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to modeling languages for computational biology, which we call the layer-oriented approach. The approach stems from the observation that many diverse biological phenomena are described using a small set of mathematical formalisms (e.g. differential equations), while at the same time different domains and subdomains of computational biology require that models are structured according to the accepted terminology and classification of that domain. Our approach uses distinct semantic layers to represent the domain-specific biological concepts and the underlying mathematical formalisms. Additional functionality can be transparently added to the language by adding more layers. This approach is specifically concerned with declarative languages, and throughout the paper we note some of the limitations inherent to declarative approaches. The layer-oriented approach is a way to specify explicitly how high-level biological modeling concepts are mapped to a computational representation, while abstracting away details of particular programming languages and simulation environments. To illustrate this process, we define an example language for describing models of ionic currents, and use a general mathematical notation for semantic transformations to show how to generate model simulation code for various simulation environments. We use the example language to describe a Purkinje neuron model and demonstrate how the layer-oriented approach can be used for solving several practical issues of computational neuroscience model development. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the approach in comparison with other modeling language efforts in the domain of computational biology and outline some principles for extensible, flexible modeling language design. We conclude by describing in detail the semantic transformations defined for our language.

  7. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  8. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target.

  9. Gender-biased language in learning disability textbooks.

    PubMed

    Foley, T; Safran, S P

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to explore whether gender-biased language exists in two editions of popular learning disabilities (LD) textbooks by a female author and a male author. First, we examined whether gender-biased language (as measured by the frequency of gender-specific pronouns) was present in LD textbooks as a function of the author's gender and discovered that the male author exhibited approximately a 7:1 ratio in his use of masculine to feminine pronouns. In contrast, the female author demonstrated no significant difference in her use of gender-specific pronouns. Second, we investigated whether the degree of gender-biased language has changed in different editions over the past 5 years and found a significant change only in the use of neutral pronouns by the male author. The existence of gender-biased special education textbooks raises the issue of the possible influence that such material may have on professional expectations concerning students with LD. In a field in which males are placed in LD programs in disproportionate numbers, the responsibilities of both authors and publishers are discussed, as their actions may have an impact on female students' rights in accessing appropriate educational services.

  10. Using Functional Languages and Declarative Programming to analyze ROOT data: LINQtoROOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Modern high energy physics analysis is complex. It typically requires multiple passes over different datasets, and is often held together with a series of scripts and programs. For example, one has to first reweight the jet energy spectrum in Monte Carlo to match data before plots of any other jet related variable can be made. This requires a pass over the Monte Carlo and the Data to derive the reweighting, and then another pass over the Monte Carlo to plot the variables the analyser is really interested in. With most modern ROOT based tools this requires separate analysis loops for each pass, and script files to glue to the results of the two analysis loops together. A framework has been developed that uses the functional and declarative features of the C# language and its Language Integrated Query (LINQ) extensions to declare the analysis. The framework uses language tools to convert the analysis into C++ and runs ROOT or PROOF as a backend to get the results. This gives the analyser the full power of an object-oriented programming language to put together the analysis and at the same time the speed of C++ for the analysis loop. The tool allows one to incorporate C++ algorithms written for ROOT by others. A by-product of the design is the ability to cache results between runs, dramatically reducing the cost of adding one-more-plot and also to keep a complete record associated with each plot for data preservation reasons. The code is mature enough to have been used in ATLAS analyses. The package is open source and available on the open source site CodePlex.

  11. Using Functional Languages and Declarative Programming to Analyze Large Datasets: LINQtoROOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    Modern HEP analysis requires multiple passes over large datasets. For example, one has to first reweight the jet energy spectrum in Monte Carlo to match data before you can make plots of any other jet related variable. This requires a pass over the Monte Carlo and the Data to derive the reweighting, and then another pass over the Monte Carlo to plot the variables you are really interested in. With most modern ROOT based tools this requires separate analysis loops for each pass, and script files to glue to the two analysis loops together. A prototype framework has been developed that uses the functional and declarative features of C# and LINQ to specify the analysis. The framework uses language tools to convert the analysis into C++ and runs ROOT or PROOF as a backend to get the results. This gives the analyzer the full power of an object-oriented programming language to put together the analysis and at the same time the speed of C++ for the analysis loop. The tool allows one to incorporate C++ algorithms written for ROOT by others. The code is mature enough to have been used in ATLAS analyses. The package is open source and available on the open source site CodePlex.

  12. When Biased Language Use Is Associated with Bullying and Dominance Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…

  13. When biased language use is associated with bullying and dominance behavior: the moderating effect of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Digiovanni, Craig D

    2010-10-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was associated with bullying and dominance irrespective of sexual prejudice or if sexual prejudice moderated these associations among 290 high school students (50% female; 56% White). Sexual prejudice was associated with biased language use among boys only. Biased language was associated with bullying regardless of levels of sexual prejudice for boys. However, this association was dependent on sexual prejudice for girls. For dominance behavior, its association with biased language was moderated by sexual prejudice for boys, but not girls. However, girls' engagement in all behaviors was significantly less than boys. These results indicate nuanced ways in which multiple factors contribute to the use of sexual orientation biased language. Also, they underscore the need to address biased language and prejudice as part of anti-bullying programs.

  14. Bias in Computer Languages Comparisons: A FORTRAN Phobic Cabal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krus, David J.; Lu, Mei-Yan

    1987-01-01

    The viability of the FORTRAN computer language and its relationship to other languages (such as PASCAL) were discussed. A library of C language and assembly language FORTRAN-callable subroutines, developed for the use of behavioral science researchers, was introduced. (Author/GDC)

  15. The Amount of Language Exposure Determines Nonlinguistic Tone Grouping Biases in Infants from a Bilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Monika; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Duration-based auditory grouping preferences are presumably shaped by language experience in adults and infants, unlike intensity-based grouping that is governed by a universal bias of a loud-soft preference. It has been proposed that duration-based rhythmic grouping preferences develop as a function of native language phrasal prosody.…

  16. Syntactic Islands and Learning Biases: Combining Experimental Syntax and Computational Modeling to Investigate the Language Acquisition Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Lisa; Sprouse, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The induction problems facing language learners have played a central role in debates about the types of learning biases that exist in the human brain. Many linguists have argued that some of the learning biases necessary to solve these language induction problems must be both innate and language-specific (i.e., the Universal Grammar (UG)…

  17. Sound-meaning association biases evidenced across thousands of languages.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Damián E; Wichmann, Søren; Hammarström, Harald; Stadler, Peter F; Christiansen, Morten H

    2016-09-27

    It is widely assumed that one of the fundamental properties of spoken language is the arbitrary relation between sound and meaning. Some exceptions in the form of nonarbitrary associations have been documented in linguistics, cognitive science, and anthropology, but these studies only involved small subsets of the 6,000+ languages spoken in the world today. By analyzing word lists covering nearly two-thirds of the world's languages, we demonstrate that a considerable proportion of 100 basic vocabulary items carry strong associations with specific kinds of human speech sounds, occurring persistently across continents and linguistic lineages (linguistic families or isolates). Prominently among these relations, we find property words ("small" and i, "full" and p or b) and body part terms ("tongue" and l, "nose" and n). The areal and historical distribution of these associations suggests that they often emerge independently rather than being inherited or borrowed. Our results therefore have important implications for the language sciences, given that nonarbitrary associations have been proposed to play a critical role in the emergence of cross-modal mappings, the acquisition of language, and the evolution of our species' unique communication system. PMID:27621455

  18. Micro Declared Language Policy or Not?: Language-Policy-Like Statements in the Rules of Procedure of the Rwandan Parliament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafaranga, Joseph; Niyomugabo, Cyprien; Uwizeyimana, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    An invitation to integrate macro and micro level analyses has been extended to researchers as this integration is felt to be the way forward for language policy research (Ricento, Ideology, politics and language policies: Focus on english, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2000). In turn, the notion of 'micro' in language policy has been…

  19. The Difficulty of Avoiding Gender-Biased Language in Highly Inflected Languages: A Comparison of Greek and Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlou, Pavlos; Potter, Terry

    This study attempts to identify what mechanisms might be used to reduce gender bias in two highly inflected languages, Greek and Arabic. Twenty native speakers of Greek and Arabic attending Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., were surveyed for the experiment. The students were: (1) asked to read a standard job announcement in their native…

  20. Sex-Role Related Effects of Sex Bias in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, John; Lanktree, Cheryl

    1983-01-01

    Undergraduates read three different versions of a paragraph on ethical standards of psychologists (reflecting three levels of sexist pronoun usage). Sexist language appeared to influence the students' rating of the attractiveness of careers in psychology for males and females and their willingness to refer male or female friends to psychologists.…

  1. Are implicit causality pronoun resolution biases consistent across languages and cultures?

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki

    2013-01-01

    The referent of a nonreflexive pronoun depends on context, but the nature of these contextual restrictions is controversial. For instance, in causal dependent clauses, the preferred referent of a pronoun varies systematically with the verb in the main clause (Sally frightens Mary because she … vs. Sally loves Mary because she …). Several theories claim that verbs with similar meanings across languages should show similar pronoun resolution effects, but these claims run contrary to recent analyses on which much of linguistic and nonlinguistic cognition is susceptible to cross-cultural variation, and in fact there is little data in the literature to decide the question one way or another. Analysis of data in eight languages representing four historically unrelated language families reveals consistent pronoun resolution biases for emotion verbs, suggesting that the information upon which implicit causality pronoun resolution biases are derived is stable across languages and cultures. PMID:23261949

  2. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  3. Teacher Skill Guide for Combatting Sexism. Module 2: Sex Bias in Language and Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Allie Mooney; And Others

    The objectives of this workshop module are to increase teachers' awareness of the sex role stereotyping that exists in language and instructional materials and to provide instructors with strategies for increasing student awareness of sex bias and for countering the effects of stereotyping in their classroom materials. Workshop handouts for use in…

  4. Using Achievement Tests to Measure Language Assimilation and Language Bias among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard; Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2011-01-01

    We measure the extent of language assimilation among children of Hispanic immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits test language randomization (English or Spanish) of Woodcock Johnson achievement tests in the New Immigrant Survey and lets us attribute test score differences solely to test language. Students scoring poorly may be tracked…

  5. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be “specific” to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  6. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system-its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to-is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be "specific" to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  7. English-language competency of self-declared English-speaking Hispanic patients using written tests of health literacy.

    PubMed Central

    Zun, Leslie S.; Sadoun, Tania; Downey, LaVonne

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hispanic patients comprise the largest minority population in the United States. The federal government mandates that healthcare providers be able to communicate with those patients who have limited English ability. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the English-language proficiency of self-declared English-speaking Hispanic patients in the emergency department (ED). The secondary purpose was to determine concordance between patients' tested English proficiency and perceived proficiency by nurses and physicians. We hypothesized that many patients who state that they are able to speak English do not in fact possess sufficient ability to communicate in English. METHODS: A convenience study was conducted in an urban level-1 pediatrics and adult trauma center with 45,000 annual visits. Participants included adult patients and parents of pediatric patients, all of which spoke Spanish as their first language. Since there were no verbal tests of English-language ability used in medicine, two written tests were used as surrogates-the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA). Research assistants administered these tests to patients with Hispanic surnames to assess the English comprehension of patients who stated that they spoke English. Score of seventh grade or better on the REALM and > or = 23 on the STOFHLA was considered a level of English competency. Data was entered into SPSS and analyzed for correlations. This study was approved by the institutional review board as exempt. RESULTS: Three-hundred-fifty-four patients with Hispanic names were approached and asked if they spoke English, Spanish or both. One-hundred-five patients, all self-proclaimed English speakers, were enrolled in the study. Patients ranged from 18-89 years of age, with 37.1% (39/105) male and 62.9% (66/105) and female; 49% (50/102) patients had only completed grade school. Sixty-five of 98 (66

  8. Event representations constrain the structure of language: Sign language as a window into universally accessible linguistic biases.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Brent; Geraci, Carlo; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schlenker, Philippe; Kelepir, Meltem; Pfau, Roland

    2015-05-12

    According to a theoretical tradition dating back to Aristotle, verbs can be classified into two broad categories. Telic verbs (e.g., "decide," "sell," "die") encode a logical endpoint, whereas atelic verbs (e.g., "think," "negotiate," "run") do not, and the denoted event could therefore logically continue indefinitely. Here we show that sign languages encode telicity in a seemingly universal way and moreover that even nonsigners lacking any prior experience with sign language understand these encodings. In experiments 1-5, nonsigning English speakers accurately distinguished between telic (e.g., "decide") and atelic (e.g., "think") signs from (the historically unrelated) Italian Sign Language, Sign Language of the Netherlands, and Turkish Sign Language. These results were not due to participants' inferring that the sign merely imitated the action in question. In experiment 6, we used pseudosigns to show that the presence of a salient visual boundary at the end of a gesture was sufficient to elicit telic interpretations, whereas repeated movement without salient boundaries elicited atelic interpretations. Experiments 7-10 confirmed that these visual cues were used by all of the sign languages studied here. Together, these results suggest that signers and nonsigners share universally accessible notions of telicity as well as universally accessible "mapping biases" between telicity and visual form. PMID:25918419

  9. Genes: Interactions with Language on Three Levels—Inter-Individual Variation, Historical Correlations and Genetic Biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dediu, Dan

    The complex inter-relationships between genetics and linguistics encompass all four scales highlighted by the contributions to this book and, together with cultural transmission, the genetics of language holds the promise to offer a unitary understanding of this fascinating phenomenon. There are inter-individual differences in genetic makeup which contribute to the obvious fact that we are not identical in the way we understand and use language and, by studying them, we will be able to both better treat and enhance ourselves. There are correlations between the genetic configuration of human groups and their languages, reflecting the historical processes shaping them, and there also seem to exist genes which can influence some characteristics of language, biasing it towards or against certain states by altering the way language is transmitted across generations. Besides the joys of pure knowledge, the understanding of these three aspects of genetics relevant to language will potentially trigger advances in medicine, linguistics, psychology or the understanding of our own past and, last but not least, a profound change in the way we regard one of the emblems of being human: our capacity for language.

  10. Functional test generation for digital circuits described with a declarative language: LUSTRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahrous, Mazen

    1990-08-01

    A functional approach to the test generation problem starting from a high level description is proposed. The circuit tested is modeled, using the LUSTRE high level data flow description language. The different LUSTRE primitives are translated to a SATAN format graph in order to evaluate the testability of the circuit and to generate test sequences. Another method of testing the complex circuits comprising an operative part and a control part is defined. It consists of checking experiments for the control part observed through the operative part. It was applied to the automata generated from a LUSTRE description of the circuit.

  11. Reading direction causes spatial biases in mental model construction in language understanding.

    PubMed

    Román, Antonio; Flumini, Andrea; Lizano, Pilar; Escobar, Marysol; Santiago, Julio

    2015-12-15

    Correlational evidence suggests that the experience of reading and writing in a certain direction is able to induce spatial biases at both low-level perceptuo-motor skills and high-level conceptual representations. However, in order to support a causal relationship, experimental evidence is required. In this study, we asked whether the direction of the script is a sufficiente cause of spatial biases in the mental models that understanders build when listening to language. In order to establish causality, we manipulated the experience of reading a script with different directionalities. Spanish monolinguals read either normal (left-to-right), mirror reversed (right-to-left), rotated downward (up-down), or rotated upward (down-up) texts, and then drew the contents of auditory descriptions such as "the square is between the cross and the triangle". The directionality of the drawings showed that a brief reading experience is enough to cause congruent and very specific spatial biases in mental model construction. However, there were also clear limits to this flexibility: there was a strong overall preference to arrange the models along the horizontal dimension. Spatial preferences when building mental models from language are the results of both short-term and long-term biases.

  12. Reading direction causes spatial biases in mental model construction in language understanding

    PubMed Central

    Román, Antonio; Flumini, Andrea; Lizano, Pilar; Escobar, Marysol; Santiago, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that the experience of reading and writing in a certain direction is able to induce spatial biases at both low-level perceptuo-motor skills and high-level conceptual representations. However, in order to support a causal relationship, experimental evidence is required. In this study, we asked whether the direction of the script is a sufficiente cause of spatial biases in the mental models that understanders build when listening to language. In order to establish causality, we manipulated the experience of reading a script with different directionalities. Spanish monolinguals read either normal (left-to-right), mirror reversed (right-to-left), rotated downward (up-down), or rotated upward (down-up) texts, and then drew the contents of auditory descriptions such as “the square is between the cross and the triangle”. The directionality of the drawings showed that a brief reading experience is enough to cause congruent and very specific spatial biases in mental model construction. However, there were also clear limits to this flexibility: there was a strong overall preference to arrange the models along the horizontal dimension. Spatial preferences when building mental models from language are the results of both short-term and long-term biases. PMID:26667996

  13. Individual Differences in the Shape Bias in Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typical Language Development: Theoretical and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collisson, Beverly Anne; Grela, Bernard; Spaulding, Tammie; Rueckl, Jay G.; Magnuson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit the shape bias in word learning: the bias to generalize based on shape rather than size, color, or texture in an object naming context ("This is a wek; find another wek") but not in a non-naming similarity classification context ("See this?…

  14. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. PMID:25498747

  15. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know.

  16. The Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit as Bias Toward Native-Language Phonology

    PubMed Central

    van Heuven, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Two hypotheses have been advanced in the recent literature with respect to the so-called Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit (ISIB): a nonnative speaker will be better understood by a another nonnative listener than a native speaker of the target language will be (a) only when the nonnatives share the same native language (matched interlanguage) or (b) even when the nonnatives have different mother tongues (non-matched interlanguage). Based on a survey of published experimental materials, the present article will demonstrate that both the restricted (a) and the generalized (b) hypotheses are false when the ISIB effect is evaluated in terms of absolute intelligibility scores. We will then propose a simple way to compute a relative measure for the ISIB (R-ISIB), which we claim is a more insightful way of evaluating the interlanguage benefit, and test the hypotheses in relative (R-ISIB) terms on the same literature data. We then find that our R-ISIB measure only supports the more restricted hypothesis (a) while rejecting the more general hypothesis (b). This finding shows that the native language shared by the interactants biases the listener toward interpreting sounds in terms of the phonology of the shared mother tongue. PMID:27551352

  17. The Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit as Bias Toward Native-Language Phonology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; van Heuven, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Two hypotheses have been advanced in the recent literature with respect to the so-called Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit (ISIB): a nonnative speaker will be better understood by a another nonnative listener than a native speaker of the target language will be (a) only when the nonnatives share the same native language (matched interlanguage) or (b) even when the nonnatives have different mother tongues (non-matched interlanguage). Based on a survey of published experimental materials, the present article will demonstrate that both the restricted (a) and the generalized (b) hypotheses are false when the ISIB effect is evaluated in terms of absolute intelligibility scores. We will then propose a simple way to compute a relative measure for the ISIB (R-ISIB), which we claim is a more insightful way of evaluating the interlanguage benefit, and test the hypotheses in relative (R-ISIB) terms on the same literature data. We then find that our R-ISIB measure only supports the more restricted hypothesis (a) while rejecting the more general hypothesis (b). This finding shows that the native language shared by the interactants biases the listener toward interpreting sounds in terms of the phonology of the shared mother tongue. PMID:27551352

  18. Individual biases, cultural evolution, and the statistical nature of language universals: the case of colour naming systems.

    PubMed

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Puglisi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Language universals have long been attributed to an innate Universal Grammar. An alternative explanation states that linguistic universals emerged independently in every language in response to shared cognitive or perceptual biases. A computational model has recently shown how this could be the case, focusing on the paradigmatic example of the universal properties of colour naming patterns, and producing results in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Here we investigate the role of an individual perceptual bias in the framework of the model. We study how, and to what extent, the structure of the bias influences the corresponding linguistic universal patterns. We show that the cultural history of a group of speakers introduces population-specific constraints that act against the pressure for uniformity arising from the individual bias, and we clarify the interplay between these two forces. PMID:26018391

  19. Individual Biases, Cultural Evolution, and the Statistical Nature of Language Universals: The Case of Colour Naming Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Puglisi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Language universals have long been attributed to an innate Universal Grammar. An alternative explanation states that linguistic universals emerged independently in every language in response to shared cognitive or perceptual biases. A computational model has recently shown how this could be the case, focusing on the paradigmatic example of the universal properties of colour naming patterns, and producing results in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Here we investigate the role of an individual perceptual bias in the framework of the model. We study how, and to what extent, the structure of the bias influences the corresponding linguistic universal patterns. We show that the cultural history of a group of speakers introduces population-specific constraints that act against the pressure for uniformity arising from the individual bias, and we clarify the interplay between these two forces. PMID:26018391

  20. Biased semantics for right and left in 50 Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages.

    PubMed

    Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-06-01

    The negative bias accompanying the terms left and left-handers has long interested researchers. This paper examines a large number of languages of Indo-European and non-Indo-European origin for such biasing. One surprising outcome is that, within the Indo-European language family, the terms for right and left do not go back to one set of antonyms but have their etymological roots in a number of different core semantic concepts. As in the non-Indo-European languages, right is almost always thought of positively, whereas left is negatively connotated. This is interpreted as the outcome of a universal human evaluation process, partly based on the principle of embodiment. The terms for right never have, in any of the examined languages, a negative bias; the words for left, usually never positively biased, were turned into euphemisms in three language groups (Scandinavian, Greek, and Avestan). On one interpretation, this seems to be an act of historical political correctness, corroborating the negative attitude cultures have for left-handers, very likely an outcome of discrimination of minorities.

  1. Individual differences in the shape bias in preschool children with specific language impairment and typical language development: theoretical and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Beverly Anne; Grela, Bernard; Spaulding, Tammie; Rueckl, Jay G; Magnuson, James S

    2015-05-01

    We investigated whether preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit the shape bias in word learning: the bias to generalize based on shape rather than size, color, or texture in an object naming context ('This is a wek; find another wek') but not in a non-naming similarity classification context ('See this? Which one goes with this one?'). Fifty-four preschool children (16 with SLI, 16 children with typical language [TL] in an equated control group, and 22 additional children with TL included in individual differences analyses but not group comparisons) completed a battery of linguistic and cognitive assessments and two experiments. In Experiment 1, children made generalization choices in object naming and similarity classification contexts on separate days, from options similar to a target object in shape, color, or texture. On average, TL children exhibited the shape bias in an object naming context, but children with SLI did not. In Experiment 2, we tested whether the failure to exhibit the shape bias might be linked to ability to detect systematicities in the visual domain. Experiment 2 supported this hypothesis, in that children with SLI failed to learn simple paired visual associations that were readily learned by children with TL. Analyses of individual differences in the two studies revealed that visual paired-associate learning predicted degree of shape bias in children with SLI and TL better than any other measure of nonverbal intelligence or standard assessments of language ability. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications.

  2. How the linguistic intergroup bias affects group perception: effects of language abstraction on generalization to the group.

    PubMed

    Assilaméhou, Yvette; Lepastourel, Nadia; Testé, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether the impact of the Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB; Maass, 1999) is related to the effects of linguistic abstraction on social attribution (Yzerbyt & Rogier, 2001). We did this by assessing the impact of abstract descriptions versus concrete descriptions on the generalization of a group member's behaviors to the whole group. A target's behaviors were more attributed to the group when the description was abstract than when it was concrete, and this effect of language abstraction was stronger when the description was positive than when it was negative. Our results provide an insight into how the LIB is involved in the perpetuation of intergroup bias.

  3. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  4. Sensitivity to Verb Bias in American Sign Language-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anible, Benjamin; Twitchell, Paul; Waters, Gabriel S.; Dussias, Paola E.; Piñar, Pilar; Morford, Jill P.

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English are sensitive to the likelihood that a verb will appear in a specific subcategorization frame, known as "verb bias." Readers rely on verb bias to help them resolve temporary ambiguity in sentence comprehension. We investigate whether deaf sign-print bilinguals who have acquired English syntactic knowledge…

  5. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  6. Listening to Language at Birth: Evidence for a Bias for Speech in Neonates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Werker, Janet F.

    2007-01-01

    The nature and origin of the human capacity for acquiring language is not yet fully understood. Here we uncover early roots of this capacity by demonstrating that humans are born with a preference for listening to speech. Human neonates adjusted their high amplitude sucking to preferentially listen to speech, compared with complex non-speech…

  7. Biasing for the Best in Language Testing and Learning: An Interview with Merrill Swain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna

    2004-01-01

    In response to the American Association of Applied Linguistics' presentation of the Distinguished Scholarship and Service Award for extraordinary contributions to the fields of language learning, teaching, and testing in May 2004, Merrill Swain described her own work as "moving in cycles of research, theory and practice." These "spirals" ("cycles…

  8. The Intention-to-CAUSE Bias: Evidence from Children's Causal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muentener, Paul; Lakusta, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored causal language in 3.5- to 4-year-old children by manipulating the type of agent (human acting intentionally or unintentionally, or inanimate object) and the type of effect (motion or state change) in causal events. Experiment 1 found that the type of agent, but not the type of effect, influenced children's production of…

  9. The history of research on the filled pause as evidence of the written language bias in linguistics (Linell, 1982).

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2004-11-01

    Erard's (2004) publication in the New York Times of a journalistic history of the filled pause serves as the occasion for this critical review of the past half-century of research on the filled pause. Historically, the various phonetic realizations or instantiations of the filled pause have been presented with an odd recurrent admixture of the interjection ah. In addition, the filled pause has been consistently associated with both hesitation and disfluency. The present authors hold that such a mandatory association of the filled pause with disfluency is the product of The written language bias in linguistics [Linell, 1982] and disregards much cogent evidence to the contrary. The implicit prescriptivism of well formedness--a demand derived from literacy--must be rejected; literate well formedness is not a necessary or even typical property of spontaneous spoken discourse; its structures and functions--including those of the filled pause--are very different from those of written language The recent work of Clark and Fox Tree (2002) holds promise for moving the status of the filled pause not only toward that of a conventional word, but also toward its status as an interjection. This latter development is also being fostered by lexicographers. Nonetheless, in view of ongoing research regarding the disparate privileges of occurrence and functions of filled pauses in comparison with interjections, the present authors are reluctant to categorize the filled pause as an interjection.

  10. The Amelia Bedelia effect: world knowledge and the goal bias in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Barner, David

    2013-09-01

    How does world knowledge interact with syntax to constrain linguistic interpretation? We explored this question by testing children's acquisition of verbs like weed and water, which have opposite meanings despite occurring in the same syntactic frames. Whereas "weed the garden" treats "the garden" as a source, "water the garden" treats it as a goal. In five experiments, we asked how children learn these verbs. Previous theories predict that verbs which describe the transfer of an object with respect to its natural origin (e.g., "weed the garden") should receive source interpretations, whereas verbs that describe the transfer of an object with respect to something it is functionally related to (e.g., "water the garden") should receive goal interpretations. Therefore, acquiring world knowledge - about the natural origins and functional uses of objects - should be sufficient for differentiating between source and goal meanings. Experiments 1 and 2 casted doubt on this hypothesis, as 4- and 5-year-olds failed to use their world knowledge when interpreting these verbs and instead overextended goal interpretations. For example, children interpreted "weed the garden" to mean "put weeds onto a garden", even when they knew the natural origin of weeds. Experiment 3 tested children's interpretation of novel verbs and directly manipulated their access to relevant world knowledge. While younger children continued to exhibit a goal bias and failed to use world knowledge, older children generalized goal and source interpretations to novel verbs according to world knowledge. In Experiments 4 and 5, we confirmed that adults use world knowledge to guide their interpretation of novel verbs, but also showed that even adults prefer goal interpretations when they are made contextually plausible. We argue that children ultimately overcome a goal bias by learning to use their world knowledge to weigh the plausibility of events (e.g., of putting weeds into a garden).

  11. General three-state model with biased population replacement: analytical solution and application to language dynamics.

    PubMed

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  12. Sex-Biased Sound Symbolism in English-Language First Names

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in sex-based size dimorphism in many mammals, including humans. In Western societies, average to taller stature men and comparatively shorter, slimmer women have higher reproductive success and are typically considered more attractive. This size dimorphism also extends to vocalisations in many species, again including humans, with larger individuals exhibiting lower formant frequencies than smaller individuals. Further, across many languages there are associations between phonemes and the expression of size (e.g. large /a, o/, small /i, e/), consistent with the frequency-size relationship in vocalisations. We suggest that naming preferences are a product of this frequency-size relationship, driving male names to sound larger and female names smaller, through sound symbolism. In a 10-year dataset of the most popular British, Australian and American names we show that male names are significantly more likely to contain larger sounding phonemes (e.g. “Thomas”), while female names are significantly more likely to contain smaller phonemes (e.g. “Emily”). The desire of parents to have comparatively larger, more masculine sons, and smaller, more feminine daughters, and the increased social success that accompanies more sex-stereotyped names, is likely to be driving English-language first names to exploit sound symbolism of size in line with sexual body size dimorphism. PMID:23755148

  13. Sex-biased sound symbolism in english-language first names.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Benjamin J; Mesoudi, Alex; McElligott, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in sex-based size dimorphism in many mammals, including humans. In Western societies, average to taller stature men and comparatively shorter, slimmer women have higher reproductive success and are typically considered more attractive. This size dimorphism also extends to vocalisations in many species, again including humans, with larger individuals exhibiting lower formant frequencies than smaller individuals. Further, across many languages there are associations between phonemes and the expression of size (e.g. large /a, o/, small /i, e/), consistent with the frequency-size relationship in vocalisations. We suggest that naming preferences are a product of this frequency-size relationship, driving male names to sound larger and female names smaller, through sound symbolism. In a 10-year dataset of the most popular British, Australian and American names we show that male names are significantly more likely to contain larger sounding phonemes (e.g. "Thomas"), while female names are significantly more likely to contain smaller phonemes (e.g. "Emily"). The desire of parents to have comparatively larger, more masculine sons, and smaller, more feminine daughters, and the increased social success that accompanies more sex-stereotyped names, is likely to be driving English-language first names to exploit sound symbolism of size in line with sexual body size dimorphism.

  14. General three-state model with biased population replacement: Analytical solution and application to language dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Cuskley, Christine F.; Loreto, Vittorio; Pugliese, Martina; Tria, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that the rate of irregular usage of English verbs exhibits discontinuity as a function of their frequency: the most frequent verbs tend to be totally irregular. We aim to qualitatively understand the origin of this feature by studying simple agent-based models of language dynamics, where each agent adopts an inflectional state for a verb and may change it upon interaction with other agents. At the same time, agents are replaced at some rate by new agents adopting the regular form. In models with only two inflectional states (regular and irregular), we observe that either all verbs regularize irrespective of their frequency, or a continuous transition occurs between a low-frequency state, where the lemma becomes fully regular, and a high-frequency one, where both forms coexist. Introducing a third (mixed) state, wherein agents may use either form, we find that a third, qualitatively different behavior may emerge, namely, a discontinuous transition in frequency. We introduce and solve analytically a very general class of three-state models that allows us to fully understand these behaviors in a unified framework. Realistic sets of interaction rules, including the well-known naming game (NG) model, result in a discontinuous transition, in agreement with recent empirical findings. We also point out that the distinction between speaker and hearer in the interaction has no effect on the collective behavior. The results for the general three-state model, although discussed in terms of language dynamics, are widely applicable.

  15. Snapshots of Children's Changing Biases during Language Development: Differential Weighting of Perceptual and Linguistic Factors Predicts Noun Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Christopher H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Word learning is a lifelong activity constrained by cognitive biases that people possess at particular points in development. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a psycholinguistic variable that may prove useful toward gauging the relative weighting of different phonological, semantic, and morphological factors at different phases of language acquisition…

  16. Rethinking the Talloires Declaration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlong, William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to critique constructively and complement the Talloires Declaration with a focus on social and cultural elements that shape action. These elements are important to achieving the needed response to the environmental issues that the Talloires Declaration highlights. While the Talloires Declaration has been…

  17. A Bayesian Model of Biases in Artificial Language Learning: The Case of a Word-Order Universal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of learning in a general type of artificial language-learning experiment in which learners are exposed to a mixture of grammars representing the variation present in real learners' input, particularly at times of language change. The modeling goal is to formalize and quantify hypothesized…

  18. Saul: Towards Declarative Learning Based Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kordjamshidi, Parisa; Roth, Dan; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We present Saul, a new probabilistic programming language designed to address some of the shortcomings of programming languages that aim at advancing and simplifying the development of AI systems. Such languages need to interact with messy, naturally occurring data, to allow a programmer to specify what needs to be done at an appropriate level of abstraction rather than at the data level, to be developed on a solid theory that supports moving to and reasoning at this level of abstraction and, finally, to support flexible integration of these learning and inference models within an application program. Saul is an object-functional programming language written in Scala that facilitates these by (1) allowing a programmer to learn, name and manipulate named abstractions over relational data; (2) supporting seamless incorporation of trainable (probabilistic or discriminative) components into the program, and (3) providing a level of inference over trainable models to support composition and make decisions that respect domain and application constraints. Saul is developed over a declaratively defined relational data model, can use piecewise learned factor graphs with declaratively specified learning and inference objectives, and it supports inference over probabilistic models augmented with declarative knowledge-based constraints. We describe the key constructs of Saul and exemplify its use in developing applications that require relational feature engineering and structured output prediction. PMID:26635465

  19. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  20. Toronto Lunar Declaration 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Richards, R.; Sallaberger, C.; Iceum7 Participants

    2008-07-01

    We report to COSPAR the "Toronto Declaration" from the participants to Seventh ILEWG International Conference on the Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (ICEUM7, 18-23 September 2005). Further information can be found on the ILEWG website http://sci.esa.int/ilewg.

  1. Darwin and the Declaration.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain.

  2. Darwin and the Declaration.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain. PMID:22204676

  3. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Wu, J.; Iceum8 Participants

    2008-07-01

    We report to COSPAR the "Lunar Beijing Declaration" from the participants to The Eighth ILEWG International Conference on the Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (ICEUM8, 23-27 July 2006). Further information can be found on ILEWG website http://sci.esa.int/ilewg and selected 38 proceedings papers have been published in Journal of Astronautics of Chinese Society of Astronautics, vol. 28, Suppl., 2007.

  4. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  5. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  6. Declarative representation of uncertainty in mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew K; Britten, Randall D; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of multi-scale modelling is the ability to represent mathematical models in forms that can be exchanged between modellers and tools. While the development of languages like CellML and SBML have provided standardised declarative exchange formats for mathematical models, independent of the algorithm to be applied to the model, to date these standards have not provided a clear mechanism for describing parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainty is an inherent feature of many real systems. This uncertainty can result from a number of situations, such as: when measurements include inherent error; when parameters have unknown values and so are replaced by a probability distribution by the modeller; when a model is of an individual from a population, and parameters have unknown values for the individual, but the distribution for the population is known. We present and demonstrate an approach by which uncertainty can be described declaratively in CellML models, by utilising the extension mechanisms provided in CellML. Parameter uncertainty can be described declaratively in terms of either a univariate continuous probability density function or multiple realisations of one variable or several (typically non-independent) variables. We additionally present an extension to SED-ML (the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language) to describe sampling sensitivity analysis simulation experiments. We demonstrate the usability of the approach by encoding a sample model in the uncertainty markup language, and by developing a software implementation of the uncertainty specification (including the SED-ML extension for sampling sensitivty analyses) in an existing CellML software library, the CellML API implementation. We used the software implementation to run sampling sensitivity analyses over the model to demonstrate that it is possible to run useful simulations on models with uncertainty encoded in this form.

  7. Declarative Representation of Uncertainty in Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew K.; Britten, Randall D.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of multi-scale modelling is the ability to represent mathematical models in forms that can be exchanged between modellers and tools. While the development of languages like CellML and SBML have provided standardised declarative exchange formats for mathematical models, independent of the algorithm to be applied to the model, to date these standards have not provided a clear mechanism for describing parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainty is an inherent feature of many real systems. This uncertainty can result from a number of situations, such as: when measurements include inherent error; when parameters have unknown values and so are replaced by a probability distribution by the modeller; when a model is of an individual from a population, and parameters have unknown values for the individual, but the distribution for the population is known. We present and demonstrate an approach by which uncertainty can be described declaratively in CellML models, by utilising the extension mechanisms provided in CellML. Parameter uncertainty can be described declaratively in terms of either a univariate continuous probability density function or multiple realisations of one variable or several (typically non-independent) variables. We additionally present an extension to SED-ML (the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language) to describe sampling sensitivity analysis simulation experiments. We demonstrate the usability of the approach by encoding a sample model in the uncertainty markup language, and by developing a software implementation of the uncertainty specification (including the SED-ML extension for sampling sensitivty analyses) in an existing CellML software library, the CellML API implementation. We used the software implementation to run sampling sensitivity analyses over the model to demonstrate that it is possible to run useful simulations on models with uncertainty encoded in this form. PMID:22802941

  8. Udaipur Lunar Declaration 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Bhandari, N.; Goswami, J. N.; Iceum6 Participants

    2008-07-01

    We report to COSPAR the "Udaipur Declaration" from the participants of Sixth ILEWG International Conference on the Exploration and Utilization of the Moon (ICEUM6, 22-26 November 2004). Further information can be found on the ILEWG website http://sci.esa.int/ilewg and publications in the Journal of Earth System Science [Bhandari, N. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon 22-26 November 2004, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 114(6), 573-841, 2005].

  9. Language Bias and Self-Rated Health Status among the Latino Population: Evidence of the Influence of Translation in a Wording Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Vargas, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand how language bias in survey research impacts our abilities to make generalizations in the study of racial and ethnic disparities. This research uses a wording experiment to assess self-rated health among a representative study of the Latino population (n=1,200). Our analysis shows that by manipulating only the translation of the category fair health into Spanish we are able to directly test the hypothesis that the translation of fair to regular in Spanish suppresses Latino self-rated health. We find convincing evidence through the use of logistic and multinomial logistic regressions that respondents provided with the term regular report poorer health when compared to those who were given the alternative translation of mas o menos. We also find that this translation effect is driven solely by a movement of respondents to choose fair rather than good health, which can in fact explain lower than expected health status rates in studies looking to explore differences between Latinos and non-Latinos. This research informs the study of racial and ethnic disparities, providing a detailed explanation for mixed findings in the Latino health disparities literature. PMID:26439110

  10. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining alternative... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4)....

  11. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining alternative... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4)....

  12. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining alternative... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4)....

  13. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining alternative... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4)....

  14. 48 CFR 218.203 - Incidents of national significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. 218.203 Section 218.203 Federal Acquisition... significance, emergency declaration, or major disaster declaration. (1) Establishing or maintaining alternative... disasters or national or civil emergencies. See 232.7002(a)(4)....

  15. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  16. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  17. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  18. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family group... declare orally articles acquired abroad for the personal or household use of any member of the family...

  19. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own.

  20. Own Variety Bias.

    PubMed

    Sloos, Marjoleine; García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-10-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn't claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  1. Sorrento Lunar Declaration 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Espinasse, S.; Wargo, M.; di Pippo, S.; Iceum9 Participants

    2008-07-01

    We report to COSPAR the "Sorrento Lunar Declaration" from the participants to the Ninth ILEWG International Conference on the Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM9, Sorrento, Italy, 23-27 July 2006). Further information, abstracts and presentations can be found on ILEWG website http://sci.esa.int/ilewg and the conference website http://sci.esa.int/iceum9 [Foing, B., Kosters, G., Espinasse, S., Del Vecchio Blanco, C., Sangiovanni, G., Salatti, M. (Eds.), Programme and Abstracts, Ninth ILEWG International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, 22-26 October 2007, Sorrento, Italy, 2007; Foing, B., Espinasse, S., Kosters, G. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth ILEWG International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon. Available online: , ESA/ASI/ILEWG December, 2007].

  2. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  3. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Michael T.; Pullman, Mariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional, and because this system can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, it should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  4. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a... person arriving in the United States shall be in writing on Customs Form 6059-B. (b) Completion...

  5. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a... person arriving in the United States shall be in writing on Customs Form 6059-B. (b) Completion...

  6. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a... person arriving in the United States shall be in writing on Customs Form 6059-B. (b) Completion...

  7. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a... person arriving in the United States shall be in writing on Customs Form 6059-B. (b) Completion...

  8. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  9. 19 CFR 148.13 - Written declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declarations. 148.13 Section 148.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.13 Written declarations. (a... person arriving in the United States shall be in writing on Customs Form 6059-B. (b) Completion...

  10. 19 CFR 148.14 - Family declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family declarations. 148.14 Section 148.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.14 Family declarations. A family...

  11. The Tbilisi Declaration.

    PubMed

    1991-05-01

    The Tbilisi Declaration of 13 October 1990 approved by participants at an international conference supported by UNFPA, WHO/Europe, PPF/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute is printed in its entirety. The original conference document was altered inspite of IPPF Europe Regions' protestations and final approval that the conference document remain intact. In dispute was the last sentence in the "contraception reduces abortion" section, which originally left out the modifiers and stated that with appropriate backup, simple safe inexpensive ... procedures exist for use in PHC settings. ILPPF urged government agencies to change participant's views; a position expressed and agreed with in Tbilisi. The document itself is concerned with the right to reproductive health, a major public health problem, contraception reduces abortion, and the impact of legislation. The UNFPA formal position on abortion is stated as "not a means of family planning;" government support does not imply endorsement of national policy. UNFPA is concerned with increases in the availability of family planning. Participants agreed that couples and individuals have the right to decide freely, responsibly and without coercion the number and spacing of children, the right to reproductive health, self-determination, and that every child should be a wanted child. Recognition was given to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion as major public health and social problems. Also, it was recognized that abortion rates are highest in countries with weak education in FP and sexuality and constraints on women. Criminal sanctions have no impact on the abortion or birth rates, but are associated with unsafe abortion. Abortion can be reduced through family planning. There is need for 1) high quality reproductive health services that respect women's autonomy and dignity; 2) early sex education; 3) lifestyle changes to place responsibility also on men for contraception, family formation, and rearing; 4) increased

  12. English Language Teaching Profile: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Canada discusses the role of English within Canadian society and within the educational systems in the provinces. The discussion takes place within the context of the Official Languages Act of 1969, which declared English and French official languages for all government…

  13. From the Hawaii Declaration to the Declaration of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Helmchen, H; Okasha, A

    2000-01-01

    The Declaration of Hawaii, adopted by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) in 1977, was a significant event. But the needs and new ethical dilemmas of the 1990s led WPA to develop new recommendations on the duties of psychiatrists resulting in the Declaration of Madrid, adopted by WPA in 1996. It outlines the framework of ethical conduct of psychiatrists, formulates seven general guidelines with an increased emphasis on research and resource allocation, and gives five specific guidelines on euthanasia, torture, the death penalty, selection of sex, and organ transplantation.

  14. Academic Bias in Language Testing: A Construct Validity Critique of the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff; Mahoney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity concerns for the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT-S) as a measure of native oral language proficiency are examined. The examination included describing a subset of items that contributes most to overall score and native-language proficiency designation. Correlations between this subset of items and the overall…

  15. Laying the Foundation for Literacy: An Anti-Bias Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Defines an anti-bias curriculum as accepting the legitimacy of children's home languages, acknowledging all attempts at communication, and promoting active involvement of traditional, extended, and non-traditional families. Examines anti-bias education, language, and literacy. Identifies six tenets of anti-bias educators. Advocates laying the…

  16. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... major disaster declaration. 18.203 Section 18.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.203 Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance... major disaster or emergency assistance activities when the President has made a declaration under...

  17. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... major disaster declaration. 18.203 Section 18.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.203 Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance... major disaster or emergency assistance activities when the President has made a declaration under...

  18. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... major disaster declaration. 18.203 Section 18.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.203 Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance... major disaster or emergency assistance activities when the President has made a declaration under...

  19. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... major disaster declaration. 18.203 Section 18.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.203 Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance... major disaster or emergency assistance activities when the President has made a declaration under...

  20. 48 CFR 18.203 - Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... major disaster declaration. 18.203 Section 18.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Flexibilities 18.203 Emergency declaration or major disaster declaration. (a) Disaster or emergency assistance... major disaster or emergency assistance activities when the President has made a declaration under...

  1. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.222 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.222 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic...

  2. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.222 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.222 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic...

  4. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  5. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.222 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.222 Negative declarations. Link to an..., 2011. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for...

  6. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  7. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  8. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  10. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  12. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.222 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.222 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic...

  14. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  15. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74... Transit declaration. (a) Seaway Transit Declaration Form (Cargo and Passenger) shall be forwarded to the... ships, within fourteen days after the vessel enters the Seaway on any upbound or downbound transit....

  16. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transit declaration. 401.74... Transit declaration. (a) A Seaway Transit Declaration Form (Cargo and Passenger) shall be forwarded to the... bound transit. The form may be obtained from the St. Lawrence Management Corporation, 151 Ecluse...

  17. Declarative joint attention as a foundation of theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Sodian, Beate; Kristen-Antonow, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Theories of social-cognitive development have attributed a foundational role to declarative joint attention. The present longitudinal study of 83 children, who were assessed on a battery of social-cognitive tasks at multiple measurement points from the age of 12 to 50 months, tested a predictive model of theory of mind (false-belief understanding). Thereby, declarative, but not imperative, point production predicted false-belief understanding at 50 months. Predictive relations, which remained significant beyond the influence of child gender and language abilities, and were unrelated to child temperament and emotion recognition, were not mediated by mirror self-recognition or Level 1 visual perspective taking, which were both related to joint attention. These findings conform to theoretical predictions and provide empirical support for conceptual continuity in the social domain. PMID:26192041

  18. Language Style and Sex Bias in the Courtroom: The Effects of Male and Female Use of Hedges and Intensifiers on Impression Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John W., II; Hosman, Lawrence A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of this hypothetical courtroom investigation revealed that the sex of the witness was related to evaluations of his/her credibility and attractiveness when using hedges and intensifiers. Emphasizes importance of language style in forming impressions of witnesses and defendants; discusses results in terms of their implications for sex…

  19. COMMON LISP: The language

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, G.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input/output; file system interface; and errors.

  20. The Language Situation in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Timor-Leste celebrated its formal political independence on 20th May 2002. The National Constitution of the new nation declared the endogenous lingua franca (Tetum) and the former colonial language (Portuguese) to be co-official. The remaining local languages were given the status of national languages. Indonesian and English were designated as…

  1. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  2. Declarative Business Process Modelling and the Generation of ERP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz-Møller, Nicholas Poul; Hølmer, Christian; Hansen, Michael R.

    We present an approach to the construction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems, which is based on the Resources, Events and Agents (REA) ontology. This framework deals with processes involving exchange and flow of resources in a declarative, graphically-based manner describing what the major entities are rather than how they engage in computations. We show how to develop a domain-specific language on the basis of REA, and a tool which automatically can generate running web-applications. A main contribution is a proof-of-concept showing that business-domain experts can generate their own applications without worrying about implementation details.

  3. Biased Allostery.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Stuart J; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large group of integral membrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals from a wide range of agonists into targeted intracellular responses. Although the responses can vary depending on the category of G-proteins activated by a particular receptor, responses were also found to be triggered by interactions of the receptor with β-arrestins. It was subsequently discovered that for the same receptor molecule (e.g., the β-adrenergic receptor), some agonists have a propensity to specifically favor responses by G-proteins, others by β-arrestins, as has now been extensively studied. This feature of the GPCR system is known as biased agonism and is subject to various interpretations, including agonist-induced conformational change versus selective stabilization of preexisting active conformations. Here, we explore a complete allosteric framework for biased agonism based on alternative preexisting conformations that bind more strongly, but nonexclusively, either G-proteins or β-arrestins. The framework incorporates reciprocal effects among all interacting molecules. As a result, G-proteins and β-arrestins are in steric competition for binding to the cytoplasmic surface of either the G-protein-favoring or β-arrestin-favoring GPCR conformation. Moreover, through linkage relations, the strength of the interactions of G-proteins or β-arrestins with the corresponding active conformation potentiates the apparent affinity for the agonist, effectively equating these two proteins to allosteric modulators. The balance between response alternatives can also be influenced by the physiological concentrations of either G-proteins or β-arrestins, as well as by phosphorylation or interactions with positive or negative allosteric modulators. The nature of the interactions in the simulations presented suggests novel experimental tests to distinguish more fully among alternative mechanisms. PMID:27602718

  4. Exploring Noun Bias in Filipino-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Rochelle Irene G.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that there is a noun bias in children's early vocabularies brought about by features of adults' child-directed utterances, which may vary across languages (E. V. Bates et al., 1994; D. Gentner, 1982). In the present study, the authors explored noun bias in 60 Filipino-English bilingual children whose 2 languages differed…

  5. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  10. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... form may be obtained from the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation, 151 Ecluse Street, St...) The loaded or manifest weight of cargo shall be shown on the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, except..., in which case offloaded weights may be shown on the Declaration Form. (c) Where a vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... form may be obtained from the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation, 151 Ecluse Street, St...) The loaded or manifest weight of cargo shall be shown on the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, except..., in which case offloaded weights may be shown on the Declaration Form. (c) Where a vessel...

  12. 33 CFR 401.74 - Transit declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... form may be obtained from the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation, 151 Ecluse Street, St...) The loaded or manifest weight of cargo shall be shown on the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, except..., in which case offloaded weights may be shown on the Declaration Form. (c) Where a vessel...

  13. 46 CFR 221.5 - Citizenship declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Citizenship declarations. 221.5 Section 221.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING MARITIME CARRIERS AND RELATED... § 221.5 Citizenship declarations. (a) Pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 31306(a), when an instrument transferring...

  14. 46 CFR 221.5 - Citizenship declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Citizenship declarations. 221.5 Section 221.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING MARITIME CARRIERS AND RELATED... § 221.5 Citizenship declarations. (a) Pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 31306(a), when an instrument transferring...

  15. 46 CFR 221.5 - Citizenship declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Citizenship declarations. 221.5 Section 221.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING MARITIME CARRIERS AND RELATED... § 221.5 Citizenship declarations. (a) Pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 31306(a), when an instrument transferring...

  16. 46 CFR 221.5 - Citizenship declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship declarations. 221.5 Section 221.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING MARITIME CARRIERS AND RELATED... § 221.5 Citizenship declarations. (a) Pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 31306(a), when an instrument transferring...

  17. 46 CFR 221.5 - Citizenship declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Citizenship declarations. 221.5 Section 221.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING MARITIME CARRIERS AND RELATED... § 221.5 Citizenship declarations. (a) Pursuant to 46 U.S.C. 31306(a), when an instrument transferring...

  18. Teaching the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The Declaration of Independence is the founding document of the United States. It is part of the social studies core curriculum in U.S. schools. By the time they graduate from high school, students are expected to know the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence and their significance. This digest discusses: (1) the origins of the…

  19. Multiple Levels of Cultural Bias in TESOL Course Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, John Eric

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the biased treatment of non-native characters in model dialogues in current Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) course books. Although a plethora of studies have been conducted on gender bias in course books, speaker bias, or labelled "nativism" here, has been largely ignored. This research addresses…

  20. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  1. The use of definite references signals declarative memory: evidence from patients with hippocampal amnesia.

    PubMed

    Duff, Melissa C; Gupta, Rupa; Hengst, Julie A; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2011-05-01

    Language function in patients with impaired declarative memory presents a compelling opportunity to investigate the inter-dependence of memory and language in referential communication. We examined amnesic patients' use of definite references during a referential communication task. Discursively, definite references can be used to mark a referent as situationally unique (e.g., "the game," as in the case of a recently publicized game) or as shared information (e.g., "the game," as in one discussed previously). We found that despite showing normal collaborative learning after repeated referring-as indexed by consistent and increasingly efficient descriptive labels for previously unfamiliar tangram figures-amnesic patients did not consistently use definite references in referring to those figures. The use of definite references seems to be critically dependent on declarative memory, and the engagement of such memory is signaled by language.

  2. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies. PMID:21740206

  3. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  4. The declarative/procedural model of lexicon and grammar.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T

    2001-01-01

    Our use of language depends upon two capacities: a mental lexicon of memorized words and a mental grammar of rules that underlie the sequential and hierarchical composition of lexical forms into predictably structured larger words, phrases, and sentences. The declarative/procedural model posits that the lexicon/grammar distinction in language is tied to the distinction between two well-studied brain memory systems. On this view, the memorization and use of at least simple words (those with noncompositional, that is, arbitrary form-meaning pairings) depends upon an associative memory of distributed representations that is subserved by temporal-lobe circuits previously implicated in the learning and use of fact and event knowledge. This "declarative memory" system appears to be specialized for learning arbitrarily related information (i.e., for associative binding). In contrast, the acquisition and use of grammatical rules that underlie symbol manipulation is subserved by frontal/basal-ganglia circuits previously implicated in the implicit (nonconscious) learning and expression of motor and cognitive "skills" and "habits" (e.g., from simple motor acts to skilled game playing). This "procedural" system may be specialized for computing sequences. This novel view of lexicon and grammar offers an alternative to the two main competing theoretical frameworks. It shares the perspective of traditional dual-mechanism theories in positing that the mental lexicon and a symbol-manipulating mental grammar are subserved by distinct computational components that may be linked to distinct brain structures. However, it diverges from these theories where they assume components dedicated to each of the two language capacities (that is, domain-specific) and in their common assumption that lexical memory is a rote list of items. Conversely, while it shares with single-mechanism theories the perspective that the two capacities are subserved by domain-independent computational mechanisms

  5. Interfering with theories of sleep and memory: sleep, declarative memory, and associative interference.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Hulbert, Justin C; Stickgold, Robert; Dinges, David F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2006-07-11

    Mounting behavioral evidence in humans supports the claim that sleep leads to improvements in recently acquired, nondeclarative memories. Examples include motor-sequence learning; visual-discrimination learning; and perceptual learning of a synthetic language. In contrast, there are limited human data supporting a benefit of sleep for declarative (hippocampus-mediated) memory in humans (for review, see). This is particularly surprising given that animal models (e.g.,) and neuroimaging studies (e.g.,) predict that sleep facilitates hippocampus-based memory consolidation. We hypothesized that we could unmask the benefits of sleep by challenging the declarative memory system with competing information (interference). This is the first study to demonstrate that sleep protects declarative memories from subsequent associative interference, and it has important implications for understanding the neurobiology of memory consolidation.

  6. Language universals at birth.

    PubMed

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A H; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-04-22

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2-5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition.

  7. Developing biases

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Ruben; Baer-Henney, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    German nouns may alternate from singular to plural in two different ways. Some singular forms that end in a voiceless obstruent have a plural in which this obstruent is voiced. Another alternation concerns the vowel. Some singular forms with a back vowel have a plural form in which this back vowel is front. For each noun it has to be established individually whether it alternates or not. The voicing alternation is phonetically grounded, but the vowel alternation is not. Knowledge about such alternations involves two things. First, it involves knowledge of which words alternate and which words do not and second, it involves the ability to extend the alternations to novel words. We studied the knowledge of which words alternate and the proportion to which they alternate in two corpus studies. We studied the knowledge of speakers concerning which words alternate and what generalizations can be based upon these words by means of a production study. The production study involved words and nonces. We asked twenty 5 year-olds, twenty 7 year-olds, and ten adults to produce the plural for a given singular word and a plural for a given singular nonce. In the corpus study we found that both alternations occur with the same frequency. In the production of alternations in words we found that participants in all age groups make few mistakes. With respect to the production of alternations in nonce words, we found that the proportion of voicing alternations decreases with age, while the proportion of vowel alternations increases. We explain this change in the ability to generalize the alternations to nonces on the basis of the confidence speakers can have in a generalization. Young children have a small lexicon and they can form relatively unreliable generalizations on lexical distributions. They are, however, proficient users of language and have great phonetic experience. They can more confidently form generalizations on the basis of this experience. Adults have a large lexicon

  8. Learning biases predict a word order universal.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Legendre, Géraldine

    2012-03-01

    How recurrent typological patterns, or universals, emerge from the extensive diversity found across the world's languages constitutes a central question for linguistics and cognitive science. Recent challenges to a fundamental assumption of generative linguistics-that universal properties of the human language acquisition faculty constrain the types of grammatical systems which can occur-suggest the need for new types of empirical evidence connecting typology to biases of learners. Using an artificial language learning paradigm in which adult subjects are exposed to a mix of grammatical systems (similar to a period of linguistic change), we show that learners' biases mirror a word-order universal, first proposed by Joseph Greenberg, which constrains typological patterns of adjective, numeral, and noun ordering. We briefly summarize the results of a probabilistic model of the hypothesized biases and their effect on learning, and discuss the broader implications of the results for current theories of the origins of cross-linguistic word-order preferences.

  9. Learning biases predict a word order universal.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Legendre, Géraldine

    2012-03-01

    How recurrent typological patterns, or universals, emerge from the extensive diversity found across the world's languages constitutes a central question for linguistics and cognitive science. Recent challenges to a fundamental assumption of generative linguistics-that universal properties of the human language acquisition faculty constrain the types of grammatical systems which can occur-suggest the need for new types of empirical evidence connecting typology to biases of learners. Using an artificial language learning paradigm in which adult subjects are exposed to a mix of grammatical systems (similar to a period of linguistic change), we show that learners' biases mirror a word-order universal, first proposed by Joseph Greenberg, which constrains typological patterns of adjective, numeral, and noun ordering. We briefly summarize the results of a probabilistic model of the hypothesized biases and their effect on learning, and discuss the broader implications of the results for current theories of the origins of cross-linguistic word-order preferences. PMID:22208785

  10. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  11. Teaching in Linguistically Diverse Classrooms: Difficulties in the Implementation of the Language-in-Education Policy in Multilingual Kenyan Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaga, Susan; Anthonissen, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Kenya's language-in-education policy supports mother-tongue education as the ideal approach to developing language and literacy skills of young learners. The policy has been informed by findings of various past national education commissions as well as international declarations such as the UNESCO declaration on the use of Vernacular Languages in…

  12. 26 CFR 301.6316-6 - Declarations of estimated tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declarations of estimated tax. 301.6316-6... Declarations of estimated tax. (a) Filing of declaration. A declaration of estimated tax in respect of amounts... declarations of estimated tax, see sections 6073 and 6081 and §§ 1.6073-1 to 1.6073-4, inclusive, and §§...

  13. Weight Bias in University Health Professions Students.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; Brooks, Jennifer K; McKnight, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward people with high body weight have been documented in pre-professional health students, prompting concern that such feelings may manifest as poor patient care in professional practice. This study assessed weight bias in university students in the non-physician health professions. A convenience sample of 206 students completed an online survey composed of a validated 14-item scale (1-5 lowest to highest weight bias) and questions regarding personal experiences of weight bias. Respondents were grouped by discipline within graduate and undergraduate levels. Weight bias was present in a majority of respondents. Overall, the percentage of responses indicative of weight bias was 92.7%. The mean total score was 3.65. ± 0.52, and the rating exceeded 3 for all 14 scale descriptors of high-weight people. In graduate students, discipline had a significant main effect on total score (p=0.01), with lower scores in dietetics (3.17 ± 0.46) vs audiology/sign language/speech language pathology (3.84 ± 0.41) and physician assistant students (3.78 ± 0.51; p<0.05). These findings show that weight bias is prevalent in health professions students at a mountain west university. Well-controlled studies that track students into professional practice would help determine whether bias-reduction interventions in college improve provider behaviors and clinical outcomes. PMID:27585618

  14. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Declarative and Non-Declarative Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Runger, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that declarative and non-declarative knowledge acquired in an incidental sequence learning task contributes differentially to memory retrieval and leads to dissociable ERP signatures in a recognition memory task. For this purpose, participants performed a sequence learning task and were classified…

  15. 77 FR 9954 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Owner and Declaration of Consignee When...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 75893) on December 5, 2011, allowing for a 60-day comment period... and Declaration of Consignee When Entry Is Made by an Agent AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... and Declaration of Consignee When Entry is made by an Agent (CBP Forms 3347 and 3347A). This is...

  16. 19 CFR 4.63 - Outward cargo declaration; shippers' export declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the section in the Census Regulations (see 15 CFR 30.39, 30.50 through 30.57) where the particular... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Outward cargo declaration; shippers' export declarations. 4.63 Section 4.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Declaratoria del IV Congreso Nacional de Educacion Normal (Declaration of the Fourth National Congress on Normal Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Maestro, Mexico, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a desclaration drawn up by the participants of the Fourth Mexican National Congress of Normal Education. The declaration points out the importance of teacher training in the educational system, the fundamental problems presently facing this level of studies and the…

  18. Striatal prediction errors support dynamic control of declarative memory decisions

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Jason M.; Katzman, Perri L.; Badre, David

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive memory requires context-dependent control over how information is retrieved, evaluated and used to guide action, yet the signals that drive adjustments to memory decisions remain unknown. Here we show that prediction errors (PEs) coded by the striatum support control over memory decisions. Human participants completed a recognition memory test that incorporated biased feedback to influence participants' recognition criterion. Using model-based fMRI, we find that PEs—the deviation between the outcome and expected value of a memory decision—correlate with striatal activity and predict individuals' final criterion. Importantly, the striatal PEs are scaled relative to memory strength rather than the expected trial outcome. Follow-up experiments show that the learned recognition criterion transfers to free recall, and targeting biased feedback to experimentally manipulate the magnitude of PEs influences criterion consistent with PEs scaled relative to memory strength. This provides convergent evidence that declarative memory decisions can be regulated via striatally mediated reinforcement learning signals. PMID:27713407

  19. The subtle transmission of race bias via televised nonverbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-12-18

    Compared with more explicit racial slurs and statements, biased facial expressions and body language may resist conscious identification and thus produce a hidden social influence. In four studies, we show that race biases can be subtly transmitted via televised nonverbal behavior. Characters on 11 popular television shows exhibited more negative nonverbal behavior toward black than toward status-matched white characters. Critically, exposure to prowhite (versus problack) nonverbal bias increased viewers' bias even though patterns of nonverbal behavior could not be consciously reported. These findings suggest that hidden patterns of televised nonverbal behavior influence bias among viewers. PMID:20019288

  20. Post-trial obligations in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013: classification, reconstruction and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    The general aim of this article is to give a critical interpretation of post-trial obligations towards individual research participants in the Declaration of Helsinki 2013. Transitioning research participants to the appropriate health care when a research study ends is a global problem. The publication of a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki is a great opportunity to discuss it. In my view, the Declaration of Helsinki 2013 identifies at least two clearly different types of post-trial obligations, specifically, access to care after research and access to information after research. The agents entitled to receive post-trial access are the individual participants in research studies. The Declaration identifies the sponsors, researchers and host country governments as the main agents responsible for complying with the post-trial obligations mentioned above. To justify this interpretation of post-trial obligations, I first introduce a classification of post-trial obligations and illustrate its application with examples from post-trial ethics literature. I then make a brief reconstruction of the formulations of post-trial obligations of the Declaration of Helsinki from 2000 to 2008 to correlate the changes with some of the most salient ethical arguments. Finally I advance a critical interpretation of the latest formulation of post-trial obligations. I defend the view that paragraph 34 of 'Post-trial provisions' is an improved formulation by comparison with earlier versions, especially for identifying responsible agents and abandoning ambiguous 'fair benefit' language. However, I criticize the disappearance of 'access to other appropriate care' present in the Declaration since 2004 and the narrow scope given to obligations of access to information after research.

  1. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  2. Divertor bias experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.

    1994-06-01

    Electrical biasing of the divertor target plates has recently been implemented on several tokamaks. The results of these experiments to date will be reviewed in this paper. The bias electrode configuration is unique in each experiment. The effects of biasing on the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma also differ. By comparing results between machines, and using theoretical models, an understanding of the basic physics of biasing begins to emerge. Divertor biasing has been demonstrated to have a strong influence on the particle and energy transport within the SOL. The ability to externally control the SOL plasma with biasing has promising applications to future tokamak reactors.

  3. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2016-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain. PMID:26793090

  4. Declarative and Non-declarative Memory Consolidation in Children with Sleep Disorder.

    PubMed

    Csábi, Eszter; Benedek, Pálma; Janacsek, Karolina; Zavecz, Zsófia; Katona, Gábor; Nemeth, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    Healthy sleep is essential in children's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction time (ASRT) task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12 h offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline) and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain. PMID:26793090

  5. Anti-Bias Curriculum: Tools for Empowering Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman-Sparks, Louise; And Others

    Young children are aware that color, language, gender, and physical ability are connected to privilege and power. Racism and sexism have a profound influence on children's developing sense of self and others. This book on the creation of anti-bias curriculum can be used to help young children develop anti-bias attitudes, learn to think critically,…

  6. The Anti-Bias Approach in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creaser, Barbara; Dau, Elizabeth

    This book on an anti-bias approach to early childhood education addresses aspects of diversity such as gender, race, and language within Australian society and provides strategies for working with families and staff to challenge existing attitudes and practices. Key features of the book include case studies showing anti-bias principles in action,…

  7. Spoonish Spanerisms: A Lexical Bias Effect in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Roelstraete, Bjorn; Costa, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Lexical bias is the tendency for phonological errors to form existing words at a rate above chance. This effect has been observed in experiments and corpus analyses in Germanic languages, but S. del Viso, J. M. Igoa, and J. E. Garcia-Albea (1991) found no effect in a Spanish corpus study. Because lexical bias plays an important role in the debate…

  8. Eliminating Sex Bias in Textbooks and Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofke, Crystal L.

    Prepared for those interested in providing nonsexist education, this guide offers information pertaining to sexism in textbooks and educational materials. Parts one and two contain a discussion of ways to identify forms of bias and provide guidelines for eliminating sex bias and for analyzing content and language usage in educational materials.…

  9. 21 CFR 1313.14 - Distribution of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical import declaration (DEA Form 486) will be.... Customs Service Official by checking the block on the DEA Form 486 designated for this purpose....

  10. 21 CFR 1313.14 - Distribution of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical import declaration (DEA Form 486) will be.... Customs Service Official by checking the block on the DEA Form 486 designated for this purpose....

  11. 21 CFR 1313.14 - Distribution of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical import declaration (DEA Form 486) will be.... Customs Service Official by checking the block on the DEA Form 486 designated for this purpose....

  12. 21 CFR 1313.14 - Distribution of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical import declaration (DEA Form 486) will be.... Customs Service Official by checking the block on the DEA Form 486 designated for this purpose....

  13. 21 CFR 1313.14 - Distribution of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical import declaration (DEA Form 486) will be.... Customs Service Official by checking the block on the DEA Form 486 designated for this purpose....

  14. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  15. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  16. 37 CFR 41.203 - Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Declaration. (a) Interfering subject matter. An interference exists if the subject matter of a claim of one party would, if prior art, have anticipated or rendered obvious the subject matter of a claim of the... interfering subject matter; (2) The involved applications, patents, and claims; (3) The accorded benefit...

  17. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  18. Yet another guideline? The UNESCO draft declaration.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    2005-09-01

    Some people might argue that there are already too many different documents, guidelines, and regulations in bioethics. Some overlap with one another, some are advisory and lack legal force, others are legally binding in countries, and still others are directed at narrow topics within bioethics, such as HIV/AIDS and human genetics. As the latest document to enter the fray, the UNESCO Declaration has the widest scope of any previous document. It embraces not only research involving human beings, but addresses broader concerns in medicine and healthcare. The UNESCO draft declaration has some minor weaknesses, but on the whole, the strengths outweigh the weaknesses. One weakness is that some items in the draft are stated in a way that is too restrictive, thereby appearing to rule out legitimate activities. A strength of the Declaration is that it is relatively brief, yet at the same time contains sufficient detail to make it something more than a rehearsal of mere pieties. As the most recent of the numerous bioethics and human rights documents, the UNESCO draft draws on many of the earlier documents and also includes some of the most recent thinking about ethical norms and obligations. Perhaps its greatest strength lies not in details of the principles or their implementation, but rather in its stature as an international declaration issued by a United Nations organization. PMID:16128855

  19. Sudan Genocide Declaration Stirs the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    One week after Secretary of State Colin Powell declared that the killings, rapes and other atrocities committed in Darfur amount to "genocide," in mid-September the United Nations' World Health Organization issued new figures saying 6,000 to 10,000 people are dying per month there in one of Africa's worst humanitarian crises. Powell had based his…

  20. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 32 CFR 701.43 - Fee declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fee declarations. 701.43 Section 701.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  5. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) § 715.2 Amended declaration. In order for BIS to... plant site that produced any amount of UDOCs (including all PSF chemicals); (3) Aggregate amount...

  6. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) § 715.2 Amended declaration. In order for BIS to... plant site that produced any amount of UDOCs (including all PSF chemicals); (3) Aggregate amount...

  7. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) § 715.2 Amended declaration. In order for BIS to... plant site that produced any amount of UDOCs (including all PSF chemicals); (3) Aggregate amount...

  8. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) § 715.2 Amended declaration. In order for BIS to... plant site that produced any amount of UDOCs (including all PSF chemicals); (3) Aggregate amount...

  9. 15 CFR 715.2 - Amended declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) § 715.2 Amended declaration. In order for BIS to... plant site that produced any amount of UDOCs (including all PSF chemicals); (3) Aggregate amount...

  10. The Larnaca Declaration on Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, James; Conole, Grainne; Wills, Sandra; Walker, Simon; Bennett, Sue; Dobozy, Eva; Cameron, Leanne; Badilescu-Buga, Emil; Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The Larnaca Declaration on Learning Design arose from a 2012 meeting of experts in Larnaca, Cyprus who sought to provide a new theoretical foundation for the field of Learning Design, based on a synthesis of research and practice in the field to date. It begins by acknowledging the vast benefits that would arise from wider sharing of effective…

  11. 37 CFR 1.64 - Person making oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Person making oath or... Declaration § 1.64 Person making oath or declaration. (a) The oath or declaration (§ 1.63), including any... in §§ 1.42, 1.43, 1.47, or § 1.67. (b) If the person making the oath or declaration or...

  12. 37 CFR 1.64 - Person making oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person making oath or... Declaration § 1.64 Person making oath or declaration. (a) The oath or declaration (§ 1.63), including any... in §§ 1.42, 1.43, 1.47, or § 1.67. (b) If the person making the oath or declaration or...

  13. 37 CFR 1.64 - Person making oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Person making oath or... Declaration § 1.64 Person making oath or declaration. (a) The oath or declaration (§ 1.63), including any... in §§ 1.42, 1.43, 1.47, or § 1.67. (b) If the person making the oath or declaration or...

  14. 24 CFR 203.434 - Declaration of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.434... Mortgage § 203.434 Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured mortgages... interest in a specific mortgage shall be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has...

  15. 24 CFR 203.493 - Declaration of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.493... Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured loans, where the interest to be... be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has been approved by the Commissioner prior...

  16. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  17. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  18. 39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned....

  19. 44 CFR 204.21 - Fire management assistance declaration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Declaration Process § 204.21 Fire management assistance declaration criteria. (a) Determinations. We will... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire management assistance declaration criteria. 204.21 Section 204.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY...

  20. 37 CFR 1.67 - Supplemental oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Declaration § 1.67 Supplemental oath or declaration. (a) The Office may require, or inventors and applicants...) Deficiencies or inaccuracies relating to all the inventors or applicants (§§ 1.42, 1.43, or § 1.47) may be corrected with a supplemental oath or declaration signed by all the inventors or applicants....

  1. 21 CFR 1313.23 - Distribution of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of export declaration. 1313.23... EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.23 Distribution of export declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical export declaration (DEA Form 486) will...

  2. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form.... (b) Invoice or statement of commercial value. Each shipment of merchandise shall have an invoice...

  3. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form.... (b) Invoice or statement of commercial value. Each shipment of merchandise shall have an invoice...

  4. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form.... (b) Invoice or statement of commercial value. Each shipment of merchandise shall have an invoice...

  5. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form.... (b) Invoice or statement of commercial value. Each shipment of merchandise shall have an invoice...

  6. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and...

  7. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and...

  8. 19 CFR 145.11 - Declarations of value and invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declarations of value and invoices. 145.11 Section... value and invoices. (a) Customs declaration. A clear and complete Customs declaration on the form.... (b) Invoice or statement of commercial value. Each shipment of merchandise shall have an invoice...

  9. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  10. Gender Equity and Gender Bias in the Middle School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmurak, Carole B.; Ratliff, Thomas M.

    The objective of this study was to begin to examine middle school classrooms for examples of either gender equity or gender bias. Data were collected by visiting 80 classes in 10 middle schools in central Connecticut. Classes observed included 6th, 7th, and 8th grade classes in social studies, mathematics, science, language arts, foreign language,…

  11. How Many Declarations Do We Need? Inside the Drafting of the Bonn Declaration on Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2009-01-01

    The Bonn Declaration, approved by the 900 participants at the UNESCO World Conference on Sustainable Development, differs from other conference declarations in that it is the first declaration to deal exclusively with education for sustainable development. It received input from official State representatives and, perhaps because of that, it is…

  12. The Declaration of Sydney on human death

    PubMed Central

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; de la C García, M; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-01-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of “irreversible coma” established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. PMID:18055899

  13. Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L.; Argibay, Pablo F.; Molina, Victor A.; Pedreira, María E.; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-01-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human declarative one. Here we provide evidence for both consolidation and reconsolidation in a paired-associate learning (i.e., learning an association between a cue syllable and the respective response syllable). Subjects were given two training sessions with a 24-h interval on distinct verbal material, and afterward, they received at testing two successive retrievals corresponding to the first and second learning, respectively. Two main results are noted. First, the first acquired memory was impaired when a reminder was presented 5 min before the second training (reconsolidation), and also when the second training was given 5 min instead of 24 h after the first one (consolidation). Second, the first retrieval proved to influence negatively on the later one (the retrieval-induced forgetting [RIF] effect), and we used the absence of this RIF effect as a very indicator of the target memory impairment. We consider the demonstration of reconsolidation in human declarative memory as backing the universality of this phenomenon and having potential clinical relevance. On the other hand, we discuss the possibility of using the human declarative memory as a model to address several key topics of the reconsolidation hypothesis. PMID:17522018

  14. The Declaration of Sydney on human death.

    PubMed

    Machado, C; Korein, J; Ferrer, Y; Portela, L; García, M de la C; Chinchilla, M; Machado, Y; Machado, Y; Manero, J M

    2007-12-01

    On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee's report on the subject of "irreversible coma" established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations.

  15. Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Forcato, Cecilia; Burgos, Valeria L; Argibay, Pablo F; Molina, Victor A; Pedreira, María E; Maldonado, Hector

    2007-04-01

    The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human declarative one. Here we provide evidence for both consolidation and reconsolidation in a paired-associate learning (i.e., learning an association between a cue syllable and the respective response syllable). Subjects were given two training sessions with a 24-h interval on distinct verbal material, and afterward, they received at testing two successive retrievals corresponding to the first and second learning, respectively. Two main results are noted. First, the first acquired memory was impaired when a reminder was presented 5 min before the second training (reconsolidation), and also when the second training was given 5 min instead of 24 h after the first one (consolidation). Second, the first retrieval proved to influence negatively on the later one (the retrieval-induced forgetting [RIF] effect), and we used the absence of this RIF effect as a very indicator of the target memory impairment. We consider the demonstration of reconsolidation in human declarative memory as backing the universality of this phenomenon and having potential clinical relevance. On the other hand, we discuss the possibility of using the human declarative memory as a model to address several key topics of the reconsolidation hypothesis.

  16. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  17. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Learning a second language is a challenging endeavor, and, for decades now, proponents of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) have declared that help is on the horizon. As documented not only in the "CALICO Journal" over its 25-year history but also in other scholarly venues, research has demonstrated the value of CALL. Nevertheless,…

  18. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect.

  19. Investigating Test Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepfner, Ralph; Strickland, Guy P.

    This study investigates the question of test bias to develop an index of the appropriateness of a test to a particular socioeconomic or racial-ethnic group. Bias is defined as an item by race interaction in an analysis-of-variance design. The sample of 172 third graders at two integrated schools in a large California school district, included 26…

  20. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-03-07

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias.

  1. Humanized Foxp2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance.

    PubMed

    Schreiweis, Christiane; Bornschein, Ulrich; Burguière, Eric; Kerimoglu, Cemil; Schreiter, Sven; Dannemann, Michael; Goyal, Shubhi; Rea, Ellis; French, Catherine A; Puliyadi, Rathi; Groszer, Matthias; Fisher, Simon E; Mundry, Roger; Winter, Christine; Hevers, Wulf; Pääbo, Svante; Enard, Wolfgang; Graybiel, Ann M

    2014-09-30

    The acquisition of language and speech is uniquely human, but how genetic changes might have adapted the nervous system to this capacity is not well understood. Two human-specific amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) are outstanding mechanistic candidates, as they could have been positively selected during human evolution and as FOXP2 is the sole gene to date firmly linked to speech and language development. When these two substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice (Foxp2(hum)), cortico-basal ganglia circuits are specifically affected. Here we demonstrate marked effects of this humanization of Foxp2 on learning and striatal neuroplasticity. Foxp2(hum/hum) mice learn stimulus-response associations faster than their WT littermates in situations in which declarative (i.e., place-based) and procedural (i.e., response-based) forms of learning could compete during transitions toward proceduralization of action sequences. Striatal districts known to be differently related to these two modes of learning are affected differently in the Foxp2(hum/hum) mice, as judged by measures of dopamine levels, gene expression patterns, and synaptic plasticity, including an NMDA receptor-dependent form of long-term depression. These findings raise the possibility that the humanized Foxp2 phenotype reflects a different tuning of corticostriatal systems involved in declarative and procedural learning, a capacity potentially contributing to adapting the human brain for speech and language acquisition.

  2. Hindsight bias and developing theories of mind.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Atance, Cristina; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Loftus, Geoffrey R

    2007-01-01

    Although hindsight bias (the "I knew it all along" phenomenon) has been documented in adults, its development has not been investigated. This is despite the fact that hindsight bias errors closely resemble the errors children make on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. Two main goals of the present work were to (a) create a battery of hindsight tasks for preschoolers, and (b) assess the relation between children's performance on these and ToM tasks. In two experiments involving 144 preschoolers, 3-, 4-, and 5-year olds exhibited strong hindsight bias. Performance on hindsight and ToM tasks was significantly correlated independent of age, language ability, and inhibitory control. These findings contribute to a more comprehensive account of perspective taking across the lifespan.

  3. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change. PMID:26483739

  4. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change.

  5. Will They Ever Speak with Authority? Race, Post-Coloniality and the Symbolic Violence of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2011-01-01

    Intersecting authority-language-and-symbolic power, this article tells the story of a group of continental Francophone African youth who find themselves in an urban French-language high school in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Through their narrative, one is confronted by the trauma of one's own language being declared an illegitimate child, hence…

  6. A Case Study of Developing Student-Teachers' Language Awareness through Online Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for language teacher educators working in the area of teacher language awareness (TLA) is to develop pedagogical approaches that will go beyond merely enhancing L2 teachers' knowledge about language by enabling them to make the bridge between the declarative and procedural dimensions of TLA. This paper sets out to investigate the…

  7. Declarative memory, awareness, and transitive inference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christine; Squire, Larry R

    2005-11-01

    A characteristic usually attributed to declarative memory is that what is learned is accessible to awareness. Recently, the relationship between awareness and declarative (hippocampus-dependent) memory has been questioned on the basis of findings from transitive inference tasks. In transitive inference, participants are first trained on overlapping pairs of items (e.g., A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-, where + and - indicate correct and incorrect choices). Later, participants who choose B over D when presented with the novel pair BD are said to demonstrate transitive inference. The ability to exhibit transitive inference is thought to depend on the fact that participants have represented the stimulus elements hierarchically (i.e., A>B>C>D>E). We found that performance on five-item and six-item transitive inference tasks was closely related to awareness of the hierarchical relationship among the elements of the training pairs. Participants who were aware of the hierarchy performed near 100% correct on all tests of transitivity, but participants who were unaware of the hierarchy performed poorly (e.g., on transitive pair BD in the five-item problem; on transitive pairs BD, BE, and CE in the six-item problem). When the five-item task was administered to memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region, the patients were impaired at learning the training pairs. All patients were unaware of the hierarchy and, like unaware controls, performed poorly on the BD pair. The findings indicate that awareness is critical for robust performance on tests of transitive inference and support the view that awareness of what is learned is a fundamental characteristic of declarative memory.

  8. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans.

  9. 76 FR 75893 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Owner and Declaration of Consignee When...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... and Declaration of Consignee When Entry Is Made by an Agent AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... is made by an Agent (Forms 3347 and 3347A). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether...

  10. 33 CFR 127.317 - Declaration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.317 Declaration...

  11. 33 CFR 127.317 - Declaration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.317 Declaration...

  12. 33 CFR 127.317 - Declaration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.317 Declaration...

  13. 33 CFR 127.317 - Declaration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.317 Declaration...

  14. 33 CFR 127.317 - Declaration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.317 Declaration...

  15. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories. PMID:12848220

  16. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  17. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2012-01-01

    Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC) account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: (1) faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. (2) These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers' attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers' attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. (3) Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus, key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape language form

  18. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  19. Estimating Bias Error Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.

  20. Evaluating self-declared ancestry of U.S. Americans with autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Lao, Oscar; Vallone, Peter M; Coble, Michael D; Diegoli, Toni M; van Oven, Mannis; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Pijpe, Jeroen; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    The current U.S. population represents an amalgam of individuals originating mainly from four continental regions (Africa, Europe, Asia and America). To study the genetic ancestry and compare with self-declared ancestry we have analyzed paternally, maternally and bi-parentally inherited DNA markers sensitive for indicating continental genetic ancestry in all four major U.S. American groups. We found that self-declared U.S. Hispanics and U.S. African Americans tend to show variable degrees of continental genetic admixture among the three genetic systems, with evidence for a marked sex-biased admixture history. Moreover, for these two groups we observed significant regional variation across the country in genetic admixture. In contrast, self-declared U.S. European and U.S. Asian Americans were genetically more homogeneous at the continental ancestry level. Two autosomal ancestry-sensitive markers located in skin pigmentation candidate genes showed significant differences in self-declared U.S. African Americans or U.S. European Americans, relative to their assumed parental populations from Africa or Europe. This provides genetic support for the importance of skin color in the complex process of ancestry identification.

  1. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  2. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  3. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect. PMID:26786070

  4. DPADL: An Action Language for Data Processing Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which will provide automation for an ecosystem forecasting system called TOPS.

  5. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  6. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  7. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  8. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  9. 76 FR 56213 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork... concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  10. Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans A coalition of 13 countries or federal agencies participating in a new Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) indicated its support for a “Declaration for Healthy and Productive Oceans to Help Reduce Poverty” on 16 June, just prior to the Rio+20 conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  11. 31 CFR 362.1 - Declaration of “valuables”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of âvaluablesâ. 362.1 Section 362.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN SHIPMENT ACT § 362.1 Declaration of “valuables”. It is determined that replacements,...

  12. 31 CFR 362.1 - Declaration of “valuables”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of âvaluablesâ. 362.1 Section 362.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN SHIPMENT ACT § 362.1 Declaration of “valuables”. It is determined that replacements,...

  13. 31 CFR 362.1 - Declaration of “valuables”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of âvaluablesâ. 362.1 Section 362.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN SHIPMENT ACT § 362.1 Declaration of “valuables”. It is determined that replacements,...

  14. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 40th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Juanita, Ed.

    December 10, 1988, marks the 40th anniversary of the adoption by the United Nations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration represents the first comprehensive, global statement on basic human rights, embracing many of the values long held by U.S. citizens; and it urges all peoples and all nations to promote respect for the…

  15. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Only a Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…

  16. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  17. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  18. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  19. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  20. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  1. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  2. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  3. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  4. 16 CFR 456.4 - Declaration of Commission Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration of Commission Intent. 456.4 Section 456.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE RULES (EYEGLASS RULE) § 456.4 Declaration of Commission Intent. In prohibiting the use of waivers...

  5. 19 CFR 10.481 - Corrected declaration by importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corrected declaration by importers. 10.481 Section 10.481 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Trade Agreement Penalties § 10.481 Corrected declaration by importers. A U.S. importer who makes...

  6. 40 CFR 62. 9995 - Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Declaration. 62. 9995 Section 62. 9995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration. On November 5, 2006, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter certifying that there are no existing other solid waste incineration units...

  7. 40 CFR 62. 9995 - Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Declaration. 62. 9995 Section 62. 9995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration. On November 5, 2006, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter certifying that there are no existing other solid waste incineration units...

  8. 40 CFR 62. 9995 - Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Declaration. 62. 9995 Section 62. 9995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration. On November 5, 2006, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter certifying that there are no existing other solid waste incineration units...

  9. 40 CFR 62. 9995 - Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Declaration. 62. 9995 Section 62. 9995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Identification of Plan-Negative Declaration. On November 5, 2006, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter certifying that there are no existing other solid waste incineration units...

  10. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  11. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  12. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  13. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  14. 9 CFR 93.425 - Declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for ruminants. 93.425... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.425 Declaration for ruminants. For all ruminants offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall...

  15. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an....205(d)(1) through (d)(5)(i) and declares that, due to fatigue, he or she is unable to safely and... a fatigue assessment, conducted under the requirements of § 26.211, indicate that the individual...

  16. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an... contained in § 26.205(d)(1) through (d)(5)(i) and (d)(7) and declares that, due to fatigue, he or she is... if the results of a fatigue assessment, conducted under the requirements of § 26.211, indicate...

  17. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an... contained in § 26.205(d)(1) through (d)(5)(i) and (d)(7) and declares that, due to fatigue, he or she is... if the results of a fatigue assessment, conducted under the requirements of § 26.211, indicate...

  18. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an... contained in § 26.205(d)(1) through (d)(5)(i) and (d)(7) and declares that, due to fatigue, he or she is... if the results of a fatigue assessment, conducted under the requirements of § 26.211, indicate...

  19. 32 CFR 644.114 - Acquisition by declaration of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... declaration of taking is based, irrespective of value. (g) Interests included in declaration of taking. (1... purchase due to failure to reach an agreement with the owners as to value, inability to contact the owners... assembly for those tracts valued less than $100,000, and two copies where the value is $100,000 or...

  20. 32 CFR 644.114 - Acquisition by declaration of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... declaration of taking is based, irrespective of value. (g) Interests included in declaration of taking. (1... purchase due to failure to reach an agreement with the owners as to value, inability to contact the owners... assembly for those tracts valued less than $100,000, and two copies where the value is $100,000 or...

  1. 32 CFR 644.114 - Acquisition by declaration of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... declaration of taking is based, irrespective of value. (g) Interests included in declaration of taking. (1... purchase due to failure to reach an agreement with the owners as to value, inability to contact the owners... assembly for those tracts valued less than $100,000, and two copies where the value is $100,000 or...

  2. 32 CFR 644.114 - Acquisition by declaration of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... declaration of taking is based, irrespective of value. (g) Interests included in declaration of taking. (1... purchase due to failure to reach an agreement with the owners as to value, inability to contact the owners... assembly for those tracts valued less than $100,000, and two copies where the value is $100,000 or...

  3. 44 CFR 207.9 - Declarations before November 13, 2007.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Declarations before November 13, 2007. 207.9 Section 207.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.9 Declarations before November...

  4. 44 CFR 207.9 - Declarations before November 13, 2007.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Declarations before November 13, 2007. 207.9 Section 207.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.9 Declarations before November...

  5. 44 CFR 207.9 - Declarations before November 13, 2007.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Declarations before November 13, 2007. 207.9 Section 207.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.9 Declarations before November...

  6. 44 CFR 207.9 - Declarations before November 13, 2007.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Declarations before November 13, 2007. 207.9 Section 207.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.9 Declarations before November...

  7. 76 FR 29811 - Disaster Declaration #12588 and #12589

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12588 and 12589 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  8. 44 CFR 206.35 - Requests for emergency declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for emergency declarations. 206.35 Section 206.35 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process §...

  9. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section 334.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent...

  10. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section 334.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent...

  11. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section 334.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent...

  12. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section 334.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent...

  13. 8 CFR 334.11 - Declaration of intention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration of intention. 334.11 Section 334.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS APPLICATION FOR NATURALIZATION § 334.11 Declaration of intention. (a) Application. Any person who is a lawful permanent...

  14. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  15. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  16. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  17. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  18. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  19. 10 CFR 26.209 - Self-declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-declarations. 26.209 Section 26.209 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.209 Self-declarations. (a) If an individual is performing, or being assessed for, work under a waiver of the requirements contained in §...

  20. 47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906... Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the responsible party, as defined in § 2.909... of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which...

  1. Accounting for Change in Declarative Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of…

  2. 15 CFR 714.4 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.4 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... following information that you have previously declared or reported: (1) Types of Schedule 3...

  3. 15 CFR 714.4 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.4 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... following information that you have previously declared or reported: (1) Types of Schedule 3...

  4. 15 CFR 714.4 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.4 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... following information that you have previously declared or reported: (1) Types of Schedule 3...

  5. 15 CFR 714.4 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.4 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... following information that you have previously declared or reported: (1) Types of Schedule 3...

  6. 15 CFR 714.4 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.4 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... following information that you have previously declared or reported: (1) Types of Schedule 3...

  7. 77 FR 37915 - Hawaii; Major Disaster Declarations and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-4062-DR), dated April 18, 2012, and related determinations. DATES: Effective April 18, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Peggy Miller... 18, 2012, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert...

  8. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  9. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... declaration, all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from...

  10. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... declaration, all information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from...

  11. 21 CFR 1313.23 - Distribution of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distribution of export declaration. 1313.23 Section 1313.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND...; declaration forms for list II chemical must be retained for two years. (b) Copy 2 is the Drug...

  12. 5 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1201 - Sample Declaration Under 28 U.S.C.1746

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....S.C.1746 Declaration I, , do hereby declare: I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that the foregoing is true and correct. Executed on Date Signature...

  13. 5 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1201 - Sample Declaration Under 28 U.S.C.1746

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C.1746 Declaration I, , do hereby declare: I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that the foregoing is true and correct. Executed on Date Signature...

  14. 5 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1201 - Sample Declaration Under 28 U.S.C.1746

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C.1746 Declaration I, , do hereby declare: I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that the foregoing is true and correct. Executed on Date Signature...

  15. 5 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1201 - Sample Declaration Under 28 U.S.C.1746

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....S.C.1746 Declaration I, , do hereby declare: I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that the foregoing is true and correct. Executed on Date Signature...

  16. 5 CFR Appendix IV to Part 1201 - Sample Declaration Under 28 U.S.C.1746

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....S.C.1746 Declaration I, , do hereby declare: I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that the foregoing is true and correct. Executed on Date Signature...

  17. Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Jaeger, T Florian; Newport, Elissa L

    2012-10-30

    Languages of the world display many structural similarities. We test the hypothesis that some of these structural properties may arise from biases operating during language acquisition that shape languages over time. Specifically, we investigate whether language learners are biased toward linguistic systems that strike an efficient balance between robust information transfer, on the one hand, and effort or resource demands, on the other hand, thereby increasing the communicative utility of the acquired language. In two experiments, we expose learners to miniature artificial languages designed in such a way that they do not use their formal devices (case marking) efficiently to facilitate robust information transfer. We find that learners restructure such languages in ways that facilitate efficient information transfer compared with the input language. These systematic changes introduced by the learners follow typologically frequent patterns, supporting the hypothesis that some of the structural similarities found in natural languages are shaped by biases toward communicatively efficient linguistic systems.

  18. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not...

  19. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not...

  20. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not...

  1. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not...

  2. 15 CFR 712.3 - Initial declaration requirements for declared facilities which are engaged in the production of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.3 Initial declaration requirements for... declared facilities which are engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals for purposes not...

  3. Positioning of Weight Bias: Moving towards Social Justice

    PubMed Central

    Alberga, Angela S.; Kassan, Anusha; Sesma-Vazquez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity. We suggest that, despite differences, each perspective acknowledges the negative influences that position weight as being within individual control and the negative consequences of weight bias. We call for recognition and discussion of weight bias as a social justice issue in order to change the discourse and professional practices extended towards individuals with large bodies. We advocate for an emphasis on social justice as a uniting framework for interdisciplinary research on weight bias. PMID:27747099

  4. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute of... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  5. PALM--a pattern language for molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, C; Sibbald, P R

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern language, PALM, for describing patterns in molecular biology sequences. The language is intended for representing knowledge about such patterns in a declarative, clear and concise way. It is also shown that its expressive power enables the definition of any regular or context free language, and also higher languages in the Chomsky hierarchy by parameter attachment, variables and procedural attachment. It is also possible to define approximate patterns. The language is rigorously defined, and several examples of its use and expressive power are given. PMID:7584333

  6. Halo velocity bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    It has been recently shown that any halo velocity bias present in the initial conditions does not decay to unity, in agreement with predictions from peak theory. However, this is at odds with the standard formalism based on the coupled-fluids approximation for the coevolution of dark matter and halos. Starting from conservation laws in phase space, we discuss why the fluid momentum conservation equation for the biased tracers needs to be modified in accordance with the change advocated in Baldauf et al. Our findings indicate that a correct description of the halo properties should properly take into account peak constraints when starting from the Vlasov-Boltzmann equation.

  7. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  8. Towards an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2012-09-01

    Scala and its multi-threaded model based on actors represent an excellent framework for developing purely reactive agents. This paper presents an early research on extending Scala with declarative programming constructs, which would result in a new agent-oriented programming language suitable for developing more advanced, BDI agent architectures. The main advantage the new language over many other existing solutions for programming BDI agents is a natural and straightforward integration of imperative and declarative programming constructs, fitted under a single development framework.

  9. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  10. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning.

  11. Optically biased laser gyro

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.Z.; Chow, W.W.; Scully, M.O.; Sanders, V.E.

    1980-10-01

    We describe a four-mode ring laser that exhibits none of the mode-locking characteristics that plague laser gyros. This laser is characterized by a bias that changes sign with a change in the direction of rotation and prevents the counterpropagating modes from locking. A theoretical analysis explaining the experimental results is outlined.

  12. The hippocampus and the flexible use and processing of language

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental to all human languages is an unlimited expressive capacity and creative flexibility that allow speakers to rapidly generate novel and complex utterances. In turn, listeners interpret language “on-line,” incrementally integrating multiple sources of information as words unfold over time. A challenge for theories of language processing has been to understand how speakers and listeners generate, gather, integrate, and maintain representations in service of language processing. We propose that many of the processes by which we use language place high demands on and receive contributions from the hippocampal declarative memory system. The hippocampal declarative memory system is long known to support relational binding and representational flexibility. Recent findings demonstrate that these same functions are engaged during the real-time processes that support behavior in-the-moment. Such findings point to the hippocampus as a potentially key contributor to cognitive functions that require on-line integration of multiple sources of information, such as on-line language processing. Evidence supporting this view comes from findings that individuals with hippocampal amnesia show deficits in the use of language flexibly and on-line. We conclude that the relational binding and representational flexibility afforded by the hippocampal declarative memory system positions the hippocampus as a key contributor to language use and processing. PMID:22493573

  13. Foundational Tuning: How Infants' Attention to Speech Predicts Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Curtin, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Orienting biases for speech may provide a foundation for language development. Although human infants show a bias for listening to speech from birth, the relation of a speech bias to later language development has not been established. Here, we examine whether infants' attention to speech directly predicts expressive vocabulary. Infants…

  14. From Declarative to Imperative UML/OCL Operation Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabot, Jordi

    An information system maintains a representation of the state of the domain in its Information Base (IB). The state of the IB changes due to the execution of the operations defined in the behavioral schema. There are two different approaches for specifying the effect of an operation: the imperative and the declarative approaches. In conceptual modeling, the declarative approach is preferable since it allows a more abstract and concise definition of the operation effect and conceals all implementation issues. Nevertheless, in order to execute the conceptual schema, declarative specifications must be transformed into equivalent imperative ones.

  15. Monitoring harm reduction in European prisons via the Dublin Declaration.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick; Stöver, Heino; Donochoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2009-01-01

    The Dublin Declaration on Partnership to fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and Central Asia is the key policy document on HIV/AIDS in the European Region as a whole Among the Declaration's 33 actions for governments are many that apply to prison populations. Based upon an analysis of these commitments, and a review of the current status of states in meeting those targets, it is clear that the scale-up of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes and services in prisons lags far behind what is needed, what is available outside of prisons, and what is mandated within the Declaration itself.

  16. WTO ministerial conference adopts declaration on TRIPS and public health.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In November 2001, the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a Ministerial Declaration on public health and the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "TRIPS Agreement"). The declaration represents a modest advance in addressing concerns that strict patent laws, and threats of trade sanctions, will be a barrier to most of the world's people with HIV/AIDS accessing affordable medicines. The full significance of the declaration remains to be seen, as it depends on what political impact it has at the WTO and on its member countries, and what legal impact it will have in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement.

  17. Language Development and Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lois; Lahey, Margaret

    This book provides a synthesis of research findings in normal language development as well as a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of children with language disorders. Its 21 chapters are divided into six topical sections: language description, normal language development, deviant language development, goals of language learning…

  18. Examinations of Home Economics Textbooks for Sex Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.

    1979-01-01

    Four analyses were conducted on a sample of 100 randomly selected, secondary home economics textbooks published between 1964 and 1974. Results indicated that the contents presented sex bias in language usage, in pictures portraying male and female role environments, and in role behaviors and expectations emphasized. (Author/JH)

  19. Respecting Religious Diversity While Avoiding Bias and Tokenism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Presents guidelines for balancing teaching about religions in middle schools and a bias-free atmosphere. Guidelines include: teach religion as a cultural constant that can be integrated across the curriculum; use long-range curriculum planning incorporating best teaching practices into diversity topics; use inclusive language when addressing…

  20. Positivity of the English Language

    PubMed Central

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  1. 17 CFR 250.22 - Applications and declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 250.22 Applications and declarations. (a) Joinder. As far as practicable combined or joint... amendment has been filed in accordance with the requirements of rule 102 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.102...

  2. 50 CFR 14.62 - Exceptions to import declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fishery products imported for purposes of human or animal consumption, or taken in waters under the... reasonably practicable using the best available taxonomic information, and must declare the country of...

  3. 50 CFR 14.64 - Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and fishery products exported for purposes of human or animal consumption or taken in waters under the... taxonomic information, and must declare the country of origin. Except: That this exception will not apply...

  4. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  5. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  6. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  7. 29 CFR 18.804 - Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or (4) Is unable to be... unavailable as a witness if exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to...

  8. An Analysis of State Public Health Emergency Declarations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Disaster responses often involve coordination among multiple levels of government and public and private sector collaboration. When emergencies raise health concerns, governments must include public health and health care systems in their response. A state government’s declaration of “public health emergency” can provide that state’s health sector with flexibility and guidance about response parameters. Although events including Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy and the H1N1 influenza outbreak provided opportunities for states to deploy their public health emergency powers, little has been reported about how states have used their authority to declare a public health emergency. I present a systematic identification and analysis of states’ public health emergency declarations, examine why these declarations were issued, and discuss their potential value. PMID:25033156

  9. An analysis of state public health emergency declarations.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-09-01

    Disaster responses often involve coordination among multiple levels of government and public and private sector collaboration. When emergencies raise health concerns, governments must include public health and health care systems in their response. A state government's declaration of "public health emergency" can provide that state's health sector with flexibility and guidance about response parameters. Although events including Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy and the H1N1 influenza outbreak provided opportunities for states to deploy their public health emergency powers, little has been reported about how states have used their authority to declare a public health emergency. I present a systematic identification and analysis of states' public health emergency declarations, examine why these declarations were issued, and discuss their potential value.

  10. 158. View looking SE showing 'Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. View looking SE showing 'Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence' fountain on Aquarium Drive with north facade of Art Museum in right background. - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 76 FR 2403 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration... and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Ship's... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Ship's...

  12. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  13. 19 CFR 148.17 - Declaration on arrival incidental to further foreign travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declaration on arrival incidental to further foreign travel. 148.17 Section 148.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.17 Declaration on arrival...

  14. 78 FR 49318 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  15. 75 FR 28310 - Florida Disaster # FL-00056 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00056 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  16. 75 FR 28313 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00032 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00032 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  17. 78 FR 44186 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  18. 78 FR 40819 - Washington Disaster # WA-00038 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Washington Disaster WA-00038 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  19. 75 FR 8414 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  20. The world alliance against antibiotic resistance: consensus for a declaration.

    PubMed

    Carlet, Jean

    2015-06-15

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide and has become a very important threat to public health. The overconsumption of antibiotics is the most important cause of this problem. We created a World Alliance Against Antibiotic Resistance (WAAAR), which now includes 720 people from 55 different countries and is supported by 145 medical societies or various groups. In June 2014, WAAAR launched a declaration against antibiotic resistance. This article describes the process and the content of this declaration.

  1. Hippocampus: cognitive processes and neural representations that underlie declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2004-09-30

    The hippocampus serves a critical role in declarative memory--our capacity to recall everyday facts and events. Recent studies using functional brain imaging in humans and neuropsychological analyses of humans and animals with hippocampal damage have revealed some of the elemental cognitive processes mediated by the hippocampus. In addition, recent characterizations of neuronal firing patterns in behaving animals and humans have suggested how neural representations in the hippocampus underlie those elemental cognitive processes in the service of declarative memory.

  2. Assessing Bias in Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowshowitz, Abbe; Kawaguchi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the measurement of bias in search engines on the Web, defining bias as the balance and representation of items in a collection retrieved from a database for a set of queries. Assesses bias by measuring the deviation from the ideal of the distribution produced by a particular search engine. (Author/LRW)

  3. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  4. Functional Analysis of Language Interactions between Down Syndrome Children and Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    A 20-minute videotape sample was obtained of the language interactions between 20 Down syndrome children (ages 38 to 107 months) and their mothers during informal playtime. Linguistic utterances of mothers and children were coded according to the following language categories: query, declarative, imperative, performative, feedback, imitation,…

  5. Domain specific languages for modeling and simulation: use case OMS3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A domain-specific language (DSL) is usually a concise, declarative language that strongly emphasizes a particular problem domain. DSL methods and implementations in general are widely prototyped and applied in academia for creating elegant ways to express properties, relationships, and behavior of r...

  6. An Analysis of Child Caregivers' Language during Book Sharing with Toddler-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyner, Paula M.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing enrollment in childcare centers has led to questions about the extent to which those environments foster child development in areas such as language. This study examined the language of childcare center caregivers during book sharing with children to describe caregivers' use of linguistic structures (declarative, imperative, and …

  7. Why Linguistic Territorialism in the UK Does Not Justify Differential Minority Language Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Shaun

    2010-01-01

    Despite the declarations of international documents on minority language rights, provision is patchy for supporting minority languages in the UK, where since the 1980s governments have deliberately or unwittingly greatly raised the profile and comparative standing of English. The partial exception to this trend has been the treatment of…

  8. Communicative Competence in Oral Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Haig, Yvonne; Rochecouste, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a review of the teaching and assessment of oral language in Western Australian secondary schools. Results show that teachers have considerable difficulty in incorporating oral language tasks into their pedagogy because of a curriculum biased towards developing writing skills. Teachers also revealed that they do not have the…

  9. Teaching Foreign Languages: A Challenge to Ecuadorian Bilingual Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haboud, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Since the Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights in 1996, there is a tendency not only to maintain linguistic and cultural diversity worldwide, but also to ease universal access to quality education which should comprise the learning of other languages and cultures and the generation of intercultural relations. In this sense, this article…

  10. Bill 22 vs. "the English" -- A Case of Language Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Richard G.

    The political styles of various English-speaking groups are contrasted in their resistance to Quebec legislation which declares that French will be the priority language of instruction in the province. Individuals and ad hoc immigrant groups operate conflictively in a distributive arena; English Catholic laymen and school administrators function…

  11. What differentiates declarative and procedural memories: reply to Cohen, Poldrack, and Eichenbaum (1997)

    PubMed

    Willingham, D B

    1998-11-01

    CPE claim that procedural and declarative representations differ on two important dimensions: flexibility and compositionality. I have proposed that the apparent flexibility of a memory depends entirely on the transfer conditions. Any retest is, in some sense, a test of flexibility, because something has changed since the original encoding episodic. I have argued that if one changes something that does not provide support to memory performance, the memory will appear flexible, and resistant to changes in the environment. If one changes the very thing that the representation codes, the memory will appear inflexible and easily disrupted by changes in the environment. This principle is equally true for procedural and declarative memory. CPE contend that procedural representations lack compositionality. An ideal test of this claim would examine the representation of a task that is widely agreed to be procedural (e.g. that has been demonstrated to be learned normally by amnesic patients, and in the absence of awareness by neurologically intact subjects). Such experiments appear not to have been conducted, and the fact is that many tasks that are widely agreed to be procedural probably are not compositional. They appear to be, as CPE contend, biases in a processing system; it is hard to imagine how repetition priming could be compositional. Nevertheless, this is not true of all procedural memories. There is a good deal of evidence that motor behaviour is organised hierarchically and has compositionality. There is every reason to think that most if not all motor behaviour is procedural; motor behaviour might be driven by goals that are declarative, but the low-level operations that actually manipulate effectors are closed to consciousness, do not depend on the medial temporal lobe or diencephalon, and would therefore be classified as procedural. CPE framed their theory of differences between procedural and declarative memory systems as an account of the deficit in amnesic

  12. Understanding Language Attitudes: Exploring Listener Affect and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargile, Aaron Castelan; Giles, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the study of language attitudes is rich in a history stretching across several decades and social scientific disciplines. Points out that beliefs about language use can bias social interaction and decision making and that more study is required to increase understanding of the language attitude process. (74 references) (Author/CK)

  13. Mexican American Bilingualism and English Language Ethnocentrism in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ricardo L.

    The possibility exists that another language resource, the Spanish language of the Mexican American, will be lost in the United States due to language ethnocentrism. Mexican American bilingualism is viewed as an intellectual handicap by public educators who do not understand the basic linguistic bias of instruments utilized to measure the…

  14. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  15. The Evolution of Frequency Distributions: Relating Regularization to Inductive Biases through Iterated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The regularization of linguistic structures by learners has played a key role in arguments for strong innate constraints on language acquisition, and has important implications for language evolution. However, relating the inductive biases of learners to regularization behavior in laboratory tasks can be challenging without a formal model. In this…

  16. The revised Declaration of Helsinki: cosmetic or real change?

    PubMed

    Malik, Aisha Y; Foster, Charles

    2016-05-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Association's General Assembly in 1964, is the most important set of guidelines about research on human participants. It both reflects and shapes the ethos of international research ethics. It is a living instrument and is reviewed and revised regularly. Its latest revision was in 2013. There are four substantial changes, reflected in the new Paragraph 15 (which deals with compensation for trial related injuries), Paragraph 33 (relating to placebos), Paragraph 20 (relating to vulnerable groups) and the new Paragraph 34 (relating to post-trial provisions). This article analyses these changes, and asks whether they indicate any shift in the overall philosophy of the Declaration. We conclude that these changes, though significant, are not tectonic. They accord with the spirit that has motivated the Declaration through all its iterations, and indicate a steady, incremental evolution towards a holistic code of research ethics for research on human participants. Patient autonomy, though crucial, is no longer the only concern of the Declaration; distributive justice and beneficence are motivating forces too. While the Declaration is aware of the need to facilitate research, it is equally aware of the need to protect the vulnerable, and of the practical difficulties involved in that protection. PMID:27150712

  17. Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of "background emotionality" and a "projection through capacities" were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective study

  18. Observer Bias: An Interaction of Temperament Traits with Biases in the Semantic Perception of Lexical Material

    PubMed Central

    Trofimova, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The lexical approach is a method in differential psychology that uses people's estimations of verbal descriptors of human behavior in order to derive the structure of human individuality. The validity of the assumptions of this method about the objectivity of people's estimations is rarely questioned. Meanwhile the social nature of language and the presence of emotionality biases in cognition are well-recognized in psychology. A question remains, however, as to whether such an emotionality-capacities bias is strong enough to affect semantic perception of verbal material. For the lexical approach to be valid as a method of scientific investigations, such biases should not exist in semantic perception of the verbal material that is used by this approach. This article reports on two studies investigating differences between groups contrasted by 12 temperament traits (i.e. by energetic and other capacities, as well as emotionality) in the semantic perception of very general verbal material. Both studies contrasted the groups by a variety of capacities: endurance, lability and emotionality separately in physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of activities. Hypotheses of “background emotionality” and a “projection through capacities” were supported. Non-evaluative criteria for categorization (related to complexity, organization, stability and probability of occurrence of objects) followed the polarity of evaluative criteria, and did not show independence from this polarity. Participants with stronger physical or social endurance gave significantly more positive ratings to a variety of concepts, and participants with faster physical tempo gave more positive ratings to timing-related concepts. The results suggest that people's estimations of lexical material related to human behavior have emotionality, language- and dynamical capacities-related biases and therefore are unreliable. This questions the validity of the lexical approach as a method for the objective

  19. Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judy I.

    This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language…

  20. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  1. On the acquisition of new declarative knowledge in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Hamann, S B; Squire, L R

    1995-12-01

    In 2 experiments, the acquisition of new declarative knowledge was examined in amnesic patients and in 7 groups of controls, with a study-only procedure that delayed testing until the conclusion of training. The study-only procedure was compared with a standard procedure in which study and test trials alternated (study-test). The amnesic patients acquired new factual (declarative) knowledge at an abnormally slow rate, learning more with the study-only procedure than with the study-test procedure. Controls exhibited the opposite pattern. The advantage of the study-only procedure for amnesic patients was related to the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction. The 2 groups exhibited a similar ability to use their knowledge flexibly, suggesting that the information acquired by amnesic patients was based on their residual capacity for declarative memory. In addition, the capacity for factual learning in amnesia was proportional to the capacity to recollect specific events in the learning session.

  2. The intentionality bias and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Pope, A

    2014-01-01

    The "intentionality bias" refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people's actions to be intentional. In this experiment we extended research on this effect in two key ways. First, we developed a novel nonlinguistic task for assessing the intentionality bias. This task used video stimuli of ambiguous movements. Second, we investigated the relationship between the strength of this bias and schizotypy (schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals). Our results showed that the intentionality bias was replicated for the video stimuli and also that this bias is stronger in those individuals scoring higher on the schizotypy rating scales. Overall these findings lend further support for the existence of the intentionality bias. We also discuss the possible relevance of these findings for our understanding of certain symptoms of schizophrenic illness.

  3. Episodic and declarative memory: role of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tulving, E; Markowitsch, H J

    1998-01-01

    The fact that medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus, are critical for declarative memory is firmly established by now. The understanding of the role that these structures play in declarative memory, however, despite great efforts spent in the quest, has eluded investigators so far. Given the existing scenario, novel ideas that hold the promise of clarifying matters should be eagerly sought. One such idea was recently proposed by Vargha-Khadem and her colleagues (Science 1997; 277:376-380) on the basis of their study of three young people suffering from anterograde amnesia caused by early-onset hippocampal pathology. The idea is that the hippocampus is necessary for remembering ongoing life's experiences (episodic memory), but not necessary for the acquisition of factual knowledge (semantic memory). We discuss the reasons why this novel proposal makes good sense and why it and its ramifications should be vigorously pursued. We review and compare declarative and episodic theories of amnesia, and argue that the findings reported by Vargha-Khadem and her colleagues fit well into an episodic theory that retains components already publicized, and adds new ones suggested by the Vargha-Khadem et al. study. Existing components of this theory include the idea that acquisition of factual knowledge can occur independently of episodic memory, and the idea that in anterograde amnesia it is quite possible for episodic memory to be more severely impaired than semantic memory. We suggest a realignment of organization of memory such that declarative memory is defined in terms of features and properties that are common to both episodic and semantic memory. The organization of memory thus modified gives greater precision to the Vargha-Khadem et al. neuroanatomical model in which declarative memory depends on perihippocampal cortical regions but not on the hippocampus, whereas episodic memory, which is separate from declarative memory, depends on the hippocampus.

  4. Marginal capacity: the dilemmas faced in assessment and declaration.

    PubMed

    Ho, V

    1995-01-15

    Ontario is adopting informed-consent legislation that reflects increasing emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination. Capacity assessment and declaration by physicians and other health care professionals are pivotal under the new legislation. While grossly capable or incapable patients provide few management difficulties, marginally capable patients provide a challenge for physicians who must assess capacity, and decisions concerning them emphasize the ethical dilemma involved in any declaration of incapacity. Our 1994 Logie Medical Ethics Essay first-prize winner, Vincent Ho, examines the issues that clinicians must consider when assessing marginally capable patients.

  5. Conflict-of-interest, copyright and other declarations.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2010-11-01

    Declarations of exclusive publication, author contribution, conflict-of-interest and copyright transfer are important formalities required by most biomedical journals. Conflict-of-interest may be personal, commercial, political, academic or financial. It is particularly important for authors to provide a full and complete disclosure of any financial relationship with a commercial organisation that may have an interest in the contents of the submitted manuscript. Editors, editorial board members and reviewers should also declare any possible conflicts-of-interest. The handling of conflict-of-interest during manuscript preparation, peer review and editorial decision making impacts the credibility of published articles and scientific research in general.

  6. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity. PMID:14744123

  7. A Domain Description Language for Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith

    2003-01-01

    We discuss an application of planning to data processing, a planning problem which poses unique challenges for domain description languages. We discuss these challenges and why the current PDDL standard does not meet them. We discuss DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative, object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which we are using to provide automation for an ecological forecasting application. We compare DPADL to PDDL and discuss changes that could be made to PDDL to make it more suitable for representing planning domains that involve data processing actions.

  8. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  9. The role of the input on the development of the LC bias: a crosslinguistic comparison.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Hayashi, Akiko; Tsuji, Sho; Mazuka, Reiko; Nazzi, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have described the existence of a phonotactic bias called the Labial-Coronal (LC) bias, corresponding to a tendency to produce more words beginning with a labial consonant followed by a coronal consonant (i.e. "bat") than the opposite CL pattern (i.e. "tap"). This bias has initially been interpreted in terms of articulatory constraints of the human speech production system. However, more recently, it has been suggested that this presumably language-general LC bias in production might be accompanied by LC and CL biases in perception, acquired in infancy on the basis of the properties of the linguistic input. The present study investigates the origins of these perceptual biases, testing infants learning Japanese, a language that has been claimed to possess more CL than LC sequences, and comparing them with infants learning French, a language showing a clear LC bias in its lexicon. First, a corpus analysis of Japanese IDS and ADS revealed the existence of an overall LC bias, except for plosive sequences in ADS, which show a CL bias across counts. Second, speech preference experiments showed a perceptual preference for CL over LC plosive sequences (all recorded by a Japanese speaker) in 13- but not in 7- and 10-month-old Japanese-learning infants (Experiment 1), while revealing the emergence of an LC preference between 7 and 10 months in French-learning infants, using the exact same stimuli. These crosslinguistic behavioral differences, obtained with the same stimuli, thus reflect differences in processing in two populations of infants, which can be linked to differences in the properties of the lexicons of their respective native languages. These findings establish that the emergence of a CL/LC bias is related to exposure to a linguistic input.

  10. Head start for target language in bilingual listening.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ian; Indefrey, Peter

    2014-01-13

    In this study we investigated the availability of non-target language semantic features in bilingual speech processing. We recorded EEG from Dutch-English bilinguals who listened to spoken sentences in their L2 (English) or L1 (Dutch). In Experiments 1 and 3 the sentences contained an interlingual homophone. The sentence context was either biased towards the target language meaning of the homophone (target biased), the non-target language meaning (non-target biased), or neither meaning of the homophone (fully incongruent). These conditions were each compared to a semantically congruent control condition. In L2 sentences we observed an N400 in the non-target biased condition that had an earlier offset than the N400 to fully incongruent homophones. In the target biased condition, a negativity emerged that was later than the N400 to fully incongruent homophones. In L1 contexts, neither target biased nor non-target biased homophones yielded significant N400 effects (compared to the control condition). In Experiments 2 and 4 the sentences contained a language switch to a non-target language word that could be semantically congruent or incongruent. Semantically incongruent words (switched, and non-switched) elicited an N400 effect. The N400 to semantically congruent language-switched words had an earlier offset than the N400 to incongruent words. Both congruent and incongruent language switches elicited a Late Positive Component (LPC). These findings show that bilinguals activate both meanings of interlingual homophones irrespective of their contextual fit. In L2 contexts, the target-language meaning of the homophone has a head start over the non-target language meaning. The target-language head start is also evident for language switches from both L2-to-L1 and L1-to-L2.

  11. Language Evolution Can Be Shaped by the Structure of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Human languages vary in many ways but also show striking cross-linguistic universals. Why do these universals exist? Recent theoretical results demonstrate that Bayesian learners transmitting language to each other through iterated learning will converge on a distribution of languages that depends only on their prior biases about language and the…

  12. 15 CFR 712.5 - Annual declaration requirements for facilities engaged in the production of Schedule 1 chemicals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must also declare any Schedule 1, Schedule 2, or Schedule 3 precursor used to produce the declared... precursor used to produce the declared Schedule 1 chemical, rounded to the nearest gram. You must...

  13. 78 FR 72611 - Proposal for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration for Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Proposal for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration for... Wisconsin negative declarations for Hospital/Medical/ Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI). The...

  14. 75 FR 30417 - Tennessee; Amendment No. 7 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... adversely affected by the event declared a major disaster by the President in his declaration of May 4, 2010..., Lauderdale, Lewis, Madison, McNairy, Montgomery, Obion, Smith, Stewart, Tipton, Wayne, and Wilson...

  15. 76 FR 29775 - Kentucky; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... declaration of May 4, 2011. Bath, Green, Lewis, Mason, Pendleton, and Spencer Counties for Public Assistance... Households--Other Needs; 97.036, Disaster Grants--Public Assistance (Presidentially Declared Disasters);...

  16. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  17. Siegfried the Dragonslayer Meets the Web: Using Digital Media for Developing Historical Awareness and Advanced Language and Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate, German-language course that aimed to improve students' language skills, critical thinking, and declarative knowledge of German history and culture by studying multiple manifestations of the legend of Siegfried the Dragonslayer. The course used web-based e-learning tools to address two major learning…

  18. Students' "Write" to Their Own Language: Teaching the African American Verbal Tradition as a Rhetorically Effective Writing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bonnie J.

    2013-01-01

    The 1974 Conference on College Composition and Communication's (CCCC) resolution declaring "Students' Right to Their Own Language" (SRTOL) defends the rights of students and all other writers to use different varieties of English (see Committee on CCCC Language Statement, 1974). In addition, the 1988 CCCC adoption of the…

  19. 25 CFR 11.604 - Declaration of invalidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... enter a decree declaring the invalidity of a marriage entered into under the following circumstances: (1) A party lacked capacity to consent to the marriage, either because of mental incapacity or infirmity... to enter into a marriage by fraud or duress; or (3) A party lacks the physical capacity to...

  20. 19 CFR 10.766 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.766 Section 10.766 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  1. 19 CFR 10.766 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.766 Section 10.766 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  2. 19 CFR 10.766 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.766 Section 10.766 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  3. 19 CFR 10.766 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.766 Section 10.766 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  4. 19 CFR 10.766 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.766 Section 10.766 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  5. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of... comply with the applicable technical standards if no unauthorized change is made in the equipment and if... construed to be a finding by the responsible party with respect to matters not encompassed by the...

  6. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320 Section 68.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal...

  7. 37 CFR 1.175 - Reissue oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deceptive intention on the part of the applicant. (b)(1) For any error corrected, which is not covered by... supplemental oath or declaration stating that every such error arose without any deceptive intention on the... intention on the part of the applicant. (c) Having once stated an error upon which the reissue is based,...

  8. 76 FR 71057 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 56213) on September 12, 2011, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304)....

  9. Declarative Joint Attention as a Foundation of Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodian, Beate; Kristen-Antonow, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Theories of social-cognitive development have attributed a foundational role to declarative joint attention. The present longitudinal study of 83 children, who were assessed on a battery of social-cognitive tasks at multiple measurement points from the age of 12 to 50 months, tested a predictive model of theory of mind (false-belief…

  10. 33 CFR 156.150 - Declaration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (5) A space for the date, time of signing, signature, and title of each person in charge during transfer operations on the transferring vessel or facility and a space for the date, time of signing... inspection, and indicated by initialling in the appropriate space on the declaration of inspection form,...

  11. 19 CFR 10.706 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.706 Section 10.706 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  12. 19 CFR 10.706 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.706 Section 10.706 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  13. 19 CFR 10.706 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.706 Section 10.706 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  14. 19 CFR 10.706 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.706 Section 10.706 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  15. 19 CFR 10.706 - Declaration not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declaration not required. 10.706 Section 10.706 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  16. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  18. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  19. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  20. 9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...

  1. Types of Changes That Occur as Declarative Knowledge Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Declarative knowledge involves being able to state and explain characteristics, terminologies, properties, phenomena, concepts, principles, and techniques. Chi and Ohlsson (2005) characterize it as the dominant form of knowledge, maintaining that it does not involve isolated units but rather is organized as semantic networks, theories, schemas, or…

  2. Learning History through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary; Pineda, Martha Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    Although adolescent students often do not have knowledge of specific laws, they usually have a keen sense of justice and fairness. In this article, the author discusses the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as a powerful tool to channel students' sense of fairness into visible actions. Adopted in December 1948 by the General Assembly of…

  3. The Birth of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the history of the ideals and enactment of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Includes a discussion of the origins of the concept of human rights, the impact of World War II, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the process of drafting and adopting the UDHR. (DSK)

  4. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  5. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  6. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  7. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  8. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  9. Impairing existing declarative memory in humans by disrupting reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C K; LaPaglia, Jessica A

    2013-06-01

    During the past decade, a large body of research has shown that memory traces can become labile upon retrieval and must be restabilized. Critically, interrupting this reconsolidation process can abolish a previously stable memory. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this reconsolidation associated amnesia in nonhuman animals, the evidence for its occurrence in humans is far less compelling, especially with regard to declarative memory. In fact, reactivating a declarative memory often makes it more robust and less susceptible to subsequent disruptions. Here we show that existing declarative memories can be selectively impaired by using a noninvasive retrieval-relearning technique. In six experiments, we show that this reconsolidation-associated amnesia can be achieved 48 h after formation of the original memory, but only if relearning occurred soon after retrieval. Furthermore, the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. These results demonstrate that human declarative memory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation.

  10. 16 CFR 453.8 - Declaration of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration of intent. 453.8 Section 453.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.8... and severable from one another. If any provision is determined to be invalid, it is the...

  11. 16 CFR 453.8 - Declaration of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of intent. 453.8 Section 453.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.8... and severable from one another. If any provision is determined to be invalid, it is the...

  12. 16 CFR 453.8 - Declaration of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration of intent. 453.8 Section 453.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.8... and severable from one another. If any provision is determined to be invalid, it is the...

  13. 16 CFR 453.8 - Declaration of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration of intent. 453.8 Section 453.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.8... and severable from one another. If any provision is determined to be invalid, it is the...

  14. 16 CFR 453.8 - Declaration of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration of intent. 453.8 Section 453.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.8... and severable from one another. If any provision is determined to be invalid, it is the...

  15. 22 CFR 192.1 - Declarations of hostile action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Declarations of hostile action. 192.1 Section 192.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION General... Terrorism Compensation Act, codified in 5 U.S.C. 5569 and 5570 and Executive Order 12598. (2) The...

  16. 22 CFR 192.1 - Declarations of hostile action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declarations of hostile action. 192.1 Section 192.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION General... Terrorism Compensation Act, codified in 5 U.S.C. 5569 and 5570 and Executive Order 12598. (2) The...

  17. 22 CFR 192.1 - Declarations of hostile action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declarations of hostile action. 192.1 Section 192.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION General... Terrorism Compensation Act, codified in 5 U.S.C. 5569 and 5570 and Executive Order 12598. (2) The...

  18. 22 CFR 192.1 - Declarations of hostile action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declarations of hostile action. 192.1 Section 192.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION General... Terrorism Compensation Act, codified in 5 U.S.C. 5569 and 5570 and Executive Order 12598. (2) The...

  19. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 206.39. The Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Assistance Directorateshall... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requests for major disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process §...

  20. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 206.39. The Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Assistance Directorateshall... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requests for major disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process §...

  1. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 206.39. The Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Assistance Directorateshall... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Requests for major disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process §...

  2. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 206.39. The Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Assistance Directorateshall... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requests for major disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process §...

  3. 15 CFR 712.7 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amended declaration or report. 712.7 Section 712.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  4. 9 CFR 93.914 - Declaration and other documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration and other documents. 93.914 Section 93.914 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for...

  5. 9 CFR 93.914 - Declaration and other documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration and other documents. 93.914 Section 93.914 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for...

  6. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 44 CFR 206.39. The Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Assistance Directorateshall... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for major disaster..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process §...

  7. Visual Arts Declarative Knowledge: Tensions in Theory, Resolutions in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contribution literacy, linguistic, curriculum and pedagogic theories make to realising declarative knowledge outcomes for middle years visual arts students in one multi-age Australian classroom. Understandings of literacy as visual arts content and process, as articulated in the Queensland School Curriculum Council…

  8. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  9. 44 CFR 207.9 - Declarations before November 13, 2007.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.9 Declarations before November 13, 2007. (a) General. This section describes how FEMA provides administrative and management cost funding... direct costs. Eligible direct costs to complete approved activities are governed by part 13 of...

  10. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  11. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  12. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  13. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  14. 9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon arrival. Upon arrival of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...

  15. A Better Life for Future Generations: Amsterdam Declaration, November 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains the text of the Amsterdam Declaration "A Better Life for Future Generations," which was issued on November 9, 1989, by the International Forum on Population in the Twenty-First Century. The Declaration opens with a preamble which emphasizes our responsibilities towards future generations; acknowledges the interdependent nature of population size, resources, and development; expresses concern about rapid growth; recognizes the central position occupied by women in development and population growth; and recognizes that the goal of development is to improve quality of life. The Declaration continues by presenting current population figures and their implications. Other topics considered include population and sustainable development; population goals, objectives, and program priorities; and resource requirements. The Declaration issued a call to action asking all governments, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to increase their financial commitments to fulfill ongoing and emerging population needs. Specific requests were then directed to all countries; all developing countries; all donors; parliamentarians and community leaders; the press and media; the UN and its specialized agencies; the World Bank and regional development banks; the UN Population Fund and its governing bodies; nongovernmental, professional, and other voluntary organizations; and women's organizations.

  16. Uncommon Territory: Declaration, and the Supervision of Queer Design Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ings, Welby John

    2014-01-01

    While attempting to develop authentic, practice-led inquiries into identity, queer students face unique issues. They often need to consider questions of community and frequently find themselves with one foot outside of the academic environment. Many also have to carefully consider the implications of declaration, and the management of trust. This…

  17. 25 CFR 11.604 - Declaration of invalidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... enter a decree declaring the invalidity of a marriage entered into under the following circumstances: (1) A party lacked capacity to consent to the marriage, either because of mental incapacity or infirmity... to enter into a marriage by fraud or duress; or (3) A party lacks the physical capacity to...

  18. 25 CFR 11.604 - Declaration of invalidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... enter a decree declaring the invalidity of a marriage entered into under the following circumstances: (1) A party lacked capacity to consent to the marriage, either because of mental incapacity or infirmity... to enter into a marriage by fraud or duress; or (3) A party lacks the physical capacity to...

  19. 25 CFR 11.604 - Declaration of invalidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... enter a decree declaring the invalidity of a marriage entered into under the following circumstances: (1) A party lacked capacity to consent to the marriage, either because of mental incapacity or infirmity... to enter into a marriage by fraud or duress; or (3) A party lacks the physical capacity to...

  20. 25 CFR 11.604 - Declaration of invalidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enter a decree declaring the invalidity of a marriage entered into under the following circumstances: (1) A party lacked capacity to consent to the marriage, either because of mental incapacity or infirmity... to enter into a marriage by fraud or duress; or (3) A party lacks the physical capacity to...

  1. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export declaration requirements. 14.63 Section 14.63 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  2. 15 CFR 713.5 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.5 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... 2 chemicals produced, processed, or consumed; (2) Quantities of Schedule 2 chemicals...

  3. 15 CFR 712.7 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.7 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... chemicals produced (e.g., additional Schedule 1 chemicals); (2) Quantities of Schedule 1 chemicals...

  4. 15 CFR 713.5 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.5 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... 2 chemicals produced, processed, or consumed; (2) Quantities of Schedule 2 chemicals...

  5. 15 CFR 712.7 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.7 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... chemicals produced (e.g., additional Schedule 1 chemicals); (2) Quantities of Schedule 1 chemicals...

  6. 15 CFR 713.5 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.5 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... 2 chemicals produced, processed, or consumed; (2) Quantities of Schedule 2 chemicals...

  7. 15 CFR 712.7 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.7 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... chemicals produced (e.g., additional Schedule 1 chemicals); (2) Quantities of Schedule 1 chemicals...

  8. 15 CFR 713.5 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.5 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... 2 chemicals produced, processed, or consumed; (2) Quantities of Schedule 2 chemicals...

  9. 15 CFR 712.7 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.7 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... chemicals produced (e.g., additional Schedule 1 chemicals); (2) Quantities of Schedule 1 chemicals...

  10. 15 CFR 713.5 - Amended declaration or report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.5 Amended declaration or report. In order for BIS to maintain... 2 chemicals produced, processed, or consumed; (2) Quantities of Schedule 2 chemicals...

  11. Sustainability Accounting Courses, Talloires Declaration and Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Tehmina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify the offering and nature (scope) of sustainability accounting courses at universities that have signed the Talloires Declaration and also at universities with prominent sustainability accounting researchers' affiliations. For this purpose a university web sites content analysis for sustainability…

  12. How Effective Is Example Generation for Learning Declarative Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2016-01-01

    Declarative concepts (i.e., key terms and corresponding definitions for abstract concepts) represent foundational knowledge that students learn in many content domains. Thus, investigating techniques to enhance concept learning is of critical importance. Various theoretical accounts support the expectation that example generation will serve this…

  13. 37 CFR 1.63 - Oath or declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., understand the document that the person is signing; (2) Identify each inventor by full name, including the... initial; (3) Identify the country of citizenship of each inventor; and (4) State that the person making the oath or declaration believes the named inventor or inventors to be the original and first...

  14. 21 CFR 1313.13 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of import declaration. 1313.13 Section 1313.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... information known to the importer on the chain of distribution of the chemical from the manufacturer to...

  15. Quotas for CFE Treaty declared site inspections for baseline validation

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, R.S.; Sicherman, A.

    1990-10-02

    The CFE Treaty will provide for limits on NATO and WTO forces, particularly tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery, and helicopters. In addition to the overall limits on TLEs in the ATTU zone, there are expected to be secondary limits on single country forces, limits on forces based in foreign nations, and geographic sublimits. To help validate WTO declarations of baseline forces, the treaty may provide for on-site inspections by NATO of declared WTO basing facilities. One important unresolved issue concerning baseline declared-site OSIs is the quota of such inspections allowed each country. This report presents a decision analysis and evaluation in support of recommendations for resolving this and related issues. It also indentifies key policy decisions that impact the determination of the number of declared-site OSIs. These decisions are: Desired probabilities of detecting a violation and of falsely accusing WTO; Trade-off between improved verification and the intrusiveness of additional OSIs; Force strength constituting a militarily significant violation; and Degree of coordination with and reliance on inspections by NATO allies. 10 figs.

  16. 50 CFR 14.64 - Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions to export declaration requirements. 14.64 Section 14.64 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... and fishery products exported for purposes of human or animal consumption or taken in waters under...

  17. 50 CFR 14.64 - Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions to export declaration requirements. 14.64 Section 14.64 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... and fishery products exported for purposes of human or animal consumption or taken in waters under...

  18. 50 CFR 14.64 - Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions to export declaration requirements. 14.64 Section 14.64 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... and fishery products exported for purposes of human or animal consumption or taken in waters under...

  19. Declarative Memory Consolidation: Mechanisms Acting during Human Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Of late, an increasing number of studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep and memory. Here we summarize a series of our own studies in humans supporting a beneficial influence of slow-wave sleep (SWS) on declarative memory formation, and try to identify some mechanisms that might underlie this influence. Specifically, these…

  20. 21 CFR 1312.18 - Contents of import declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... furnish a controlled substances import declaration on DEA Form 236 to the Import/Export Unit, Drug... distribute four copies of same as hereinafter directed in § 1312.19. See the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01 of this chapter for the current mailing address. (c) DEA Form 236 must be executed...